Some insects injurious to truck crops

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Title:
Some insects injurious to truck crops
Series Title:
Bulletin / U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology ;
Physical Description:
108 p., 4 leaves of plates : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Entomology
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
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Subjects / Keywords:
Vegetables -- Diseases and pests   ( lcsh )
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federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references and index.

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 021638412
oclc - 22587798
Classification:
lcc - SB818 .B85 no.82, 1912
ddc - 585.7
System ID:
AA00018857:00001

Full Text

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U. S. DEPARTMENT ()O A(RICUILTURE,
I BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY BULLETIN No. 82.
L. 0. HOWARD. Entomologit and Chief of Bureau



SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.


I. THE COLORADO POTATO IBEETLE IN VIRGINIA IN 1908.
By C. 11. POP'ENoE, Agent and EXpet.
II. TIlE PARSNIP LEAF-.MINER.
THE PARSLEY STALK WEEVIL.
TIlE CELERY CATERPILLAR.
By F. II. CIITTENDEN, in Charge of Truck Crop and Storrd ProdurtI Insect Investigations.
III. THE LI.MA-BEAN POD-BORER.
THE YELLOW-NECKED FLEA-I'BEETLE.
By F. II. CIIITTENDEN, in Char'e of Truc'A Crop and Stord Product Insict Investigations.
IV. THE LIFE HISTORY AND CONTROL OF THE HOP FLEA-BEETLE.
By WILLIAM B. PARKER, Collaborator.
V. BIOLOGIC AND ECONOMIC NOTES ON THE YELLOW-BEAR CATERPILLAR.
By II. 0. MA RSH1, Agent and Expert.
VI. NOTES ON THE CUCUMBER BEETLES.
By F. H. CIIITTENDEN, in Charje of Trutk Crop and Shred Produ:.t Insect Investigations.
BIOLOGIC NOTES ON SPECIES OF DIABROTICA IN SOUTHERN TEXAS.
By IT. 0. MARSH, Agent and Expert.
VII. NOTES ON VARIOUS TRUCK-CROP INSECTS.
By F. H. CHITTENDEN, in Charge of Truck Crop and Stored Product Insect Inuestijations.


WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1912.





















BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY.


L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.
C. L. MARLATT, Entomologist and Acting Chief in Absence of Chief.
R. S. CLIFTON, Executive Assistant.
W. F. TASTET, Chief Clerk.

F. H. CHITTENDEN, in charge of truck crop and stored product insect investigation
A. D. HOPKINS, in charge of forest insect investigations.
W. D. HUNTER, in charge of southern field crop insect investigations.
F. M. WEBSTER, in charge of cereal and forage insect investigations.
A. L. QUAINTANCE, in charge of deciduous fruit insect investigations.
E. F. PHILLIPS, in charge of bee culture.
D. M. ROGERS, in charge of preventing spread of moths, field work.
ROLLA P. CURRIE, in charge of editorial work.
MABEL COLCORD. in charge of library.


TRUCK CROP AND STORED PRODUCT INSECT INVESTIGATIONS.

F. H. CHITTENDEN, in charge.

H. M. RUSSELL, C. H. POPENOE, WILLIAM B. PARKER, H. 0. MARSH, M. M. HIGH,
FRED A. JOHNSTON, JOHN E. GRAF, entomologial assistants.
I. J. CONDIT, collaborator in California.
W. N. ORD, collaborator in Oregon.
THOMAS H. JONES, collaborator in Porto Rico.
MARION T. VAN HORN, PAULINE M. JOHNSON, ANITA M. BALLINGER, preparators.

















LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL..


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY,
Washington, D. C., August 29, 1912.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith, for publication as
Bulletin No. 82, seven papers dealing with certain insects injurious
to truck crops. These papers, which were issued separately during
the years 1909, 1910, and 1911, are as follows: The Colorado Potato
Beetle in Virginia in 1908, by C. H. Popenoe; The Parsnip Leaf-
Miner, The Parsley Stalk Weevil, and The Celery Caterpillar, by F. H.
Chittenden; The Lima-Bean Pod-Borer and The Yellow-Necked
Flea-Beetle, by F. H. Chittenden; The Life History and Control of
the Hop Flea-Beetle, by William B. Parker; Biologic and Economic
Notes on the Yellow-Bear Caterpillar, by H. 0. Marsh; Notes on the
Cucumber Beetles, by F. H. Chittenden, and Biologic Notes on
Species of Diabrotica in Southern Texas, by H. 0. Marsh; Notes on
Various Truck-Crop Insects, by F. H. Chittenden.
Respectfully,
L. 0. HOWARD,
Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.
Hon. JAMES WILSON,
Secretary .of Agriculture.












































Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2012 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries with support from LYRASIS and the Sloan Foundation


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PREFACE.


The present bulletin has ben puIblishe(l in parts, seven in linmbe'r,
from time to time as completed, an(l relates to insects alld groups of
insects of widely different character. It is in continuation of inves-
tigations on insects injurious to truck an(l vegetable, crops begun in
1896, the results (of which have been publisliedl in Bullet ills 19, 23, 29,
33, and 43 and various circulars of this bureau, an(l ill Yearbooks of
the Department of Aigriculture.
The initial paper, entitled "The ('olorado Potato Beetle in Vi rginia
in 1908," is a logical sequel to Circular No. 87, which treats of the
same insect in its entire distributionn. It furnishes detailss of experi-
ments made in ti(lewater Virginia, .an(d gives special instructions for
the use of the traction-power sprayer in that region. It also con-
tains interesting notes on the life history and habits of the species
for the same region.
Part II gives a consideration of three species injurious to umbellifer-
ous truck crops. The first paper of this part, on the parsnip leaf-
miner (Acidia. fratria Loew), gives a concise account of this insect
with some original notes on its biology and suggestions for its control.
The second paper, on the parsley stalk weevil (Listronotus latiusculus
Boh.), gives the results of original observations conducted on this
insect in the vicinity of the District of Columbia; indeed(l, it is the
first account of this species which has been published. For the
control of this insect, which is only a pest under certain conditions, the
abandonment of the culture of parsley is recommended for a short
period until the insect, disappears. The third article, on tlhe celery
caterpillar (Papilio poly!xenes Fab.) makes no claim to originality, but
introduces the first account with good illustrations of this well-known
insect which has been published by the Department of Agriculture.
Part III is devoted to two insects injurious to beans and peas.
The first of these insects is the lima-bean pod-borer (Etiella zinck-
enelia Treit.). The account here given is the first record of the
occurrence of this imported insect as a pest in America, although we
have reports of injury as far back as 1885. The second article, on
the yellow-necked flea-beetle (Disonyciha mellicollis Say), embodies all
the information, recently furnished by agents and correspondents of
the bureau, that has been gained in regard to a species which is
widely distributed from New York to Texas, especially along the
Atlantic coast.





SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.


Part IV, on the life history and control of the hop flea-beetle
(Psy hodes punctulata Melsh.), a species injurious to sugar beet and
many vegetable crops, as well as hops, is supplementary to an article
on the same species published as Bulletin 66, Part VI. From the
standpoint of the occurrence of the insect in British Columbia, where
the particular observations were made, the insect is treated in detail
with special reference to all of the remedies which have been sug-
gested, leaving little remaining to be learned about the species at the
present time.
Part V considers the yellow-bear caterpillar (Diacrisi ma virginsiea
Fab.) in its occurrence in Colorado during 1909. Details of experi-
ments with remedies are furnished, showing that arsenicals were not
entirely satisfactory. Additional experiments should be conducted
when another outbreak of this species occurs.
The articles which comprise Part VI, namely, "Notes on the
Cucumber Beetles" and "Biologic Notes on Species of Diabrotica
in Southern Texas," give information in regard to five hitherto little
known species of Diabrotica injurious in southern Texas, with obser-
vations on two common species-the striped cucumber beetle and the
12-spotted cucumber beetle-in their occurrence in the same region.
The papers are chiefly devoted to data in regard to injurious occur-
rences, food plants, feeding habits, life histories, and the second
includes experiments with remedies, arsenate of lead in combination
with Bordeaux mixture having furnished good results in the
treatment of some of these species.
The bulletin is concluded by Part VII, entitled "Notes on Various
Truck-Crop Insects." Under the heading, "On the Natural Enemies
of the Colorado Potato Beetle," four unrecorded insect enemies are
treated, a list of wild bird enemies is referred to, the chipping spar-
row is added as a new enemy, and attention is directed to the efficacy
of the guinea fowl in the destruction of the potato beetle. Notes on
the potato stalk weevil include a note showing that Trichobaris
trinotata Say may, at least exceptionally, pass the winter as larva
or pupa instead of as beetle. Mention is made of three species of
maggots previously unrecorded as affecting yams. The gregarious
habit of some common blister beetles is described and mention is
made of an efTective method of destroying them, namely, by dis-
lodging them from the plants attacked into pails in which kerosene is
floating on water.
F. H. CHrrTENrDEN,
In Charge of Truck Crop and
Stored Product Insect Investigation.s.


VI











CONTENT'S.

Page
SThe Colorado potato) beetle in Virginllia ill 190S.............. II. 'opjno,,.. I
Introdu'tion ................. ....................................... 1
Status of the potato beetle in VirgillniaL ................................... I
Life history and habits ................................................. 2
Insect enemies .............................................................. 3
R em ed ies ............................................................. 4
C conclusion ................ ............................................ 8
The parsnip leaf-miner (.Acidi fratlri Lo Introduction .................... ...................................... 9
E arly h istory ...... .................................................... 9
D description ........................................................... 9
D distribution .......................................................... 11
B iologic notes ........................................................ 11
M ethods of control .................................................... 12
The parsley stalk weevil (Listro.oti.s latiuscu..s Boh.) ...... F I. Chi.tenden.. 14
Injurious occurrence ..................... ............................. 14
D description ............................................................ 15
D distribution ....................................................... ... 16
Injury at Four Mile Run, Va ........................................... 16
O viposition ............................................................ 17
Food plants and habits ................................................ 18
M ethods of control .................................................... 19
The celery caterpillar (Papilio polyrenes Fab.) ............ F. II. 'hittenden.. 20
Introduction .......................................................... 20
D description ............................................................ 20
D distribution .......................................................... 22
H abits and life history ................................................ 22
Natural enem ies ...................................................... 23
R em edies ............................................................. 23
B ibliomgraphy ...... ................................................... 23
The lima-bean pod-borer (Elticlla zinckenella Treit.) ......... F. II. Chittenden.. 25
Injurious occurrence .................................................... 25
Description and distribution............................................ 25
Additional remarks.................................................... 27
The yellow-necked flea-beetle (Disonycha mellicollis Say'_.. F. 77. Chittendcn.. 29
Injurious occurrence.................................................... 29
Description and distribution .... ....................................... 30
Economic status ........................................................ 31
Report by H. 0. Marsh ................................................. 31
Methods of control...................................................... 32
The life history of the hop flea-beetle.................... William B. Parker.. 33
Introduction .......................................................... 33
Economic importance.................................................. 33
Life history. ........................................................... 34
The eggs ......... .. ............................ ...... 34
The larva .......................................................... 35
The pupa .......................................................... 36
The adult .......................................................... 37
oThe seven parts constituting this bulletin were issued in separate form on July 2S, November 30. and
December 28, 1909; May 20, August 31, and December 8,1910; and February 18,1911, respectively.
VII






SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.


The life history of the hop flea-beetle-Continued.
Habits.............................. .....................................
The larva..........................................................
The adult.............................. ..............................
Seasonal history........................................................
Length of life cycles .................................................
Number and time of appearance of broods..........................
M ultiplication .....................................................
H ibernation........... ............................................


Diseases..................................
Fungous diseases..............................
Bacterial diseases-.............................
Parasites and predaceous enemies..................
Control measures.................................
The tarred board or sticky shield...............
Tarred s!edges.............. ..................
Banding with tanglefoot -......................
Destructionm ef hibernating beetles..............
Bordeaux mixture ............................
Bordeaux-tobacco extract --..................-
Tobacco dust ----...--.......................-
Impractical measures-.....................
Spraying.........--............................
Traps.........................................
Cultivation and fertilization...................


Recommendations.....


Biologic and economic notes on the yellow-b)ear caterpillar.....H. 0. Marsh..
Recent injury.................. .......................................
Biologic notes................................................. ..
L ist of plants injured ................ ...................................
Experiments with arsenicals ....................................
Notes on the cucumber beetles............................ F. H. Chittenden..
I ntroductory...................... .......................................
The saddled cucumber beetle (Diabrolicu connexa Lec.)l..................
The painted cucumber beetle (Dinbrotica picticornis Horn)...............
The belted cucumber beetle (Dfabrotica balteata Lec.)....................
The western twelve-spotted cucumber beetle (Diabrolica soror Lee.)-.....
The western striped cucumber beetle (Diabrotica tirittata Mann.'..........
Biologic otles on species of Diabrotica in southern Texas.......... H. 0. Marsh..
Introduction ..........................................................
Observations on Diabrotica picticornis Horn........... ...................
Observations on Diabrotica balleata Lec ..................................
Observations on Diabrolica vittata Fab...................................
Observations on Diabrotico duodecimpuntciata Oliv........................
Notes on various truck-crop insects...................... F. If. Chi/tenden..
On the natural enemies of the Colorado potato ber-t!e.... ..............
Some insect enemies of the potato beetle.........................
Some wild bird enemies of the potato beetle..........................
Guinea fowls as destroyers of the potato beetle........................
Notes on the potato stalk weevil....................................
Maggots affecting yams in the South....................................
Notes on the feeding habits of blister beetles............................
Notes on bean and pea weevils...................................
In d ex ............................................................... ....


Page.
39
39
40
42
42
43
43


I................... .... ............. -.. ....... 58


59
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VIII


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......I.......









11 I1 .'IST RA,1" I () N S.


PI.ArKM.
Pagoic..
PLATE..r I. Ii'. I1. TiW C(' nnidi ciJh, lt'tf I p t b eli (I.,ph'in (Wir.,i d, ,rm intl i,, n) ;ifi-
tacking sed lptiatot in lliuml, ('Chur'hliland, \Va. FIL_. 2. 'xYiig
polahlo plat idefoliated by C('olIoradlo jnoato I.t.eel.les.................
II. Potatoes growing in new ground, showing bar to iNiniploiyn'iit if pwr
sprayers .>........................................................ (
III. Hop leaves, showiiug effect of attack by the lihmp flea-beetlIle (l.'s/li-
odes p u t lltii lti l ................................................ I'
IV. Fi. 1. -l1indoo usin- tarred Ibard an'd vergrecen lrusili to d.(l rv
hop flte:i-leetles. Fi"'. 2. --Method of usin', ili.lIt, slicky shiId
and feather duster in c',nbatin, the hop fl(I a-luetle ............. ... -A)

TEXT I FIGURES.

Ficn. 1. The parsnip leaf-miner (Acidia fratria l.oew v: Adult, larva. piparium,
d etails- ................................................. ... .... lIto
2. Parsnip leaves showing, work of palrsnii) leaf-min, r .................. 12
3. The parsley stalk weevil (Listronotus l tiuluisculu.s l n.): Adult, IrIta,
pupa ........................................................... .15
4. Parsley roots showin'- wwrk of parsley stalk weevil.................... 17
5. The (c'elv'ry caterpillar (I'opilio poly.xeucs): Male butterfly, e,'s, l.r\a.
chrysalis, details ................................................. -'1
6. The celeryv caterpillar: Female butterfly-.............................. 22
7. The Lima-bean pod-borer {Etiella zinek-nenll ): Adull-. larva. l0al.iis. 26
8. The hop flea-beetle (Psylliodcs punctulata): Eggs..................... 34
9. The hop flea-beetle: Larva, pupa.................................... :3
10. The hop flea-beetle: Adult beetles, showing relative si :, (of fiiumle
and male--- ----------. ".... .-.....-----7
11. The hop flea-beetle: Ovipositor of female-............................. 37
12. Filamentous roots of hop vine on which the hop flea-beetle larva:
feed ............................................................. 39
13. Hindoo using tarred hand sledge for capture of hop flea-beetles........ 50
14. Banded hop vine, showing condition of leaves abov? anid below the
band-............................................................ .51
15. Killing the hop flea-beetles in the poles............................. 52
16. FuImigatin'z the trellis poles to destroy hop flea-beetles............... 55
17. Roiling the hopvards with heavy roller as an experiment in the con-
trol of the hop flea-beetle.---. ---........................................ 56
18. The yellow-bear caterpillar (I)iacrisia rirginicr. Female moth, larva,
cocoon 1pupa .................................................... 60
19. The saddled cucumber beetle (Diabrotica co nc.r): I Beetle............. 68
20. The painted cucumber beetle (Diabrotica pict'ccri.ris: Beetle....---...... --69
21. The belted cucumber beetle (Diabrotica balte'ata: Eggs, larva, 1pupM,
beetle, details .................................................... 70
22. The western twelve-spotted cucumber beetle (Diubrotica soror): Female
beetle- ........................................................... 73
23. The western twelve-spotted cucumber beetle: Eggs..................... 74
24. Euthyrhynchus floridanus, an enemy of the Cohlorado potato beetle:
A d ult...... ............................................... 86
IX





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I.













.S. D. A., B. E. ilul. 82, Part 1.


SOME INSECTS INJ'RIOLS TO TRUCK CROPS.


THE COLORADO POTATO BEETLE IN VIRGINIA IN 1908.
lNv ('. II. POPEN-:'' .yfliIt? nd I'.11,r !.
[In cooperation with the Virginia Truck Experiment Station.
INTRODUCTION.
The tidewater region of Virginia, which comprises Norfolk, Princess
Anne, Nansemond, and Isle of Wiglit counties on tlhe western and
southern, and Northampton and Accom:c counties on the eastern
shore of the Chesapeake Bay, is probably the greatest center for the
production of early potatoes in the eastern United States. The
value of the potato crop shipped from these counties approaches
$6,000,000 annually. Two crops are raised over a small portion of
this area, while over the greater part, including the counties of Nor-
folk and Princess Anne, only a single planting is made, the potatoes
being planted during the latter part of February and the first of
March, and the crop of new potatoes being harvested in June. As
this crop is not carried through to maturity new potatoes being tie
desired product, the action of the late blight is not apparent until tihe
crop is ready to harvest and is, therefore, given little consideration as
a pest. As the early blight does little injury to tihe plants, the
Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotar.a decemlineata. Say) becomes the
worst drawback to the culture of thle potato in this :)cality. The
long growing season and the inefficient methods emnplc)yed for the
control of this insect pest. afford it an unusual opportunity for injury
over a wide area. In only a few cases are effective methods of
application practiced, and for this reason demonstrationn and experi-
mental work have been thought advisable for the locality.
STATUS OF THE POTATO BEETLE IN VIRGINIA.
Owing to the employment of negro labor and the scarcity of capable
white help the methods for the control of the potato beetle over thluis
area are necessarily crude. While the insects are in hibernation no
effort is made for their destruction, the first attempt to control the
species being the hand picking of hibernated beetles from the vines
1


limu ,l|l Jul) ".2-- J'jy.




: : ,,,:
2 SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS...........
........ :.. :"i .. .......

by negro children. Afterwards the vines are dusted with land
plaster and Paris green, applied by shaking a burlap sack, filled with
the mixture, over the plants which seem to be the worst affected.
As a result of the imperfect application of the arsenical the crop is
only partially freed from the insects and, as the application is never
made until the injury of the first generation or brood of larva becomes
very apparent, the vines are not entirely free from the injurious
effects of untimely defoliation. In many places, also, the plants are
seriously checked through the injury caused by the beetles, which
entirely defoliate the young shoots as they are coming through the
earth, in many cases eating them off level with the ground or below
the surface. Seed potatoes which remain partially above ground are
also rapidly devoured by the beetles.
After the larvaT or young commence to appear, the plants showing
the greatest injury are treated with the dust, this application usually
being held sufficient for some time. The land-plaster application is
from three to four times as expensive as a Paris-green spray of equal
strength, and in several cases in the Norfolk region the application of
the unnecessary plaster to the already acid soil has produced a stated
of disease in the cabbage crop following the potatoes which has
lessened the production to a considerable degree. In the case of a
spray this acid(lity is not imparted to the soil and injury to cabbage is
thus avoided.
In that part of Virginia immediately adjacent to the District of
Columbia the growing of potatoes is less important commercially
thc.ii in the Norfolk region, and while the beetle is a serious pest
always, the smaller acreage of potatoes grown renders the control of
the insect much more easily accomplished.

LIFE HISTORY AND HABITS.

In general, the life history of the Colorado potato beetle in Vir-
ginia agrees with the description already published by Doctor Chit-
tenden." In specimens reared in confinement in the insectary at
Washington and in outdoor cages at Norfolk in 1908, three genera-
tions or broods were reared (luring the summer, and very young larvm
have been seen on tomato at Norfolk as late as the latter part of
August and the 1st of September. The period of estivation which
generally follows the second generation in this species was shortened
to four days in the beetles which were carried through the stages at
Norfolk. These beetles issued from eggs collected from the first
generation May 26. The larvae pupated June 20 and issued as adults
June 28. After feeding until July 3 the beetles burrowed into the
soil, forming cells, where they remained for a period of four days,
a Cir. No. 87, Bur. Ent.. U. S. Dept. Agr., 1907.








Bul. 82. PI I Bureau of EntIFIoingty U S DOp' ,, AL PL AT",r,


FIG. 1.-THE COLORADO POTATO BEETLE (LEPTINOTARSA DECEMLINEATA) ATTACKING SEED
POTATO IN GROUND, CHURCHLAND, VA. (ORIGINAL.)


FIG. 2.-YOUNG POTATO PLANT DEFOLIATED BY COLORADO POTATO BEETLES.
Twenty beetles sometimes on plants this size. Nearly natural size. (Origin.il.)


PLATE 1.

























.,-



t


.!*







* i

:"
*:"













































































































































*i

'i










)











q


.i
9


j


.... ... .. ..






THE COLORADO POTATO IIETEI IN VIOI;I N IA.


comining after tilis time to thie surface, where I thi third geLration of
eggs wais deposited three days INater. Owinllg It L sCarcityV o)f prope'r
food at tis time this third generation was. niot w.ll earedl for, alnd as
only three runtilated sletiimwens reatcvldiE llatuirity the eixp(e.jrimIe1.t.
was closet. T'lis r'cordI, however, verifiedl tlie exist eneI oitf a tIhird
generation, concerning which there hias l1) 'en vsome. (1(l)t.
T['hO beetles issue from Ihibernation ini tliu soil, wlthere theNy pass tile
winter in the adult stage, some 1time id:lsing tlte first, tw() weeks of
April, as tlie earliest, potato plants begin to appear a)ove tlie s:,il,
and begin to feed u)pon these young shoots before producing .eggs,
which, hlowevter, are soon deposite(,d. In many cases frm six to
twelve beetles may be seen on a single plant, which is likely to be
completely defoliated if not entirely destroyed. As many as 20
beetles are sometimes seen on a single shoot, and where they occur
in such numbers thie plant is very apt to be eaten off (close to tlhe
ground if, indeed, the beetles do not follow tlhe stemi into thie earth.
It is at this time that the attack of tlhe adults is most severe and the
plant is greatly weakened by such injury. (See P1. I.)
After the plants reach a considerable size tlie damage done by the
larvae becomes most apparent, large plants being defoliated. At
this time the poison is usually applied to tlhe plants showing the
greatest injury and a majority of the larvae are destroyed.
The beetles which pass through the winter are usually those of the
third generation. These seem to do very little injury to the second
crop of potatoes, which is generally quite free from damage and
rarely needs treatment for insect attack. It would thus appear that
the beetles coming from this generation hibernate after tlhe first crop
with but few exceptions and remain in hibernation until thle following
year. A few of the beetles may be seen occasionally upon second-
crop and volunteer potatoes, but no eggs are deposited, the entire
injury being accomplished by the adults. Unquestionably many of
these perish during the long period of hibernation and, on warm
spring days with an offshore wind, great numbers of the hibernated
individuals are blown or carried out to sea, where they perish, the
beach after su-ch a time being frequently covered with windows of
the dead beetles.a Notwithstanding these facts, a sufficient number
survives to make the insect the pest that it is, although the destruction
in this manner must serve as a temporary check to the increase
of the species.
INSECT ENEMIES.
The insect enemies of the potato beetle were very little in evidence
in tidewater Virginia during the season of 1908. Podisus nmaculi-
ventris Say was noted and the usual tachinid parasitization was
a This statement is substantiated by similar observations by Dr. A. D. Hopkinm
and Mr. E. A. Schwarz, of the Bureau of Entomology.






4 SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.

present, but at a very low figure, eggs being seen on only 3 to 4 per
cent of the larvae. Harpaline ground-beetles were abundant and
Lebia grandis Hentz was undoubtedly a factor in keeping down the
great increase of the potato beetle.
REMEDIES.
With regard to remedies, a considerable number of experiments
was performed with a view to discovering the cheapest and most
effective insecticide for controlling the potato beetle. Several plats,
consisting of one-tenth of an acre each, were prepared for testing the
effects of the poisons on the plants and on the larvae. An insight
into the methods of research by which the results were obtained may
be of value to the investigator, and a somewhat detailed account of
the experiments with insecticides is given.
EXPERIMENTS WITH INSECTICIDES.
A plat of about 1 acres was selected early in the season and planted
to potatoes, a single variety being used. The plat was divided into
rows of such a length as to contain one-fortieth of an acre, four of these
rows constituting a test plat of one-tenth of an acre. The plat was
allowed to become thoroughly infested by beetles and larvae in several
stages. The various plats were then numbered and treated with the
different insecticides. The fertilizer treatment was the same in all
cases, and as the ground on which the potatoes were planted was
new, the yield could not have been affected by a residue of fertilizer
remaining in the soil from the previous year. The poisons were
applied with a knapsack sprayer.
Experiment No. 1.-One-half pound white arsenic and 2 pounds sal
soda were boiled together in one-half gallon of water until dissolved.
The mixture was used in the proportion of 1 pound of arsenic to 50
gallons of water, with the addition of 6 pounds of lime per 50 gallons
of solution, and was applied about 10 a. m.
Twenty-four hours after spraying, the plat was examined and no
living beetles or larvae could be found. At this time no damage to the
foliage was apparent as a result of the arsenic, but two days later the
potatoes showed extensive burning and scalding. The foliage was
almost entirely killed by this application, and some time was required
for the plants' recovery.
Arsenic in this form is a very cheap insecticide but, on account of
its effect on the plants, could not be used, although extremely
effective in destroying the leaf-feeding insects.
Experiment No. 2.-Commercial arsenate of lead was applied with
Bordeaux mixture. Five pounds arsenate of lead paste with 4 pounds
of copper sulphate and 6 pounds fresh lime were used in 50 gallons of
water. The day was bright and clear with a southwest wind and a
temperature of 85 F.






THE COLORADO POTATO() KETIE IN VIRGINIA.


Examination the following iday shloweCd no living larva' present on
the vines. A small number of (dead ZlFrva' still clingi to i le stlemsl in
some places. No injury to the foliage was seen nor (did Iiny afterwards
appear.
Experiment ANo. 3.-Arsenate of lead was applied at tlie rate of (
pounds to 50 gallons of water. The day wais bright, with a tempera-
ture of 87 F. and a southwest breeze.
An application of this strength resulted in d(lest roying S5 to 9 l)per
cent of the larvie in twenty-four hours, and all of the larvae in forty-
eight hours. No injury as a result of the poison was seen at this time
or later.
Experiment No. 4.-For this plat, Paris green without lime was used
at the rate of 4 pounds to 50 gallons of water. The weather was as
in Experiment No. 3.
Twenty-four hours later the mortality of the larvae had reached 80
to 85 per cent. The remainder of the larvae were in a dying condition
and no damage to the vines was noted at this time as a result of the
arsenic. By the next day, however, some traces of burning were to
be seen although not of a serious nature. The larvae were by this
time thoroughly exterminated on the plat.
Experiment No. 5.-This plat was sprayed with a Paris-green mix-
ture, consisting of 3 pounds of Paris green with Bordeaux mixture,
composed of 4 pounds copper sulphate, 6 pounds of lime, and 50 gal-
lons of water. The day was bright, with a temperature of 85 F. The
mixture was applied thoroughly and remained on the leaves well.
An examination of the plants forty-eight hours after treatment
showed no injury to the leaves of the potatoes, while the larvae had
succumbed to the poison, the vines being completely cleared.
Experiment No. 6.-This plat was treated with a mixture of Paris
green and land plaster at the rate of 1 pound of Paris green to 50
pounds of plaster, the mixture being put in a coarse burlap bag and
sifted over the plants by a negro laborer in the usual plantation
manner, the amount of dust used being at the rate of 320 pounds per
acre. The wind prevailing at the time carried a large part of the d(lust
from the plat as it was applied, but the portion remaining was suffi-
cient to thoroughly destroy the larvae by forty-eight hours afterwards.
This mixture killed 90 per cent of the larve during the first twenty-
four hours, and is very effective in controlling tlhe potato beetle.
Experiment No. 7.-To this plat Paris green powder was applied,
mixed with lime at the rate of 1 pound Paris green to 10 pounds
sifted air-slaked lime. The mixture was applied with a powder
bellows early in the morning and the application was at the rate of 30
pounds per acre.
Twenty-four hours later all of the larva had been destroyed.
Extermination was complete, with no injury to the foliage. This
mixture seems superior to the plaster mixture used in experiment







SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CR(


No. 6. The application was much more thorough, although barely 10
per cent of the amount of mixture used in the previous experiment
was applied. This would greatly lessen the quantity of the acid-
producing material, the use of lime as a base for the powdered arsenic
tending to correct any acidity in the soil instead of increasing the acid
content. Moreover, the cost of this application is much less, as it
can be applied at a cost of about $1.20 per acre, while the cost of the
usual mixture is about $4.20 per acre. The efficiency of the mixtures
is about equal in either case.
Experiment No. 8.---In this plat arsenite of copper was applied at
the rate of 4 pounds to 50 gallons of water. The poison was applied
without lime. The weather was bright and warm with a northeast
wind.
Tis poison proved equally effective with Paris green used in the
same quantity but differed in that no damage to the foliage was noted
as a result of the application. The larvae were entirely destroyed.
Experiment No. 9.-Arsenite of copper, 4 pounds, to 6 pounds of
lime in solution with 50 gallons of water was sprayed on this plat.
This application w-as quite effective and at no time produced burning
of foliage as an after-effect of the arsenic.
The check plat was severely defoliated by the beetles and larve
and was undoubtedly injured by the neglect of spraying. The yield
of potatoes from this plat was considerably jess than that of the
properly sprayed plats.

SUMMARY OF EXPERIMENTS.

The following table will show the results of experiments with vari-
ous insecticides:


-.1
C; .
o E' Date.

Z c.
i May 23


May
May


May 26
May 27

May 26'
May 27

June 17

June 14


May 26


Insecticide used. Effect on plant.


Arsenite of lime........ Badly burned..


Arsenate of lead with None...........
Bordeaux mixture. I
Arsenate of lead-....... .....do.........


Effect on insect.


Entirely destroyed in
24 hours.


Entirely destroyed in
48 hours.
All killed in 48 hours..


Paris green without Slight burning.I Very effective.........
lime.
Paris green with Bor- do............ d.. do..............
deaux mixture.
Paris green dust with .....do...............do................
land plaster. |
Paris green dust with ....do......... 98 per cent destroyed..
lime.
Arsenite of copper..... ...do.......... Very effective........

Arsenite of copper with .....do.............do................
lime.

None................. Check......... Check................


Remarks.


Damage to plants too
great to permit its
Suse, although cheap-
est preparation of
those employed.
Excellent yield from
plat so treated.
Applied at rate of 6
pounds to 50 gallons
water.
4 pounds to 50 gallons
water.
3 pounds Paris green to
4-6-50 Bordeaux
mixture.
4 pounds Paris green to
ton land plaster.
1 pound Paris green to
10 pounds air-slaked
lime.
4 pounds arsenite of
copper to 50 gallons
water without lime.
4 pounds arsenite of
copper with 6 pounds
lime to 50 gallons
water.
Beetles very injurious
June 14.


PS. r:. i I

9PSI.









































POTATOES GROWING IN NEW GROUND, SHOWING BAR TO EMPLOYMENT OF POWER SPRAYERS. (ORIGINAL.)


................ I


A i


I --* Vv-




"71 iE.
I:
.ti:






T'ILE (CLO)IIADO POTATO BEETLE IN VIRGINIA.


Til T"AtTIO)N I')WEIt S lt'YE IN I'SE.

On seve'rad occasions it large ta nctetiol power slprayer, 'working at 1
pressure of froln 1 1() to l." j)olI ( IMUo w's. IisI'l, oj)'pvratill oI 5I Ii" 6 1 rows
at a time. Ti appl))iicationt wit i t lis iani'liile w.a v 'E'VI effectivee,
the plants being thlorouglly slprayedl aibove 1cn1l frodli Inhlow, atnid
were thus completely covereil witIt tlite mixture. WitlI fromn 2 to 4
poulluls of Paris green to .50 gallons of water thiis maclizie d(id( very
effective work in tle .ontr ol of tlie lr 'ie in large paits of froil :I() to
50 acres.
This machine was used for( demonstration, as tlie small sprayers
employed in tlie locality are usually of such a type as to apply tihe
insecticide at a very low pressure; in fact, doing little better than
merely sprinkling tle upper surface of thle vines. It is hoped that
the truckers will take advantage of this practical demonstration to
thle extent of purchasing similar high-grade machines for doing this
work. The work done by thle traction dust distributors is of value,
but on account of the higher cost of the insecticide applied in the form
of dust it is desirable that sprayers should replace the clusters, even
without considering damage to later crops resulting from tlhe use of
land plaster. If lime should replace the plaster in tills mixture, at
least for a time, the resultant acidity of the soil would be counter-
acted and more favorable soil conditions would follow, thus preventing
fertilizer injury from this source.
The amount of lime distributed by a properly combined spray of
Bordeaux mixture or of Paris green with lime is a negligible quantity
in any case, while a decidedly beneficial effect is noted as a result of
Bordeaux mixture applications, the yield being increased by from 40
to 50 bushels per acre in several experiments conducted by thle New
York (Geneva) station.a Paris green is admitted to possess about
one-fourth the fungicidal value of Bordeaux mixture, but applied
alone is quite likely to injure the vines, while Bordeaux mixture seems
to prevent injury by any arsenical applied with it, even in the case
of white arsenic-sal soda mixture. It has also been noted that the
potato beetles dislike plants sprayed with Bordeaux mixture and
when ready to oviposit leave such plants for those which have not
been so treated. Both Paris green andl arsenate of lead have yielded
very satisfactory results as applications for killing beetles already on
the plants, while the Bordeaux mixture acts as a repellent. The cost
of material and expense of application for a Paris green or arsenate
of lead spray, with Bordeaux mixture, is about 95 cents per acre,
while the application of Paris green and land plaster by plantation
methods costs nearly $4.20 per acre. The value of the copper unit,
one of the active constituents of Bordeaux mixture, as a fungicide
aBull. 290, Ne-,w York (Geneva) Agr. Exp. Sta., 1907.
66513-Bull. 82-12--2






SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.


develops in the spraying solution but is not freed in the dust applica-
tion, and, again, the dust does not adhere to the leaves as well as
does a liquid application. If arsenate of lead is the insecticide
chosen, its adhesive qualities increase its value since it adheres much
longer to the foliage in wet weather than has any other mixture yet
tested, thus making frequent applications unnecessary.
In the case of newly cleared land, which is frequently planted in
potatoes as the first crop, it may be necessary to use a hand sprayer,
or even a dusting bag, as the presence of tree stumps (Pl. II) seriously
interferes with the effective use of power sprayers, but where possible it
is desirable to make use of large machines for spraying, thus lessening
the cost of application and increasing to a greater degree the effi-
ciency of the remedial measures. The cost of a good power sprayer,
properly equipped for effective work on potatoes, varies from $75 to
$125, which amount would easily be saved in the space of one season
by the increased yield in the potatoes treated, where a sufficient
number of potatoes is grown to justify the employment of a power
sprayer. As experiments have shown that treatment at least three
times during the growth of the vines is well repaid by the increase in
yield, a means of covering the planted areas rapidly and effectively
is highly desirable, and the larger spray outfits are well adapted to
this work.
CONCLUSION.
In conclusion, it is suggested that at least three thorough applica-
tions of Paris green, or arsenate of lead, with Bordeaux mixture be
made, the first applied about the time that the first eggs -begin to.
hatch and the later applications at intervals of about three weeks.
By this method the beetles should be easily controlled and the injury
therefrom almost entirely obviated.











U. S. D. A., B. E. Bul. 892, Part II.


SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS 10 TRUCK CROPS.


THE PARSNIP LEAF-MINER.
(Acidi Jfratria Lo.w.
By F. HII. C'HITTrrrENDEN, Sc. D.
In Charge of Truck Crop and Stored P'roduct Insect Invzesligations.

INTRODUCTION.
Since the year 1903 this species, hitherto considered rare, has
made its appearance nearly every year in the District of Columbia
in such considerable numbers that by July beds of parsnip are found
so extensively infested by the maggot or larva that at least 25 per
cent of the leaves are sometimes destroyed. The leaves show mines
of varying sizes, from that of a dime to others covering the greater
portion of a leaf. In 1906 and 1907 the species could not be found
in the District of Columbia, but it returned in 1908. A more com-
plete account than has hitherto been available of the insect is here-
with presented.
EARLY HISTORY.
Our first knowledge of the existence of this species as an enemy
to crop plants was published in 1895 in a short illustrated note by
Mr. D. W. Coquillett.a At that time it was recorded as having
attacked parsnip leaves at Cadet, Mo., in June, 1891. The leaves
had been quite extensively mined, and three adults were reared June
23, proving to be Trypetafratria, as it was then known.
In 1899, Mr. R. W. Doane published a note on this species,6
recording its rearing from Heracleum from Almota, Wash., and its
occurrence at Pullman, Wash. He considered Thomson's liogaster
the same species, and stated also that our species may be identical
with the European Acidia (Trypeta) heraclei L., or celery leaf-miner,
said to be a destructive enemy of celery in England.
DESCRIPTION.
Thefly.-The mature fly in life is a beautiful object. Its body is
pale yellow, as are also the legs; the abdomen is pale green, and the
wings are beautifully ornamented with yellow alternating with
white, forming the pattern shown in figure 1, a. Near the middle of
the anterior margin of the wings there is a dusky, nearly black spot,
a Insect Life, Vol. VII, p. 383.
bJourn. New York Ent. Soc., Vol. VII, p. 178.


Is-i-l-l Nm nl uT' wr :(n. vmio






SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.


while in the corresponding position on the posterior margin there is
a paler dusky spot two or three times as large. The head is yellow,
and the eyes large and brilliant green with bluish reflections. The
ovipositor varies from yellow to black. None of these colors is so
bright in preserved specimens. The length of the body is about
three-sixteenths of an inch (5 mm.), and the wing expanse is seven-
sixteenths of an inch (11 mm.).
The larva, or maggot (fig. 1, ).-The larva, or maggot, is of the usual
form of the Trypetidr, measuring about five times as long as wide.
It is nearly transparent, except in the interior portions, where it is
yellowish. The contents of the abdominal cavity appear greenish
through the skin. The length of the body is 7 mm. and the width
1.4 mm. The anal segment of the larva as seen from the extreme end
is illustrated at fig-
ure 1, c.
2A- The puparium.-
S 1The larva when full
e A
a ^ grown contracts and
'. hardens, forming a
"" l n J coarctate pupa or
puparium (fig. 1, d),
..'ld serving the purpose
SA of a cocoon in inclos-
b ing the true pupa.
aT
/ a ] In the present spe-
cies, as with others
e f of this group which
FIG. 1. The parsnip leaf-miner (Acidiafratria): a, F!y; b, larva, lateral have been studied
view; c, anal segments of same; d, puparium; e, cephalic extremity;
/, anal extremity; g, row of cephalicspiracles; h, analspiracles. a,b,d, the form is oval in
Much enlarged, remainder more enlarged. (After Coquillett, except outline, imperfectly
b, c, original ) cylindrical, and ta-
pering almost equally at both ends.a The lower surface is somewhat
flattened and attached to the leaf by a viscid secretion. The length is
twice the width and the color pale green when first formed, changing to
straw color with greater age. The body is composed of 11 strongly
marked segments. The mouth-parts are retracted within the pupal
skin, and the cephalic or thoracic appendages spiracless or tracheae) are
well indicated, forming two arcs, together equivalent to about two-
thirds of a circle (fig. 1, e). The spiracles are very minute and
difficult to count, but there are evidently between 21 and 24 on each
side (fig. 1, g), the probabilities being that there is no constancy as
regards the number. The length is 4.5 mm. and the width 2.25 mm.
a The writer fails to see how the Trypetid pupa can be described as "barrel-shaped,"
as is done by many writers. -


10






TIlE 1P'ARSNIPI L.EAF'-M IN EH.


The anal extremity is illustrate lt ligtj 1, iti 1 aid t lIe aVIl spirIh)il
at h.
As long ago as 1S73 Osten Sac'ken assignedl this species to typical
Acidia, but. it Ihas been generally known as Trijit/(a fntrua. iThe
following sli'hort technical description is quoted froi (O)stc' Sacken :"
Clay-yellow, stature short and sone'what broad, witli four IritlIi's on tli,' srt-
-tellum; wingns with ytllowishl-Irown rivulets, wliicli enilosi ili oval, Ihyal ine ,spot
before the end of the discal ce(l;; the tnl of thle fourtli longiljtdinul vc-in is not curved
forwards.
DISTRIBUTION.

The localities recorded for Acidia fratria are comparatively few,
considering tlhe fact that the species is not really rare. Osten Sacken
gave "Atlantic States." Thomson found it in California, and others
have recorded its occurrence in Missouri, Washington, andNew Jersey.
To this must be added the District of Columbia. The above evi-
dently indicates a moderately wide distribution, especially if the
species should prove to be the same as beraclei L., common to both
continents. At least it extends across the continent front the Atlantic
seaboard to the Pacific Ocean.

BIOLOGIC NOTES.

While new data have been obtained, the life history is still incom-
plete. The fly has not been observe(l depositing its eggs, and the
egg and method of oviposition therefore remain unknown. Thie fact
that the mines always extend to the margin of the leaf affords an indi-
cation that the eggs are deposited at least near the margin, and the
fact that the larve when full grown have usually worked down into
the end of the leaf nearest the leaf-stalk (see fig. 2, a) shows that the
ecgg is probably deposited in most cases near the other end or apex of
the leaf.
The larve under observation in 1903 began to attain maturity July
19, the adults issuing in August. Material under observation in 1908
transformed to pupre May 22 and the first adults issued June 6, the
pupal period having been passed in fourteen days.
WhVvile these insects usually form puparia in the old( larval mines, in
many cases also they desert the mines, especially small ones, and form
separate puparia in the same or other leaves. Mines are more often
found with two or three larve or puparia within than with a single
inhabitant, and as many as eight have been counted on a single leaf.
To the average person the mines made by this species would scarcely
be recognized as such, as the leaves merely present tihe appearance of
dying from natural causes, portions of then drying and withering.
a Monograph of Diptera No. Am., Pt. IJI, p. 234.





SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.


At the time when puparia are formed on the leaf surface (see fig.
2, b) that portion of the leaf is still green, but before the adult hatches
the infested area usually turns brown, like the larval mines, and the
first two or three segments of the puparium may be seen protruding
at the margin of the leaf. With the further drying of the leaves
more segments are exposed, and sometimes the entire puparium is
brought to view (fig.
2, c) attached by its
underside to the sur-
face of the leaf.
The mines are of
Irregular form, but
are usually more or
,W c less rounded or ob-
long, although some-
Stimes irregulary tri-
angular when found
%N ki in the apex of a leaf.
The two outer sur-
faces of the leaves be-
----- come separated, and
the excrement, very
-fine and powdery
a^ ^and nearly black,
can be seen by hold-
N'3'^ m' ing the mines to the
light. The location of
the larvae can also be
b made out in the same
FIG. 2.-Parsnip leaves showing cbeation of larva of Acidiafratria in its manner if, indeed, the
mine at a; of concealed puparia at b, and of exposed puparium at c 1 rva can not be seen
Drawn from life. (Original.)
on a plain surface.
The maggots usually work somewhat closely together, and the
puparia also are frequently found placed side by side. Lower leaves
of plants are more affected than are upper ones, and attack has been
noticed to be more extensive where plants are grown in shady
locations.
A single parasite, Syntomosphyrum sp., a chalcidid, determined by
Mr. J. C. Crawford, has been reared by the writer from this maggot.
METHODS OF CONTROL.
According to the writer's experience, this species shows a fondness
for plants that have run to seed. Hence it is not desirable to plant
beds in the vicinity of parsnip or other susceptible crops grown


12






TIl.: K JPAIRSNIIP LEAF-' NM IN Et.


for the market. EuropLean writ Ters Mni t Ie W eIerTV lIaIf-mI iner state t lIIt
dusting thit alh'rected leaves with lI lliXtlrte of lini'ly 'w'" r, .',,I lSt iil1I
lime, t',three patils to One, hials proved bl Il, icial il re ven!l tingll hj11 ftli'es
from dlellp)oSitiIlg tleir eggs i po4lln tlhe l'eaVes. It is apptli'ed wlhen tile
leafIageI is daOmp. ()lter si ilar i let erreitVs, stuch as ri11d dust, wMIld
have alI)out tlite slme til','iect.
Sprays of kerosene mulsion atic1d of c)[arihllizeI keTo'sene emtl. siotni
have also been reported to 1e succt'essfiul in tl1e treatI(tme)t of young
plants affected lby tlie celery leaf-miner. Ihiese, if apl)p)liedl at tlie
proper time, wN"ulhid act its deterrents and might laIve Smoile effect on
the iarvau at about the tine when they are ready to tranlsfo'rm to
pupte and when tihe mines are thin. It is doubtful, however, if either
of these fluids would penetrate the leaves to any great extent except
at this time.















THE PARSLEY STALK WEEVIL.


(Listronotus latiusculits Boh.)

By F. H. CHITTENDEN, Sc. D.,
In Charge of Truck Crop and Stored Product Insect In investigations.

INJURIOUS OCCURRENCE.

Certain species of curculios, or weevils, of semiaquatic habits that
normally feed upon wild plants growing in marshy situations, through
the reclamation and cultivation of such tracts, occasionally attack
crop plants, and for a season or more accomplish serious damage.
In many instances injuries are peculiarly local and are not apt to
recur,a but there is always a possibility that insects of such habits
may, in course of time, after the cultivation of the samd areas, with
or without the disappearance of these wild food plants, become
permanent pests. An instance may be cited which came under the
observation of Prof. F. M. Webster, of this Bureau, in Ohio, in 1894,
of attack on cabbage by two semiaquatic species of weevil, Listronotus
appefditculatus Boh., and Notaris (Erycus) puncticollis Lee. About
50,000 plants were set late in June in ai field of swamp land under-
drained the previous year, and as many as 10 individuals of the
first-mentioned species were found about single plants, gouging
great cavities in the stalks. The former, with others of its genus,
develops normally in arrow-head (Sagittaria spp.) and some related
aquatic plants.
It is not surprising, then, that similar injuries should be committed
by insects of the same class. During the last of July and first days
ofAugust, 1902, Mr. F. C. Pratt, of this Bureau, noted injury to parsley
grown at Four Mile Run, Virginia, which upon examination was
found to be due to both larva? and adults of Listronotus latiusculus
Boll. Injury continued the following season-1903. It thus ex-
tende(l over four years-1900 to 1903, inclusive.
a rTllis holds for s.several forms of bill-bugs (Sphcnophorus spp.), but the most injuri-
ouIs sp.icics arc practically permanent corn pests in certain localities, owing to environ-
ment; for example, in cornfields planted iii the immediate vicinity of marshes,
rivers, or other bodies of water in which the aquatic plants in which they have their
natural homes abound.
14






TIHE I'AHRSLEY STALIK WEEVIL.


DESCRIPTION.

Thle beetle is a weevil of tie famNil' ('urcutllinid a'. It is of somiew-
what obsclurle aplpearanlce, there eiig ,i:iII oiler species lIiw'li
resemble it superficially. It is sliown in tlhe i listr n it ionl (lii-. :;, ).
Its IresemIl)laI Ice to tilt, clob ver-lItaf weevil ailI relit'eI sp)eci's (l'iy to-
nomnius) is apparent. Thie t'IW gene 11ra are illtimtVNely rvl-0t'tl4. F1r, ,l1
the latter genus isl1) ronot(1s 118 n be dist iIlglislj( I)y t lie (Iif't'ic t
proportions of tli vent ral st,(rgmI(nts, the first, second, {1nd fiftl l, iiF
long, andi the tli ir I and fourtli very short. The legs ire m, ore sl1ende'r,
anti the tibia, are bent inward at the tips anti are quitee strIogly
mucronate. The species, so far as known, are winged. Twenty-two
species are indicated by Horn.a L. laftusculus Boll. is very (losely
related to L. impressifrons Lec. Le Conte describes tlhe two species as
agreeing in form and sculpture and in having the last ventral segment
of the female not impressed, but in latiusculus tlhe rostrumn or snout
is feebly channeled and sulcate with the frontal fovea faintly indi-
cated, while in impres-
sifrons the rostrum is. %
strongly channeled a
and sulfate with the
frontal fovea deep. v
The length without
the rostrum is about ____
one-fourth of an inch
(6-7.5 mm.). The
color i~s bronvanViried a
color is bro1MI, varied FF,. 3.-Lislronolus latiusculu.q: a, Beetle; b, larva from side; c, two
with rather minute abdominal segments from ahove; d, pip".. All mich enlar .ed.
golden or cupreous (Original)
scales, with which the entire surface is covered. The rostrum from
the eyes to the tip is of nearly the same length as the thlorax.
The egg.-The egg is variably oval, from about two-thlirds to tlhree-
fourths as wide as long, not visibly flattened, and without apparent
sculpture. The only eggs examined were of a decidedly dusky hue,
but when freshly laid they were probably pale gray or whitish
and subtranslucent. Their length is 0.70-0.75 mm., and the width
0.48-0.55 mm.
The larva (fig. 3, b, c).-The larva (liffers from those of the ordi-
nary Curculionid form in being less curved. It is considerably flat-
tened and crawls easily, being comparatively active. Tlhe larva in
the cut is shown in the position assumed after (leathi. When alive
and stretched at full length it, is a trifle longer tlian thli beetle. It is
of the usual milk-white coloi so common in curculio larva, and hlas
the same pale, reddish-brown head and barkerr mouth-parts. The
u Rhmynchophora of America North o)f Mexico, 1876, pp. 127-136.


15






16 SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.

head is comparatively small, of about the same width as length,
excluding the mouthl-parts.
Thte pupa (fig. 3, d).-The pupa is creamy white in color and is
rather thickly covered with short, stiff bristles, which assist it in loco-
motion. It is quite active and capable of crawling a considerable
(d distance.
DISTRIBUTION.
Ie Conte's type and cotypes were from Georgia and Louisiana.
The species is recorded or has come under the writer's notice from
a limited number of localities. These include Ithaca, N. Y. (Chit-
tenden); New York, N. Y. (Juelich and Roberts); Buffalo, N. Y.
(Jueliclh); Madison, Gloucester, and Hudson County, N. J. (Smith);
Four Mile Run, Va. (Pratt); and Washington, D. C.

INJURY AT FOUR MILE RUN, VIRGINIA.
When this species was first observed, in the latter part of July, sev-
eral larvae and a single adult were found in the tuberous roots under-
ground. The trucker on whose farm the injury was committed stated
that he had observed attack by this species the two years before, i. e.,
in 1900 and 1901, when it occasioned some loss. The outward mani-
festations consist in the tops of the parsley beginning to turn yellow,
then wilting, and finally drying out. When a plant was pulled, the
roots broke off just below the surface of the ground, frequently dis-
lodging the larva or grub and leaving others below. September 5,
when a third visit was paid to the infested locality, injury had
increased beyond all expectations, nearly half of the crop having been
destroyed. As in the previous instance, larvae and adults were found,
as also pupae. It is obvious, therefore, that the single adult found on
the first occasion was a straggler from the first or hibernated genera-
tion and the beetles found later were members of the new generation.
Where the larvme were found attacking small stems-those less than a
quarter of an inch in diameter-injury was shown quite early and the
plant was killed. But in older stems from one-half to three-fourths
of an inch in diameter damage was not so conspicuous. Large tubers
show excavations on an average of about 1 inch in length and a fourth
of an inch in diameter. Owing to the soft nature of the roots these
excavations are decidedly irregular and assume a light reddish-brown
color. The holes made by the beetles in exit are so large that some-
times considerable quantities of earth are washed in by rains and
doubtless assist in promoting decay, leading to the ultimate destruc-
tion of the plants. Some of the outer roots proceeding from the
tubers are also penetrated. In one root under examination, con-
taining two larvae, less than one-fourth of the root remains, the rest
having been destroyed by decay. In 1903 larvae were observed as






THE PARSLEY STALK WEEVIL.


late as September 4, hatching in lie outside leaf-1sth ('Ii4 IIi urrIwing
through until tIhey had I I i letratediv i tIw r-the ,t. I tlI e ill st,-t raticit (fig. -.)
injured plant are aIV SIll)W'n, th oii(31 11, 431 tI IV ,i'liIt co.,1tai ir Ing a LI'avil,
natural size. ini the roots.

OVIPOSITION.

It was readily lea rled tIlIIaIt tile IbeetIes ld(epositedtI teiItv eggs .gs i pIarsl'ey
stalks, large ]punctuctIretdI areas to'rns I )l(ing toI the (diatc( tetr (,f tIII
snout of the beetle ibeing.. noticealt' fromn a point just below tlie pto


























k.(
9













FIG. 4.-Parsley roots showing work of parsley stalk weevil. (Original.)

of the stalks nearly to their base. Three or four such places of egg
deposit are usually seen in a large stalk. The usual number of eggs
inserted seems to be two, although frequently a third is found and
sometimes only one. Most curculionids, however, deposit a single
egg in a slit made for the purpose. Where the stalk has attained
sufficient size and strength to continue growth after the beetle has
deposited its eggs, the larva lives within it, going downward into the
roots. In some cases plants are killed by too many punctures, par-
ticularly when quite small and delicate, and then the larvae desert the






SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.


stems, evidently by simply tumbling out to the ground, into which
they crawl and attack the roots by boring in from outside.

FOOD PLANTS AND HABITS.

Most collectors of ('oleoptera who have ha(l opportunity to observe
aquatic anl( other forms of beetles that frequent ponds and water
courses are familiar with the fact that the genus Listronotus is-to
be f,,und in thle greatest abundance on aquatic or semiaquatic plants,
more particularly on Sagittaria. Years ago Dr. C. M. Weed made
observations on the present curculio and its food habits.a He
found the larva, in seed capsules or heads, as well as in stalks, of
the common arrow-head (Sagittaria variabilis) and furnished some
interesting observations on the insect's life history. Beetles began
to emerge September 23 (in Ohio), continuing emergence until the
middle of October. The length of the pupal stage was determined
as eleven days. The (duration of the egg stage should be about the
same at the same temp)erature, but in a high temperature in a warmer
climate like that of Washington eggs might develop in seven days,
while the larval stage is of only a few weeks' duration. During the
same year that ) Doctor Weed wrote of this species, the late Wilhelm
Juelich informed me that lie had found the beetles near New York
City in tlhe lower parts of reeds (Phlragmites), near the bottoms.
In tlhe Bureau of Entomology w-e have a record of the finding of
the larva by Mr. A. Koe)ele in August, 1884, in Virginia, near the
District of Columbia, in the seed capsules of a species of Sagittaria,
August 31. The beetles (developed in great numbers, beginning
September 22.
It is not usual that phytophagous Coleoptera develop in so many
portions of a plant as in the case of the present species, which exists
as larva in the seed (cal)sules and stalks of one plant and in the roots.
of a different plant.6 It. is not probable that it would be able to live
in portions of purely terrestrial )lants other than the roots or stalks
near tlhe ground, because tlhe insect evidently requires a more than
usual (degree of moisture. In other words, it, is semiaquatic.b
Bul. Ohio Agr. Exp. Sta., Tech. Ser., Vol. I, No. 1, pp. 10, 11, 1889.
b C.'ompare the writer's observations with others on the biology of Conotrachelus
eicyqns (Bul. IS, n. s., p. 94), which breeds commonly at the roots of Amaranthus
and has been stated by others to live on hickory; since the egs are known to be de-
posited in rolled-up leaves of hickory, it seems probable that the beetles develop in
-ome other portion of that plant than at the roots. The congeneric plum curculio
(C. nen uphar IIlst.) not only develops ii the plum and other stone fruits, but also
in black-knot (Plow.rightia morbosa).


18






TIEK !A 1t.i. STALK .I.I W IEKVI.


19


METHODS OF CONTROL.

The grower wwh rtl('eported( ilnjuriy t l pal..sl'v il \.irlitl ,in tiiiandoit'ed
this crop) )n (i i account of tlth ravaet s (;I," lithe \ 'evil. Iii.;Ile i,,1 ,x )'Iri-
ments (coulit l be madl, witi reindicjs. 'I'li.ci <,ii li e ](m dilit I lit
thle Sp)te'ies (4)c ld ht 1 r1 'acliC d i itl l)i.sI ii)liild (31 '1l'ii l 31 "' k ii),).E I.
eitllsion llpplit ed albolIt flie r1 )t.s i ll Iw(. s i,111' iIInliitr ii- I')r r"it) -
maggots andi slinilar insec.ts. All tlhinls ('olsii(dierdI, Io(w(evr, ii
the caste o' prs.l( Ilt' ie wisest imlIS.1rt' 'Was ji.t wlit h(le gror,)x
did. After tlte 'I lpse 1 ) L .Of etr or two), Je'aip)st )o, Jarsle y might Ie
grown with n)impunity ini tlet sae( locality.















THE CELERY CATERPILLAR.


(Papilio polyxenes Fab.)
By F. H. CHITTrrENDEN, Sc. D.
In Charge of Truck Crop and Stored Product Insect Investigations.

INTRODUCTION.

Everywhere in beds of celery, carrots, parsley, and related plants
there will be found, during summer and autumn, numbers of a large
green or yellowish caterpillar, ringed with black. This is the celery
caterpillar, known also as the parsley worm and by other common
names. It is, everything considered, one of the insects best known
to the grower of the crop plants mentioned, this being due to its
large size and conspicuous, gay coloring. It feeds upon the leaves
of plants and, when abundant, attacks the blossoms and undeveloped
seeds. If left entirely unmolested it might, save for the intervention
of natural enemies, become a serious pest, since it is a voracious
feeder. It is readily controlled, however, by handpicking, and this
helps to reduce the numbers of the pest. In addition, its habit of
feeding on wild parsnip, wild carrot, and other umbelliferous weeds,
which are altogether too abundant, serves to distribute attack as
well as to divert it from useful plants.

DESCRIPTIVE.
Nearly every year inquiries are made in regard to this insect, but
it is seldom so plentiful as to call for advice in regard to treatment.
Complaints of injury and requests for remedies, however, have
been received in recent years from portions of Long Island, Maryland,
District of Columbia, Virginia, Iowa, and some other regions. In
our correspondence it has attracted most attention because of its
occurrence on celery, parsley, and sweet fennel.
The egg.-The egg of this butterfly is of globular form and rather
large, measuring about 1 mm. in width and the same in height. It
is flattened on the surface by which it is attached, as shown in figure
5, d. When first laid the egg is pale honey-yellow, but afterwards
turns in parts to reddish brown. The surface is slightly glistening
and covered with microscopic granulations.
20






THE CELIEYiI" (ATER.PILLI.A.


Thle lara.-The'' young stages of tl.i' lii'rv iiare ttatilly disiilir
to the miatiure oies. Five distililct stL es arLI recogn'(((llizedtI, tite s,((.on(d
of which is illustrattdI at. ', lgti'e 5. This ate rpiliiiir is siown,
lateral view, in figure 5, (. It is usually green, Ysmletimlies yevllowishl,
and strongly rinigetd within vlety black tiitd si)pt.t(l s f.igrledl.
Another caterpl)illar is sliown at b toi ilustirate t lil aIi)'iarlie(' o(f I lie
head and tlhe )eculiIar yellow scent orgailns (()osmateriaL). hI'llese are
protnruded when the insect is (disti rbedi, and they exleialh it l)Ulilgenlt
odor, similar to that of the bruised leaves of their fo)(I plaints I uit of
greater intensity and very disagreeable.
The adult.-The parent insect is one of the swallowtail butt'rllies
known by various names, but more commonly as thle black swalow-
tail. The ground color is velvety black, relieved by yellow bands in

Cn






i a





~r



FIG. 5.-The celery caterpillar (Papilio polyxenes): a, Full-grown larva, side view; b, view showing
head with extruded osmateria; c, male butterfly; d, egg in profile; e, young larva; /, suspended chrysalis.
All about natural size, except d, which is much enlarged. (Original.)

the male, as shown in the illustration (fig. 5). The hind wings are
ornamented on the inside by eyelike markings resembling those of
the male peacock, and they terminate in the "tails," from which the
insect derives its common name. The female (fig. 6) is of larger
size, somewhat faded black, and in every way of a more somber
appearance than her spouse-a rule which holds good for most
butterflies. Many of the yellow spots, particularly those arranged
in the form of bands, are wanting, and the hind wings are ornamented
with pale blue scales on the posterior half. This species is subject
to every conceivable variation in color. The wing expanse is usually
3 inches or a little more.
The chrysalis.-The chrysalis is of a dull gray color, mottled with
black and brown, and measures a little less than 11 inches (see fig. 5,.f).






SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.


DISTRIBUTION.
In some respects this is one of the most interesting of the insects
found attacking garden plants. In the first place, it appears to be
limited to no special life zone, if we can judge by the records of dis-
tribl)ution. It occurs in every State and Territory in the Union. From
a very considerable portion of Canada from east to west bordering
the UniteL States, its range extends through Central America and the
West Indies to South America, at least as far as Venezuela.

HABITS AND LIFE HISTORY.
Even without the warning scent organs with which the larva is
supplied, its colors are so peculiar that birds soon recognize it and
learn to leave it undisturbed, owing to its disagreeable taste. It
is not, however, free from insect enemies. It would seem that the
















FIG. 6.-The celery caterpillar: Female butterfly. About natural size. (Original.)
larva is perfectly well aware of its immunity from attack by birds,
since it feeds in plain view in the later stages and even crawls to the
outer surface of plants, appearing to invite the freest exposure. It
is remarkable, also, that the colors of the pupa as well as its attachment
to inconspicuous objects render it comparatively free from natural
enemies. Fitch (in manuscript) noticed "a female at midday hover-
inm around some caraway, ovipositing. She gently settles on the
end of a leaf, holding thereto with her feet for a few moments, whilst
she curves her abdomen forward and places an egg on the upper
surface of one of the small leaflets, and then gently flies away to
another leaf."
Owing to the extremely wide range of this species there is much
variation in its life history. Gundlach and Chapman observed this
insect in Cuba and Florida, respectively, and their observations,
with those of others farther north, show that the eggs hatch in from


22






THE CELERY CATERPILLAR.


four to nine days, that tihe larval period may Ie passed in the extreme
South in from nine to ten days, although this is oftenmr foutIr weeks
in the North, and that the clhrysalis period varies between nine and
eighteen (lays. The writer observed the pupall period at Washington,
D. C., from July S to July 18, a total of nine andt one-half days in
hot weather. This gives us a possible minimum life cycle o)f fron
twenty-two days, in the insect's southern range, to eight weeks
northward. In the North the insect is (louble-broo(ded, and winters
in the chrysalis stage. In the extreme South there are prol)bably
three or four generations produced each year. Thus butterflies
appear in the South in March and April and begin the deposition of
their eggs, while in the New England States and in similarlatitudes
the butterfly does not appear on the wing until May, and seldom before
the middle of that month.
Besides celery, this insect attacks practically all other umbellif-
erous plants, including carrot, parsley, caraway, fennel, parsnip,
dill, and related wild plants. It does not appear to attack, except
in extreme cases, any plant outside of this botanical family.
NATURAL ENEMIES.
The principal insect enemies are species of ichneumon flies of rather
large size, single specimens of which serve to destroy the insect
in its pupal stage. The best known of these are two species of
Trogus-exesorius Brulle and exidianator Brulle. Some other natural
enemies, however, have been recorded. The list includes Apanteles
lunatus Pack. and a dragon fly, Anax longipes Hagen.
REMEDIES.
The conspicuous appearance of the larvae of this species renders
them what might be called an "easy mark," as they are readily found
and can be crushed under foot, and no other remedies are necessary
if the work of destruction is begun before the plants are injured.
The killing off of the first generation will serve in considerable measure
to destroy the insects so as to prevent a very large second brood or
generation, particularly if this can be accomplished over a consider-
able territory. The butterfly is a strong flier, and cooperation is
necessary to keep the insect in check when it becomes destructive.
The caterpillar can also be destroyed with an arsenical, either Paris
green or arsenate of lead, but recourse to these is, as a rule, scarcely
necessary, owing to the ease with which the "worms" can be hand-
picked.
BIBLIOGRAPHY.
The swallowtail butterfly is considered in most text-books on
general entomology and in many popular periodicals on the same
topic. A list of technical references is given in Scudder's Butterflies
66513-Bull. 82-12----3


23







24 SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.

of New England-mentioned as No. 6 below-and a list of publica-
tions in which the immature stages are considered is furnished in
Henry Edwards's Catalogue of the Described Transformations of the
North American Lepidoptera (No. 5). A brief list is, therefore, all
that is necessary for the present purpose.
(1) FABRICIUS, J. C.-Systema Entomologica, pp. 444-445, 1775.
Original description of the species as Papilio polyzenes.
(2) SMITH & ABBoT.-Lepidopterous insects of Georgia, vol. I, p. 1, pl. 1, 1792.
Short account, with colored plate, illustrating all stages except egg. Mentioned as Papilio
troilus.a
(3) CRAMER, PIETER.-Papillons exotiques, Vol. IV, pp. 194-196, pl. 385, figs. C-B,
1782.
Redescribed as Papilio asterius.
(4) HARRIS, T. W.-Insects injurious to vegetation, 1841, pp. 211-213, Flint ed.,
1862, pp. 263-266, pl. 4, fig. 4.
An excellent account of this species with illustrations. Mentioned as Papilio asterius Cram.
(5) EDWARDS, HY.-Bul. 35, U. S. National Museum, p. 10, 1889.
List of references to the described transformations of this species to date.
(6) SCUDDER, S. H.-Butterflies of the Eastern United States and Canada, Vol. II,
pp. 1353-1364, 1889.
A monographic account, including references to technical descriptions of all stages, geographical
distribution, habits, life history, etc.
aPapilio troilus L. is an entirely different species.













U. S. D. A., B. E. Buiil. 82. Part 111.


SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.


THE LIMA-BEAN POD-BORER.
(Etliella zinckenelhla Treit. i
By F. 1I. CHITTrrENDEN, Se. D.,
In Charge of Truck Crop and Stored Product Insert In irestigations.

INJURIOUS OCCURRENCE.

In looking over some old material anti notes in the Bureau of
Entomology and National Museum, some larvae closely resembling
the Lima-bean vine-borer (Monoptilota nubilella Hulst) were discov-
ered, accompanied by a note by Mr. Albert Koebele to the effect
that they were found on Lima beans at Rattlesnake Bridge, Eldorado
County, Cal., July 21, 1885. The beans in that vicinity were much
infested by larvae of this species. The seed beans had been received
from Ohio the previous spring, but this evidently had no bearing on
the origin of the insect, although the larvae injured the growing
seeds.
More recently, in 1908, the same species was discovered by Mr.
H. 0. Marsh at Santa Ana and Garden Grove, Cal., in September
and October, infesting Lima-bean pods. At this time it was abun-
dant in Santa Ana, in one garden nearly every pod containing a
larva; at Garden Grove the species had ruined fully 40 per cent of
a good-sized patch of late beans. Another lot was received from
Anaheim, Cal., October 22. The larva were common at this time
also but not as injurious as in the other localities. The adults
began issuing January 9, 1909, and continued coming out until Feb-
ruary 25.
Later the same collector found this species at work at Compton
and Watts, Cal., in November. During the latter half of November
the larvae were scarce, practically all having disappeared with the
exception of a few belated individuals here and there.
DESCRIPTION AND DISTRIBUTION.
The moth has a wing expanse of a little less than an inch; the
head is armed with three long, conspicuous labial palpi, showing its
relation to the snout-moths. The ground color is gray, interspersed
25


I,, ev, l I.wn}, 1r *'. 1'P.HCJ.




r


26 SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.

with ochreous scales on the fore wings. A conspicuous, broad white
stripe extends over the base of the fore wing along the costa to the
apex. In the inner fourth of the fore wing there is also a cross-band
of brighter ochreous freely dotted with brown spots. The moth is
illustrated by figure 7, a, representing the female. The sexes may
be readily distinguished by the antennae.
The original description of this species is by Treitschke,a who, in
1832, named it Phycis zinckenella n. sp., from Sicily.
It has also been described under at least thirteen other names,
including schisticolor Zell., and rubribasella Hulst. Full references to
technical descriptions are given by Hulst in his article entitled "The
Phycitidae of North America" b and in the Dyar list (No. 4807).
Doctor Dyar has sugges-
g ted that schisticolor Zell. is
^ ^ synonymous with zincken-
ella Treit. and in further
elaboration states, in a let-
ter dated May 28, 1909:
I have compared the Etiella
f species and find only one and that
the same as the European zinck-
v enella. Hulst's rubribasella is evi-
dently a synonym, founded on
an imperfect or badly mounted
specimen: schisticolor Zell. is paler
e gray, less reddish tinted, the costal
stripe less sharply defined, but I
FIG. 7.-Lima-bean pod-borer (Etiella zinckenella): a, Fe. think it a racial form only. Many
male moth; b, antenna of male moth; c, larva, dorsal of our moths that extend into the
view; d, lateral view of one abdominal segment. Twice
natural size except b, which is more enlarged. (Original.) arid country are of a paler gray
there, to match the desert tints;
but I do not think the character is specific. The costal stripe in some of the
specimens is as sharply marked as in eastern ones, and the eastern ones also vary
in depth of color.
Like the pea moth, this species appears to be an inhabitant of
the Eastern Hemisphere and has been introduced, perhaps, from
both Europe and Asia. North Carolina is the northernmost locality
recorded by Hulst, but it may be present farther north in the Atlan-
tic region.
Of its habits Milliere c says that it lives in the larval stage on
Colutea arborescens.
Of the distribution Hulst gives Florida, North Carolina, South
Carolina, Texas, Colorado, California, West Indies, South America,
a F. TREITSCHKE. Schmetterlinge von Europa, Vol. IX, p. 201, Leipzig, 1832.
bTrans. Am. Ent. Soc., Vol. XVII, p. 170, 1890.
c Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, Vol. VIII, p. 231, 1861? Not seen.






THE LIMA-BEAN POD-BORER.


Europe, West Africa, Madagascar, and ('Central Asia. Evidently
the species is cosmopolitan but maniny not occur far nortmward.
Comparison of the moth of this insect witl tliat h f tithe corn stalk-
borer (Elasmopalpus) shows considerable suwperlicial resemblv.nce,
while the larva is decidedly more like that of thle Lima-hean vine-
borer (Monoptilota). In thle )Dyar list the genus Etiella follows
three genera after Elasmopalpus. These three species belong to
the same family, the Phycitide.
The lan'a.-The larva, when mature, presents thle appearance
illustrated in figure 7, c, d. It is of robust form, strongly convex
above, and somewhat strongly flattened on the lower surface; widest
at the first two abdominal segments, from which it tapers very feebly
both anteriorly and posteriorly until the anal extremity, which is
much narrowed. The general color is rosy, sometimes with a purplish
tinge, much darker on the dorsal than on the ventral surface, which
is somewhat faintly tinted. Segmentation is strong and the abdom-
inal folds are pronounced. The head is more than half as wide as
the first thoracic segment, honey-yellow in color, darker about the
trophi and along the margins; the hemispheres are well divided above;
the inverted V-mark is distinct, the outer lines broken above the
middle. The first thoracic segment is paler than the other two, tinged
with honey-yellow, and spotted with brown, about as illustrated in
figure 7, which also shows the pattern of ornamentation of the dorsal
surface generally. The anterior legs are well developed as are also
the four pairs of abdominal and the anal prolegs. The arrangement
and location of the piliferous tubercles and hairs which they bear are
also sufficiently well shown to render further description superfluous,
especially as only a single properly preserved specimen is available
for the purpose. The length is about 16 mm.
Younger larvae seen were pale, either whitish or light green.
The eggs have not been seen and no pupae are at hand for descrip-
tion.
ADDITIONAL REMARKS.

Opportunity has thus far not offered for study of the habits of the
species. Of the larvae received, it was noticed that they feed en-
tirely within the pod and in some cases were found in a slight web
mingled with excrement. They attack the bean along the edge and
usually devour the germ, consuming the entire bean if young and
tender. They are quite capable of entering other pods by cutting a
small hole in the side.
Larvae were seen crawling around in a package when received, Sep-
tember 23, evidently seeking a place for pupation. When placed in


27





SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.


a rearing jar with sand they burrowed down to the depth of an inch
or a little more and surrounded themselves with a slight web.
It is noticeable that this species was found only upon Lima beans
in its occurrence in California.
An ichneumon-fly parasite (Chttn. No.1412) issued October 19
to October 30, 1908.
As a very complete systematic bibliography is published by Doctor
Dyar,a and, moreover, as the titles cited have little bearing on the
matter in point, bibliographical references will be omitted in the
present paper. Admitting that zinckenella and schisticolor are syno-
nyms, the Dyar catalogue furnishes no less than fourteen synonyms,
the species having been given that number of specific names by differ-
ent writers, the list including six by Walker.
No opportunity has presented itself for experiments in the reme-
dial control of the insect, and unless it should be held in check by
natural enemies it is probably destined to be a pest during some
seasons, in localities where it has become well established, on Lima
beans.
a Bul. 52, United States National Museum, p. 428, 1902.


28












THE YELLOW-NECKED FLEA-BEETLE.


Iisouacrha ine7lir'olli Say. i
BI F". II. ('HITrr NDFN, Sc. I)..
In Chartqe of Tru'k Crop and Stored Prodit' Insert In restigations.
[With report by II. (0). MAnsn. .1\,'ft (ai d Erpert.]

INJURIOUS OCCURRENCE.

Beginning with January, 1909, the yellow-necked flea-)eetle (Dis-
onychia mellicollis Say), which appears to be particularly injurious the
present year, began to attract attention in the South, being reported,
by agents and others, on truck crops in Texas and Florida. January
26, Mr. D. K. McMillan stated that this species was common at Browns-
ville, Tex., on spinach. He found only adults, although several pairs
were in copula. Ile had also found adults resting under portulaca
anti amaranthus anti on lettuce. At that time it had not proved
very injurious, but was so much more abundant than in the previous
year that it was surmised that the insect might become a pest. The
following day we received the same species on beets, collected by Mr.
H. M. Russell, at Boynton, Dade County, Fla. In this case both
adults and eggs were obtained. The latter were deposited in masses
of six, ten, and eleven on the underside of the. leaves. January 29
Mr. Roger S. Baldwin, Boynton, Fla., wrote that beets were being
attacked by the spinach flea-beetle. The specimens sent in each
case proved to be Disonychia mellicollis Say and not Disonycha
xanthomelwTna Dalm.
Writing about the yellow-necked flea-beetle, February 12, Mr.
Baldwin stated that the adults were taken from table beets grown
at Boynton, Fla., on black, wet, mucky soil. He expressed the opin-
ion that these might represent a second generation, as all that were
seen on the earlier beets were handpicked or treated with arsenate of
lead in the form of a spray. The earlier beets were then entirely
freed from the insects' attack. Later, on March 6, Mr. McMillan
found adults in considerable numbers on spinach and beets, the leaves
of which showed holes made by the insects in feeding. No larvae
were observed at that time, but the adults were mating and a few
eggs were found.
In looking over earlier records the writer finds that in the summer
of 1897 he first noticed this flea-beetle in numbers taking short jumps
about the common purslane, Portulaca oleracea, at Glen Echo, Md.
29




I

30 SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.

Individuals that were kept in a vial with the leaves of this plant fed
freely for two weeks, whereupon one deposited eggs. A mass of 23
eggs was obtained, laid irregularly, some in rows of three or four with
similar rows overlapping. When first noticed, the eggs were about to
hatch and were blood-red-an unusual color for the eggs of Chryso-
melidae. They differ from those of the closely related D. xanthome-
lana, or spinach flea-beetle, chiefly by their sanguineous color, but
agree, as far as could be easily seen, in all other important particulars.
The larvae, as well as the adults, feed on portulaca. Apparently
the larva does not differ to any noticeable extent from that of zantho-
melana save in color and in possessing less prominent tubercles. The
general color is rather dull yellowish-red with no apparent striation.
The size is also a little smaller.
September 20, 1906, Mr. F. W. Roeding sent beetles of this species
from Wichita Falls, Tex., with the report that they occurred in beet
fields.
No further observations were made on this species until November
5, 1907, when the writer observed it on chickweed (Alsine [Stellaria]
media), one of the favorite food plants of zanthomelana. Several
other beetles were observed in the same location and these fed upon
chickweed when provided with it. In April, 1909, this species was
taken under boards placed over chickweed and when confined fed
more freely than did the lot found in November, presumably because
the latter had begun hibernation. The following year, May 30, Mr.
McMillan observed the beetles feeding on portulaca at Brownsville,
Tex., showing, in the writer's opinion, and as he had previously sur-
mised, that this is a favorite natural food plant.

DESCRIPTION AND DISTRIBUTION.
This species was given the specific name which it now bears by
Say, in 1835.a Later it was redescribed by Le Conte as semicarbon-
ata.b Of the eighteen species of tis genus, mellicollis differs from all
others, except collata Fab., in having entirely yellow femora or thighs.
It is smaller than either xanthomelena or collata. The color varies.
In fresh specimens the legs and thorax are reddish, but in older speci-
mens they are much paler and the thorax varies from metallic green
to dark blue. The species was redescribed by Horn in 1889.c
This species is as widely distributed as the average Halticine, but
it was not until rather recent years generally recognized by collectors
as distinct from xanthomelsna. It is recorded bv Dr. G. H. Horn
a Altica mellicollis, Bost.Journ. Nat. Hist., p. 199; Complete Writings (LeConte Ed.),
Vol. II, p. 668, 1859.
b HIaltica semicarbonata, Col. Kans. & E. New Mex., p. 25, 1859.
c Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., Vol. XVI, pp. 211-212, 1889.






THE YELLOW-NECKED FLEA-BEETLE.


from Louisiana, Texas, and Colorado. T'le writer lilts collcctv, S,.,.i-
mens from New York City and vicinity, the D)istrict of ('Columbllia,
Rosslyn, Va., and Glen EchoW, Ahid., and lias seen a series frmi Niortlh
Carolina. In the streets of New York lie observed l)betles. un1ider
stones as early in the season as March 13.
It has been recorded from as far inland as ('incinnati, Ohio, buit it
is apparently a maritime form, as it is not often found inland. It
should be remarked that it is, like other flea-beetles, (decidedly spas-
modic as regards numbers.

ECONOMIC STATUS.
The economic status of this species is scarcely established. It is
not at all unlikely that it may prove in time to be quite as injurious
to beets and spinach, locally or seasonally in the Gulf States, as is its
injurious congener, the spinach flea-beetle, throughout the North
and in the Atlantic region. The latter, there can be no doubt, does
much more injury annually than is attributed to it, for reasons
which the writer has already expressed. When it attacks very
small plants, especially in the larval stage, it may destroy them
completely and then attack the roots.
The following report on this species gives some details not covered
by the preceding pages:

REPORT BY H. 0. MARSH.
The beetles of Disonycha mellicollis were observed during the winter and spring of
1909 to be quite common and injurious at Brownsville, Tex., and vicinity, feeding
on beets, spinach, Amaranthus retroflexus, A. spinosus, A. berlandieri, Chenopodium
sp., Portulaca retusa, and P. oleracea. Injuries, from an economic standpoint, were
confined to beets and spinach.
January 26, the beetles were common on spinach and a few specimens were feeding
on lettuce. The lettuce was in a row adjoining the infested spinach and it is more
than probable that the beetles do not feed on this plant except in rare cases.
Following a northerr" in January a number of beetles were found under dry cow
"chips" where they had gone for protection. Several females had deposited their
eggs under these; doubtless because they were unable to retain them until reaching a
more suitable place. In most cases these eggs were a considerable distance from any
food and the larvae, on hatching, must certainly have starved. During this month
eggs were found in the soil at the base of amaranth plants, placed in clusters quite
close to the surface.
March 6, the beetles occurred in considerable numbers on spinach and beets, the
leaves of which they had badly riddled; a few were present also on lettuce. Many
were. mating and eggs were found. No larve were observed. Females confined
March 6 deposited a large number of eggs on March 7, which hatched on the 17th.
During April the beetles were fairly common and were scattered on several food
plants. Purslane seemed to be the favorite wild plant. April 2, nearly mature
larvae were observed in some numbers on the underside of spinach leaves.
May 10 the adults occurred in moderate numbers and were feeding in company
with Disonycha abbreviata Melsh. on the tender foliage of Anmaranthus retrofle.rus and


31






32


SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.


A. spinosus. A cluster of eggs was found in the loose soil at the base of a plant of
Amararthus spinosus. From a female confined at this date the following record was
obtained:
May 12, eggs deposited to the number of 49.
May 16, eggs hatched.
May 25, larvae burrowed into soil.
May 27, first lanrvae pupated.
June 1, first adults developed.
June 2, adults left cells.
The periods were as follows: Egg stage, 4 days; larval stages, 11 days; pupal stage,
5 days, or a total of 20 days from the time the eggs were deposited until the adults
developed.
The female which was confined May 10 deposited another cluster of 40 eggs on
May 14 and died May 20. M
METHODS OF CONTROL.

The remedies to be observed for this species naturally are practi-
cally the same as for the related spinach flea-beetle. These consist
in applications of the arsenicals, either arsenate of lead or Paris
green, in accordance with the instructions given in Circular No. 87 on
the Colorado potato beetle. In addition to spraying it is advisable
to keep down the natural food plants of the species, especially purs-
lane and chickweed, and to spray these also, as well as the beets and
spinach, when the latter are affected.









*
i



4.f













[T. 1. )A.. I. IE. ll. 2.. l'nrt IV.


SOME IXSECTS INIWRIOI'S TO TRICK CROPS.


THE LIFE HISTORY AND CONTROL OF THE HOP FLEA-
BEETLE.a
I I'*.,/lli/o( '.,< i nutu1tulit .M -lslh.)

By WILLIAM II. P'.\RKI-:R.
(ColhI borii for.

INTRODUCTION.

The most injurious insect attacking tile llhop vinos iill Britisl
Columbia is the hop flea-beetle (P[syllwdex pin-tiltta Melsh.). wlich
is widely distributed over the northern part of tihe United States and
extends into the southern part of Canada. Although this beetle feeds.
freely upon rhubarb, sugar beets, and certain truck plants, it was not
known as a notably serious pest until a few years ago, when it began
its depredations in tlhe hlopyards of the ('hilliwack and the Agassiz
valleys in British Columbia.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE.

According to Mr. H. Hulbert. Sardis. British Columbia. the hop
flea-beetle was present in the Chilliwack Valley when lie began to
grow hops there in 1894. However, it made no perceptible increa-,se

a This investigation against the hop flea-beetle was made possible through the
good offices of the E. Clemens Horst Hop Company, and particularly their
general manager. Mr. Theo. Eder. This Comlpany is the largest grower in the
section concerned, and fully appreciated the necessity of inaugurating studies
looking to the control of the insect. At the request of this company Prof. 11. J.
Quayle, of the California experiment station. spent some time in the infested
section in the summer of 190S, during which time the earlier stages of the insect
were first made known. The writer began work under his direction the 1st of
January, 1909, and continued the work on the problem until the following fall.
when Mr. Quayle again took the field, closing up the studies at the time of the
harvesting of the hops.
NoTE.-This publication is, in large part, supplementary to an article entitled
"The Hop Flea-Beetle," issued in May. 1909, as Bulletin No. 66, Part VI. It is
necessarily of a more practical nature, and it is hoped that it will be of great
value to the hop growers of the West, and that it will also have some value to
the growers of sugar beets and various vegetables, including especially root
crops grown in the same region.-I'. H. Chittendcn.


lo.ted May *Pu, lJlu.





34 SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.

and did very little damage to the hop vines until 1903. During that
spring the beetles appeared in large numbers and held the vines back
for some time, but by the persistent use of tarred boards they
were kept in check and the crop saved. During the seasons of 1904-
1908 the beetles gradually increased in numbers, reaching their maxi-
mum destructiveness in 1908.
As soon as the hops began pushing through the ground the beetles
were observed swarming around the vines, giving the soil in the
immediate vicinity a black, metallic appearance. These swarms of
flea-beetles devoured the hop shoots as fast as they appeared, and in
places where the vines were a foot or more on the string the attack
was so severe that in a few days the field looked as if it had been
burned over. This infestation resulted in a loss of about 75 per cent
of the crop in the Chilliwack and
Agassiz valleys.

LIFE HISTORY.

THE EGGS.

Descripti. e.-The eggs of Psylliodes
punctulata (fig. 8) are one-third of
a millimeter long, about one-half as
wide, ellipto-cylindrical in shape, and
quite yellow in color. They are very
hard to distinguish, unless in clusters,
without the aid of a hand lens, and
When mixed with soil it is almost im-
Fia. 8.-The hop flea-beetle (Psyl- possible to find them.
biodes punctulata) Eggs. Greatly JW/here laid.-Beetles which were
enlarged. Original.) confined in lamp-chimney breeding
devices were observed to oviposit upon hop leaves and pieces of
paper and upon the sides and bottoms of the chimneys. One morn-
ing, upon moving a cage which had a cheese-cloth base, the writer
discovered several hundred eggs which had been deposited between
the cloth and the table. As this appeared to be an excellent way to
obtain eggs in large numbers, several cages were accordingly fitted
up, and to make conditions as natural as possible, were placed over
moist soil. Hundreds of eggs were obtained in this manner and
were in a very convenient situation for handling. In order to obtain
eggs under more natural conditions, large numbers of beetles were
confined in tin cylinders which had been sunk in the soil inclosing
the roots of a vine. Two weeks later when the soil in these cylinders
was examined, eggs were found 1L to 2 inches below the surface. A
few single eggs laid in the field were observed near the base of a






LIFE HISTORY AND (ONTtOL OF HOP .'EllA-BETLKE.


vine anti about 1. inches down in the soil. Altlihough conditionS
such as the looseness and water content of til- soil l1nay (1'a15 ai
variation in thle depth, and tile lack of cu lt i nation(, ]in tl1 li di-taiIce
that they are placed from tlhe vinie, til. above is 1jrobably tIhile a1veragc
position for the eggs deposited in tlie field.
Arrang/emcnt.-Eggs obtained under laboratory conditions were
deposited both singly and ill clusters of front, 2 to 8, Iuit witlh 11
regular arrangement. All tlhe eggs which were observed; in tit. field
were found one in a place, but some of them are probl))ably laid in
clusters under natural conditions.
Conditions fatorable for incubation.-The eggs which were found
in the field were in moist soil, and those which were kept under like
conditions in the laboratory hatched in due time. On thle other hand,
eggs which were allowed to dry soon died and shriveled up. A
moist, warm soil appears to be the most favorable condition for
incubation.
Time of incubation.-Several hundred eggs which were obtained
on the cheese cloth were placed in black satin bags and buried inll
moist soil, both in the laboratory and in the hopyard. These eggs
required from 19 to 22 days to incubate; those in the field hatched
a little sooner than the ones in the laboratory. This difference in
time may be explained by the fact that the soil in the yard was
heated by direct sun rays, while that in the laboratory was not.
Hatching process.-The eggs of this beetle change but little in
general appearance during the first thirteen days of incubation.
After this period a transparent place appears near one end, and a
few days before hatching this spot turns dark. In emerging, the
larva evidently breaks its way out through the side of the egg, for a
longitudinal slit was observed in all empty eggshells.

THE LARVA.

Description.--When it first emerges from the egg the larva is a
delicate, slender, white, grublike creature, about one-half millimeter
in length. After a few hours it turns gray, the head darkens, and a
dark patch appears on the last segment of the abdomen. The larva
(fig. 9, a) grows slowly, passing through several molts, and when full
grown is about 5 millimeters in length and three-fourths of a milli-
meter in diameter. When it first emerges from the egg it is very
active and crawls through the soil at a rapid rate, but as it grows
this activity gradually decreases, and when the last stage is reached
it is little able to crawl about.
Length of larval stage.-To determine the length of the larval stage,
many beetles were confined around hop vines, in an uninfested area,
for three days and were then removed. When observed at a later


35




i*I


36 SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.

date larva? were found in the soil, and when these were apparently
ready to pupate some of them were placed in vials of soil and ob-
served daily. A few of these larvae pupated and from these data the
length of larval life was found to be about 35 days. This time checks
up very well with the other observations made in the field.
Pupation.-This insect does not form a distinct pupal cell, as is
the case with some other coleopterous larvae, but when full grown
ceases to feed, contracts greatly in length, and enters a long somnus,
the prepupal stage. The larva remains in this stage from 11 to 14
days, and then transforms to a true pupa (fig. 9, b, c) with free
appendages.












........-.

...........~



FIG. 9.-The hop flea-beetle : a, Larva ; b, pupa. ventral view ; c, pupa, dorsal view. Much
enlarged. (Original.)

THE PUPA.

Description.-When the pupa is formed it is pearly white in color
and is much like the adult beetle in form. The sheaths for the adult
appendages are free from the body, and the legs, wing-pads, and an-
tenna-, although folded up, may be easily distinguished. The pupa
of this flea-beetle is not very delicate, as was shown by the fact that
a number of them were removed from the soil for daily examination j
during a period of eight days, without injury.
Duration of stage and transformation to adult.-The true pupal
stage lasts on an average 16$ days. The first evidence of transforma-
tion is the appearance of color in the eyes; then gradually the mandi-
bles, tibial joints, and antennae become dark in color, the legs turn
light brown, and the elytra move to the back. When this condition
is reached the beetle is able to crawl about. It does not get out of






LIFE 1uISToitY AND C'ONTlol' UOFH 11O1' "lA-itEETIl.


the soil, however. until
which requires from 12
blue-black color, butt
after it haIs I)ee n in
the sunlighlit for a few
days it becoinmes quite
bronzy in appearance.

TIHE .AD)UrLT.


tit' lwau l, ti.rlinx, Launldt hii i'i i r .Iu('uuI,
to I1t l lors. 1lTh Ie ctie i-, ill (d a 1 t; 1


The adult is a dark,
smooth, bronzy-black
beetle of the family
Chrysomelid,c one-
twelfth to one-tenth
of an inch (1.5 to 2.5 .
mm.) long and about "
half as wide. The
male and female are FIG. 10.-The hop flea-beetle
alike in general ap- relative sizes of female and
Se wing covers slightly spread.
pearance except as to


e: Adult beetles, showing
1 male. The male has the
Much enlarged. (Original.)


size, the male being distinctly smaller than the female (see fig. 10).
The hind thighs, by means of which the beetle jumps, are strongly
developed, hence the
.-- H .. ... *.."' '* -- .->-*-;.... .- -* .:,* i . -..-.. > ... .K- ., .. <..
,.::.. ...., name flea-beetle."
.. '- "' "" The specific name
...'... .. pu '.tulata refers to
M, : : ..V the punctulate or






m an.i d ".riiia l ,. l l ^
4. pitted condition of
..vM... wite.hairs
the head, thorax,
and( elvtra. This
...beetle should not be
confused with E1N-
t ,,,""& trix sibcrbditu Lee.,
"" .... sometimes collected
*fr ,,.1 : with the hop flea-
I*.i:Y., ,,2,. beetle on potatoes,
....-.wvhich, although

I.. .., .much like Ps. pun,-
tulata in general
FW. 11.-The hop flea-beetle: Ovipositor of female. Highly appearance and in
magnified. (Original. i the possession of the

punctulate condition of the thorax and elytra, is smaller and is
covered with hairs.


37


I







38 SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.

Time of reaching maturity.-After the adult has emerged from
the pupal state between 12 and 24 hours are required for coloring
and, perhaps, as much longer for it to work its way out of the soil.
.Beetles which appeared to be not over 4 days old were found in
copula and, judging from these very unsatisfactory data, about 6
days would be required for the beetles to become fully mature.
Copulation.-Copulation was observed at all times of the day and
even at night. Morning seems to be preferred, for more pairs were
observed between 8 and 12 o'clock than in the afternoon. Although
some remained together but a short time, others required three-
fourths of an hour, and one pair which was closely watched took 50
minutes for the operation. As long as there were beetles in the
field pairs were to be found, and Mr. Hulbert states that he has
observed them in copula up to the time that they went into hiberna-
tion in the fall.
O'iposition.-When ready to oviposit, the female works her way
down into the soil until she reaches the moist layer, where she lays
her quota of eggs. Although this operation of egg-laying was not
observed, the fact that the eggs were deposited through cheese cloth
and even light cotton cloth leads the writer to believe that the long
ovipositor (fig. 11) is worked into the firm soil before oviposition.
The eggs would thus be concealed to some extent from predaceous
enemies.
Number of eggs and rate of egg-laying.-Beetles captured in
copula and confined in vials laid from 4 to 18 eggs. Three pairs
copulated again after ovipositing, but only one female laid eggs
after this second copulation. Table I illustrates the number and rate
of egg-laying as indicated by beetles kept under laboratory condi-
tions:

TABLE I.--umber of eggs and rate of egg-laying of the hop flea-beetle.

Adul ate Dates first eggs Number Dates second Number
No.l Dates of copulation. waesfretlaggs first eggs eggs were laid. seggolnd.Dah
laid. egseweralaid.second Death.
io. were laid. f eggs eggslaid.

1909. 1909. 1909. 1909.
1 April 22 and May 2..... May 1 .......... 13 May 8 .......... 5 (a)
2 May4 ................ May10 .........6 .................. .......... May20.
3 June4................ June8......... 2 June9..... ..... 10 June19.
4 June4and 9 ......... June ................. 1 ...................June 14.
5 ......do. ....... ..............do............ 11--" -' ------..... June 16.
6 June4............ .....do ......... 1 June9......... 7 June19.
7 .....do ............... .....do ......... 14 .......................... June 15.
8 .....do ................. June 10....... 9 ............................ June 16.
9 .............do .......... do........ 18 .................. .......... June 15.
10 .....do ................. June 12......... 10 .......................June 16.
11 .....do .................. do... .. 4 ........................... .......... June 19.
a Lost.

Length of life of the beetle.-The length of life of the hop flea-
beetle is quite variable. Several lots of newly emerged insects which






LIFE HISTORY ANDI ('N'TIt) ()F HO11' FI.EA IEiKT.i:.


were brought into the laboratory dietd with ii, a vwcrk. An,,otther lot,
brought in May 11 alnd llactd in a lalilmp chilillney. lived 'well into
July, the last individual lzrvivin til kilfr-t "2. Thi- wa, an
exceptional case, the average leuigtl o(f lift' li 'illg I)'tWt4'Jil thl'fe1 a14nd
six weeks.
HABITS.
THil-: LARVA.
TWhere found.-Most of the lairvva' were ol-rvcl to I)1 \v itliin 1.
-inches of the base of the vine, the nuilrt' iiicr' ill i.s tle v'im 'as
approached. A few,
however, were taken
between the rows,
among the roots of
chickweed and lambs-
quarters, and even in
well cultivated parts
where no weeds were
growing. The surface
soil of the hopyards is
filled with delicate
rootlets (fig. 12) and
the larvae find sufficient
food almost anywhere.
Depth in soil.-In
order to determine the
average depth at which
the younger stages may
be found, the earth
was taken up around
the base of a vine in Fir. 12.-Filamentous roots of hop vin, on which the
3-inch layers, and the hop flea-beetle iarvnt feed. 1Original.i
larve in each layer counted. The results are as follows:
No. of lam-2e
Depth ot soil. found.
1-3 inches ---------------------------------------------6
3-6 inches -------------------------------------------- 21
6-9 inches_ 7
9-12 inches ---------------------------------------------I
Although some few may be found above and some below. from 2
to 7 inches is the depth at which one may expect to find the majority
of the larvae.
Conditions farorable.-The soil in which the larvae were found
varied from a light sandy loam to a very heavy, almost adobe condi-
tion.
665130-Bull. 82-12---4


39






SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.


The moisture conditions which are favorable were determined in
the laboratory. The larvae lived in soil that was quite wet, but when
it was saturated they were drowned. On the other hand, a slightly
moist soil seemed most favorable, and when it dried out they soon
died. Any soil with a moderate moisture content appears to be favor-
able for the growth of the larvae, the texture having no influence
whatever upon them.
Food.-The majority of larvae are located close around the hop
vine where the soil is filled with tender filamentous roots (fig. 12).
A few, however, were found around the roots of lambs-quarters,
chickweed, and mangel. All of these tender rootlets, and perhaps
many others, are fed upon by the larvae.

THE ADULT.

Food plants.-The hop flea-beetle has been observed feeding upon a
large number of plants. Some of these are distinctly preferred;
others are accepted after the beetles have fed upon the hop or mangel;
and still others are attacked in the field, but not after the insects
have eaten of their preferred food plants.
A series of experiments was conducted to determine which plants
were preferred and their order of preference. Beetles were confined
on several species of plants, and each day when fresh food was sup-
plied the species which was eaten the most was left out. Thus by
elimination the order of preference was obtained. This-order for
beetles captured on the hop was found to be quite different from that
for beetles captured on the mnangels, as is shown by the following
list:
TABLE II.-Food plants of the hop flea-beetle.


In order of preference of beetles taken from
the hop.
Hop (Hunimulus luipulus L.).
Nettle (Urfica dioica L.).
Tomato (Lycopersicum csculentum
M ill.).
Mangel (Beta ruigaris Moq.).
Radish ( Rapihanus sativus L.).
Mustard (BIrassica nigra L.).
Lamnbs-quarters ( ('itcopodium al-
bum L.).
WVatermeIon (Citrullus vulgaris
Schirad.)


In order of preference of beetles taken from
the mangel.
Nettle (Urtica dioica L.).
Rhubarb (Rheum officinale Baill.).
Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).
Mustard (Brassica nigra L.).
Lamnibs-quarters (Chenopodium al-
bum L.).
Mangel (Beta vulgaris Moq.).
Hop (Hum11lus lipulus L.).
W a t e r m e l o n (Citrullus vulgaris
Schrad.).


40






LIFE IHIST()RY AND CONTROL O)F 1101" FLEA-llEETLE'.


HEt'ONI) ti.AMM."
Rhubarb (Rhruim offieiailr liiiill.. Tou 'niai I I.jt'Ol,1irs m u auln1 iti
Potato (SolatUin tub'rr tiiint i,.). Mill.).
Pigweed (tA.tira nithiun re'troflfr'.rt IL.). J.Potaiio -Nolluaiitn thi b'rosuint iL..
DIock (I Imtti oiii.t obtifoli LI.). I'ivgwedl .1 titurtnf un u t r irofr.runm L,.).
Sorrel (lit t 'j" nc<'tIo''ll I ). IN cd 'lo er ?T'riffolium in pralh N I,.1 ).
Red clover (T''ifolium pratcnse IL.). D)qK-k i lfn r ohtitsifliut Im L.).
Sorrel I i Ran .r
Finding that the beetles did not care for certain plant after they
had fed upon hop or mangel, an attempt was 1nade to starve them
to the food which was apparently most disliked. A large niibe"r of
beetles were accordingly confined with red and white clover andl with
sorrel. Although the blossoms of the white clover were slightly
attacked, the beetles finally starved to (leath on these plants.
Portions of plants attacked.-Duiring the spring and early summer
the beetles fed upon the shoots and tender buds and ate holes the size
of a pin head in the leaves. (See Plate III.) In cases where the
leaves were very thick the lower surface tissues were left. These,
however, soon dried and fell out, leaving a clean hole which, as the
leaf expanded, became larger, sometimes reaching (one-fourth of an
inch in diameter. In feeding upon the hop plants, the beetles dug
small pits in the shoots, which when the attack was severe caused the
death of the stem. In the fall the beetles climb the trellis poles and
crawl along the vines until they reach the hop cones, of which they
are very fond.
Destructive power by feeding.-When the beetles appear in large
numbers they will devour a plant completely. In the spring of 1!)908
they kept the yards bare until the last of June or the first of Juily, and
when the angels were coming up the beetles damaged them so
severely that one planter found it necessary to sow three times in
order to get a stand. In the fall, after the hopyards were cleaned up,
the beetles migrated to the nettles along the fences and completely
devoured them. The beetles were at this time in exceptionally large
numbers; under ordinary conditions their attack is not so severe.
Activity and migrations.-The flea-beetles that have just emerged
are soft and sluggish and are readily picked off of the vines witli the
fingers. Within a few days, however, they become very active and it
is then almost impossible to catch them in the hand. During the
spring and summer of 1909 the beetles migrated little, if at all. The
infested regions did not enlarge or change from the time that the
beetles appeared in the spring until they disappeared in July. The
a Plants of the second class are eaten very slightly, unless the beetles are
starved to them.






42 SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.

insects were not observed to leave the vines unless disturbed, and the
probability is that unless the food gives out they do not migrate dur-
ing this season. It has been repeatedly observed by the hop growers
of Chilliwack and Agassiz valleys that yards which were bedly in-
fested one summer would be almost free from beetles the next, while
the adjoining yards which were not attacked the preceding season
would be severely damaged. One explanation of this is that the
beetles, having eaten up all the food remaining in the yards after the
vines have been burned, migrate to the adjoining block, hibernate
there, and emerge in the spring. As the beetles were not observed
moving about during the spring and summer this is the only prob-
able time of migration.
Actiities at night.-The beetles go into the bud scales or down
under the clods at the base of the vine on cold nights, but when mild
weather approaches they remain on the leaves. They were observed
to move about slightly, but are very much less active than during the
day.
Flight.-When disturbed during warm weather the beetles occa-
sionally spread their wings as they jump, and fly back to about the
same place they started from. General flight is seldom indulged in, but
during the last of April those which were disturbed by the Bordeaux
spray circled around at an elevation of about 4 feet for a few minutes,
then settled down. This was the only time when beetles were observed
on the wing.
Protection by concealment.-On cold spring days some of the beetles
crawl down into the opening buds of the hop or nettle. Here they are
protected from the weather and may feed upon the tender buds which
are their choicest food. When the leaves have expanded beetles will
be found on the under surface, and in very cold weather under the
clods at the base of the vine. Although some are thus concealed dur-
ing the active season, the majority remain on the upper surface of the
leaves.
Protection by locomotion.-When disturbed the beetles jump from
the vine and fall among clods or rubbish where they are not readily
seen. They do not feign death as some other beetles do, but spread
out their legs, right themselves, and after a short pause, begin slowly
to move about. The distance that they jump depends somewhat upon
the height from which they start. Horizontally they can leap about
a foot and a half, and about 10 inches in a vertical direction.
SEASONAL HISTORY.
LENGTH OF LIFE CYCLES.
Judging from observations on the appearance of beetles in the
field, the lengths of the life cycles of the spring and summer genera-





........a .:








PLATL II1.


HoP LEAVES, SHOWING EFFECT OF ATTACK BY THE HOP FLEA-
BEETLE iPSYLLIODES PUNCTULATA). (ORIGINAL.)


H u I :i.. P I" I I t .ij I, f E 'I .., U *... : I'* A .









LIFE HISTORY AND CONTRtL)L (IF 1(10 FLEA-BEETLIE.


43


tions are about equal. In order to (11it.1il tile ilt ire life v.yle, Itli
(; days' interim between thle emergency i of the beetlee -, as adults i lt
copulation, and also thle (; days r<|iiitinr' filr tli- ,,, to ,atir,'. ,iiit
be added to the 72 days which ar* pIas(d inI tlle e(*gg. lairval. aid liipill
stages. In adding these, we have S-I dIa'-. or 12 weeks. ai- ti length
of the life cycle.
NUMBER ANI) TIME 1OF A.PFI-.\I{.\N:E ()F iMODS.
There are two distinct broods of Ibeetles in thi (Iliilliw-ik and
Agassiz valleys. One emerges in thlie early spring and thei. other iII
the latter part of July or the first part of August.
The first generation appeared very suddenly and in large numbers
between April 25 and May 10. The appearance aid( devastation in
the Agassiz yard was particularly startling. On April 24 tlhe vines
in this yard were almost ready to train onto the string and were only
slightly damaged by the beetles. April 2S this yard was literally
alive with the fleas," in some places there being as many as 50 or
60 to the vine. The leaves were entirely eaten away and many of
the terminal buds were killed. Although this did not ruin the shoot.
it caused a very undesirable branching. Beetles continued to emerge
at Chilliwack in large numbers until about May 10. after which only
a few belated individuals came out.
The first and second generations are very distinct. The first brood
was in its maximum numbers about the 1st of June. but after this
the insects gradually diminished and had entirely disappeared by
July 20. The second generation began to emerge about the 2.3th of
that month, but were not present in large numbers until about
August 10. These beetles live through the fall and winter, emerge
in the spring, and deposit the eggs which produce the first generation
of the next season.
MULTIPLICATION.
According to observations made upon the number of eggs anti rate
of egg laying, the maximum number of individuals coming from a
single pair in the first generation would be 18. If all of these sur-
vived and produced the maximum number again, the second gen-
eration would amount to 162 beetles. The average number of eggs
laid may be below 18, and a large number of larvTe are destroyed by
predaceous enemies in the soil, so that the few beetles which winter
over will not necessarily produce an overwhelming number in the
second generation.
HIBERNATION.
ENTRANCE INTO HIBERNATION.
When cool weather comes in the fall the beetles begin to hibernate.
They do not travel far from where they chance to be, but enter the


L




r


44 SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.

first favorable place that they find. This early hibernation is usually
temporary, and when the first warm day comes they emerge from
their hibernating places and hop around on the ground, retreating
again when it becomes cool.

PLACES OF HIBERNATION.

During the winter the beetles were observed hibernating in cracks
in the trellis poles, under the string of the string pegs, in the hollow
vine stubs, in the grass and weeds, and in the soil.
Beetles in poles.-The beetles were first observed to be hibernating
in the trellis poles. By lifting the slivers they were found wedged
between the slivers and the solid wood, some were dug from rotten,
porous portions of the poles, and a few were observed under the bark.
Many were found in the deep cracks, but the largest number were
under the slivers and in the rotten wood. As shown by Table III
the majority of beetles hibernated close to the ground. They ac-
cepted the first shelter that they came to, and some even entered
slivers and crawled down below the surface of the soil.

TABLE III.-Position of hop flea-beetles in the poles.

First foot------------------------------------------------ 182
Second foot---------------------------------------------- 152
Third foot----------------------------------------------- 79
Fourth foot---------------------------------------------- 33
Fifth foot- ---------------------------------------------- 4
Sixth foot----------------------------------------------- 6
Seventh foot-------------------------------------------- 0
Total number of flea-beetles------------------------------ 456
Number of poles counted--------------------------------- 74
Average number of beetles per pole------------------------ 6.16

In November, 1908, several poles were taken into the hop kilns and
heated in order to bring out the beetles that were hibernating
therein. Most of the poles contained small numbers of them, but in
one badly splintered pole were found 490 beetles. These results
led the hop growers to believe that a large majority of the hibernat-
ing beetles were in the poles. In investigating this point the writer
had four average poles taken into the kilns and heated. Only 19
beetles were found in these 4 poles. These, together with other
results obtained from extensive field counts, proved conclusively that
the number of beetles which were hibernating in the trellis poles
was not dangerously large.
Beetles in the vine stubs.-The hollow vine stubs which are left
when the vines are cut and burned in the fall are very favorable
hibernating places, and as many as 16 beetles have been found in a






LIFE HISTORY AND C'ONTROI. OF I1OP FLEA-BEETIE. 45

single stub. Many stubs do not containn IMbeet.It., lhlwever, ani ti0,.
average is very much lower. A few beetles wer' finilnd in tie cracks
of the pith of pigweed and in some holl(w-stenijed pdlats, hut tle

most frequented place of this sort is the hoJllow vi'ie Atli). Table IV"
illustrates the number and. rondiitio )1 f thet Ibeeth's in thle stills,:
rTABLE IV'.-X\unmtb'r (Ind u'lditli i f ho/ ftri,-lb,'rtI. tItii iii friui r'imi. ifufs..


u nb Numbrer vtrntge Av'rKti w Nnlutrr Nlllllwt, l'Pr cei l 1 ',-. r '- iall
Date. f heetles ILuII htr 1111 ,f r Kfct f I c of) lf; t.( I I es d al
SDate. ot stubs. lo ind of betllt.' beetlem ts u .a I allvy.
LI T dead. Ri Vt.."
per kiln. puer acre.
1909.
February 1........ 219 354 10.01 8,908.90 ........................................
Do ............ 89 216 7.32 7,517.47 ........................................
February 4 ....... 320 334 ...................... 118 216 :3'. 32 64 6,A
February 10....... 340 265 2.31 1 2,057.90 97 213 '8.1 I 70.19
February20 ....... 324 93 .88 7S3.20 37 S6 39.7s 61.22
Do............ 330 133 1.23 1,094.70 61 72 1...t "4. 11
March 1 ........... 457 813 7.08 6,301.20 2ui2 521 35.8-. 64. 12
March 8........... 161 331 8.20 7,298.00 106 225. 32.02 67. &j
March 9 .......... 241 327 5.40 4,806.00 137 18s 42.2)0 57. %
March 10 .......... 288 397 5.48 4,877.20 108 *."9 27.2U 72. ,J
March 16.......... 231 323 5.56 4,948.40 114 209 35.29 64.71
Do---------........... 155 292 7.42 6,603. 80 118 174 40.41 59. .9

Beetles in string pegs.-The cedar pegs which are used in stringing
the yards are usually left in the field when the yards are cleaned up
in the fall. The soft string which often remains on the peg affords a
splendid place for the beetles to spend the winter, and many were
observed taking advantage of it.
Beetles in grass and weeds.-In the grass and weeds of uncultivated
yards and along the borders of other yards the beetles were found
hibernating in considerable numbers. They were situated just utinder
the surface of the soil, but above the crown of the roots. They prob-
ably seek the grass and weeds as a temporary refuge when the cold
weather first sets in, and as the winter advances they either crawl
down into the soil or it is washed over them by the early rains.
Beetles in the bare soil.-Many beetles were found around the poles
and vines embedded in the bare soil. In one strip of soil 3 inches wide
surrounding a trellis pole, 31 beetles were found; many were ob-
served in the soil around the base of the vines and a few between the
rows. They did not penetrate very far into the firm soil, the majority
being found within the first half inch, but where the land was in the
form of loose clods at the time that the beetles entered thev crawled
as far down as the openings went, and the rain, packing the soil over
them, housed them 2 and even 3 inches below the surface.
Method of finding beetles in the soil.-Since the beetles are very
small and dark in color they are very similar to the particles of soil in
which they are embedded, and to find them by digging around the
roots of the grass is almost impossible. An attempt was made to






SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.


screen them out by washing the soil through cheese cloth. This was
quite possible, but very slow, and while screening them out the writer
observed the beetles floating on the surface of the water. This dis-
covery suggested a very simple method of separating them. The
soil was placed in a screen-wire box and washed in a pail of water.
This broke up all lumps, and the beetles floating to the top were
picked up with a pair of forceps.

EMERGENCE FROM HIBERNATION.

Artificial emergence.-In anticipation of the emergence of the
hibernating beetles some experiments were conducted to determine
the temperature at which they might, be expected to appear and their
actions when forced from their natural winter quarters. Beetles
taken from frozen string-pegs were placed in lantern chimneys and
beginning with 28 F. the temperature was gradually raised and the
actions of the beetles noted. At 40 the antennae began to move
slightly; between 40 and 50 the beetles moved about slowly and if
disturbed would jump a short distance. Between 55 and 60 the
beetles were quite active and crawled around in the lantern chimney.
Their activity increased as the temperature was raised until 105
was reached, at which point they gradually became inactive again.
Table V illustrates the effect of temperature upon the beetles, begin-
ning with that of the room and increasing to 146. In this experi-
ment the beetles were confined in a double tube with an air space be-
tween and the temperature was raised gradually.

TABLE V.-Emergence and actit'ity of the hop flea-beetle in artificial temperatures.

Number Room Tempera- Greatest 'i Time of
Date. oftin- tempera- tuere- activity deadat- deaat- expe-
sects. ture. ducedato at-- dea at- e meant.

1909. F. F. OF. F. OF. Minutes.
March 12....................... 10 56 56 90 82 140 15
March I....................... 10 56 56 90-100 90 146 15
Do ......................... 8 56 56 90-100 110 126 10
Do ......................... 10 56 56 98-100 114 138 20
Do ......................... 10 58 58 90-100 95 139 20
April 12........................ 10 56 56 60-70 78 110 5
Do ......................... 10 56 56 80-90 90 148 25
Do ......................... 10 57 567 .......... 110 ....................

When beetles were thawed out they all became active between 40
and 45 F. When the higher temperatures were reached, however,
there was a considerable difference in their susceptibilities to the
change as may be seen by referring to Table V. Some of the beetles
which were forced from hibernation were placed, on January 27, in a
cage containing a young nettle plant. On February 8 several holes


46






LIFE HISTORY AND CONTROL OF O1101P FIA-EETLE.


the size of a pill head were observed in thie ne'tt.le lavie anS t1i'e1
beetles continued to feed until aspiring. Tl'le majority of tlie betles.
were active whenever tile cage was in the liglt athil ti tiijp)err:ttiire
above 50. They became inactive only wheit idarkiiness ajppri the tenim)eratuire fell below 40 The Ibetleh's were lnot ,)be.rvetdl to
seek hibernating places when artificially ellmerged, ilulel(S coniiitions
were unfavorable to activity. W'lien plit i i a cool. (Iark l) place illany
of the beetles entered hollow vilte stlls,, anld pieces of .iri4irgated
paper which were placed in tlie cage for tii.s l)lIrpols'e. So.lmii. lhow-
ever, were content with the cloth top and thle glass sides of tlte cage
for a hibernating place.
Natural emniergence.-On March 9 four beetles were seen crawling
around on the sunny side of a trellis pole. These were the first that.
were observed emerging in the field. When warm dlays became
more frequent the beetles appeared in numbers and fed upon the
young nettles. They were very active and were observed copilating
during the warmer part of the day. but when evening came they
disappeared from view and did not come out again until the frost
was all melted the following morning. Although some beetles
emerged during the warmer days of March, the maximum number
did not appear until April 15. After this they gradually diminished
in numbers and by the 10th of May had nearly all disappeared.

DISEASES.

FUNGOUS DISEASES.

Many of the beetles that were found dead in the hollow vine-stubs
were covered with a white mycelium. When these beetles were
placed in a moist chamber Penicillium glaucnum and the hop-mold
Sphcerotheca castagnei developed.
No other fungous growths were observed by the writer, but Dr.
C. S. McKee, of Vancouver, British Columbia. in a letter regarding
some of his experiments with the hop flea-beetle, mentions a fungous
disease in the following words: Before they began to d(lie they were
distinctly less active, and even before death some of them could be
seen to have a fungous or mouldy growth on them, particularly under
the wings." Doctor McKee does not. state what this fungus was. and
it is quite possible that it was a Penicillium. as was found on the
beetles in the field. Although Penicillium is known, under some
circumstances, to become parasitic, the probability is that the bee-
ties died from some other cause and that the fungus entered as a
saprophyte.


47






SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.


BACTERIAL DISEASES.

Beetles which were brought into the laboratory between the 10th
and 14th of June died off in large numbers. They had a very sour
odor about them which was not noticed around beetles which died
earlier in the spring. This great mortality, accompanied by the sour
odor, indicates the possible existence of a bacterial disease. An
endeavor was made to determine this point, but the beetles in the
check cages died as rapidly as those which were exposed to infection,
and no conclusion could be drawn.

PARASITES AND PREDACEOUS ENEMIES.

No parasites attacked the beetles during the spring generation,
and none has so far been observed on beetles in British Columbia.
Although the adults have no known predatory enemies, with the
possible exception of some birds, the younger stages, especially the
larvae, are subject to the attack of several creatures. The larva of
one of the Carabidre was quite plentiful in the soil, and under
laboratory conditions was observed to feed voraciously upon the flea-
beetle larvae. Two species of centipedes were also numerous, but only
one was observed feeding upon the larvae. This species was very
common in the hopyards and probably destroyed a large number of
beetle larva?.
CONTROL MEASURES.

The fact that the beetles hibernate in the soil as well as in the poles,
vine-stubs, and string-pegs, that the younger stages are all passed
beneath the surface of the soil, and that, when they emerge, the adults
aire not readily killed by arsenicals or by contact insecticides, made
the control problem at first appear to be a difficult one. During the
spring and summer every feasible method of control was carefully
tested, and of the following measures the application of tanglefoot
and, under some conditions, the use of the sticky shield have proved
to be the key to the flea-beetle problem.

THE TARRED BOARD OR STICKY SHIELD.

The hibernating beetles, unless in unusually large numbers, will
not require any attention, but the sudden appearance of the first
generation just before the vines are trained may require the use of the
tarred board or sticky shield.
The tarred board which was used during the spring of 1909 was
made by stretching a piece of 8-ounce canvas over a light wooden
frame. 4 feet long by 3 feet wide. A 4-foot strip attached to the


48






LIFE HISTORY AND C('ONTIO()I OF 1101' FLEA-lKE FI.E4


middle of the board alld lbracetd by till uprighlt to th1e rear ed ge forms
a handle. Tile canIvas wu2s tthen iate Id with tair: hIeniiel the ii, l i
"tarred board."
During the first part of lthe seaso31n la tanared board was placed 4l ,,
each side of a vine and tilw 1)etle.s .irre ol'(1 witl i a bincll. of grass.
This was slow work, alnd it was 'found lbv actual n'l that X.' per
cent of the beetles that were on thle \i1t-, (.(o)1ld1 Ib' captu rred I). placiniig
a single board on the leeward side ()f a; vine. H'l1 beetles a;re thrown
onto it with a single sweep of n large l'usl (1'1. IV, fig 1). 1liis
method reduces tlhe cost of going lover tle field oJj( e-half. and twiCe
the acreage can be relieved in the same length of ti he.
Although effective as a flea-beetle catcher, this tarred board is a
heavy and awkward thing to handle. A light shield which pronl'ises
to be as efficient as the heavy tarred board is imade of light galvanized
iron, 3 feet wide and 2 feet high, the top of the iron being tacked
around a curved board to hold it in shape. A piece of screen wire is
fastened on the inside to prevent the oil from running down, and1 to
make it fit close around the base of the vine a curved notch is cut in
the bottom. The shield is operated by means of a hose-covered wire
handle which is attached between the center of the iron and the mid-
dle of the top board.
The handle is held in the left hand, and, steadying the shield with
the right, the notch is placed close to the base of the vine. Then,
holding the shield at an angle of about 45, the beetles are brushed
onto the screen with a large feather duster (PI. IV, fig. 2).
Brushes.-During the first of the season many sorts of brushes were
tried. Leafy birch twigs made a very effective brush, but did not last
long; grass was not rigid enough, and broom straw was too stiff.
The best green brush was made of young fir or cedar boughs. These
form a screen as well as a brush and last all day. Cutting twigs and
making brushes, however, becomes expensive, so that a large feather
duster proves to be cheapest in the end.

TARRED SLEDGES.

When the second generation of beetles appeared in 1908, tarred
sledges 8 feet long and wide enough to fill the spaces between rows
were used to advantage. Eight or 10 of these sledges drawn by
horses were run parallel with each other and the beetles jarred down
upon them. A lighter sledge (fig. 13), drawn by a man, was devised
in 1909, but since the tanglefoot has proved so effective this sledge is
; unnecessary.
Crude oil or tar.-Both crude oil and tar are effective when used
on shields or sledges. Tar has more disadvantages, for on cold days
it is very thick and on warm days dries rapidly, and in either condi-


49






50


w ...

(I


SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.


tion may not catch the "fleas." On the other hand, the oil is always
sufficiently liquid and does not dry. Neither substance injures the
vine, and, although crude oil is the most satisfactory, the tar does
very well.
BANDING WITH TANGLEFOOT.
It was observed during the season of 1908 and also in 1909 that the
beetles did not fly or jump upon the vines, but crawled up the stems.
This fact suggested the possibility of keeping them down by means of
a sticky band, and a number of experiments were conducted along
this line.


FIG. 13.-Hindoo using tarred hand sledge for capture of hop flea-beetles. (Original.)

Fearing that the tanglefoot might injure the tender' vines if it
was applied directly to them. cotton was first wound around the
stems and the tanglefoot smeared over that. The bands were placed
2 feet from the ground, and all near-by leaves removed to prevent the
formation of a bridge. Two weeks later the leaves below the bands
and all of the leaves of unbanded vines were completely riddled by
the beetle, while the leaves which were above the bands were un-
touched (fig. 14).
It was found that the tanglefoot does not injure the epidermal
tissues and can be applied to the most tender vines. This fact has H

'X
Ai
3








Bul 82, Pd fi IV B.,.- 1 .' E- 1 ,,i U, U '- nD. ir A,-. P A -


n.- t ,
iiipF ... t t ,'.;* a.,


FIG. 1.-HINDOO USING TARRED BOARD AND EVERGREEN BRUSH TO DESTROY HOP
FLEA-BEETLES. 'ORIGINAL.)


f JI


^ I

.6'|
*'*1te .


V14

*1'
S.


.,?" .A,..


FIG. 2.-METHOD OF USING LIGHT STICKY SHIELD AND FEATHER DUSTER IN COMBATING
THE HOP FLEA-BEETLE. (ORIGINAL.)


-PG

A"


PLATE IV.


,.W









LIFE HISTORY ANDI t'ONTN(L 1(F 11 01' FI.EA-IHEiETIE.


greatly sitllplified the l it operational a d lia- 1 1a, 1It ,l liii q l iili jliii'.
practical.
|Since the Ieetles call iiot craw l over Itlit' bialiil. iI' vi 's ir iV r-
Sfectly proteted. In ca'is tlie beetles arti illll(''i whli'i tIi( vie-
are first trained, the tanglefoot iniay bi applied ;iL thiat tiie, or if
the beetles are not troublesome dtirintg tlhe lirs-,t geiliera'tlioi iit Ia;I It'
applied after the vines aire strIipped so it will be real 'for tle second
brood. In that case, however, the poles niist lbe bmaded l I, as well as,
Sthe vines, for the beetles have a habit of climbling tlit jo(l's aid crawl-
10 ing along the wires, where they do niucli
( damage to the hop cones.
Effect upon the beetles.-The tangle- r i
Soot bands not only keep the beetles off
of the vines but a large number of them
are caught in it. In places where tlhe
Beetles were very thick, hundreds of
-them became entangled in it and in some
instances so many got caught that they
formed a bridge over which the others -.
crawled. Beside being killed by comiingl
in contact with the tanglefoot, many are I
Starved to death by being kept away
from the hop-leaves. This was espe-
I cially true in the yards that were kept
Swell cultivated and all sucker. cut away.
Mi If the weeds are not allowed to grow in
L the yards and the vines and poles are
Swell banded, most of the beetles will
E either be caught in the bands or starved
Sto death, the remainder going into win-
Ster quarters in such poor condition that
there will be few beetles the next spring. 'iu. 14.-Banded hop vine, show-
RK Application.-It is necessary to get lug condition of leaves above
and below the band. (Original.i
i the tanglefoot well into the spaces be-
Stween the two vines, the simplest way to accomplish this being
J to apply it with the hands. A section about 6 inches long should
Sbe coated with the tanglefoot, care being taken that no parts are
Missed and that no leaves are left to form a bridge across it. A
Strip around each pole about 3 feet from the ground should be
7 trimmed off with an ax, so that the tanglefoot may be applied easily.
SA small paddle about 2 inches wide is the best thing with which to
I apply the tanglefoot to the poles, for only a narrow band is needed
There. The amount of tanglefoot used per acre varies according to
Sthe number of poles and vines. In one yard where the trellis poles



k
L


51






SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.


were rather close together, 10 pounds were used to the acre. Al-
though the tanglefoot is apparently very disagreeable material to
apply, it is easily washed off the hands with a little kerosene or even
with soap and hot water.

DESTRUCTION OF HIBERNATING BEETLES.

In poles.-Since a large number of beetles were found hiberna-
ting in places where they might be attacked, it was believed advisable
to destroy them. The slivers on the trellis poles, under which the
beetles were hibernating, were struck with an ax, forcing them back


FIG. 15.-Killing the hop flea-beetles in the poles. (Original.)


against the solid wood, and thus either crushing the insects or jarring
them out. A tarred board was made which fitted close around the
base of the pole and caught all the beetles which fell down (fig. 15).
The rotten parts of the pole were chopped off and burned. Any
beetles which fell out during this operation were caught on the tar,
and the fire destroyed the rest. This is the most practical way of
killing the beetles in the poles, as it is cheap and very effective.
In vine-stubs and string-pegs.-As stated under the head of "Hi-
bernation." the vine-stubs and string-pegs, which are usually left in
the field when cleaning up in the fall, may shelter a considerable
number of flea-beetles. In order to determine whether or not the


52






LIFE HISTORY AND CONTRIO IOF IIOP FLEA-BEETLIE.


number present i such places is sifflicient to warrant their h.destruc-
tion, two hundred or inure of these shol h l he gathered l, tl I'e letles
counted, and the average nuinlber of let tles iper hill dt'ttriniiied. If
the number of beetles found will warrai t til e expense, t viie--stukls
and string-pegs should be gathered liuring tlie 'oldl wenatther alnd
burned. In case the temperature is above 40' F. tihet stuils aiidl pegs
should be collected into tarred buckets to Jprevellt. ay ii-beetles from
escaping. Below 40 the beetles are inactive and this precaulition is
unnecessary.
BORDEAUX MIXTURE.0

Bordeaux mixture has long been recommended as a deterrent
against flea-beetles, and, should the overwintering adults severely
attack the young hop-shoots, may prove quite effective against tlhe
hop flea-beetle. During the spring of 1909, when the hlops, were
coming out of the ground, an infested region was thoroughly sprayed
with the 5-5-50 formula, several rows being left as checks. Lnfor-
tunately wet weather followed, which, while it favored tlhe growthli of
the hops, held the beetles back so that no definite conclusions could be
drawn.
The Agassiz hopyards, at the time that the beetles became numimer-
ous, were sprayed with the same formula. The Bordeaux mixture
certainly deterred the beetles, but drove them to the growing tips,
where they seriously damaged the terminal bud. This destruction of
the terminal bud is very undesirable, as it causes the plant to force
out arms close to the ground. Besides driving the beetles to the grow-
ing tips, the Bordeaux mixture burned the tender buds and also
those leaves that were badly chewed by the beetles. Much damage
was done in this way.
Since it was evident that the 5-5-50 formula was too strong, a
series of experiments was conducted to determine the relative effect-
iveness of the 5-5-50, the 2-4-10-50 Bordeaux mixture, and straight
slaked lime, 15 pounds to the 50 gallons, as deterrents. Two-thirds
of each vine chosen for this experiment was thoroughly sprayed with
the various materials. A cloth cage was placed over each one. and i
large number of flea-beetles were liberated inside. Five days after
setting these experiments it was observed that, although the sprayed
portions were slightly eaten, the unsprayed parts were decidedly
preferred, the lime being as effective a deterrent as the strong Bor-
deaux mixture. Even though these experiments were fairly satis-
factory, more work should be done along these lines at the time that
a For details in regard to the preparation of Bordeaux mixture the reader is
referred to Farmers' Bulletin 243, entitled Fungicides and their Use in Pre-
venting Diseases of Fruits."


53






SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.


the hops are just comingup and during a season when the hibernated
beetles are very numerous, in order to get more extensive results.

BORDEAUX-TOBACCO EXTRACT.

In endeavoring to combine a deterrent with a contact insecticide,
the 5-5-50 Bordeaux mixture and blackleaf tobacco extract at the
rate of 1 gallon to 65 gallons were mixed together. Vines were
treated the same as in the previous experiment, and on examination
after five days it was observed that the Bordeaux-tobacco mixture
was as effective a deterrent as the Bordeaux mixture alone. Its in-
secticidal properties were tested by spraying a group of beetles which
was placed upon a soil-covered cloth, and which, after being sprayed,
was covered with a cage. After twenty-four hours 65 per cent were
dead. In cases where the beetles are very numerous and a large
percentage of them are around the vines, a Bordeaux-tobacco mix-
ture should prove effective.

TOBACCO DUST.

In order to determine the value of ground tobacco as an insecti-
cide. a large sheet was covered with a thin layer of soil, and on this
was spread a ring of tobacco dust 1- feet wide. A healthy lot of
beetles was placed in the center of this ring, and the few that managed
to cross were caught and placed in a cage. Most of the beetles
perished in the tobacco dust, and those that crossed soon died. After
the dew had caked the powder, however, all of the beetles which
were placed in the center of the ring crossed the tobacco unharmed,
even though some of them carried small pieces of tobacco with them.
Although the beetles are able to cross the caked tobacco, the insec-
ticidal properties are not entirely lost, for when broken up and
sprinkled onto the beetles it killed them as readily as the fresh
material.
Application on mangels.-A large plot was selected in an infested
mangel patch and the tobacco dust thoroughly applied. The fol-
lowing day only a few beetles were found on this plot, while the
adjoining rows contained as many as ever. The tobacco dust is more
effective on angels than on hops, because the plants are close to
the ground and can be more readily covered with the powder.

IMPRACTICAL MEASURES.

Against beetles hin the poles.-Spraying with a distillate or some
other contact insecticide was suggested as a means of killing the
beetles in the poles, but the "fleas" are so far back in the slivers
and so deep in the rotten portions of the wood that a spray will not


54






55


LIFE HISTORY AND CONTROL OIF 1101' I'IFLA-BtE'TIE:.


reach them. Painting the poles with crudle oil or :i tti'ik 'licrlde-il
paint with the idea of blocking the beetlt's ini was aiiodtl'r suggestioi,,
and severnaI experiments were c(ndutictedi a41 ig thi i1 lilte1. WVh1titillg
was used as a filler and tliet poleh were tlioroullghlly% cc'ated I withl tiw!
mixture. This formed a sticky coating iwhen tir.t iI),lliel. hut tIle
oil was soon absorbed Iby the wood. zinc neltither acted sa I barricaiit.
nor a sticky trapl) for those that lmighlt crawl ip tie pole. At tile.
time that the majority of the beetles were believed to be hilibenrat lug
in the trellis poles, dipping them ini li t crude oil w]is ,tllere d Is a
sure cure. This process, if properly ibndiled, wolld proImbly d e-
stroy all the beetles that were in the poles, but thle few present in that
situation did not war-
rant. such expense. A fl .
fum igatorium (fig. 16)16.- ig.. t.ellis ... ".s,. .op ...
was made which would ... .,.
be placed around a
trellis pole and many ..of
fumigation experi- wn
ments were tried dur- wtl
ing the winter. When
the thermometer was
below 320 F. the bee-
tles were apparently
unaffected by the
gases, and under field e 4t6e s00lt.
conditions the wind r..ds. w a .oo.. r
blew so hard that it
was impossible to .
make the fumigator-
ium tight enough for ." .
effective work. Such
Fic. 16.-Fumigating trellis poles to d,.str,. 1ho0) flea-
a method, too, would b etlvs. (Ori.h_,inal.1
require a great deal of
time and labor, and as a practical control measure is out of the
question. Several attempts were made to burn the beetles that were
in the poles. In one experiment kerosene was painted on the wood
and lighted, and in another an oiled gunny sack was lighted and
wound around the base of a pole which was then inclosed in the
fumigatorium. By the latter method a few beetles were killed, but
as wood is such a poor conductor of heat few were heated sufficiently
to injure them.
Rolling the yards.-The fact that beetles were observed hibernating
in the grass and just under the surface of the soil led to the sug-
gestion that rolling the yards with a heavy roller would kill a large
665130-Bull. 82-12-5






SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.


number of them which happened to be in such locations. To deter-
mine this point 30 beetles were placed in each of three lamp chimneys
and set over clumps of grass. As the cool evenings approached the
fleas worked down into the sod, and before the frost was off of the
grass the next morning a heavy roller was run over these clumps
from three different directions. The lantern chimneys were then re-
placed and the sod taken into the laboratory. On examination only 2
injured beetles were found. Twelve in the first clump, 10 in the sec-
ond, and 15 in the third were uninjured. The other beetles were not
recovered and probably escaped during the rolling. A large block in
one of the yards was rolled over at this time (fig. 17), but no differ-
ence could be seen between the number of beetles which emerged on
the treated block and the number which came out on the rest of







....... .....










FiG. 17.-Rolling the hopyards with heavy roller, as an experiment in the control of the
hop flea-beetle. (Original.)

thle field. The chitin of the hibernating beetles is very hard. The
beetles are not readily injured when rolled between the thumb and
finger, and it is very improbable that a satisfactory percentage could
be killed by rolling the field in which the beetles are hibernating.

SPRAYING.

When the beetles became numerous on the sprouting hops, the pos-
sibility of the use of contact insecticides or of arsenicals was brought
to the attention of the writer, and a number of sprays were carefully
tested.
Blac/ldeaf tobacco extract.-Flea -beetles which were thoroughly
drenched with blackleaf tobacco extract at the rate of 1 gallon to 65
gallons of water soon died, but many beetles jumped through the


56






LIFE HIST IORY ANI ('iNTI'I ()F Il 1' I,.1. 11 L IIi.TII:. ,7

spray 'land es.ralpled. Thi' s nlla citeil did i ot lurt tlthe (eilill.T viII(., iul
the beetles were xlot killed nllss (h.v \v.r, m. nll til coverd \\ ill, i .
Iihrit'liiienf ,,HI/si{u.-.\ccnrtliu^ to I roh'--nr (2ua~'h'lce (*ii of 190s) keroselle e'lllllo.l)il I IInexto. c to lI I lll Iol)ba('c'o extrnrt iII
effectiveness against till's flea-l ,'ecllI.
ll'hf h'-ad xUntp.- Al1iale-oil .-o a ;i t it rat, I o" I p, to1 I),1 g;iIl-
Ions of water was alpp)lied to hIo *I.'as"wi wli,. ere ,itti'rkiii
imangels. W hen a leetle ,ilma ir to I)'C,., I lie r i, of a I rol) of
spray it soon died. but a little- o:p oi ( -.ide or (Ill its ,elvtrotI did
not injure it in tlie least.
Resin. lye.-The resin-lye )spray used at tlhe rate of 1 poI!id of
resin to 10 gallons of water was a little in'o eff'ecticty tlani tlm \vlihale-
oil soap, but was far from satisfactory.
Arsenicals.-Although the hlop flea-beetle is .supposed to be very
resistant to arsenicals, laboratory experiments 1)p'(ved that a fair per-
centage may be killed by the us-e of either arsenate of lead or IPari,.
green. For good results the ar-enate of lead should be used at tlie
rate of 5 pounds to 50 gallons of water, and the vines should Ibe kel)pt
well covered with it, but since the vines grow very rapidly suelh a
method becomes too laborious and costly.
TRAPS.
rap foods.-It is evident from the results obtained in tlhe p)re-
ferred food-plant experiments that the best trap food for beetle,.
either on the hops or on the minangels, is tlhe nettle, the tomato for tlie
hop and the rhubarb for the angel coming next. Since tlhe hop i-
preferred to any other plant, and since it comes ui) at the same time
as the nettle, the only chance to use a trap food is inl the fall after tlhe
hops are gone. The borders of the fields are the only places xwhlere a
trap crop can possibly be grown, because, when the liol)s are gathered.
the pickers would trample down anything that was growing between
the rows. If the nettles which grow along the fences are thloroughly
sprayed with arsenate of lead or Paris green about the time thliat the
hops are picked a large number of beetles may be killed.
Trap lights.-The beetles which were brought into tihe laboratory
appeared to be quite positively )phototrp()l)ic. and with the hope thliat
trap lights might prove succe-sfiul these were tried under field coidi-
tions. A lantern set on a tanglefooted board was placed in an in-
fested mangel patch. Although tlie beetles were numerous on the
angels all around the light. only a few of them were attracted to
it. They could be seen crawling around on near-by leaves. but a)-
/ parently had no desire to al)lroach the light. Tlhe same results- were
obtained with the acetylene light, the increased intensity having no
effect upon the beetles.
Trap shelters.-The use of trap shelters to catch the hibernating
beetles was one of the first control measures which were thought of.






SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.


The idea was to distribute them around the field while the beetles are
still active and collect them as soon as the beetles hibernate. Under
laboratory conditions beetles entered two sorts of traps very readily.
The one is made by cutting the old vine stems into 6-inch sections
and tying 8 or 10 of them into a bundle. The other trap is made of
corrugated paper, with a plain sheet fastened on each side with
marine glue. This leaves a row of tubes into which the beetles can
crawl. Pieces 4 inches square were to be pegged out with slender
pegs, but since other control measures have proved so effective the
experiment has never been tried in the field.
CULTIVATION AND FERTILIZATION.
The earlier the hops come up in spring, the better chance there will
be of their reaching the string" before the beetles attack them.
When the vines are once on the string they can be protected with
tanglefoot bands or by the use of tarred boards.
Inasmuch as cultivation and fertilization tend to bring the vines
up earlier in the spring they aid in the control of the beetles, and if
clean cultivation is practiced after the vines are tanglefooted a large
number of beetles will starve to death.

RECOMMENDATIONS.
The first knowledge that the hop growers will probably have of the
presence of the hop flea-beetle in dangerously large numbers will be
attack by the beetles upon the vines about the time that they are
ready to train. The fleas" at this time may be greatly reduced in
numbers, so that the vines can reach the strings, by the use of the
sticky shield (p. 49) or the heavier tarred board (p. 48).
After the vines are trained the beetles are readily controlled by the
use of the tanglefoot bands. These bands should be renewed on the
vines, and the trellis poles should also be banded at the time that the
vines are tied in and stripped, or just before the appearance of the
second generation. These tanglefoot bands form a perfect barrier
to the insects. Even though the beetles are present in very large
numbers they can not reach the upper parts of the hop vines, which
can therefore produce a crop without molestation.
In order to starve the beetles the yards should be well cultivated
and all suckers cut from the bases of the vines. If this is done the
emerging insects will find very little to feed upon. In some cases
the destruction of the beetles which hibernate in the trellis poles,
string pegs, and vine stubs may be advisable, but if the banding is
thoroughly done and the yards are kept clean during the growing
season, very few beetles will live through the winter to attack the
vines in the following spring.


58














U. S. D). A., B. E. Bul. 82. 'Part V.


SOME INSECTS INJI'RIOUS T1O TRUCK CROPS.


BIOLOGIC AND ECONOMIC NOTES ON THE YELLOW-BEAR
CATERPILLAR.
(I)iacrisia viril icu Fai l. )a.
By HI. 0. MARSH, Agent wid Expert.
RECENT INJURY.

During the late summer and fall of 1909 there was a serious out-
break of the common yellow-bear caterpillar (Diacrisia virginica
Fab.) in the upper Arkansas Valley of Colorado. Never before in
the history of the valley had this species been so destructive, antd
the outbreak came as a surprise to all concerned.
The larvae, or caterpillars, of the first generation developed nor-
mally on weeds along the fences and irrigation ditclies and caused
little damage to cultivated crops, but the larvae of the second gener-
ation, which began to develop about the middle of August, were so
numerous that the weeds were not sufficient to support them and
they spread to sugar beets and other crops.
The sugar beets, because of thle extensive acreage and the large
supply of food which their tender foliage offered, were more severely
damaged than any other crop. The larvae were variously estimated
to have infested from 15,000 to 20,000 acres of sugar beets in tlhe
upper portion of the Arkansas Valley. Definite records from this
vast acreage show that fully 1,000 acres were badly dlefoliated.
The larvae of this second generation developed so late in the season
that the injury to which the beets were subjected did not noticeably
reduce the tonnage, but all over the worst infested area there was a
reduction in sugar content anti quality. Owing to the other factors,
such as late rains and a disease known as "leaf spot" (Cercospora
i beticola Sacc.), which also tended to lower the sugar content, any-
thing more definite than an approximate statement concerning the
Loss of sugar in the beets would be very misleading. However,
estimates based on comparative analyses made by the chemists at
a Formerly known as Spilosomia virginica Fab.


I-..,ii'l .\ u til.,cl. 31. 1910.






SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.


the various sugar factories indicated that there was a loss in sugar
content of from 1 to 3 per cent over the badly defoliated area. Over
a large part of the infested area the defoliation was not bad enough
to cause any very noticeable loss.
The author's first observations in thle Arkansas Valley on this
species were made on July 23, 1909, at Rocky Ford, Colo., and the
following is a summary of his notes at that place and at other points
in Colorado and Kansas during the season. All notes, except when
other localities are mentioned, were taken at Rocky Ford.
Before entering into a discussion of the biology, of the plants
injured, of the experiments made, and of other matters, attention is
called to the illustration (fig. 18) which shows the female moth,
larvae, cocoon, and pupa. This needs no further explanation than
to state that the moth is of moderate size, its spread of wings



















FIG. 18.-The yellow-*'ar caterpillar (Diacrisia virginica): a, Female moth; b, larva; c, pale form of larva;
d .cocoon; e, pupa. (From Chittenden.)

being from 11 to 1 inches, ornamented with black dots as indicated,
and that the larvw vary in color, the dark form (b) and white form (c)
being shown.
BIOLOGIC NOTES.

On July 23 nearly mature larva? of the first brood were fairly
abundant on lamb's quarters along the fences and irrigation ditches.
In some places it was noticed that they had spread from the weeds
to sugar beets and had stripped the foliage from the first three or
four rows nearest, the fences. On August 3 and 4 full-grown larvw
were found in moderate numbers on sugar beets and lamb's quarters
at Fort Collins and Greeley in northern Colorado, and on August 10


60








ai large cluiNter (I f o g, f g I t I s csj ,'I I''. \va% ttik, I oii 11 M I zI ir-lci.c l -f
at liocky Ford, ('(olo. Augutst 13:, ai I sa e'el fiiIriz a1i ,,f 4 l('ky v F rIn
a(nyf clustei,'s of eggs, t loiusa dIs of Itm wiv hlat'iced lri' 4, lrll soI,,.c
larva' onte-third gr o w1 were fouldIl on n larhige 1aItel of ri,!bar'lmb. A
dozen or mor0e t1o1tths were also olbsEr'e. oMl ti rle'1iiilrl, o4li ,. (of
whicIll were dep )ositing eggs. I{Iilluar fI, oII-,, Issibly. because it pro,'idVedh.
so much protection to titt n moths, was It f\'ool'it f pOd jlaILIlt anld great
numbers of eggs were deposited on it. 'I'lie larvia', after Iaritiall, Or
completelyy stripping thle large leaves, spread to otilhr pllants.
By August 24 larva', varying in size f'1rom (|uite' small to O( grown, were seen in many beet fields. Infestatiion waits usually c(m-
fined to spots, often only a corner of a field lbeinl infested.
By September 6 infestation had become general and there was
probably not a field of beets in tlie Rocky Ford district in which
larvae were not present, at least in small numbers. At this date a
large portion of the larvae were over half grown. Tlhe worst infesta-
tion occurred within a radius of 21 miles from the town. Withl few
exceptions, the beets outside of this area were not seriously infested,
and later examinations throughout the infested portions of the valley
showed that the worst infestations were close to the towns, althliouglh
in some cases the infestation extended miles beyond them.
September 11 the first cocoon was found, containing a larva whiicli
pupated a few days later. By September 14 many larva hlad matured,
left the beets, and were seen hurrying away in search of places for
pupation. September 17, several larvTr were found d(lead from a
fungous disease. By September 20, althoughli larvTr were still
abundant and as many as 16 individuals were counted on a single
beet, many had matured and crawled under heaps of weeds, grass,
rubbish, boards, etc., along fences and irrigation ditches, and had
formed cocoons. Of 20 cocoons which were examined at this time,
19 contained live larvae and 1 a new, soft pupa. Seventeen of these
larvae pupated within the next three or four days. At this date,
September 20, a large acreage of the beets lihad been badly defoliated.
In some fields nothing remained of the foliage except a few young
leaves (which the larvae usually avoided), the petioles, and some of
the larger veins of the older leaves.
September 22, in the corner of one beet field, over an area about
three-fourths of an acre in extent, many larvae were troubled with a
fungous disease identified as Botryflis bassiana Bals. About 2 per
cent of the larvae had died from this cause. It was noted September
25, and later throughout the Rocky Ford district, that the disease
had not spread and that diseased larve did not exist or were rare,
except in this corner.
By September 27 larvae were noticeably less abundant and many
defoliated beets were putting out new tops. Before the Diacrisia


N o KI..; (). "I11 1.;II.<\ '-IIAI f' .' lI'II.1.Al:.





SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.


infestation became very bad a considerable amount of the older
beet foliage had been killed by the "leaf-spot" disease (OCercospora
beticola Sacc.) and the plants had put out a new stock of leaves. The
Diacrisia attack, following the "leaf-spot" injury, made necessary
still another crop of leaves before the beets could mature. By
October 5 the bulk of the larvae had entered winter quarters. The
cocoons were common under weeds and many contained pupae. On
October 12 there were still a few belated larvae on the beets.
Between October 14 and 24 a trip was made through the beet-
growing sections of the Arkansas Valley. At Las Animas, Colo.,
about 30 miles east of Rocky Ford, the larvae had been abundant
and destructive. ThiTs place appeared to be the eastern limit of
injury. Examinations and inquiries made at Lamar and Holly,
Colo., and at Garden City, Kans., showed that the larvae had not
occurred in unusual numbers at those places. West and north in
the Arkansas Valley the larvae occurred in injurious numbers as far
as the beets were grown, i. e., into the country around Pueblo and
Sugar City, Colo.
As late as October 24 occasional larve still occurred on the beets
at Rocky Ford, Colo. At this date 100 cocoons were collected from
under boards and weeds and examined. Seventy-four contained
live pupae, 4 contained dead pupae, in 10 were live larvae, and in 12
d(lead larve. Two of the live larvae had the eggs of a tachinid parasite
fastened on their backs and one of the dead larvae contained a live
tachinid larva. The other larvae had evidently died either from a
fungous disease or from natural causes. Two of the dead pupa
were deformed and the other two had evidently died from disease.
By October 30 the larvTe had almost completely disappeared from the
beet foliage.
A remarkable feature of this outbreak is that the larvae had so few
natural enemies. Birds did not eat them, and with the exception of
a few individuals which were killed by parasites and disease they
appeared to be unmolested.
On November 12 thousands of healthy pupe were in condition to
pass the winter safely. If the pupae are not killed by man or by
adverse weather conditions, there is every indication that there will
be another outbreak of the pest during 1910.
LIST OF PLANTS INJURED.

During September, when the larvae occurred in most noticeable
abundance, they were found feeding on the following plants: Sugar
beet, stock beet, table beet, rhubarb, cabbage, cauliflower, turnip,
radish, celery, carrot, parsnip, eggplant, potato, pumpkin, squash,
watermelon, cantaloupe, sweet potato, corn, lima bean, string bean,
asparagus, pea, peanut, alfalfa, hollyhock, morning-glory, canna,


62





NOTES ON THIEiE VEII,1W-IEACH 'ATRI:]'II IARI.


hyacinth, dlallia, cherry, goosebelrry, 1black)4rryv, rasI)lpber', ('II'rIiit,
grape, dock (Runwx), Ainaraintlilis, (ii'niilopiuiiini, I Ie'Iali tlli.is,
Solarium rostni tum, Verlbsina. A;knbrosia, Itissiall tlistlh' (Si WIulU
tragus Auct.), and SP|)isili nitied le.
EXPERIMENTS WITH ARSENICALS.
Opportunity was al'oorIe Ih for testing ars.1'natc of led ind a aP aris
green as means of suppressing til v yellow-beal caterlpillJ lar on sutgar
beets and celery.
Experiments were NmaId(e as follows:
Experiment No. 1.-Arsenate of lead! a1)J)lied at lthe ratE' of (6 pounllIs
in 100 gallons of water.
Experiment No. 2.-Arsenate of lead at the rate of 8 pounds inl 100
gallons of water.
Experiment No. 3.-Arsenate of lead at thle rate of 10 poun(ls in
100 gallons of water.
Experiment No. 4.--Arsenate of lead, S l)ounL(Is to 100 gallons,
applied twice to the same plants, practically equaling 16 pounds of tile
arsenate to 100 gallons of water.
In these experiments 150 gallons of the mixture at tlhe various
strengths were applied September 7-9, 1909, to 3 acres of sugar beets
with an ordinary barrel sprayer, mounted on a cart and dIrawn )by a
mule. The sprayer was fitted with an 8-row attachment and nozzles
of the Vermorel type, and the upper surface of the beet foliage was
given an even coating of poison. Traces of the poison were visible
on the sprayed foliage for nearly a month after application.
These four experiments were entirely unsuccessful, as practically
no larva were killed either in the field or in cages supp)liedl with
poison-coated leaves. In )both cases the poisoned foliage was eaten
readily. A sample of the arsenate of lead used in the experiments
was analyzed by the Bureau of Chemistry and found to be of unusu-
ally good quality.
Experiment No. 5.-Arsenate of lead (Disparene) at the rate of 8
pounds in 100 gallons of water.
September 21, 6 gallons were applied with a small compressed-air
sprayer fitted with a nozzle of the Mistry type to 8 rows of celery,
each about 90 yards in length. A very thorough and even coat of
poison was given the plants, but very few larvae were killed.
An analysis made of this arsenate of lead by the Bureau of Chemis-
try showed that it was of unusually good quality.
Experiment No. 6.-Paris green, 5 pounds, and lime, 5 l)ounds, to
each 100 gallons of water.
September 25, 2 gallons of this mixture were applied with a
compressed-air sprayer and nozzle of the Mistry type to 2 rows of
celery, each about 90 yards in length. Twenty-four hours after the






SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.


treatment 15 per cent of the larvae were dead, and within three or
four clays few larvae remained on the plants. The disappearance
of the larvae was not entirely due to the Paris green, as the celery was
sprayed, at about the same time the poison was applied, with a solu-
tion of lye-sulphur for the common red spider (Tetranychus bimacula-
tus Harv.). This solution was evidently very distasteful to the
larvae and they went over to the unsprayed or check plants.
Experiment No. 7.-Paris green, 8 pounds, and lime, 8 pounds, to
100 gallons of water.
September 1 about 40.gallons of this mixture were applied to 1
acre of sugar beets with the same equipment used in Experiments
Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4. Some trouble was experienced in keeping this
mixture in suspension, but a fairly even coat of poison was made,
which remained visible for at least ten days after the treatment.
This application was ineffective, for although a few partly grown
larvTae were killed the number was so small that a week later the
larvae were as abundant on the sprayed plants as on those unsprayed.
Analysis made of a sample of the Paris green used in this experiment
showed it to be of good quality.
Experiment No. 8.-Paris green, 10 pounds, and lime, 10 pounds, in
100 gallons of water. On September 12, 61 gallons of this mixture
were applied With a compressed air sprayer and Mistry type nozzle
to 5 rows of celery, each row being 100 yards in length. Although
the mixture required frequent agitation to hold the poison in suspen-
sion, an even coat of poison was applied.
Twenty-four hours after the application 55 per cent of the larvae
were (lead, and three days later but few living individuals could be
found on the sprayed plants, while on the check row they were still
abundant. This treatment was extremely effective, as practically
100 per cent of the larvae were killed.
Experiment No. 9.-Paris green, 10 pounds, and lime, 10 pounds, to
100 gallons of water. On September 21, 9 gallons of this mixture
were applied to 10 rows of celery, each row being about 90 yards in
length. This experiment was a repetition of No. 8, and the results
were practically the same.
Experiment No. 10.-Paris green, 10 pounds, and 10 pounds of
lime to 100 gallons of water. On September 14 about 35 gallons of
this mixture were applied to a little over half an acre of sugar beets.
An ordinary barrel sprayer mounted on a handcart was used. The
sprayer was fitted with an agitator so small that it was impossible
to keep the poison in suspension. As a result the bulk of the poison
was applied to the first few rows of beets sprayed. Owing to rain of
the previous day the soil was so moist in the beet field that the pump
could not be taken into it, and the mixture had to be applied through
a 50-foot length of heavy garden hose and a nozzle of the Vermorel


64








No'I'.:S o)N Till.: Y Il.I V ll-:.\l{ 'l *llIil'lIl.Alc.


65


type. Tie oise c tiltuld Iit Ic hi, ndled ni id'Ivaiingi', UtiIl anl xtreIely
poor ancd unisait isfaictor aplpl.V IIIi(It IoIf)I waI s lWlit1I('.
Where. t(h (oumt Iof ioison, wIS, tIi'k, a, goIod 1 alllll"V of lwe larvi'
were killed, ltit as t h attmo t oft' I(4 oiison d 1111,im ii.ilh d I1 l Iv 11in111111r,,f ,d,'adl
larvae dliminziswed also a tild tlie experi-11111et w1 t as ,,slidrd 1 failIre
from very ,sta ldpolit.
Shortly bt'fore amy of tlive alove 'xpJe.rilletltS w(hee tiIeIIlvrtaiken, oie
of the beet growers ,lab de tests wit h Parlis green 1lt tlle rates f" I
pound anti 2 poiundtls in 501 ga.ll-Ions ofI water againlit tliese tlarv'. oiin
sugar beets. These tests wvere not itmade ld'r" tl4'. writer's directivm,
but from all appearances careful wo'rk was ltdonI. T'l' poison (did
not kill a material number of tHlie larva'; 1an11 as tl.ese strengitlhs
were so obviously ineffective, the app)areittly 'xce(ssiiV( strenigtlits
were used in the experiments which were (conducted later.
In none of the experiments with arsenate of lead was thle foliage,
either of sugar beets or celery, burned, but witli Paris green, wherever
the foliage was partly eaten there was some burning. This, however,
was not serious in any case. Leaves remaining entire, even the very

tender Ones at the center of the plants, were uninjured.
The weather conditions were ideal during the time these experi-
ments were made.
The results of these spraying experiments are summarized in tlhe
following table:

Results of experiments with sprays against the yelloir-bear rtlerpdllir ( Diatrisia 'irginr'a I
on sugar beets and celery.


Experi-
S ent litt.
numr- .
ber.


Insect icide used.


Larvo- killU-1.


1909.
1 ....... Sept.

2.......... do .
3 ....... Sept.
4....... Sept.

5....... Sept.
6 ....... Sept.



7 ....... Sept.


8.

9. .....


10.....


Arsenate of lead 6 pounds to
100 gallons of water.


9

7-8

21
25




1


Sept. 12

Sept. 21


Sept.


Arsenate of lead 8 pounds to
100 gallons of water.
Arsenate of lead 10 pounds
to 100 gallons of water.
Arsenate of lead 16 pounds '
to 100 gallons of water.
Arsenate of lead 8 pounds to
100 gallons of water.
Paris green 5 pounds and
lime 5 pounds to 100 gal-
lons of water.


Paris green 8 pounds and
lime 8 pounds to 100 gal-
lons of water.
Paris green 10 pounds and
lime 10 pounds to 100 gal-
lons of water.
Paris green 10 pounds and
lime 10 pounds to 100 gal-
lons of water.
Paris green 10 pounds and
lime 10 pounds to 100 gal-
lons of water.


Very fc . . . ...

..... do ............
..... do ...... ......
..... do............

..... do ............

At leas-it 15.3 per
entl.



Very few..........


Applied to sugar beets with bar-
rel sprayer fitted with s-row
attachment.
Applied to sugar beets with 8-row
sprayer.
Do.
x to 100 mixture applied twice to
same plat of sugar beets with
,S-row sprayer.
Applied with hand sprayer to
celery.
Applied to celery with hand
sprayer. The larvawe deserted
this plat because it was also
sprayed with lye-sulphur solu-
tion for the common red
spider.
Applied with S-row sprayer to
sugar beets.


Practically 100 per Applied with hand sprayer to
cent. i celery.


.... .do.......... .


Varying number..


Applied with hand sprayer to
celery. Repetition of experi-
ment No. 8 to determine effect
on older larvae.
Applied to sugar beets. Results
inconclusive because of poor
application with faulty
sprayer.


Remarks.





SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.


It will be seen that arsenate of lead, even when applied at an
excessive strength by hand or machine sprayer, was entirely ineffec-
tive against the larvae of D. virginica on sugar beets and celery.
Paris green, when applied very thoroughly by hand to celery, gave
perfect results when used at excessive strengths, but when applied
to sugar beets with a machine sprayer (the only practical method
with such a crop) it, too, proved ineffective.
The failure to kill the larvae was not due to their being nearly,
mature, as in the earlier experiments they varied in size all the way
from one-fourth to three-fourths grown; and as the development of
this species is very irregular there were larvae present which were
not over half grown when all the experiments were made.
Judging from the results of these experiments, the arsenicals can
not be depended on to control the larvae of D. virginica on sugar
beets. It is evident that clean cultural methods offer the best chance
of keeping this species under control. The larvae are very general
feeders, and during the early growing season they evidently prefer
weeds, such as lamb's-quarters, for food. Much benefit would be'
gained by keeping the ditch banks, and spaces along the fences,
free from weeds.
On reaching maturity the larvae crawl under heaps of dead weeds,
tufts of grass, boards, and other rubbish, along the ditches and
fences. In such quarters, which, especially in the case of weeds and
grass, offer but slight protection, they construct frail cocoons in
which the pupe pass the winter. There is no better method of fight-
ing this species than to burn the weeds, grass, etc., under which the
pupm find protection. This burning, which can be done any time
between November 1 and April 1, would not only have the advantage
of destroying quantities of weed seeds and Diacrisia pupae, but would
also kill the "alkali bugs" (Monoxia sp. ?) which hibernate under
the weeds in the same places as the Diacrisia pupae.
In the field the larvae were watched for over three weeks, or until
a large proportion of them had matured and left the plants to pupate.
The arsenate of lead was visible on the beet foliage during all of this
time. A few larvae were put in a cage supplied with the poison-
coated leaves from the sprayed plats immediately after the applica-
tion was made. These leaves were almost completely consumed
during the following two days and after that unsprayed foliage was
given them. Only one small larva out of about 25 died, although
they were kept caged and under daily observation for ten days or
until the oldest, individuals began to prepare to pupate.
Personally the writer believes that the failure to kill the larvae
was due, in part at least, to the fact that an insufficient amount of
spray was used to the acre. Fully 100 gallons to the acre should
have been applied.


66

















U. S. D. A.. B. FE. Bul. 82. Part VmT


SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.


NOTES ON THE CUCUMBER BEETLES.

By F. II. ('HITTENDEN,
In Charge of Truck Crop and Stored Product Insect Inrestigations.
INTRODUCTORY.

Among insects injurious to useful crops are many species of Dia-
brotica, most of which for convenience we may term cucumber
beetles, the term including such species as feed upon cucurbits and
similar plants. The commonest and best known examples are the
striped cucumber beetle (Diabrotica vittata Fab.), the twelve-spotted
cucumber beetle or southern corn root-worm (D. duod&cimpunctata
Oliv.), and a western species related to the last, known as Diahrotcai
soror Lec. All of these are of the highest economic importance. The
first mentioned is one of the most injurious species affectingtr truck
crops: the second is very troublesome in the Southern States, while
the last is about equally injurious in the Pacific region. In
addition to these we now know of several other species which
habitually or occasionally affect truck crops. In all there are a full
score of species of this genus and two subspecies. A few of these are
more often found on corn and grasses, hence will not be considered in
this article.
The notes which follow are supplemented by a more detailed article,
by Mr. II. 0. Marsh, on the same and other species. The species
which the writer will consider have never been treated at anv length
in a departmental publication, and the illustrations are here presented
for the first time.
aThe economic treatment of the first two species mentioned, the striped and the
twelve-spotted cucumber beetles, is given in Circulars Nos. 31 and 59, respectively.
In the latter, the western corn root-worm, which is more of a field-crop insect, is also
treated. These publications may be obtained free of charge on application to the
Secretary of Agriculture.
67


S R uo'i ill.r.r0. vr m 1 1111.






SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.


THE SADDLED CUCUMBER BEETLE.
(Diabrotica connexa Lee.)
What appears to be the first report of attack by the saddled cucum-
ber beetle (Diabrotica connexa Lee.) was that made by Mr. C. S. Spooner,
April 10, 1907, while engaged in truck crop insect investigations
in this Bureau. It was found attacking cucurbitaceous plants at
Corpus Christi, Tex. Mr. E. A. Schwarz, of this Bureau, however,
states that he had met with it commonly in western Texas in earlier
years, attacking cucurbits.
This species (fig. 19) belongs to the same series as Diabrotica balteata
Lee., but to a group in which the antennae have the third joint fully as
long as the fourth and twice as long
r ^as the second. The elytra or wing-
^ covers are dark ochraceous yellow
with a purplish-brown transverse
band at the base, another just for-
L ~ ward of the middle, and with four
roundish spots of the same color rep-
resenting a third band. The first
two bands are usually united on their
(outer edges, inclosing a more or less
heart-shaped area of ochraceous yel-
low color. The head is colored about
I like the bands and spots on the elytra.
t This insect is a little larger than D.
FIG. 19.-The saddled cucumber beetle (Dia-
broticaconnexa): Beetle, about 5 times natural balteata and measures nearly three-
size. (Original.) tenths of an inch (7 mm.) in length.
It is recorded by Horn,a who describes the adult in detail, from
"Texas and Mexico." Jacoby b figures the species and mentions
Tuxtla in Mexico.
THE PAINTED CUCUMBER BEETLE.
(Diabrotica piclicornis Horn.)
October 13, 1905, Mr. F. C. Pratt observed the painted cucumber
beetle (Diabrotica picticornis Horn) at San Antonio, Tex., in great
numbers in the blossoms of okra and on beets, associated with D.
balteata. The species was received December 12, 1906, from Mr.
F. B. Headley, from San Antonio, Tex., with the report that it was
eating vetch and horse beans. It was associated with D. balteata and
D. 12-punctata. Mr. C. S. Spooner observed the same species on
squash and on cotton at San Antonio, Tex., in June, 1907.
nTrans. Amer. Ent. Soo., Vol. XX, p. 91, 1893.
b Biol. Centr.-Amer., Coleop., Phytophaga, Vol. VI, Pt. I, 1887, fig. 20, P1. XXXII.


68






NOTES ON TIHI t'I:r't'UMlI lt BEETLES.9


Following is i descriptil ,n of tilet egg
The egg.-Opa() qu, buff, th< w tiirfre .slightly ir apqarentlyi pnkl M-rulirai, IiriIl\ -I1 ilp-
tured, and ringed in ininiv ll|. I lLPxNitghiil i1il3 :i. iin ,itlar spii ir s ,f 1 lvil)pI ii ;i hTI .
outline, hOwwever, is t extern ly t irnii..ular, anid I(h it iz.A im s .inilarl\ mH a rialII. .\ A ,' r
length, 0.7 inn.; width, 0.5 ninm.
The eggs were obtained in large numbers, dlpositid1i sillA i'1(l
distributed over the lower suTrfa'e of ef('VuOern)lT'" havIhs. Ti, .,,,Zs
under observation were tlep(ositetil .lure '24 to .illyv :3.
This species (fig. 20) beloIngs to tle sim. series ;is Il. ,,ll,,i Ibt.
to a group in which the antenna'
have the second and third joints
small, together rarely longer than
the fourth. The elytra or wing-
covers are ornamented about as in
D. conne.ra, but with the four round-
ish posterior spots forming a cres-
cent. The head and metathorax
are black, as are the bands and spots "\
on the elytra. The thorax varies
from dark yellow to bright red. The ".
beetle measures less than three- -t_
tenths of an inch (6.5 mm.) in \
length.
length. FIG 20.-The painted cucumber bwlT i 'Dia-
The distribution recorded extends broitica picticornis): nBietle, about Tnmes
only from Texas to Mexico. Horn natural size. (Original.)
(loc. cit.) wrote of the distribution, "Occurs in Texas. l.cality
unknown."
THE BELTED CUCUMBER BEETLE.
(Diabrotica balteata Lee.)
What is probably the first record of injurious attack by the belted
cucumber beetle (Diabrotica balteata Lec.), or, indeed, the first record
of any food plant for it, was made in 1904 in an editorial note in
Bulletin 44 of this Bureau (p. 84). Specimens of the beetle were
received from Mr. A. L. Herrera, December 3, 1902, with the report
that the species was injurious to wheat at Salvatierra, Guanajuato,
Mexico.
The first report of injury in thls country was made by Mr. F. C.
Pratt, of this Bureau, October 5-7, 1905, while at Brownsville. Tex.
Mr. Pratt observed the adults of this leaf-beetle in great numbers
on beans, corn, and okra, especially in the blossoms, and on cucum-
bers. In this locality it practically displaced the two usually more
common cucumber beetles, D. 12-punctata Oliv. and D. rifttata Fab.
In its work on beans it resembles the bean leaf-beetle (Cerotoma
trifJurcata Forst.). The same species was observed under the same


69






SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.


conditions at San Antonio, Tex., October 13, and at New Braunfels,
Tex., October 27.
December 12, 1906, this species was received at the Bureau of
Entomology from Mr. F. B. Headley, San Antonio, Tex., with the
report that it was injuring vetches and horse beans. It was asso-
ciated with Diabrotica 12-punctata and D. picticornis.
June 15, 1907, Mr. C. S. Spooner, while working under the writer's
direction at San Antonio, Tex., found numerous beetles of this
species on squash, where it was associated with D. picticornis. It
was also noticed on cotton.
During 1908, Mr. D. K. McMillan, of this Bureau, observed this
beetle during March on eggplant at Olmito, Tex., eating melon








top 0

I ?.. ~ Po n.'C
i .q- .






/
FIG. 21.-The belted cucumber beetle (Diabrotica balteata): a, Pupa; 6, anal seg-
ment of same; c, beetle; d, eggs; e, much enlarged surface of same; f, anal
segment of larva; g, larva, dorsal view. c, g, About 6 times natural size; a,
d, a little more enlarged; b, e, still more enlarged. (Original.)

leaves at Brownsville, Tex., in May, and on beans and eggplant at
Harlingen, Tex., in November, attacking the blooms.
The egg of this species may be described as follows:
The egg.-Pale yellowish buff, with the surface moderately shining, and with the
usual hexagonal pits well defined but comparatively shallow. Form somewhat regu-
lar oval, corresponding rather closely to that of Diabrotica vilttata. Length, 0.61 mm.;
width, 0.35 mm.
The eggs were first obtained, July 1, in three masses deposited, in
confinement, on the lower surface of cucumber leaves, the individual
eggs being so closely applied to each other that they could hardly
be separated without breaking them.
During 1910 Mr. M. M. High found this beetle attacking lettuce,
cabbage, and onions at Brownsville, Tex. February 22 it was


70






NOTES ON T'IIE CKUTUMIIER B IE':TIES.


observed feeding on oliiills on ith1 fai-Ii of i tIr. B islis at l-Jford,
Tex. In sonie instances tie adults was ,lbs'rv'ed some1 il distliive
toward the apex anll niI tlhe iilsidle If tlif.I l'i.f. A oIi,,h was d11111 ill1
the middle portion of thle leafi just llr,' eough fir tl' liri.,'ct to
enterI. In this way it comceals itself tndI .iees tjiiietly fron te inier
side of the onion leaf.
This species, with thie others ler', considered. belongs to, what
H-orn has classified as Series A tif iie, ge.us. TI'Il'ls c.lssifiied. tle.V
are related to the col111onlI twelve-spolted c1 ((1( 'tnl.r hief-,I I (l. 1.)-
punctata Oliv.). The characters lvY wliclh they are separated f,,mi
Series B and C, which also include injiriouis forms, iIn, as follows:
The elytra or wing-covers are irregularl, N-lt 4.loselyl plunctate;
the surface is without impressed stria0 or sulci (channels); tle, tibia'
or shanks have a distinct carina or ridge extending (the entire length
of the outer edge. In this series baltteta falls into a secmold group in
which the second and third joints of the antenna? are small, together
rarely longer than the fourth, usually shorter.
The beetle, illustrated by figure 21, c, is greenish yellow in well-
preserved specimens, with red head, black metathorax, and elytra
ornamented with three transverse green bands. Sometimes these
bands have a bluish tint and frequently also are almost entirely
lacking, the species showing great variation in this regard. The
length is from one-fifth to one-fourth of an inch (5-6 mm.).
The distribution accorded by Horn is from Texas southward
through Mexico to Colombia, South America, but that it can occa-
sionally extend its range or is accidentally carried to other regions
is proved by a specimen which the writer saw when it was collected
at Rosslyn, Va.
THE WESTERN TWELVE-SPOTTED CUCUMBER BEETLE.
(Diobrolica soror Lec.)
RECENT INJURY.
The records of the Bureau of Entomology show considerable
injury by the western twelve-spotted cucumber beetle (Diabrotica
soror Lee.) in recent years, especially in 1907 and 1908. December
11, 1906, Mr. Frederick Maskew wrote that of the insects collected
from the foliage of growing beets in and near Oxnard, Cal., this
species was the most plentiful. It could be seen in myriads, copu-
lating freely at that time. Injury sometimes attributed to wire-
worms was, hlie believed-judging from tlhe description of the damage,
its suddenness, and its short duration-probably the work of tlhe
larva of this species.
During 1907 complaint was received, March 3, from Mr. 0. WV. R.
Treadway, Lodi, Cal., of injuries to melon, cucumber, squash, beans,
66513-Bull. 82-12--G






72 SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.

and corn; August 4, of injury to cucumber and melon, reported by
Mr. S. Halverson, Gonzales, Cal.; August 7, of injury to cabbage,
beans, and peas at Fort Ross, Cal., by Mr. J. B. Williams; August 11,
by Prof. E. S. G. Titus of serious injury to melons at Imperial Junc-
tion, Cal., for that and the previous year. September 2, 1907, Mr.
Williams again reported injury to vegetables at Fort Ross, Cal.,
cabbage being badly affected.
Of this species, Mr. I. J. Condit, of San Luis Obispo, Cal., wrote, on
September 6, 1907, that it was the worst pest in that vicinity, swarm-
ing over everything and evidently having no choice as to its food.
Gardeners there stated that they could not grow zinnas, daisies, and
some other plants, as the flowers were so badly eaten that they were
worthless. The blossoms were sprayed, which protected them, but
the new buds opening the following day were attacked just as severely.
In 1908, Mr. H. 0. Marsh, while carrying on investigations for the
Bureau of Entomology at Tustin and Garden Grove, Cal., reported,
September 24, injury by the larva to peanuts. At that time larvae,
pupae, and newly formed adults were common in soil about growing
peanuts, some of the larvae being in the nuts which had been very
badly injured by this species and a species of Blapstinus. Similar
injury was noted by Mr. C. E. Ott at Garden Grove, Cal., who reported
that the beetles caused him considerable trouble by nearly ruining a
young orange grove earlier in the season.
March 16 of the same year, Mr. G. E. Beusel, Oxnard, Cal., sent
specimens of this beetle, stating that it was attacking beet leaves.
In one field the beetles had destroyed a very good stand of 30 acres
of beets in a few days. Our correspondent took it for Diabrotica 12-
punctata, whose larva he knew developed at the roots of grasses and
corn. He also stated that he did not think that there was a practical
remedy to check the work of the beetles of this insect on young beets.
April 16, Mr. Thomas J. Simpson, Noyo, Cal., wrote in regard
to this insect and its work in gardens in that vicinity. In summer
they were so thick that they ate leaves from beans, potatoes, corn, and
other plants. A remedy was desired that would not poison the vege-
tables. Writing of this species April 24, Mr. Edward M. Ehrhorn, San
Francisco, Cal., stated that in some seasons this beetle was quite a
pest in orchards, especially on young trees, and that at times it also
caused much damage to seed farms. The parasitic fly, Celatoria
diabrotice. Shimer, in certain seasons keeps the beetle in check,
appearing at these times in great numbers, probably on account of
weather conditions.
As to remedies, hlie thought that an arsenical dusted on the plants
would be preferable to an arsenical spray in treating this species in
beet fields.


:





NOTES ON TIlE CUCUlMBEl lIEIT1.lS.


Mr. Malarsh wrote further of this spejcis amidl its i' 'irn'cn I It iiIstiI,
Cal.,that thle peanuts were growing in sanilIy soiIil, fII iIljurN wiLS VV.'ry-
where apparent, but tlhat larvat U nd ptplae 'curl',tiI S pt, d1r 2.X
only in spots in the heavier sIinly soil. Ilenr tlrh. wvrl fr,,iii ila
to twenty. Usually, however, there wtereN frm, tIhree t) five to ialmo st
every plant, located from '2 t o 3 iCl Ies behow thit surfi'Ne. MNst of
the larv e had matured. The l)pllpa were found in very frI',gil.e cells,
andti many of these were maturing, anti tliere re e JI, 1MIy NiWdilts on
the foliage and many soft, newly formed ones in tieu soil. ''1,e fact
that the heavy soil is more moist and c)oler than tlie lighter sn1111
probably accounts for the later maturing of tlhe beetles iI sIuci loIa-
tions. Up to December 17, the species, according to Mr. Marsll,
had not gone into hibernation, the adults being still moderately
common on spinach, lettuce, mustar(l, and
otherplants. They were flying or crawling /
about quite actively during thle warm part
of the day, and appeared to prefer spinach
as a food plant. f
DESCRIPTIVE.

The beetle of this species (fig. 22) differs
from the common twelve-spotted cucumber
beetle (Diabrotica 12-punctata) by hayv-
ing the entire lower surface black. In
a good series of specimens at hand it is
noticeable that even in preserved speci-FIG..-The western twelve-spotted
Tnp mens the species under discussion preserves cucumber beetle (Diabrotica soror):
more of the natural green color than does Female beetle, about 6timesnatural
the eastern species. The twelve spots are size. (Original.)
located and arranged about the same in the two species, but in D. soror
there is a strong tendency to the union of at least one pair of spots on
each elytron or wing cover. The pair of middle spots are most often
confluent or united, and occasionally both the middle and the posterior
spots unite. This is rare in the eastern species. In the latter, tlhe
lower surface, including a portion of the femora, is yellow. There is
no great difference in size, but the eastern species will average a little
larger. The antenmne are almost piceous, the basal three joints are
slightly paler, and the thorax is less transverse. The length is about
6 millimeters.
This species occurs from Oregon, where it is common, southward
through California to Arizona, and perhaps extends into Mexico.
The immature stages of this species have been described by Mr.
R. W. Doane.a
ajourn. N. Y. Ent. Soc., Vol. V, pp. 15-17, 1897.






SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.


As nearly as can be made out without having fresh specimens of
this species and the eastern form for comparison, there is only slight
difference in the preparatory stages.
HABITS AND LIFE HISTORY.
According to the author quoted, this species is especially injurious
to the interests of florists, the beetles eating unsightly holes in buds
and petals of roses, chrysanthemums, and other ornamental flowers,
feeding also on the leaves, there being an almost unrestricted range of
food plants. Orchardists often suffer serious losses from the ravages
of the beetles, which eat into young forming fruit and buds.
In Doane's experience, eggs (see fig. 23) were deposited from one-
fourth to one-half an inch below the surface of the ground, near the
base of the food plant, sometimes singly, but usually in numbers of
between from twenty to fifty. Eggs
in confinement hatched in about eight-
een days (temperature not stated).
Larvae of various sizes were taken
about the roots of different plants in
March, April, and May, these obser-
vations being presumably made at
ft Palo Alto, Cal. It was noticeable
woo that the larve did not bore into the
a mm roots, as do our eastern species, but
FIG. 23.-The western twelve-spotted cucum- ate the roots from the outside, some-
ber beetle: a, Egg; b, small egg mass; c, d, times cutting young rootlets entirely
sculpture of egg. b, Much enlarged; a, very
greatly enlarged; c, d, highly magnified, in two. They were found in abun-
(From Webster, unpublished.) dance feeding on the roots of sweet
pea and alfalfa and sparingly on other plants. When the larva
becomes full grown it approaches the surface of the ground and
forms an oval or spherical cell, in which it remains ten or twelve days
before transforming to the pupa. The pupal period lasted under
observation from ten to fourteen days. Pupe were first noticed
early in April. The periods will vary with temperature, and there
are indications of a second generation in southern California.
OTHER RECORDS OF INJURY.
In 1880 mention was made of injury by this species to the fruit of
apricot in California. Injury to garden plants was also noted. Men-
tion was made of great destruction to fruits and vegetables in 1890 in
California.b The following year Mr. Koebele reported injury to
young corn by the larvme at Alameda, Cal., often three to five larvae
being observed cutting off the roots of a single plant.c A series of
a Comstock: Ann. Rep. Comm. Agr. for 1879 (1880), p. 246.
b Koebele: Bul. 22, 0. S., Div. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr., p. 87, 1890.
c Insect Life, Vol. III, p. 468, 1891.


74






NOTES ON THlE CUL''UMBERt BEETLES.


articles was published on tlhis species IC'oizi 1JlK 1lI; _' by M.r. ". .i.
Wickson.a There aire also in tlie lBl'ureai IlIiitp1lish1'1 Iiicroiitfs '(f
injury to orange trees, tlie leaves of which tire sk'l.tilizi.ld.
Two natural enemies of thiis species ihiave v)' n l) )bIs'rv'd(Ii; on, lle
tachina fly, ('elatoria (ldabrotirc Shlim., also descrilbwd Us (V ilforit
crawii by Mr. ('oquillett in S1 l90.,b 'ie other is a spider, also o served
by Mr. Coquillett, and known its NyXt'.icu.x v./o.x's/ Keys.*
THE WESTERN STRIPED CUCUMBER BEETLE.
(Diabrotira (tri itta %Mann.)

The western striped cucumber beetle (Diabrotica trriIitataN Mann.),
which is very closely related to tlhe eastern striped (uciiumber beetle
(Diabrotica vittata Fab.), is common throughout tlhe State of ('ali-
fornia and extends into Oregon, where it practically replaces tlhe
eastern form, although, according to records, it is not nearly so
injurious. We have indeed few records of injurious occurrences.
Since 1898, however, when the writer recorded injuries by this species
to cucurbits, there have been scattered reports of injuries to this
class of plants, all of which it attacks. It attracts much more atten-
tion when it occurs on fruit trees, and has been accused of considerable
injury to ripening peaches and apricots. Like the eastern form, also, it
is found associated with a closelyrelated species, inthis case the western
twelve-spotted cucumber beetle just considered. From the striped
cucumber beetle of the East it may be separated chiefly by its darker
colors. The antenna are entirely piceous, the thorax bears two
coalescing foveae, and the legs, with the exception of the bases of the
femora, are entirely black.
In 1903 we received report of injury by this species to various
plants in the neighborhood of Dehesa, Cal., and in July, 1905, to beans,
cucumber, squash, and the silk of corn in the vicinity of Salem, Oreg.
In this latter locality it was associated with the common Diabrotica
soror Lec. August 11, 1907, Prof. E. S. G. Titus stated that melons
had been seriously injured for two years past in the vicinity of
Imperial Junction, Cal. During that year and in succeeding years
this species was found, by various agents, collaborators, and special
correspondents who visited the sugar-beet region of the Pacific States
in sugar-beet fields, where, however, it was doing no serious injury.
a Pacific Rural Press, June 30, 1900, et seq.
b Coquillett: Insect Life, Vol. II, p. 233, 1890.
cLoc. cit., p. 74, 1890.


75











BIOLOGIC NOTES ON SPECIES OF DIABROTICA IN
SOUTHERN TEXAS.
By H. 0. MARSH,
Agent and Expert.
INTRODUCTION.
During the first half of the year 1909, while engaged in an investi-
gation of insects injurious to truck crops, an opportunity was pre-
sented to make a study of the species of leaf-beetles of the genus
Diabrotica occurring at Brownsville, Tex., and vicinity.
In the present paper the species considered are Diabrotica balteata,
D. picticornis, D. vittata, and D. 12-punctata. The first two species
are rather more abundant in Texas than elsewhere in the United
States, this being especially true of the second. The other species
have a more general distribution.
I am under obligations to Mr. D. K. McMillan for the descriptions
of the early stages of D. balteata and to the late Dr. C. F. Wheeler, of
the Bureau of Plant Industry, for identification of the food plants
mentioned in the text.
OBSERVATIONS ON DIABROTICA PICTICORNIS Horn.

The painted cucumber beetle (Diabrotica picticornis Horn) was
extremely rare in southern Texas during the season of 1909, and only
occasional specimens were observed, although during May and June,
1908, Mr. McMillan noted them in abundance at Brownsville, Tex.,
eating the blossoms and foliage of cucurbits, especially that of Hub-
bard squash.
During 1909 the first specimen, a female, was taken March 1 on a
Verbesina blossom. March 15 a female was taken feeding on cucum-
ber foliage and continued in captivity until May 22, but she deposited
no eggs. April 15, a half dozen individuals were observed on cym-
lings. The females appeared to be well filled with eggs. Of two
which were placed in confinement at that date, one was still living
June 14, but neither deposited eggs.
OBSERVATIONS ON DIABROTICA BALTEATA Lec.
The belted cucumber beetle (Diabrotica balteata Lec.) is active dur-
ing the entire year in southern Texas, and is by far the most injurious
and common Diabrotica in the lower Rio Grande valley. It is almost
omnivorous and injuries caused by it are thus widely distributed and
76






BIOLOGIC NOT(l'S O)N SI''ECII.: S (q' lI-AllKcl ('..


less noticeable than they wild l i f, if tIVe Sl,4clls we,' IL1 m,1nre diaiit v
feeder. The truck gVrowers inV the vally viw' this spleiLS l ill
unavoidable evil and nminke little efil4ort0. t'o bit it. T'h1e1V I Ivi. no,
distinctive name for it, a1nd it is not liilu.sAIlI tto hit u it entioIe',d us.i
"spotted green-bug," "tomaliIto bu," "pumpkin lbig," ," Ib'lul,."
F OO) PLA NTS.
This beetle is primarily a truck crop pest ai 1dmhts lben ,Is.'rvedI
actually feeding on string beans, lima, beans, Englislh broad I, ls,
tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant, pepper, turnip, peas, peanuts, squash.
cantaloupe, cucumber, watermelon, pumpkin, okra, spinach, beets,
lettuce, asparagus, and sweet corn. Among field crol)s attackedl are
corn, sorghum, alfalfa, cotton, cowpea, soy bean, and vetch, alnd
Desmodium tortuosum. There is one recorded instance of its injuring
tender fig and orange leaves and it was found feeding on tlhe foliage
of Sesbania aculeata and Cajanus indicus and on the blossoms of
Dolichos atropurpureus. A favorite wild food plant is Vlerbesi-ia
encelioides. The beetles gather in great numbers on exposed tubers
of lbervillea lindheimineri and more rarely feed on Amnaranthus retro-
flexus and A. spinosus. They also feed on the blossoms and foliage of
Solanum elseagnifoliumn and Helianthus.
CHARACTER OF INJURY.
Among the truck crops mentioned beans of several varieties are
often seriously injured, many blossoms being destroyed, and some-
times young and tender plants are entirely killed. With eggplant,
tomatoes, and cucurbits, not only are the foliage and blossoms
attacked, but the unopened blossom buds are eaten into and thus
many incipient fruits are destroyed. Injury is particularly severe
with eggplant, where many blossoms are ruined. The silk and
unripe kernels, as well as foliage, of corn are eaten and the young
corn plants are often badly riddled.
The larvae were found feeding on corn, sorghum, and string beans.
In the case of corn and sorghum they feed on the larger roots and bore
into the crown, while with beans they scrape the main stalk below the
surface of the soil. Injury by the larv, did not seem serious with
any plants on which they were found.
RECORDS OF OCCURRENCE.
During the middle of January, 1909, a freeze occurred in the lower
Rio Grande valley which killed practically all tender vegetation, except
in sheltered spots. On January 25 a good-sized patch of Verbesina
encelioides that had escaped freezing was thickly infested with the
adults, which were feeding eagerly.
About twenty nearly mature larvae were found FebruaTry 5 feeding
at the roots of sorghum at Harlingen, Tex. These were placed in


on"


77






SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.


a rearing jar and one made its cell February 11, pupated on February
16, and the adult developed February 27. Adults continued to issue
until March 5.
The beetles were abundant at Brownsville, Tex., February 6, on
string beans which they nearly defoliated. February 11, a half-
grown larva was found feeding at the base of a string bean plant.
Adults were observed feeding on tender fig leaves at Santa Maria,
Tex., February 24.
March 5 about twenty eggs were found at the base of string bean
plants. The female beetles had evidently gone down in cracks in the
earth as far as possible and oviposited in the loose soil from 1 inch
to 21 inches below the surface and from inch to 2 inches from the
plant. The eggs were placed singly as a rule, but a few were in
clusters of from two to five. No larvae were observed at this date.
The beetles were fairly common and some pairs were mating.
Eggs were found about young sweet corn March 15, placed in the
loose soil at the base of the plants, singly and in clusters of four or
five. Twenty eggs were found about one small plant.
The beetles were reported seriously injuring young pepper and
okra at Mercedes, Tex., April 15.
They were numerous on lima beans a week later, attacking chiefly
the large first leaves and cutting large holes in them. It appears that
they return repeatedly to the same leaf and eat a large area at one
place. April 26 a nearly mature larva was found feeding on the
roots of sweet corn.
During May the beetles were present in moderate numbers. On the
10th some were observed feeding on buds of tomato and on squash
foliage. Females, with abdomens distended with eggs, were present,
and one or two of these which were placed in confinement deposited
eggs on the 12th.
May 27 the adults were fairly common on alfalfa, cotton, tomatoes,
and English broad beans.
NOTES ON LIFE HISTORY.
Beginning with March 1 an effort was made to work out the life
history of this species. The record for a generation at this time
follows:
Life-history record of a single adult female of Diabrotica balteata confined March 1, 1909.
March 1.................. Female confined in rearing jar.
March 3.................. 37 eggs deposited.
March 12................. 37 eggs hatched.
April 1.................... First larvae made cells.
April 7............... ..... First larvae pupated.
April 18 ................... First adults developed.
April 20.................. First adults issued from cells.
April 21................... Last of adults issued, of which 24 developed.


78






BIt)IA)GIC NOTES ON SI'PEIES O( )IAIlt()TI(cA.7


From the abide recordl the stages are its foll4,Ws:
Jl3,sm
E gg stage ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
l a rival stag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;
P upal stage ..................................................... I I
T o ta l ..... .. . . .. . .. . . . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . . . . .. .- #1
The mature larva"N remainell d quiescenlit in tIle cells for 6 lli %.s 1bef'f,
pupating, and the beetles were in tlie cells fro'in '2 to 3 dliy s Ibefre
issuing. The adults begin to feed as soon as they liavt tle (cels,
although they are still soft, andi light coloredrd for f(rom 3 to 5 diay'.
No pupe were found in nature, but in the rearing jars the larVila,
when mature, burrowed into the soil from A inch to 2 or 3 inches and
formed cells by wriggling about. The larvae and pUl-pa% were lvery
tender and were easily killed if handled at all roughly or if tile soil
in the cages became dry. A moderately moist condition appeared to
be most favorable.
Three females, which were placed in confinement (luring the first
days of March, deposited respectively during one day as follows; 23,
45, and 48 egs. The incubation period of these eggs variedl from 9
to 11 days. One of these lots was carried through with the following
results:
Dayc.
Egg stage ........................................................ 9
Larval stage .................. .................................... 25
Pupal stage...................................................... 11
Total..................................................... 45
On April 21, 8 adults which issued in the rearing jars between
April 18 and April 21 were put together into one cage, with foliage of
Verbesina, to breed.

Record of 8 adults of Diabrotica balteata which had issued in rearing jars April 18 to 21,
1909, and confined, April 21, in one cage with foliage of Verbesina, to breed.

1909. Mated. ggs de- Died. Escaped. i
1909, ated. posited.

April 24... 0 0 1 ............
April 28... 0 0 1 1
April 30... 2 0 a) ............
M ay 14.... 0 0 1 ............ I
May 18... 0 0 2 .........
Total. 2 0 5 1 '
a Taken out; see table following.

, None of the beetles depositedd any eggs, nor were they observed
mating.


79






80 SOME INSECTS INJURIOUS TO TRUCK CROPS.

The record for the pair which mated April 30 is as follows:

Record of egg deposition of a single female of Diabrotica balteata,
which mated April 30, 1909.a

1909. Number
1909 of eggs.

May 8 ........ 39
May 19 ....... 6
May 21....... 23
May 24 ....... 14
May 26....... 16
Total..... 98
a May 31, male died; June 2, female died.

This gives a total of 98 eggs from one female. The life of the
male was 43 days and that of the female 45 days.
The record for the 39 eggs deposited May 8 is as follows:
Detailed record for the 39 eggs of Diabrolica balteata deposited May 8, 1909.
May 8......................... 39 eggs deposited.
May 13........................ 39 eggs hatched.
May 23........................ First larvae made cells.
May 27........................ First larvae pupated.
June 1......................... First adults developed.
June 2--------------------......................... First adults issued from cells.
June 4......................... All adults had issued.
The stages were:
Days.
Egg stage ...................................................... 5
Larval stage-..................................................... 14
Pupal stage .................................................... 5
Total ...................................................... 24
The larvea of this species were confined in large jelly glasses and
in large vials and fed with sections of sorghum cane. Of the three
species reared (Diabrotica balteata, D. vittata, and D. 12-punctata),
Diabrotica balteata was by far the most hardy, and this probably
accounts for its abundance as compared with D. vittata and D.
12-p iti znctata.
Records showed that one lot matured March 1, a second April 18,
and a third June 1. Mr. McMillan found tihe beetles in greatest
abundance during November and December. Judging from this and
from th le rearing records, there may be at least six generations, and
probably one or two more each year.
Occasional mutilated beetles were found lying, on cucurbit and
other leaves and had evidently been killed by some predaceous
insects. Many specimens dissected during May showed no internal
parasites.
The temperatures at Brownsville during January, February, and
March ranged from a minimum of 29 F. to a maximum of 95.1 F.