Administrative interpretations of NRA codes

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Title:
Administrative interpretations of NRA codes
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Work materials ;
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iii leaves, 60 p., vi leaves : ; 27 cm.
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English
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United States -- National Recovery Administration
Boland, D. L
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National Recovery Administration
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Washington, D.C
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non-fiction   ( marcgt )

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Statement of Responsibility:
by D.L. Boland.

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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aleph - 020509005
oclc - 55214974
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AA00018844:00001

Full Text






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OFFICE OF NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION

DIVISION OF REVIEW













ADMINISTRATIVE INTERPRETATIONS OF NRA CODES

By

D. L. Boland


WORK MATERIALS NO. 73


NRA ORGANIZATION STUDIES SECTION
MARCH, 1936










OFFICE OF NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMII'I STRATIO1

DIVIFI0l: OF REVIEW

















ADMINISTRATIVE INTERBPFETATIO'S OF I.-RA CODES

By

D. L. Bland


NBA ORGANIZATION STUDIES SECTION
IARCH, 1956


9843




IGAZINES BOUND
By W. P; Ai
MAR 2 0 1940




FOR QWORD




Jlhis ,Ludj of "AdminnisLr-.tive Interpretptions of i-P-A

Coces" v'.s ire-rred by ::r. D.L. Boland, of the iTtA

Oi'.cnir Lion Studies Section, 1r. William 17. .c-rdsley in charge.

Urfortunr..tel:,, reduction of ,crsonnel in the section

)revrented f..1l development of the subject :'nd exce-)t for minor

revisions the -r-sent document is the one -,resented in

DecenO er 1935 as a preliminary draft of a report on the sub-

ject. nevertheless the discussi'-n, rIlthoath ur.fortun--.tely

lir.iited, tru-ows li.ht on t'.c riocu.dure followed b- ."-RA in

ha.ndlin.: inter-'ret.-tions; .-nd the r --enriices contr.-in much de-

tniledC izform'.tioni on the inter--retations r.cturlly issued. A

st'-ienent 'ointin. the r, :y to further research is to be found

in A---ercdix A.

The findings cnd sug-.esticns of the stud,'are of course

i C'.ividur.l utterc..-ices and not official positions.

At the b- ck of this re-'o-t -rill be found a brief state-

ment of the studies undertJ'.en by the Division of Review.



L.C, I'arshr-.ll1
Director, Division of Review


:.. rch 2.4, 1936












9Z43





-,;.





TALE OF COT:Ei.TS

PAGE

Introduction ........................ ............... ......................... 1I

Chapter I Dr.ses of Po',7er.............. ... ..... .............. 2

Chapter II Definition of the Terms "Iterpretations" and
"E:planations" .... ........ ........... ..... .... 6
Chapter III Dele-ation of Po-er to i.ial-:e and Issue Interpreta-
tions and E:planations ....................... 10

President1 s Reer-.'loyr.ent Agree:ont. . ... .. ......... ...... 11

Oodes Under Section 3(a) ................................... 12

Creation of National InC'ustrial Recover- -oarc................ 12

Miscellaneous Delegations............. ...... ... .......... ......... 13

Code Authorities ............ .. ......... 13

Chapter IV Method of Issuance of Inter-oretations a-nd
E:mplanat ions ................................ 15

Chapter V Analysis of Interpretations Cause Tyes of
Code Provisions. . 1.. ...................... l6

Interpretation of Mlanufacture of ProCuct..................... iS

Interpretation of Labor Provisions........................... 21

Interpretation of Trade Practice Provisions.............. 22

Chapter VI Evaluations and Conclusions. ....................... 23

Appendi:: A Further RevieW. .................... .......... . . 25

Appendi:: 1-To. 1 Outline Interpretations anC Z:olanations....... 26
Appendi:: 7To. 2 List of Interoretations of Hour- Provisions....... 32
Appoendi:: No. 3 List of Interpretations o:. Wage Provisions....... 37

Appendi:: No. 4- List of Interioretations o-" General Labor
Provisions .......... . . . . . .. . . .. .. .. 44
Appendi:: i7o. 5 List of Inter-pretations of Occuoational
Classifications.... ........... .............. 45
Appendix NITo. 6 List of Inter-r-etations of IndCastr.-
Classifications............ ... . . ... 1147

Appen6ix 1io. 7 List of Interpretations of Traie Practice
Provisions ..... ..... .. , ,, *. .. ... 2 . 4
(Including Miat of tynes of trade practice rules
0g)4 'interpreted)i.







PAGE




Appendix No. S NRA Procedure as to the Issuance of Interpre-
to.tions . ................. . . .. . . **.. 57


-iii-


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I I'TODUCT i or



This re iort sets forth the reu.lts of studC of "Interi rctctions".
The various ty-ces of i'A inter :-ctutions li.ve been -r.lyed a'-nd ty--ic.al
cases thereof arc set forth. Thp causes of 2uch interprctations hrve
not been fully e-ilorod, but a -'rroxix.-teiy three hundred co.ases have
been e:r.mined for the ,,urnoscs of tlls rp-,ort. Such inter-retations
relate to codes, Executive end Acdiinistrativre Orders, the PFLA and
other a.&-..iinistrctive ",ronouncements. It has not been -ossible to
make 2. com-lete c:-:jninrtion of the records of a.ll RA intcr-nretations,
the total of vhich is estinmr.ted at one thousand. However, the inter-
pretations examined &ive a fairly re--rcsonta.tive cross-section of
the -.)roblems "nd questions resentr-d.

The -?ririary objective of the study is to -:re.ient the ex-
-neriences of -RA -.-;ith intermretE.tion. end the le-sons to be
learned fro,.i such experiences. The rnin subjects of t.e -nresenta-
tion are those of 'owers, limitnticns thereon, methods of exercise
and other h ses which are c::nnected with lc _i!l civce orcroj .tives.
Such substantive questions are set forth herein. The lesser -irob-
lems relE.tin& to a.dninisLrr,.tio:-, rocc.ure mnd the like thouSh set
forth in dc'-e.i in the outline of the subj-ct (*) Pre treated but
briefly. This report is -rimaril:- concerned with I'?_A c.s. "'. govern-
mental agency and seeks to answer these oucrtions:-

(I) U.hrt w s the Lource of wI'-zs ,ov.-cr to inter-ret
codes and other docuirnents?

(2) T-.t L.id the "7jTh do in the cexrcis e of the iowver
of inter'.rctc tion?

(C) .Thnt should an:- future ,ovcrn,,erLnt.l e\.ency em-
boding the irinci lec of be em'ov.wered to do
with respect to interpretaLioi;s?




(*) Appendix No. 1


9843


K





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CHAPTER I

BASES OF POTER

The National Industrial Recovery Act (*) contains no specific
provision permitting the interpretation of codes or agreements approved
under the terms of the Act. The existence, of the power of interpretation
must find its basis in a construction of the Act or in the application
of general rules and principles of administrative law.

Section 3(a) of the Act, in part, provides:

"The President may, as a condition of his approval of any such
code, impose such conditions (including requirements for the
making of reports and the keeping of accounts) for the protection
of consumers, competitors, employees, and others, and in further-
ance of the public interest, and may provide such exceptions to
and exem-otions from the provisions of such code, as the President
in his discretion deems necessary to effectuate the policy herein
declared."'

Particular attention should be directed to the power "to impose
such conditions." Discretion with respect to such "conditions" is
br -Fad and the exercise of such discretion could be evidenced by the
issuance of an interpretation of a code provision, which interpretation,
according to the finding of the President, would be "for the protection
of consumers, competitors, etc." The power conferred by Section 3(a)
and the meaning of the term conditiono" are of sufficient import to
permit approval of a code on condition that a certain provision or word
shall have a definite meaning.

The order of approval of the Transit Industry Code (No. 28 Sep-
tember 18, 1933) contains the following language:-

"..it is hereby approved, subject to the following conditions:
(1) In approving the Code of Fair Competition for the Transit
Industry, it is to be understood that paragraph 2 of Article VII,
refers te all labor agreements arrived at by collective bargain-
ing and that as to the language of this paragraph, the approval
shall be construed to mean that existing labor contracts between
members of the industry and employees may be continued in effect
to their various expiration dates, unless modified by mutual agree-
ment, but are not incorporated as a part of the Code. Where the
provisions of any such expiring contracts include extensions or
renewals thereof by arbitration or otherwise, such provisions may
have the same force and effect as other provisions of such con-
tracts, but in the process of extension or renewal of any such
contracts, as provided by their terms and conditions, no working
hours shall be set up which are in excess of the maximum allowed
in this Code, and the minimum wage provisions shall not be less
than those provided in this Code."


(*) Public Resolution No. 67, House Resolution No. 5755, 73rd Congress,
hereafter called the Act, 48 Stats. 195.


nf- A





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Likewise, the order nf approval of the Silk Textile Industry Code (No.
48 October 7 1933), in part, provides as follows:

"..it is hereby approved, it being distinctly understood that
the minimum wage fixed in Article IV ;pplies only to the lowest
paid class of labor in the industry and is a minimum 7,age for that
class only, and that weavers, "arpers, loom fixers and other
skilled and semi-skilled workers shall be paid upon a higher wage
scale which maintains the dollar differential above the lowest
paid class as they existed on July 1, 1933, in accordance with the
provisions of paragraph 3 of Article IV."

These instances of interpretation, by means of imposition of a con-
dition in the order of approval, show an assumption by the AA-ministra-
Stion of the existence of interpretive powers in Section 3(a). Some re-
liance upon this source of pover could be had, if all interpretations
were incorporated in the order of approval or a subsequent order of
modification (*), but Sections 3(d), 4(a), 7(b) and 7(c) provide for
other types of codes and agreements, which have no relation to the tyioe
of codes permitted by Section 3(a).

The grant of general -oowcrs in the Act permits wide administrative
discretion. The limits require the President te effectuate the policy
of the Act (**). These limitations disclose P delegation of power in
very general form and are concerned -uith tke administrative issuance
and approval of codes. All administrative action involves the possibi-
lity of rule making, either for purposes of procedure or for the exer-
cise of discretion. The legislative body. at the time of enactment, may
forsee that variable considerations are not predictable. Flexibility
may be necessary in order to administratively ap-rly the law. In such
cases the exercise of discretion evidenced in the forn of rule making
becomes an administrative power. In some cases the rule making power
may be conferred to supplement statutory provisions or for regulation
of major matters without the guidance of analogous direct provisions
in the statute (***).

A legislative delegation of general Fdministrnticn of a statute with
a grant of rule making powers usually includes powers of interoretstion.
Freu-nd, supra, at p. 215 sars:

"Another type of rule-miking is likewise inherent in the odministrn-
tive application of the lar, namely thnt relating to interpretation r-nd
Mii resulting in what are distinctively knovn as 'rulings.' A ruling does
I, not, like other regulations, depl with matter left ooen for variable
disposition, but defines the meaning of statutory terms and provisions.
S Where the statute is in the first instance administratively applied,
such definition is inevitable, whether intended for the guidance of


(*) See Section 10(b) of the Recovery Act.

(**) See Sections 3(a), 7(b), 10(v).

(***) Freund "Administrative Powers Over Persons and Property"-1928,
pp. 213 to 220, inclusive.


9843






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official subordinates or for the guidance of the public. In revenue
legislation, in o-Prticular, such rulings or regulations are of very
great importance. There are inconclusive, if questioned in court; but
even a court may give -reight to a long established administrative con-
struction. They may also have a qualified legal status, where the
statute makes them binding on subordinates or successors in office, un-
til reversed or modified in due course (Tnriff Act, 1922, pp. 502b, c;
also Revenue Act, 1923, po. 1108).

"All these types of unquestionably valid rule-making may be supposed to
be covered by the ordinary delegation of power to nake rules and regu-
lations to carry a statute into effect; and the power probably exists
without express delegation, a possible difference being that the express
delegation makes the rule bindinL upon the administrative authority
while it stands -hereas a rule vclu-mtirily made may perhaps be looked
upon in the same manner as 'adcministrPtive rules' are looked upon in
courts of equity, namely as rules of guidance by which the authority is
not rigorously bound."

It is submitted that such a power existed in the NRA. The limits
of administrative discretion were ride and, of necessity, the power to
set forth the meaning cf statutory terms and code provisions was an in-
herent part of the exercise of discretion.

In support of the above contention, specific power is found in the
Act. Section 10(a) provides:-

1 "The President is authorized to prescribe such rules and regula-
tions as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this title,
and fees for licenses -nd for filing codes of fair competition
and agreements, and any violation of any such rule or regulation
shall be punishable by fine of not to exceed $500, or imprisonment
for net to exceed six months, or both."

This section appears tc be a blanket grant of power and applies to
those rules and regulations which are not included or implied in the
specific grants contained in other sections of the Act (*). Likewise,
the broad powers contained in Section 10(b) are in support of the exis-
tence of the power of interpretation although this section may prescribe
a different method of issuance cf an interpretation. It may also be
argued that the grant of power contained in Section 2, with or without
the support of Section 10(a) would permit the President to issue rules
U and regulations reasonably necessary and intended to carry out the
purposes of the Act (**). The presence of Section 10(a) in the Act
renders the necessity of imolicaticns of power of secondary importance
and leads the author to the conclusion? that this section is the primary
and safest basis upon which to predicate the por-er of interpretation.
This oredicaticn is sup-oorted byT implication from other portions of the
Act and accepted principles ef administrative la'7.


(*) See Section 6(a).

(**) See NRA Legal Research Memorandum No. 447 December 3, 1934.


9843
,,s ,,, II__







The power to interpret by means of rules and regulations requires
examination of the effect of such rules. Are such interpretations mere
administrative guides or actual declarations of law? It is conceded
that the interpretation of statutes and the determination of the limits
of administrative discretion rest with the judiciary. However, in-
terpretc.tions of the NIRA and codes by NRA arc the acts of an adminis-
trative agency and are concerned with administrative law. The existence
of this power judicially and administratively has been recognized.

"A study of administrative law as a branch of the common law is
a study on the basis of decided cases, and it is therefore
natural to read the law in the light of judicial decisions.
Even though it be realized that judicial law is one thing
and administrative practice another, it is also true that
in theory at least the practice is normally subject to judicial
control, and that judicial construction is therefore a very
legitimate test of the limits of discretion. A recognition
of the fact that administrative practice has, so to speak,
its own law, is not inconsistent with the recognition of
the importance of the judicial or legal aspect of discretion,
and vice versa." (*)

Judicial interpretations are law. The effect of administrative interpreta-
tions is the same as that which they interpret, provided the interpreta-
tion is Z"f unreasonable or inconsistent with the Act. The rule is well
stated in Faucus Machine Co. v. U. S., 282 U. S. 375 (1930):-

If... They are valid unless unreasonable or inconsistent
with the statute. United States v. Griamud, 220 U.S.
506, 517-518; International R7zCo. v. Davidson, 257
U.S. 506, 514. They constitute contemporaneous con-
struction by those charged with the administration of
the act, are for that reason entitled to respectful
consideration, and will not be overruled except for
weighty reasons. United States v. Mloore, 95 U.S.
760, 763; Brewster v. Ga_.e, 250 U.S. 327, 336."

Accordingly it is submitted that an interpretation of the National In-
dustrial Recovery Act, an order or a code provision has the effect of
the respective matter interpreted, provided the interpretation was
reasonable and consistent with the statute and the particular order
or code provision.

It should be noted that Section 10 (a) created a criminal offense
for violation of a rule or regulation. This statement connotes the
legal effect of a rule of interpretation issued as a means of effectuat-
ing the purposes of the Act.



(*) Freund 11Administrative Powers Over Persons and Property" 1928,
pp. 51, 95.


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C r T2-TE. I I

Dz7I::ITONI 0o7 THr T:rm;S "ITTE-9TATIOi:"


An "Interpretation," in the ordinary ioenn.in-: of the term, is:-

1. "An intnr:'cting; s-iocificr.lly an e:lonation of uhca.t
is obscure; o::s-oitJon; version; construction.

"A trcnslating; translation from'one lanraage into
nothi r.

2. "The sense given by an internretcr; c::e-_osition or o:plana-
tion givon; -oaning, s conrii.-ntators give various inter-
srctations of the samcn p-oassa-e of Scribturc" (*)

ThLe lcr.1 C-cfinition of the trni, according to T.auvier, is as
follo-7,s:

"The discovery ani ro'prescnt.tion of the true meaning of
any -,i-;ns -LuseC(' to convoy ide.a.s. Liebor, Lc;. anC Pol.
Her-icneutics.

"The 'tIrue aaaningT of Lny sio-ns is that :ioanins '-.hich those
17'o ..uscC( the.i '.-crc desirous of r"m:rcssin2. A ocrson '.-opting
o-- sr.nctioning thci 'uuss' thlm as iCl. !s their i":r'cdiate
author. Both parties to an arrccr.ecnt equally maI:c use of
thel sir;s dcclarc'.tory of that aorcocnt though one only is
the oris:inator, and'. the other nay be entirely passive. The
:.iost co 7-ion sir';ns uascd to convey ideas ar. v',ords. ."non there
is a contradiction in signs intcndoC to agrec, resort nust
b: ho.d to constriction, t;-.t is, the c.ra.ing of conclusions
froi the i-vcn siCns, rcs:cctingr id.as -rhich the:! do not cx-
:,ress. Inter-oretrtion is the art of finding out 'That the
author intcnds to convo;-; construction is resorted to in
con.tarinr" t'7-o dlifferent -"riti1.s or statutes. Construction
is usually confounded -7ith intcrmret rtion, but in connon
sense, is gencrally employed in a sense thrt is -roperly
covered by both -'hcn each is '.sed in a. scnsc strictly and
technically correct; Cool..y, Const. Lim. 70." (**)

An"c:c-pl".nation" is usur.llv (cfinc'. a- folloTs:

"Act or oroccss of &:mlr.ini, c-:ounC.inr or intorOreting;
a clcrrin" from obscurity -nd .lakin.' legible; as, the cx-
.planation o: a pac.;soae in Scripture, or of a. contract or
trcc.ty.




(*) "'..bstcr's c'rc Internationzl Dictionor'- of tlh-e. English Languaoe,
G. : C. ::errin: Co., 1c54, 1. 1129.

(**)Bouvicr's La- Dictionary:, ?2a7le's ThirC'. Revision, Vol 2, p. 1657.


90-43


.. .. ... . .. .




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"ThIc lCnilv; attributcC. to -.nythinE b: on.- -'ho c:m1l..?ns it;
definition; intcr_'rctr.tion; sc:ns,:.

"A mutual c:zcosition of tcr:is, :1:.r.., or 2otiv:s, 1.7ith a
vicw to adjust a. nsundc'standin': or reconcile c.ir.fcrenccs;
reconciliation; rs, conmc to an .::c-.clnatifon." (*)

The firstt official usc o tnac tern "intc:rcta.tior." by 7..A is
founCd in the order of o-^rovc., o' the Cotton To.:til,_ Code July 9, 1933.
No official usc of the tern "c: ':lanr.tion" was T.adc until tl-: issua-ncc
of KPA Bulletin To. 4, rhich sct forth rn official "cItl.nac.tion" of the
PERA. In aC'.itio:i, Bulletin Io. 4 cont:.incd. t-'cr.tny-onc intcr-rotcAtions,
all of which h Cr-.vc a more dctiilc. e:=r.osition of crrt.."in PFA provisions
and attcmnttcd to rcsclvc both ur.tcnt :..nd l.-tc-':t loibts as to- such
provisions. E::."-in.tion of such c:rnl..tlrntons '-c int.:rrctat.o,'is ho's
the former to ber more sirrlc anK. so..i'ti:c;. 2. st.tc.cnt. of the obvious
and the lr.tcr a clarific'.tion of rc-son-.bly doa'btf,.l1. .rovisions. It
i" the opinion of tihe author t'h!L.t this Cistinction of nor,.nclrtuvrc w7.s
officially declared in the s-.id -ull)tin K-o. 4.

No office: 1 definition of tih- tcr;.s *'-r.s ia r bjy ITPA, although
various orCdecrs ncntionod the ter:.i "intcr-r.--c-ttion.1" (1') On Dec'..bcr
29, 1933, the Ac' iinistra.tion noted the C'if--:.cnc,_ in q-cstions of in-
tcrrretc.tion ,,ith. res:,,ct to difficulty o--' ..c.',r-ination. Office
Order No. 53, ijsuccT on the -.bov. d.-tc, i:_ troatknr: of delegantions of
poecr to i:.te:rlrt, distinrisnci s 't-.,':n -"

"Intcr-itrctations 'hlre the intent of th,-. l..n-ua.:-e of
the ccd.: is clc..r ?.nC- urnista-L-abie . ."

and -

"Intcr:.,rctc tions "-a. r t i n.t .nnt tl--. 3a. f
the coce is not :hol'. cl.-ar . ."

and -

"Inter-tretations "7.rc t.ie ine t :nt of the -n:'.0' '"e of
the col:.. is in C-oub-t . "

In such office orcr .no us. of ti'.. tr-i "'.x2Cp.".tio'" ;-crs.




(*) IJobst.:r's .'" Int..rnrtic.al Dicti'-nnrar' of th- Tv; lih Lan.ima^,
G. P.: C. :x i,.,:. Co., 1-34, c. ;a.. c 772.


(l* ) Sc Office Ord rs Kos. Ic, 1:0, 1TPA -il.s.


9Sog43


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Official rccofnition of the scopc of interoretation nroblcmns-- ias
mdc a nd defined on Ilarch 26, l9313. (*)

This adninistrativc definition continued to ,o opoertive until appro::i-
nately S.:c-tcib.r 1, 1934, rhcn the Adiinistrrtion issuJd an Office
anual. Frrt III, paragraph 3113 of the :Irnual dcfin:d the term "inter-
"crctation" cs :ollo7-s:

"I Intc'rctrtion1 -".ca.ns 2 an:- rulir" on the leaning of the
1VrciCua::e of a code -,here the intent of th'.t iwr is
in c'oubt, or night rea.sonably b: crccctc( to be in doiibt
rmonr informce- officials of the CoCk.c Authority r.nde N.-.A.;
i.e., "'here kno-ilcdgr. of the surrou-ic.ina.; circ-unstnnccs .-and
N.2.A. ;olicics fa.ils to :'xnovc th.:. nr-ccsscity for a dLcision
on "'hici- rc.-sonanblc icn, equally con v:-rs-nt --ith the circun-
Cta.nccs nc'" po licies-.aight differ."

Fart IIT, T r.';r.a.h 3111 of such ilnnunl crovidcs:-

,1'E:c-planationl no.mrns any str.tc.lcnt r.s to the .ca-ninc; of the
lr-n,,uarc -"here the intent of thrt l.rnr.ua,' is not in r.oubt
.-.ionc officials of the Cocc Authori Ly or iK.R.A. ; i.e.,
7here a. kno'7lcdgc of the surrou-ncin't: circu'str.nccs re:.oves
the ncccssity for a decision on whichc h rcr.sonnablu ;icn, cq-ra.lly
convcrsr.nt with the circu:'-strn-nc-s and policies, niriht differ."

The spmia Office .-anual contac.ins the 2oli"i:.'r statcunt:-

"Suocrscc.i-; i P11revious Office Orf.crs Pr:c .inorrnC., in-
clizLig' a.ll Acninistrati-vc Oracrs r.nc. oil Ehecutive OrCors
*ith rcncerr.l rpolication of II.R.A."

The ..nu.l -"ns orc'.erc-d by the c-.ircction of the AC&.inistr,-.thnr. and ,.as
signed by the Adninistrative Officer.

Exonin.nation of such definitions sho-'s that the dListinction between
the terns "intcroretation" r.nd '"erpol.nA.tion" .7-.s !;rrkc. by r norn as to
whant constituted doubt. Office Orcdl.r No. 75 refers to doubt of reason-
a.bly y7ell informed officials, nr]:inr the rulin'--, r'hi?.c the Office F-anual
sets rn rcnsonably c-pcctcd C.oubt of inforncd officials of the code
authority y r.nC. the 'IA, This Jiffc-'cncc of d.term inr.tion shors the spe-
ciric linc of .den.rc.tion bct'--ccn r-n intercretat.ion .nd a.n c:rolanation,


(*) Sec Office Order No. 75, which in a'.rt, orovidCes:-
Definitions,
1.. Intcrnretations.
This tc-.-. incl.ucs oll rulings on th, .ea.ning of the language of a coC.e
-,here the intent of that lr.nrxwe is in d.oubt; i.e., 'There a kno-7ledGc
of the surrounding circLnstrnccs .zc.( of the general policies of MA on the
a.rt of the -erson ri-'in.- the irulins fails to rcnove the necessity for
en cdcision on -'ich r-easonr.blc r ncn, eoura.lly ':'ell infonaecd, eight differ,
"licre no decision is required. on ;,Mich rea.soneble ncn, equally 'cll in-
forncd, night differ,, the ra.lin2: is not an interpretation 'out ncrcly
an exTolanntion. 1


S53


. .. ..... ....





-3-


b'jut the -'ztho'. th-reof C'isciosa s an .r.dica.tion b, 7T7RA to cnlr.r1: the
norm a.s to 1:,-A of'ici.-Is .nC to inclU'I., tihe 2,--,on.blc.'nS. of- info-mrr-
tion of co':L a.uthurity ofe'ci'.ls. It shouJc b' noted that 1nolcc:
of both survoun,:in' circu'-istnc.-n..s cn 1'A policy "'erc rcnuisitcs for the
dctcrninrtion of r.,asonrbl"' inrfor!:cd offic'rl"-.

The cf"ort to oeratc "--itai this dist-i'tinn rc.ultc'. in Mna.ny
v,-ir.tions thcrC'ef'om. -rroc.cur: *cior.dc:c' .2.-rt' I" co.nic'er"."t ion of
qauestions of interpretations, sach trr.t.mint bcin.'; su.j:ct to the
procedont S t :rrinrtion "' to the'. ty- of frouertior "- c.s ntC Errors
occurrc .rcby c:: l nr.tions c': t-c-.tcC Ps iV.itc:rctr.tiors n. vice
vers, ~E.::3ccicnc"- often cr.uscd .-o-,:n._ ...rt rir,. f.on the rulis ,:i.rcLby
intor.rctv.tions 'o rc issu,-.c in tL., for-i o. c-,-. ].rnr_.rtions, ,itnout C.'
considcrr.ti., tic'rof ', th.,. various :wviaso-y or..'ds. Eriloy.-cs in the
field, csccci7.ll:r -.'Ju.stors, considered irtr:rctr.tion ,'.n0- cLrlP.nation
-problens '..-.ily b'.L dIcieC thn, l.].t'hou-;h, in !i'v--: ca.scs thy rc not
up-to-C.r.tc Jn ticir 'i:--olcr;c of _-A :olici's (o.neC of thc rcquirrcn-Its
of proocr C...tcr:.-inr .tion.) Inc.ivi.u.-.l ".cizion often c.isrc.c-arfct the
question of other rc.coniab.ly infor'cLr off.ici <.s. Co.c r.utahlorit: of'icir.ls
vcrc not consultedl. In short, th.,. rcqui: _ninte -'crc not follon'c...nc..,
if n.dhered to, the a-ctu:-.J dct:rni'.,nr.tion -''.s difficult. ThL distinction
of the tcrns, "ith rn rttcnc'2nt rclr.:in- of cont--ol of the .o,-r of
c-c:-olanr.tion, crcvted *..or.'. o_ :o'tu"'.itics .or ce-rors nnd ,.ssur".tion of
authority, r'Lcsl.itin" in little or no ]Dnomld. of the t.- c of decisionss
renJered. It is .ugr.^stcd th.t such r Cistinction of terns =nd the
questions of de.lc-"tion ;-nd control involved do n,,t -t-rrnit the continu-
rncc of such .a. s-sten. Contro1., closel- 1.-..'d. ; :o'er ;',.d v' com-lctea
record of the m:-r'-is: of th-. ',.r of "nt .or:.t"rion is nc.cossr.ry. It
is therefore su,:esteJd 'tIt ::.:-.nl.nations, -.s such, sholo.d be r-.bolisnied;
thr.t the onl' questions subject to consic'.rtio0-, should ".), o :cs of in-
tororctr.tio 10 ; .nf tha.t .- control bcG,..rd be ':'.o-'rc:d to dcter-iinc the
initia-l qv.cstion r:.s to 'h.thcr or not -. 'roblci, for 'nt. r-.ctat ion
cxists. Such citr.-.liz.-.tion 'olilC insure -ro':cr ceterninr.Lion -.nd
uniformity.

In addition, -uniforn usr.,c- 6f th.: t( r-i '.intenrctrtion" is
suwgcsted. It is trua. tihat veCry fc: tc.rn. *cr. used in l:e-.cc of
"interpretstlon."'* So:.e orders us-.c "construcL" .m.nd "1"-..li.d." ()
One tcr:i 'ovIld satisfy r.l c-itu,.tionc -.n. :'r..-.. 1t Aossib].i nrisintcrrc-
tation.

As stated r"b -e, various c.' 1-istrr-tiv. definitions of t'-L tcr-.
"interxoretrtion" ecrc estr.blished. Uniforu,it'r of ..r?,...i:.-j"s desirable,
It is therefore stug-stcd thnt nu'" Ileisl. tion, i' v.ny, con+t.a.in a
definition of the teri. "int ru--et-tion" .'-ar thr.-a.t such definition, if
possible, cr..r.tc the .-:.ost si-rile -':od,.s of dotc:-ni.ini thu e:istcnce of
an intercr. tr tion ro z ic r.s". arc :ossiblc.


98s43


(*) See rrocutivc Or.der Io. 6750-C.




-10-


CHAPTER III

DELEGATION OF POWER TO MAKE AND ISSUE
INTERPRETATIONS A1D EXPLANATIONS

Under the terms of Sections 2(a) and 2(b) of the NIRA, the President
was authorized to establish such agencies, accept the services of and to
utilize Federal officers and employees, prescribe their authorities, and
to delegate any of his functions and powers under the title of the Ace to
such officers, agents, and employees. The particular sections in ques-
tion are as follows:

To effectuate the policy of this title, the President is hereby
authorized to establish such agencies, to accept and utilize
such voluntary and uncompensated services, to appoint, without
regard to the provisions of the civil service laws, such officers
and employees, and to utilize such Federal officers and employees,
and, with the consent of the State, such State and local officers
and employees, as he may find necessary, to prescribe their author-
ities, duties, responsibilities, and tenure, and, without regard
to the Classification Act of 1923, as amended, to fix the compen-
sation of any officers and employees so appointed."

"The President may delegate any of his functions and powers under
this title to such officers, agents, and employees as he may des-
ignate or appoint, and may establish an industrial planning and
research agency to aid in carrying out his functions under this
title."

Pursuant to this authority, the President on June 16, 1933, by Execu-
tive Order No. 6173, appointed Hugh S. Johnson, as Administrator for Indus-
trial Recovery under Title I of the Act. Under the terms of the said
order the President further appointed a Special Industrial Recovery Board
to be composed of the Secretary of Commerce as Chairman, the Attorney
General, the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of Agriculture, the
Secretary of Labor, the Director of the Budget, the Administrator for In-
dustrial Recovery, and the chairman of the Federal Trade Commission. The
Administrator for Industrial Recovery was granted authority for thirty
days, subject to the approval of the Special Industrial Recovery Board, to
appoint the necessary personnel on a temporary basis and to conduct the
work authorized under Title I of the Act. On July 15, 1933, the President,
by Executive Order No. 6205-A, continued the ap-oointment of Hugh S. Johnson
as Administrator for Industrial Recovery and authorized him, subject to
the general approval of the aforementioned Special Industrial Recovery
Board, to appoint the necessary personnel on a permanent basis, and among
other things to exercise functions invested in the President by Title I
of the Act, except the approval of codes, making of agreements, issuance
of licenses, or exercise of power conferred in Sections 3(e), 6(c), 8(b),
9, and 10.

No specific mention of the power of interpretation is contained in
any Presidential order conferring authority upon the Administrator or the
National Industrial Recovery Board. The reservation of power of Section
10(a) contained in Executive Order No. 6205-A would indicate a non-dele-
gation of the power of interpretation in view of the discussion in Chapter
I, ante.
9843




.-11-


Sever.al subsequent Executive Orders authorized. the ,issuance of rules and
j regulations as to specific -ratters (*), but no mention of interpretationss"
is found therein. It is true the grants of nower set forth in Executive
Orders Nos. 5173 and 6205-A are general in terms, biut if the basis of
the power of inte:pretation lies in Section 10(a) then it would follow
that no proper delegation of -u.-ch oover n.s ,aiade, subject to the ex-
ceptions wherein authority to prescr-ibe rules and regulations re-
garding certain specific matters :7as conferred. It may be argued that
the delegation of general powers carried the implied power of interpre-
tation. Part of the discussion in Chapter I, ante, would support such
a contention, vhich is the only basis upon which, with a few exceptions,
the power of interpretations may be predicated.

The investigation of the record of delegations by the Administrator
shows an admitted assumiption that the power of interpretation had been
conferred upon him. Various Administrative Orders delegated the power
of interpretation to various NIRA officials and for nurooses of this
report, such delegations relating to codes ind the PPA will be treated
separately.

.President's Reemployment Agreement

On July 20, 1935 the President announced the President's Reemploy-
ment Agreement (**) widely knov-n as the PRA. The ln guage of this
agreement required e:planatiol and interpretation practically from its
inception, mainly because of its general application, so on August 7,
* 1933, the Administrator created the PRA Policy Board and authorized it
to issue "all interpretations of PEA requested by the Industrial
Mediation Board, General Hammond or other -proper authorities".
Apparently the bulk of requests for interpretations of the PRA in its
early stages referred to questions of display of the Blue Eagle and the
Blue Eagle Division of the NRA (***), 17ith the approval of the Adminis-
trator, issued interpretations. Later, the above mentioned Policy
Board was abolished and the Blue Eagle Branch (formerly Blue Eagle
Division) of the Comqliance Division was emo-owereC. to interpret PRA
provisions (****).

Io further specific delegations of the over of interpretations of
PRA provisions have been found.

Ex-olanations of the PRA were ,7iven in official form (**.**), but
practically all such explanations vere issued formally. The PRA
authorities in Washington and the local BRA Compliance Boards (voluntary
organizations established in cities, towns and villages) undertook the

(*) Executive Orders No. 6590-A, 6590-B, 6678-A.
(**) See IUIA Bulletin i7o. 3, ITFRA Files.
(***) See I1PA Bulletin 1o 4 '1Official Statement of the Blue
Eagle Division of NRA," 1TRA Files.
(****) Office OrdCer ro. 40 October 26, 1933, TMA files.
(*****) See NRA Bulletin No. 4, INRA files.


9843


I




*-12-


explanation to the American public of the meaning of the PRA. The
author has had no opportunity to investigate the records of such ex-
planations, but from personal ex-oerience it mat be said that no con-
trol of such explanations was successfully maintained and that many
explanations were issued which were in fact interpretAtions.

SC0des Udlder Section 3 (a)

The codification of Industry created. the acliinistrative problem of
proner interpretation. of codes. At the outset of NTBA interpretations
of codes verc informally issued by deputy administrators. .No officiAl
delegation of this authority is found, but on December 29, 1933 the
Administrator issued. Office OrdLer ITo. 53, which provides:

"The dleput:' adsinistr-.ator is the deputized representative
of the Administrator for InLustrial Recovery, and, under
the supervision of the division administrator, acts for
him within the scope of his delegated authority and re-
sponsibility."

"The Administrator has delegated to deputy administrators,
under the supervision of the division administrator,
authority and responsibility for the interpretation of
codes."

Increase in the number of interpretations required coordination and
control of the issuance of interpretations, so that on Harch 26, 1934,
the Administrator, in Office Order No. 75, designated division adminis-
trators as the only lesser officials enm-oowered to approve, disapprove or
modify rulings of inter-oretations. The order also provided that such
ruling v.'ould be final, subject only to the. ultimate disapproval by the
Administrator. Violations of this limitation of rover Occurred from time
to time, resulting' in a confirmation of the division administrator's
power (*).

The NBA Office annual l reiterates the pooier of the division
administrator (**). The lianual further states that general inter-
pretation are issued over the signature of the Administrator and that
explanations are issued by the deputy administrator in charge of the
particular code. (***)

Creation of National Industrial Recovery Board

In September, 1934, the President decider' uwoon a change is. tio
form of the administering bo,:'3- of the National Industrial Recovery Act.
t-eneral Johnson had resigned as Adiinistrator for Industrial Recovery
and on September 27, 1934, the PresidCent, by Executive Order ITo. 6859,
created the ilational Industrial Recovery Board, consisting of seven m
members. The order appointed S. Clay Williams, A. D. Whiteside,
Sidney Hillman, Leon C. Marshall, and Walton Hamilton as members of the
Board, and appointed BlacW-ell Smith Legal Adviser and Leon Henderson,
Economic Adviser to the Board. These t,'o p.dvisers served as ex-officio

(*) See Office I.emorandum No. 242-July 6, 1934, NRA Files.
(**) Part III, '.par. 3132.1. Ste ilso Appehaix.8.
(**) NIRA Office Manual, Part III, par. 3121.1., 3130.2, NRA Files.
9843


Ut





-13-


members of the board. The five members anonointed (other than ex-officio
members) were empowered to administer, under the direction of the Pres-
ident, Title I of the Act, and the board was authorized to exercise
all powers theretofore conferred by executive orders unon the Admin-
istrator for Industrial Recovery. This creatiQn of the board necessarily
transferred to it the -owers of interpretation which had theretofore
been held by the Administrator.

Miscellaneous Delegations

A further delegation of nower was made with respect to the issuance
of interpretations on Anril 9, 1934, when the Administrator created
the office of Administrative Officer and designated such officer "to act
on all matters not otherwise assigned which do not require the Adminis-
trator's personal attention, including final annroval in the name of the
Administrator of codes and other documents requiring the Administrator's
action ***". The National Industrial Recovery Board continued this
office and its order conferring the authority states "to execute any
or all papers, documents, or other instruments. in writing required in
the performance of the functions end no-ers delegated to said Board by
said Executive Order and otherwise, including, but without limitation,
the power to issue orders, annrovals, rules or regulations." (*)

A few delegations of the rower of interoretption were made in
connection with certain phases of code administration. Executive Order
No. 6646 required submission of certificates of compliance with codes
by Government contractors. The various questions regarding this part
of NRA work related to compliance and, on :,arch 1, 1935, the -Dower of
interpretation of matters relating to Government contracts was delegated
to the Compliance and Enforcement Director.

The necessity of efficient handling of anolications for internretatians
motivated the authorization of the Chief of tLe Compliance Division to
grant or deny an application for an interpretation which had been re-
ferred by any of the state compliance directors (**), when the ordinary
procedure leading to a decision by a division administrator had caused
undue delay.

Under the terms of Office Order No. 97, June 28, 1934, the determina-
tion of "localities" under Executive Order No. 6723 (relating to local ser-
vice trade agreements) was delegated by the Administrator to the several
division administrators.

Code Authorities

SCertain codes, by their terms, authorized code authorities ti issue
interpretations of the provisions of the codes they were administering (**).

(*) Administrative Order X-107, November 1, 1934 Administrative Order
X-93, September 23, 1934, NRA files.

(**) Office Order No. 108, August 16, 1934, IPRA files.

(*ai") See Article XI, Section 5 Iron and Steel Code, Codes of Fair
\ Competition as anoroved, U. S. Govt. Printing Office.


9843


-I- . -I







-14-


Other codes noermitted their code authorities to issue bulletins and infor-
mationr in the form of rules and regulations to the members of their resDec.
tive industries or trades. This reoort is not concerned with the activi-
ties of code authorities in this respect, but it is submitted that such
delegation by NRA of the pcwer of interpretation was improper and should
be legislatively prohibited (*). It is further suggested that the power
of code authorities to issue rules end regulations which are substantive
in nature and actually internret code provisions should meet similar
legislative -Drohibition.

(*) See NRA Legal Research Memorandum No. 785 Memorandum on the power
of cade authorities to grant exemptions and to make binding interpre-i
stations For collection of authorities, NR5A files.




.A
I















I .


9843


Uk




-15-

CHAPTER IV ":

METHOD OF ISSUANCE iF Ii TRPR:TATIO0S AiD EXPLANATIONS


The exercise of the power of interpretation and explanation
was evidenced in several w-'ys. On some occasions a conditional
order of ap-roval was usoid whereby thu President or the adminis-
trator approved a code on condition that certain language in the
code shall be interpreted to have a certain meaning (*). In other
instances interpretation of codes was made by issuance of an Execu-
tive or -Administrative Order whereby a certain meaning was applied
to a certain type of cod-- proVision. (**) It may be argued that'
such an order is in effect an amendment of a code, but the language
used in such orders ("construed", "iatef.rreted", "applied") connotes
an exercise of thi power of interpretation. The third and most
usual method of interpretation vwas an administrative order or
ruling which set forth the particular interpretation (***) Such
orders were in most cases confined to the provisions of one code.

Explanations were issued informally in oral or written form.
Written explanations were announced in ordinary letters, or by
telegram if speedy answer was required.



























(*) See for exam-le Condition iTo. 8 of Order of Apo-proval of Cotton
Textile Code Code Uo. 1, Codes of ?2rir Competition as Approved,
U. S. Gov't Printing Office.
(*i) See Executive Order No. 6355.
(***) See Administrative Orders iTos. 278-88,; 118-135, TRA files.


9843




7 -q p


-16-


ChATT"TP. V

AiIALYSIS OF IiJTTLPriJT..TI'.TS CAUSES TYPES OF
CODE FROVI-riC:S

Practically all t..cs ci code provisi-ns vic'-e subjected to interpreta-
tions, which wvcre issued by Iy. for various reasons. At the outset, few
people realized the extcnt, scope -n.C r-niificatio ns of codes. The div-
isions of Amcric.n industry and trtdxL .he v-rioas t:ircs of employes and
laboring conditions and the many tr ..dc practices -nd usages existent in
American industry and trado wvere matters of conjecture at the time of
NRA code-mrl:inc. It was hoped th1.t most situations could be met by codes,
but experience a-nd administration required elaboration of such provisions.
Similar situations marked the issuance of Executive and Administrative
Orders, thereby causing inteonret.tions of such administrative pro-
nounccments (*)

Codes and the administration thereof in sorm cases conflicted with t
existing legal principles or pDolicy determinations of NRA. These conflicts
resulted in issuance of general interpret-.tions which by their terms,
interpreted al- pertinent code ;.revisions so as to remove any doubt as to
the meaning thereof. A tabulation of such general interpretations is as
follows:

E )CUTIVE AM!III STRATIVE
0_'ERS OR-DERS DATE SUF STANCE

6355 10-23-33 No provision in any code shall be
so construed as to prohibit payme
of patronage dividend.

6464 11-27-33 Interrrcted commercial bribery pro
visions.
/
6606-A 2-17-33 Further interpretation of E;cuti
Order ITo. 6355.

6606-F 2-17-35 Interpretation and application of
lator provisions affecting handi-
c2.' cd w.7orkecrs.

6711-A 5-15-34 Interpretation and application of
labor provisions affecting certain
homeieworkcrs.

X-35 5-16-34 Defined farmers' and consumers'
cooper-. tives

6750-C 6-27-34 Interpretation and application
of certain labor provisions as
they affected apprentice train-
ing programs. /


(*) See Administrative Orders Nos. X-.78, X-36-2; Executive Order No. 6606
U:TRA files |





-17-


EXECUTIVE
OREMRS


ADMI:II STRATI VE
ORDERS


DATE SUBSTANCE


3-21-34 Interprctinca order of termination
of exemption granted in Par. III,
Administrative Order X-36


10-13-34





10-26-54



12-17-34


Int~c preting Executive Order INo.
6606-A insof r as it an-lied to
; 1low r nce f brol:ern.r-c cominssions
to coo-orativc organizations.

Inteipretotion of rrovisiins rel-
v-.nt to collecti-,n .i- expenses of
code o'dministr.iti';n.

IntcrrrotrLt:-ic'of cf.'cct of tcm-
.)orary interruptions in wotk be-
yond control of employee .as
f'.-ccting maximum hours and. corn-
-put .tion of wagcs under various
c.)dos.


X-l20 1-4-35 Intorprcte,'. provisions in codes
whic'i e-ctcndcd minimum hourly
rate of r.ay to piece workers.

X-1C4 1-U6-35 Interpreted application of home
,''.:ork provisions as contained in
S- various codes,

X-137 3-15-35 Interpreted provisions in various
co':ieC prescribing' term of employ-
ment of lo.--rnmcrs and apprentices.

X-36-3 3-3,'7-35 Intetrreted excmrtion in pa.ra-
Zrapn III, Administrr.tive Ordcr
Ho. X--36.

All codes co-ntained :t-tomcrnts -s to their juris(ictl.on. Definitions
of proc..ucts, service .tnd methods of '.mnumf.acturc, or distributi-.n were set
forth. Lj1k'uise, definitions if industr-y :,r tra.?-'-c members and various
classes thereof wcre _art? if codc.E. The result was applications for inter-
pretations of such jurisdcict:)-ia:l statements. Some interpret-tions decided
whether or n-,t a nn.rticul-'-r re.inmbcr, service or product of an industry or
tr".ae cajme within n the scouce ,f -., c,'de. Pri!.ri.rily the.e ou.-'stions rcre
ones of classific-i.ti)n out t'-' lecisioCn thereon depended upon interpretation
o-f the code provision. A few cxanples arc':


9843


X-78


X-98





X-106



X-124







-18-


IIT2RPPJTATIJiTS OF I1AP2LTF'LCTTJR:E OF PRODUCTS


, ORDER ITO.


71-30
84-96

393- 2
470- 6


Determines code covering mnanufa.c-urc of watchingg plaster.
Manufacture of steel m-.nholec- .licedc under fabricated Met.l
Products Code
ManufacturL af fl.:.x ro..c pulaccd under Soft Fibre Mfg. Code,
Uanufccture of ".luminuni vire 'laced. under Aluminum Code*


Sonime questions arose as -a result of ovcrl--piing definitions; e.g.,:


430-14


470- 6


Manufacturer of cough -rops determined a part of Pacmkage MedicinE
Industry r.ther than Candy Mfg. Industry.

Manufacture of aluminum wvire under Aluminum Code rather than
Electrical Manuf-icturinL, Code.


-I


Question-s as to the type of service included under a code arose,
e.g., Or.der ITo. 101-21 Cleaning and Dyeing Trade Code decided that
the cleaning of curt-ins :nd. rujs by proces-ses defined in sc.id code
was subject to its provisions.

Some interpi.retations - to -::,pliccti-.n of c. code refer:':ed to methods
of manuf e-tu-ing, e.g., Ord.r -To. 83-23 addition of water to concentrate
soap, thereby producing liquid soap, comes under the Soap and Glycerine
Code.

Consider.t: -ns of geogr,:phic-l areas relating to industrial subdivisit
caused interpretations ns to area-.s etc., e.g., Philadelphia and New York
vwerc determined to be near points of cultivation, Crder No. 308-A-6, Fresh
Oyster Code.
I
In some cases doubt arose ,.is to wheoh-r or not the particular interest|
or activities of a= individual nadc him a member of a.n industry (*).
Simil -r c:Lses involved an inter'prc -tation of the term "manufacturer" (**)

The author h-s examined the various annLnistr-.-ive orders issued by
NRA up to March 15, 1935 and containing interorct-tions as to classifi-
cations of va..rious products, industry groups, or the applications of a give
code to a cert-in type of orer-timns, etc. i

A t?.bulation thereof shows the following:


(*) See Orddr No. 57-9, Pump Manufacturing Industry Code, NRA files.

(**) See Ordrr Nos. 98-6 and 98-19 Fire Extinguisher Code Order No.
279-10 Stem H-Ic.ating Equipment Industry Code. fBA files.







9846 i


-t






*I'DUST-'Y


- I x i I:. Tv. '. 'As t*;7
:.:-C'ic -'n :ct-'ol t .X'., i. i '..-.t
Arciutcctur"l, 0"r.:"rs.::.- I" lisc.
Ioron, Dronzc .:irc C: ;. t.?. S.,cilti
Br.n!: Ins.tru...t f'2. I-str-
Busincss _urniturc, Stor- Zoui".1c"t etc.
COn iiv'; & P"ckir-- lZrc.-ii": r :- ( Eoui."'i ':.nt
Crnnin1i: I S'.Is'ry
Cic.n.rin: c.- D: :.-i. ,.;

Cor.t & Suit I -: '... tr"


Co i '. crci'. 2 fri -c;rt ; "o .'.
Conlctc ".ir.: 2: Ir 7. ,--.,:.: Inc.
Concrete irso-." Inui.s--y

Concrete Fiz.r ,f:.'. in.'..
Cotton C -rncnt Ins-:.str.
Cotton Tc::tilc
Curlc'. Fa',ir ,f,. arrc 9 .ir-^-. Dr -': ,-
Cylindcr I:ouil(c : F j;.I'I -.
Dross iir.nT.f.cturi:." I:Y.

Eloctric'cal Inc'ustr-

tElactric &- .o-. Sn
F-abricr.tc "'( t".l =rc,.'.rVcts




Fertilizer Inr',str -





Fir .; "iininh'r A: ..1.i"-:"-c

Fresh Oystcr I T..: str -
?urnitr.ro .">" -

GrriIhc. c Arts
L' tnC-.ry Tr-kc
Lc-.th ir .' 0 it 'I 7,o
'.i:icstonc Ix-:."strr
Lunbcr ?& 7i--',: .. r Fr,- '-a'.. Z
i..crclOI SO^-i~E &^rk-ho';siA -- in a'r
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101- 221

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133- 103
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T.ov.-.nrbcr 5, 1934
:irrch 28, 1934

Jr-nurry 1935
J: nu.-ry 9, 1935
Vovcnbcr 30, 193)h4
iH.y i6, 1934
Dcccnmbcr C, 193-
July 27, 19354
Ausust 30; 1934
I"r,: 17, 134
i- 1, 1 9!34

A:ril '9, 1934
-ovonbcr ;13, 1934
A'.-ust 23, 193)4
October 15, 1934
Jul-, 1 c.34
A;.ril 5, 3 i
Au,-ct 24, 1934
17ov-nribr 26, 1934
Au.-ast 17, 1934
Ju.io 1, 1934
June 27, 1.934
Aura.t 22, 1934
February 13, 1935
J.nur.ryr 22, 1935
Aug-ust s 1:354
Uovcnbcr ., 1934
Dc:cnobcr ?0, 195434
o0bri-a.ry 27, 1935

i. .rch 27, 1;)4
1 Ac-rl 12, 1934
Ac9il 12, 1)534
..'i 1.2, 19534
.'Lovcnbcr 13, 1934
U.-rch 4, 10935
Ju:.y 23, 1935
I'o-.cnbcr 22, 193L4
Au,7ust 13, 1934
July- 31, L93,l.
October 1?, 1934

So--to Cucr 7, 1934
'ovc-ibcr 24, 19334
A-oril 25C. 197.L!
July: 2F, 1ii34
Aoril 6, 1934

li- 17, 19.34
Jr.-.iurry 214, 19314


54 3


-19-


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DATE









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S, -t. ,-...... t 2217 93k
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irust 1934
Octoocr 5,c 15934
S-- 1 2 1 133 3
S, -t...:t' c:/22,1934'
T- ..... 3, 1935

Dcc,;J:" 1 ,134
- -" "' ?-^
J-aly 30, 1334
A-i! 23, 1934
;A:'-il 23, 1334
.:'ril 23, 1S34
A.ri! 2 1334
A ril 23, 1934
.A 'ri .,,
2Dc, .r 27,1334
rc :.r 4, 1934
S t : -:r 12,1934
1:-, *, 1934
S-.:t :::bcr 2_193
l-o... c 1l4, 1 934

S .t..."l > 22,1934
Octo. 4, 1934
A.ril I", 1934
Octo.... 7 1934


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-~-~---- -


-22-


Interi'rctrtions Of Trac.e Prar.ctice Provisions

The a-iithor h:. e: :i.ineC. aOl of the into .netations of trac.e practice
rules fornall- is.ucC. b: ITMA front June 1S, 1935 to icarch 15, 1935. The
investigation CiscloseC. that nost of such inteirrotations ree'errel to
-:.'rovisions rei!tin: to j-6ices or -orice re'ulr.tion. Pr'ice filing c.used.
':roble is as 'o effective C'atcs, (C'.ates of revision, access to recorCs,
for. is of rice lists. Pricing: -)ovisions ra.iseC'. questions as to cost
basic, inclusion o, taxes in Drices, rplic.tion of revisionss to sales
bet- -eon inc('-Ls r'- :ie.ubors anK. Q'-ivile(es o- sale to meet co:.Toetition.
Co.er. contrinin" uniform discount anC. crec'it p-:ovisions anc'. prohibitions
.'a.inst aC.vc"tisin.-: .!o--nces -ere subjects of c numabc:- of interpretations.
The author has been unable to set forth i-. o.ctail the substrnce of all
tra,'e practicr. inter.-o'etations, but A-p-enci:: NQ. 7, attached' hereto,
lists the cor.e.s relatin'; to --hich the various intei-oretations '-ere
is-r..er. anC the t:,pe of coce provisionn affected'..

.4o inte:-:',etations of the c'-ininstrrtive provisions of the codes
"ere fov.nk. in assc:Wli:w the n.-Lerial for this stuc:-'.






-97


,-.2T : "ITl.
> .- "* pr i- 'n* -r
.' . -".. . 1 S I";,



The .urpose o ,rL :-o or inC"'' --'t-.'.io' .-C the effect of its
exercise is to clarify. > '.i.'' Li ive ronouncements.
> Its use and corcitC C.2 -an' n e '-' --ti--c -'rrnt rn'"- r..inistrrtive
la. dict-tes that the -,rclv;. tioi _o--c; .ou'. be fair and -eason-
able. ITo r.entions tLc te-n intoor' tJon" o:0 an:- o-er thereof is
fciQjnL in th., Pecov.re:-Act. An;' such -o'-cr is O.soC. .urcl, 1- uon c con-
-- t U, ni 0" i !C I Uf..icienut lor z.n i71l0 -
st action of thic .ct, ti 'or.in of hich is s-f: icn- for n -
ca.tion o: r. ,*'r.nt of n'"r. In vie- of tils .-.cU: o-' s:ccific mention
oe the ten-i. ".. stcte:en'- o: oo:er, it is nu,-.-esteC. that contem)l tec.
lo'-is3.rtion, if an-, -,it otjct'er. sinilnr to )tose ot the *TI3A, I..:e
jecific rcr"r. once to the -,o',er o- interpretation m.C that full r.ncLd
c'.courto .iovision be cua e hereby the agency *chiargecl 'ith the aCuiinis-
-trtion o-' c'-.r" nc-: act be _er:iitteoC to e::ercise this po'-er at an:- or all
ti:nes, eitho:' .ener.i..r1 or s-f.;cifically.
ACmiristrative atteiqots to f.efine the te:':-s "interpreta.tions" and
"e:0-plafnation" ccreatcC n -.ist.inction, th boun'.aries of -"hich -ere dif-
Sficult of dctei.-.ination, The *:cthodz of issuance anc.. control of
llexolanations" -ore incv.w"le of effective acL:.inir-tration. The atten-
dant questions of c.ele".tion .hn.eo( ,'ie C'eccn-'-.1.Xizp.tion, thereb,
r r-ultin' L ...ur..' ber-ko"- n of the ac-iinistrative .p-ocedurc. It is
suwr'esteC. that l"c-:::lanatiQns" c-s a br-,sis for .a..iianistrative action
be abolish. anr'. tfLat tile a :inistrativ.? a,enc:- be eiio,-erec'. to issue
"interpoeta'ions." A.. a(.it:.istrativco boar,' o. control, for -urposes of
unifoi r.nt correct ('.ctc..i....tim'. furt L-c" su,"'este.. Si:nle .uicies
unifor st -m'.cor s-tc. sh." is re est,!-e""". "
anc. stanc.ar- s sh.oulc be cstr "'.i-hec-'a :,' the oe-olininary question
a s to *-heth-r or n-iot rn intc--r '-ctrtion :.'o n .c;i i, rcesentoeL can be
easil-' c.eto ":ine..
The exercise of c.e :po'',c o" "i:LeZ:etation" b- 1RA '-as -ithoat
specific (c.le"r.tion the'eof. -n: c-:irtencc of the ,oo-er in iTRA officials
S is, T.ith a. fe- e::ce-tionxe, besec. .-mon i-'wlications front s'rr.nts of other
powerss. It is su.;-este,'. thr.t 'clcmta1 io:-.s contc.in specific reference to
: the -:)o'er of in"tei--:-'tation e.-n tht su-ch elevationss be confined to the
A! a. unitstrative lhenc. or boal7L, I"'it> as fe"c del e;1ae ions to lesser officials
as possible. If the nu ibo:. of rp-ylicctions for inter-:retations -,arrants,
the creation o" cn office of ani "Intemrpetation Officelr" is suggested.
These su,;-ecticns .ma, cause soue delay, but the interests of correct
inter-oretation sec:- to the -riter to out--ei:h the questions of dLelay'.
If poropert- an,' personal interests a-re depenDent upon nn interpretation,
a re-.la.tion -hereby. the receipt of t"-. bona tide anplication '-ould .,rant
an auto-iatic e-.:eTotion pen in" of.icir.l inter-_;retation is sugested.

It is ;ua.-peste. tiat a le -isletivo -rohi'-ition against delegations
of po.'er o-" intecirietation to GUcli a.;encies a, code authorities should
Sbe set io.

It is aC.::i-ium of st:.tutory construction that an act of Congress
vrill be libcrallyr const"i.eC b.,' the courts in or.er to -;ive effect to
the intention o the le.-islative oo.'.. It is t.lso a rn.le.of statutory
construction thrt acts of Con--r:ess creating a n -Dunishable cri-inal offense
'Till be strictly construe, in favor o:F the person accused,

0Ma
41':. .-- -







From a consideration of those two opposite modes of construction,
it logically follows either that the court could construe a general
grant of power to make rules and regulations under Section 10(a) as be-
ing restricted in its criminal operation to those violations only which
the court considers to have been intended by Congress; or Section 10(a)
may be construed as confining the power granted to those rules and
regulations alone which are penal by intendment, and a general grant.
of pcwer to make other rules and regulations may be implied from the
act itself.

It should be possible to construe Section 10(a) as granting a
general power to the President to prescribe rules and regulations for
which a penalty may attach only in certain prescribed instances. In
view of the fact, however, that the section makes any violation
punishable, the better course would probably lie in insisting upon the
construction of Section 10(a) as being restricted in scope to those
rules and regulations only which have a penalty prescribed. Otherwise,
the objection might be raised in a criminal proceeding that the statute
prescribing the penalty was void for uncertainty in not informing the
violator of the exact nature of his obligations. However the Act is
interpreted, consistency is necessary to avoid complications. It is
therefore suggested that future rules and regulations, if any, contain
a clause specifically referring to the criminal effect of violation
thereof, if new legislation should incorporate the substance of the
present Section 10(a).

Chapter V of this report sets forth in brief some of the causes of
interpretations and also the types of code provisions affected. A
more complete exposition of the problems has not been found possible.
It is possible, after examination of such interpretations, to state
that the causes of the interpretations examined, in part, are:

1. Faulty drafting of codes.
2. Ignorance of problems and extent of code administration.
3. Necessity of elaboration of general statements contained
in codes.
4. Classification of industries.
5. Overlapping code definitions.
6. Removal of inconsistencies of code provisions with execu-
tive and administrative declarations of policy.

The report has not considered questions of due process with respect
to consideration and issuance of interpretations. Chapter I treats of
the inherent power of administrative interpretation, the exercise there-
of being within the intendment of the legislation. Sufficient precedent
can be found for the proper exercise of this power provided the power is
legislatively conferred with a direction that hearing or notice is not
required. Such a legislative declaration is suggested.

It is further suggested that the issuance of interpretations be
made subject to a rule of precedent and that a properly indexed reference
be maintained.


9843


U'






-25-


Ap?^mwIx A

: T"_U_- L C-. _r .I::,j




One of the first stc:s i'n --u cvclo'. '.r..t of this "tuly nas the
preparation of a *-orl: outline, in the r.r.tici.ation, that circumstances
pernittin.':, the final re,.ort on th'e S".-bjct "oulQ ('.eal ':.ith the -iore'
i:oortant sections of tao outline r.t least. This outline is in-
cludeLe in this 'eort ais Awenei:: No. 1 an'. it should be useful as a
j-aic.e to r.n-, further stm-,:- of the subject. A co iroarison of the out-
line 'iith the table content *"ovl( sho-r that the actual Cevelopnment
of the subject in the rco;ort fell substanti-lly- short of: anticipations.

The f.ollo-inw; su." 'estions are :aC'.e ,'ith respect to particular
natters for further stu('yl

1. Co3rcletion, o:o reference to the files of the National
Recover' AcLiinistration, of the analysis of all inter-
oreotations issue;'-

2. Further stu-.'. of the reasons for interpretations, that is
S:!h.7h the" har. to be issuec', -'ith pcr.rticulz.r reference to
? 4.
Sthe inte:--"etations of the provisions of ilIA coCes.

3. Other -than r- the receiot of protests beA had little
1:no"--Ec.ge of the ef-ects of tUhe interpretations it
issueC'., Inforx'ation of the effects of the inter-ore-
ta'ions -Luron inustr;y, lipboe: .n b. '-L ay, of reoercussion
~ upon ',.10 A itself s-.:i:'li- "oulc be volua.ble. The C'.iffi-
culty of Leterin.-' ouch ,.efiects is fully. recoznizec.,
Keverthelesc, .t;.y of: the effects of dnter-oretations of
certain t7pG; for e:-:."clo, ..lose "_sc:uec_ in an attenot
to resolve :-.ro'-le:is of overl...-in" coc'.e Clefinitions,
1i ht, be :.-e':.sible c :.roc.tctive of useful information,





-26-


APPE-DIX NU. 1

ADMIIIISTRAIV ?0IF"05LEINS REVIEW

.-.T.-RZ2ATIO-::S AID EXPLAUATIOI:S


1. Introduction.

1..1 Ogjective and scope of study,

2. Bases of pYover of interpretation and e:.Tlanation.
2.1 General rules of interpretation,
2.2.Legal prri:ciples of interpretation applicable to
administrative agencies.
2.3 Bases in the Act,
2.4 Bases in Executive Orders.
,.5 Inp:lied covers.

3. Definition.
3.1 Ordinary definition.
3.2 Legal definition.
3.3 Adminivtrative definition cha.nges.
,.4 Discussijn of difference between terms "interpretation"
and explanationn".
S.41 Administrative coytic'erations.
3.42 Precedents for divisions of treatment.
....43 A. ministrative effects of division*

4. Delegation of power.
4.1 To make interpretations.
4.11 To the Administrator.
4.111 PRA.
4.112 Codes.
4.12 Iransfer of p-ower to ITIRB.
4.13 Additional delegati-n of, limitations or
conditions on power ciran.ted to ITIRB.
4.131 Aules and regulation of N1IP.B.
4.14 To Division Ac.'ministvators.
4.15 To Territorial Administrators.
4.16 ITecessity of formality of issuance of
interpretations.
4.2 To makes explanations.
4.21 .4dmi.ni.trator NIBB,.
4.211 PRAi.
4.212 Codes.
4.22 Division Administrators.
4.23 Eeputy Administrators.
4.231 Officials subject to deputyls supervision.
4.24 Specific boards established by Administrator.
4.241 PRA boards.
4,2411 Washington,
4.2412. Local.
4.242 Codes.
4.2421 Washington.


9843


I


...... ........ -


1


i






-27-


4.2-122 Field Dffices.
,. I ,?. '." A .t9 ritie
'-'. (_
*.25 State a:LL .IR io.'. .iroe t"rz.
-.26 Co..-lion:ce Coin.cils.
4.27 Other e'-l.'ee, jf TA.
.*'^S 3.. :c.'l ..i..it-. *i.,. \. c\-le ;"-tec. -ower.
4.3 Delcgati).-i of ..'.cr Lt : al board'.
4.4 Lelegation of joint ,-ower.

5. ALdministrative iLcet'o'.s of intc'toipret tion ." e:.olanation.
o.1 executive or-er.
5.2 Ac'ministrative order.
5.21 AMmninistrithr or NTIR2
15.22 Division or Deputy AdLministrator.
15.23 Other officials.
5.3 Decisions of compliance councils.
5.4 Informal wvritte.-i cor lmunication.
5.5 Oral c:i.nmunication.i

6. Extent and sc'one of interrpret-tions and explanations.
6.1 C-eieral.
6.2 Snecific.
6.21 Certain groups of iniustr:' or tr-de.
6.?2 Sp.ecific industry Jr trade

7. General causes of internretati:,ns and explanations.
7.1 AnbigLuity.
7.11 Double 7,eanin, provisions ?r words.
7.12 .Yucessitv of ,v.':lication of intent, of sponsors
7.13 Wecessity of &-plic.tij-. 'f set of facts to provisions.
'P7.14 Purnztuati 'n *.iv tne-ra)hical errors.
7.2 inflict ricth tier lavws r ve.-u.'ieit a.e-cies.
7.3 Taulty legislative 'r-' ftm ..hin.
7.4 ultinle co.? 2-. clIrsificatin -r)rblems.
7.5 necessityy .,f .-. lcti.7 .f ad.minictr-ative policies.

8. Gc-neral ciszcuscign -f ?JIA treatment .f quecti:-'ns submitted ?r
initiated as t-
8.1 necessity of inter-nrct7ti n andc e-lanati'n of orders
adc c-des.
8.2 Inability t- c:ntril the issuance :f explanations.
8.3 Uecessity "f control a..C formality of interpretations.
8.4 Administrative declaration ,of difference between in-
ter:oretati .n and'- expla.iation.
8 .41 Pu.rn sesc
8.42 Susceptibility )f administration.
8.43 Defects, if any.
8.5 Determinati-n of scope of cuestimn inv:.lved.
2.6 Errors of deterni..ati -mn.
8.61 E:Mlanati :ns3 which were interpretations.
8.62 Internretations vmnich were explanations.
8.63 Causes.
8.,64 P-ssibilitins -if correction.
8.65 Actual corrections.
8.66 Typical casos.

9843





-28-

9. Types :f .r-:visincu suo ject t' iiutcrpret.ti ns *ZL-.. er.planati'-ne

9.1 -iIPA.
9.2 .[-ecl tive -"nd -Lninistrative rrers.
9.3 Office -rdcrs ,n Z-' -."-
0.4 P:A.
9.5 C '-es cem a.leyli'cents tierct u,.er Sec. Z (a) andL Sec. 3(cl).
9.3 Labor a -rsee.Teents aC a.'e., e.its thiieret um:cer Sec. 7(b).
9.7 Rules andC reL-ulati:nE Aavi,-L effect -f a c)de.
9.8 PDlicy rulings.

10. Ainalysis .:-f &.pplicJti .ns r iite:-retati ;A andc. e>xplanat'ins -f
c-.de pr'visijns .7ith rcs-ect t-
I0.1 Csde defi.iiti-Tno.
10.11 Industr", :'r subc'ivisi-i:i thtere'f.
10.12 Members -f i.-1'ustrv aj'' clascificati-ns thereof.
10.13 Distrib-A.ti-n ac.encies.
10.14 C.mm-dities."
10.2 Labzr prvisi 'ns.
10.21 :a.ximvjn hjurs.
10.211 T,-.rmal veel: -'eri-d.
10.212 'i:r;.ial day -eri-d.
10.213 Overtim.e tolerances.
ICr.214 Pea:: neriad.
10.22 minimum viag^es.
10.221 II:.rmal rate.
10.2211 H:urly rate.
10.2212 Piece rate.
1O.'S -ee"y rate.
10.222 Overtime rate.
10.?,,2 A-- ,reintice rate.
10.224 Sk-illed rate.
1',.2.)5 Uni c .;t'act rate.
10.23 Child la.bDr.
19.24 A-,rentice li:.itati no.
10C,.25 >-Lndicaq;'eLd wvrl:ers.
lI.36 Sta--dardc if safety -nc'- heA.lth.
10.27 :Hr..e wv:rk.
10.28 Stretch-:ut.
10.29 Scrin payments.
10.21 Equitable reaiLjustr.ient fi wages ab.ove tle minimum.
10.22 P..sting.
10.?3 C-,llective carg ?inig.
10.24 "Miscellanemus.
10.25 Develpment if lab-r ,--lic-y with respect t- inter-
*,retatiicns and explh.iati'ns.
10.26 Lcal-'aspect -if laobr ;visi-.n interpretations
and ewp1anati-ns.
10.27 Evaluation -f e:x.eriences.
10.3 Trade practice "r'visi .
10,.31 General Analysis a:Ad ciscussi.-n %if trad. practice
prYvisiD;:s being g:-up-->ed ?.s fill-.ws:
10.311 Generally accepted in law.
10.312 Desirable but not fully accepted in law.
10.313 Desirable but n) basis in law.


9843


i






-29-


10.314 Undesirable.
10., 1 t' Un 'f "'cible.
10C,.32 Price n-licy.
10.321 Price fixing.
ly.:-'.:11 '.''i.-.c' *.-'rices.,
1 -12 L v.'st ", '. l.. L-lc ,T'ico:.
iC.;....13 i: &-".l ,1r':-"u .
1i.322 Pri-c c n:r-.l.
.221 L -, lea,'e-c..
10.322; Lss limitati .ns.
1,.323 f.cn rice cysterns.
1C.205L1 ITctitut i .f system.
10.273.` F-..rticuli.r contracts.
10.3233, eth ` :.f' r.ernti )n.

NWte: ?7r purp'zes ,f '. izcusi:. bid O.c,:ziit-ry systems are included
uniC'.er this sub-Jiviri-n.

1i".3?4 Cost rr,'vii ;ns:
.1C.3241 Sales below cost.
10.32402 Os:clete g-ds.
1i,.J3243 2mergcncy cdisn-salo.
1c'-.:.-2,44 Cmrrrpetitisn.
13.325 Accicuntin,p; 's-stems.,
10.3251 Necessity :,f a"T"rval if Administrat r.
h'..3252 C:,nmplexity )f system.
10.3?53 Difficulties :f installatiDn.
1[.3 C Salec re-i rting systems.
10.4 Interi-ret t i r.-n- c ::la)ti:ns '' cade authority prvisi mns.
1r.41 -'ececsitie '7 i.it.:r'-retUti:nz andc. expl.nations.
l1.-: I.terI-rct 3ti:nr .2hz' e::-Nl:..ati .ns affectiiv ri'its of
c do r j.j11 rityr.
1C,.43 Ivterrettti:ns c eiplainr.ti ns affectin; &bligati;'ns
*-f ,- .(k r'." n '.- :' i t -. .
-.'.44 Le L,.-i ty.
1'%.45 P :-lic,.
1r,.44 Finmo-,ces.
10.47 T.-ade az .ciati-n participati-,n.
10.5 Label cs.
10.6 C -.diti nal :rderz :f r *cval.
11. Gjverm-L'ie.it c ntracts.
11.1 Bases .I' anplic.cti'ns f:r interrret.ati:ns and explanatimns
.f Thecutive Orders.
11.2 effect *f intcr-retati :ns. a.L'. expla'ati:ns made.

12. Pr cedure.
12,.1 A-plirc-ti ., Lo'
I'. 11 I:',-tuctr: n.em.L ?r.
1-.12 I-:'ustr L:"up.
12.13 C"-,e -ut- i-ri-y.
12.1:`1 *ti nal.
12.132 L cal.
12.14 I .stitutcd by lIRA.
12.141 In ustr Division.
12.142 Legal Division.


9843






-30-

12.1413 ACvis-)ry bards.
12.144.Field .flices.
1,.145 Other c- 'trt, szits _TfA.
12.15 G-vern.nent aL;e,.cies ".,e- t A...'RA.
12.16 Lbo r.
l;:.161 I Jivi&U ..
12.162 C-r:up i-f eimjl;.'ees.
12. 1531 Un rg-.i i z e d.
12 1922 TTLI "Lg

12.21 WTashington.
12.22 Field offices .
1 '.23 C'de aut"irities.
12.24. Other sc'ver-ic-.tal aj'e:icies.
12.3 C:.nsiderati-n -*f annlictti-:n.
12.31 By deputy.
12.32 Advisory b '-,ards.
12.33 research and, Planning Divisi-'n.
12.34 Legal ivisi n.
12.35 A,.miniztrati-. members and. c.de authority.
.36 Review Livisin.
12.37. xtcent if c nsiderati-n by b-ards, etc., and
li:,iitati nis t'ere:'n.
12.38 'ivici:n.A.:'ministrat rs.
12.39 : gLaIer -ffici-als an-". President.
1i,.31 :.::tent :f c-nsiduer .ti-- of briefs pr a..d cmn.
12.22 Field officess PiA. I
12.4 Discussi : -f treatment -f ty-i.licati'ns witn respect to
due *-r-cess requirements.
12.5 ?inal acti n n .apolic..ti n.
12.51 r:"m. .
12.52 -tice.
12.6 Time 7f submissi-n -i ::.-licati_-n.
12.61 Bef:re effective. c'ate `f c:de.
12 .62 C'de ackinistrr.ti n.
12.63 During c -mipliance cnrplaint.-
12.64 uring litigati'n.
12.7 Time required fir handlingg aoDlicati'ns.
12.71 Applications received in field.
12.711 Geographical c:nsiderati-ns.
12.712 -ielays caused. byo reference to Wlashington.n
12.713 Typical cases.
12.72 Applications received by Dr referred to Washington.
12.71 ?Zu1ting :f p--,licatins.
12.722 Necessity -f reifere.ce t b-ards.
12.723 Causes -f .el y.
12.724 Tffects -f dCrlay -n
512.7241 C 'C.e .structure.
1..'.7.4. C mw i i-ance.
S1;.7243 -nf-rcermcnt.

S13. Poer cf subsequent m-Cificati-n .-f interpretations and explanations.
S/ 1'.1 .1 T.R.A. initiation.
St13.2 Arplication by industry. |
j'84 31533 Application b-y lnbor.,

I9843


El







13.4 Ap-.licati-n by cede authorities.
1,..5 A-.5 plicnti-n b,, -t'.ier parties.
1L.6 -ases f nrip,.icati-n.
13.7 Effectc :. m dificati-n.
i
14. Substanti.vc -r-blemz.
-1.!.1 Sh'ulId RA ner.nit c:de auth-.rities c ma]:e interretati-ns
a.nL C( T',1t.lnati :inz,
11.2 Sh-uld .iRA permit fiell offices tF n- i.]ke in'tci-nretati-ns
a. c -) lu:"hn-a t i u -s.
1..Zl Ermere.-,cy.
14.22 Permaneit.
14.J3 If revic"7 is 'had L' Jashiii't n.
114.g Wl-at requirements c'ue "',r-cess sih'ulc b'ue considered by iT?,A.
14.31 1 tice.
14.32 ""it.- -.r ,-it.'-ut he--.ri.i,,.
14.4 Sh-.ul,. -,vjlic-ti -Is f r i.-terprct-.ti rs n. ex-)la.,ati-ns be
rcfe.-'rc.K t-:
14.41 0 .> wuth-rities.
1ii .', Ot. -rr ,vernrie.-ital agencies.
14.045 A.mini s tr--t i 'n remoers.
14.5 G-eneral le'al effect -f arne irments and stay iu-- n inter-
pretcti ns-i an'J.0 explanati-ns.
14.6 ihat ri:..hts f sr,-i:,-rship -.f interpretati -.is ..rid explanations
sh-ri'. be oer.n-itteCd?
14..7 ,W1kat c-nsicler,.ti ,; f i-,ter.ret,.ti ns ena .' e:-la-.ati uns should
be afforded ii.d1ustry -an,' lab-r by ."r"
14.8 T: nYaz extent v '-al.' the j 7er -. f (e.uer1l initerpretati. ns and
e:.la.*iti -,n f -i.1 c-Cles by e.eci,.tive rc'.er b'e utilized?
14. Sndd-L -.A institute inite--nreto.ti :.:.. c. e}la-.-.ati -ns -Di
it- --:I m ti-.in?

15. Effects :f i.-tei-':etiti:.s and c:rol1af-iti-ns -,n
15.1 Cte structure.
15.2 LDeclared purp-se.- -f the Act
15.3 Large business, units.
15.4 Snmall enterprises.
15.5 an-pilies.
15.6 U RA P-,lic;-.
15.7 ,Lega ity.
15.8 In-.ustry.
15.9 Labor.
1IJ. 1 Cn-cI-r2uic'rs.

16. Evaluuti.n.

17. C' one luc i -.r'.s.

18. Bibli -graphy.


9843





-32-


A'LIST OF I eRPFTTIONS OF :OUR PROVISIONSo2
LIST OF Ilif'-RPF TATIONS OF }HOUR PROVISIONS


0oV zT IE


E.ERJr-ECY .'OiK


C ODE


ORDER IlTUf:BEDL

100- 4
-37- 16
275- 11
192- 5
28'- 8
33- 69
86- 79
9-324
149- 2C
67- 17
149- 5
83- 89

CONTI1.UOUS PROCESSES


275- 7
40- 11
83- 75
120- 45


OVERT I,-V,-1EN1 ALLOD

185- 11
161- 23
LF 17- 6
2- 27
60- 60
273- 92
67- 17, 34
192- 5

275- 7
28- 7


SEASONAL OVERTII2


Paperboard
Fertilizer
CheMical i.Ifg,
Cast Iron Pressure Pipe
Trans it
Soan and Glycerine
Soan and Glycerine
Lumber and Timber Products
Machined Taste :.:fg. (See Overtime Payment)
Fc-rtili7er (See Averaging)
Liachined T7aste Lifg. (See Overtime Payment,
Soap and Glycerine

i


Chemical :.fg.
Electrical Storage and Wet Primary Batter
Soao & Glycerine
Paper and Pulp (See Occupational Classi-
fication)


Concrete Pipe ;.Ifg.
Fur Dressing and Fur Dyeing
.he-it Flour Hilling
Shipbuilding & Shiprepairing
Iletail Trade
Trucking (See Overtime Pa:'ment)
Fertilizer (See Averaging)
Cast Iron Pressure Pipe (See Emergency
Work)
Chemical (See Continuous Processes)
Transit (See Averaging)


72- 1IA
67- 42
192- 5
27B- 92
347- 18
67-: 17
132- 10
60-GO


Packing Mvachinery
Fertilizer
Cast Iron Pressure (See Emergency 'York)
Trucking (See Overtime Payment)
Machinery & Allied Products (See Overtim
Fertilizer (See Averaging) Payment)
Malleable Iron (See Calculating Overtime
Retail Trade (See Overtime-When Allowedfi


iI


A





I






i


9843


b


j


!




-33-


SEASONAL OVERTI1.E (COHT' D.)


ORDER NU1I BE

277- 11, 21

137- 11A
170- 18


CODE


Gra-' Iron Foundry (See Calculating Over-
time)
Warm Air Furnace (See Averaing)
Grinding "Theel (See Overtime Parment)


CALCULATING OVERTIME


277- 21
71- 13
277- 11
132- 10
67- 49
83-r63
83- 32
* 83- 19
167- 23
137- 11A
72- 13A
185- 11


Gray Iron Foundry,
Paint, Varnish & Lacquer Hfg.
Gray Iron Foundry-
Malleable Iron
Fertilizer (See Consecutive Hours)
Soap & Glycerine (See Consecutive Hours)
Soa) & Glycerine ( See Overtime Payment)
Soap & Glycerine ( See Overtime Payment)
Set Up Paper Box (See Averaging)
Warm Air Furnace (See Averaging)
Packaging l.Machinery (See Seasonal Overtime)
Concrete Pipe L.ifg. (See Overtime-Then
Allowed)


AVE2aGGING


67- 17
67- 34
83- 39
458- 5
110- 15
167- 23
529- 4
533- 5
541- 3
137- 11A
83- 72
83- 80
28- 7
28- 10
28- 11
28-16
185- 11


Fertilizer
Fertilizer
Soap & Gl-,rcerine 1.1fg.
Wholesale Confectioners
Hardwood Distillation
Set Up Paper Do::
Pha-maceutical & Biological
Window Glass 'fg.
Flat Glass Ivifg.
Jarm Air Furna.ce,
Soan & Glycerine
Soap & Glycerine
Transit
Transit
Transit
Transit
Concrete Pipe (See Overtime When
Allowed)
Bankers (See Holidays)
Rubber Tire i.Ifg. (See Holidays)
Fertilizer (See Seasonal Overtime)
Soap & Glycerine (See Overtime-Continuous
Processes)
Soap & Glycerine (See Overtime-Emergency
York)
Automotive Parts & Equipment (See Minimum
Wage s-' weekly, Daily,Hourly.


47-
174-
67-
83-


83- 79

105- 62


9843




-34-


UNLIMITED) HOURS


O^zCZ2 NUl.:B7R


COJE


.83- 24
08- 5
275- 8
285- 5
278-109
LP 10- 6
60- 18C
84-110
60- 95
83- 85
83- 86
39- 11


60- 93

149- 2A


56- 12


Soar & Glycerine
Business Furniture
Chemical lMIfg.
Railway Oar Building
Trucking
3rer'-ing
Retail Trade
Fabricated lietal Products
Retail T-ade
Soap & Glycering LUfg.
Soa'o c Glyrcering Mfg.
Farm Equipment (See Occupational
Classif.-Definition of
Terms)
Retail Trade (See Mlinimum Wages Sales-
men)
Machined waste e Mfg. (See Occupational
Classif.-Supervisory Employees-
Engaging in Production)
Heat Exchange (See Occuoational Classif.
Processing & Labor Incident Thereto)
Adhesive & Ink (See General Labor Provis.
ions- Subterfuge)


521- 5


WORKING HOITARS


CONSECUTIVE HOURS .


Fertilizer
Soap & Glycerine
fLolesale Confectioners (See Averaging)
Pharmaceutical & Biological (See Averagi


DAYS P_-_ ",


67- 18
2011- 8
458- 5


Fertilizer
Leather & Shoe Findings Trade
Wholesale Confectioners (See Averaging)


LABOR AGREAiENTS: STATE LA"'S- FORME- CONTRACTS


278- 54A
60- 69
83- 42


Trucking
Retail Trade
Soap C: Glycerine


MORE THAiN 01 EW.1PLOYER


83- 18
46- 16
278-200


Soap & Glycerine
Motor Vehicle Retailing
Trucking


9845


U


I






















































i


67- 49
83- 63
458- 5
529- 4


X

ii


I






-35-


WORKING HOURS (CONT'D)


ORDER NULIBEI


CODE


HOURS FOR T7ATCIU.IEN, FIREIiEj. ETC.


254- 6

56- 12

1491 2B

83- 5

423- 16

254- 10
14- 2


Athletic Goods i.ifg. (See Occupational
Classif0-More than One Occupation)
Heat Exchange (See Occupational Classif.
Processing & Labor Incident Thereto)
Machined Waste M fg. (See Occupational
Classif.-Definition of Terms)
Soao & Glycerine (See Occupational
Classif0-More than One Occupation)
Drop Forging (See Occupational Classif.
Definition of Terms)
Athletic Goods Mfg. (See Industry Classif.
Rayon & Synthetic Yarn (See Industry
Classif.)


HOURS FOR SALES Ei'I


83- 62 Soap & Glycerine
60- 93 Retail Trade (See Minimum Tages-Salesmen)

IRREGULAR HOURS (SPLIT SHIFT, ETC.)


529- 4
X-124
44- 6
118- 38
118-107


Pharmaceutical & Biological (See Averaging)
General (See 7ages-Waiting Time)
Boot & Shoe (See T7ages-K7aiting Time)
Cotton Garment (See 17ages-7aiting Time)
Cotton Garment (See Wages-Waiting Time)


EXTRA ACTIVITIES


60- 93


Retail Trade


MORE THAN ONE OCCUPATION


83- 43
164- 13

254- 6

83- 5

57- 11

60-208


Soap & Glycerine
Knitted Outerwear (See Occupational
Classif.-More Than One Occupation)
Athletic Goods (See Occupational Classif.
More than One Occupation)
Soap e: Glycerine (See Occupational
Classif.-More Than One Occupation)
Pun1p 1Lfg. (See Occupational Classif.-
More Than One Occuoation)
Retail Trade (See Ilinimum Wages-Salesmen)


9843


M






-36-


HOLIDAYS (AID VACATIONS)

ORDER UM BER COD:Z

174- 5 Rubber Tire Mfg.
347- 4 Machinery & Allied Products
489- 9 Safety Razor & Safety Razor Blade Mfg.
47- 7 Bankers
8?- 72 Soap & Glycerine (Averaging)

PRODUCTIVE MACHI NERY

118- 39 Cotton Garment











































9843 i




-37-


Appendix NTo. 3

LIST OF INTERPRETATIONS 07 WAGE
PROVISIONS

iINIlULI WAGES


WEEKLY. DAILY AITD HOURLY


ORDER U-UIZBEL


CODE


V'otion Picture
Paint, Varnish & Lacquer Mtfg.
Motor Vehicle Retailing
I:otion Picture
Soap & Glycerine
I'otion Picture
Iralleable Iron (See Minimum t7a;es-
Piece Workers)
Electrical Mfg. (See ilinimum Wares -
Piece Workers)
Savings, Building & Loan Assoc.(See
Deductions from Wages-Traveling
E:pensec)
Automotive Parts & Equipment


169 12


105 62


LA2OR AC-RPE.liTS. STATE LAWS. ETC.


244- 49
60 -67
28 13


Construction
Retail Trade
Transit (See Wa e Adjustment)


PIECE WORTUES


2 31 10
S 164- 16
x- 130
135- 20
S 4- 73
S 132- 8
S 15- 30
164- 7
83- 12
219-166
84- 86


Lime
" nitted Outer'eTr
General Order
Cizar Container
Electrical lIfg.
'alleable Iron
Even's Clothing
Knittee Outer7uerr (Sen 7Triting Tire)
Soap : Glycerine ( See Waiting Ti-,e)
Bedding !'fg. (See Waiting Time)
Fabric'mtere. I.etal Products (See Ovel-
time Paymnent.)


SALESE1I:

60- 20G
145- 32
189- 8
83- 61
249- 8


Retail Trade
Furniture M'fg.
Coated Abrasives
Soap & Glyceri.ie
Tag i'fg. (See Occu-onational Clasr.if.-
Definition of Terms)


9843


124-
71-
46-
124-
83-
124-
132 -


27
6
55
47
8
11
8


4 73








-TT2.rz TTr, SPTT' S.:IT- 0".-MUfY

W.M-- 10 Household. Cdods Storage and. l'ovinf;
Trn d e
X 124- General Order

SUT-i;I'Iit' 7Ji ACLS

AFPRT:TIC~S 'I LAz AJ'E7 S

'-_ hoot mnd Shoe I'g,,. (See General Labor
Provisions-Anprentices .and.
Learn ers.)
84- 02 rbricated iletal Products irfg. (See
General Labor Provisions Appren-
tices andP Learners)
187- 25 Cotton Cloth Glove (See General Labor
Provisions Apprentices and Learners)

HITD I CAPPED -Q.S

275- 9 Chemical manufacturing
46- 52 "otor Vehicle 'et-iling Trade
46- 5 otor Vehicle fletai]ing Trade (See
1 inimu Ta..aes-Teeekly, Daily, hourly)

FEAIL DIr.PVZ-TILL

105 5c Autonotive Parts and Equipment

LIGHT TAS :S A'T, LICHT 'F? 7 TITT-I IvW :. '

83- 15 Soa-o and Gly.rcerine
83- 5c Soap ;ndn C-.'1,cerine
83- 70 Soa.p and Glycerine
83- 71 Soa. arnC. Glycerine
83- ?Y.,7 Soap and C-lycerine
83- 9 Soan and Glycerine (See Genl. Labor
Provisions Licht Tasks, etc.

PART TI. E .70rC

155- 20 Oxyacetylene
60- 186 Retail Trade
537- 6 Blue Print and Photo Print
124- 47 ;otion Picture (See F'inimum rages-
..eel=ly, Daily, Hourly)

UTAG-E CJCULATION1T

235 10 Textile Processinj
219- 136 ed.ding :'fg". (See "acae Adjustment-
Piece workers) j
1- S8 Cotton Textile (See Ua-re Adjustment-
9ornmal working reek)
984L


.. -kJ-






-39-


i'AGE ALJUSTIE3UT (COiT, D)


:AGZ:S .L-OT :JI::.I

182- 17
487- 19
47- 20
PRA. Substitute -
445- 64

118- 525


detail Food qnd Grocery Trade
Irmnorting Trade
Jm.nkers
7iuir !'ilk
Baking Incluztry (See 7a.e Adjustment-
Limitpt ion)
Cotton CGprment


BOITUS


1 8%


CALCUTATIOT


Cotton Textile (See Vormal Working
Week)


Trucking
Trucking
Pretzel
-'etai] Jere].ry
Bankers
Soap e. Glycerine (See Overtime Pay-
ment)
Ledring ( See Piece Workers)
Broom i:fg.
Bedding :f1r. (See Longer .ork Week)


PIEoE Luor^. s


Bedding anufecturing


i;I:?I;ZJI.; ?ACC


- 1209 r:C :PTIO0


105- %4
4- 74
230- 20
4- '


Automotive Parts and Equi-oment
electrical ""nufrcturing
Ppper 3,.,-" nIf-, cturin,
2 ectrical I'anufncturing


SUB T2TJUC E


60-
487-


44-
164-
83-
118-
118-

9843


2etap.il Trd.e
Inporting Trivpce (See 7Ta.-es above
minimum)

TAITIT- TI: SPLIT SI..T- 0: DUTY


Boot cnd Shoe
Irnitted Outer'err
Sor-o Glycerine
Cotton Gae.iment
Cotton Garment


12
12
107


105
106
6


278-
278-
503-
142-
47-
83-

219-
465-
219-


219-





-40-


SPT. SHIJ"2.' cr: rurf


X 12W


Houseliol.C. Gdoels Storage andcl. Moving
Trad.e
General Order


AFFPJ-TIC3S -T L-A7X'T7-S


84- 03-


187- 25


Boot rnd Shoe V"f-. (See General Labor
Provisions-A-'rorentices eani.
Lec-n ers.)
P.bricated itetal Products lifg. (See
General Labor Provisions Appren-
tices anC Leprners)
Cotton Cloth Glove (See General Labor
Provisions Anpprentices and Learners)


HiCD I CAPPZD "O2i K7 S


275-
46-
46-


Chemical *-anuf cturing
"otor Vehicle T:etriling Trade
otor Vehicle f",.'etailing Trnde (See
* inimu,-n Ta.,es-TTeecklv, Daily',, hourly)


FEIAL. DI? -T-Z TIAL


105 5c


Autonoti-'e Farts and Equipment


LIC-IHT TC. :S AX4T LIGHT = FT-TITT,-"


* ._ __


Soao and Glcerine
Soa-r ,nd P -l.]cerine
Soar.p and Gl-cerine
Soa. an. Glycerine
Soap and Glycerine
Soap arid Glycerine (See Genl. Labor
Provisions Li.ht Tasks, etc.


PART TI. E70:rz


Oxyacetylene
Retail Trade
Blue Print mnd Photo Print
;'otion Picture (See I'inimum Wages-
-eel:ly, Daily, Hourly)


rAE- Cs-CUTLATIONT


235 10
219- .133


Te:til e Processinr.
Beddinp :f",. (See 7agFe Adjustment-
Piece workers)
Cotton Textile (See 7p'-e Acijustnent-
I ormal -orkin, reek)


1- SC
1 I_;


984Z


83-
83-
33-
83-
83-
83-


15
5C
70
71
7.7,,
9


155-
60-
537-
124-


20
18i

47


-:AT',TVn 'TL. -


SUZ/-i 17I.Ij i 7LI ('7,LS


I


I
I.
I
i

I




-41-


WAGE CALCULATION (CO0T'D)


60- 208


84- 86


118-
118-
155-


30
107
20


60- 1-E


31-
164-


Retail Trade (See Minimum Wages-
Salesmen)
Thbricated Metal Products (See Over-
tine Payment)
Cotton Garment (See Waiting Time)
Cotton Germent(See Waiting Time)
Oxyactylene (See Sub-'inimum 7ages-
Part time vr'ork)
Retail Trade (See Minimum Ta.Tes-Part
time rork)
Lime (See Minimum Wares-Piece Workers)
Knitted Outeruear (See "inimuwn Wages-
P?.ce Tor:-ers)
General Order (See Minimum Tages -
Piece Workers)
Cigar Conta.iner (See Iinimum 7ages-
Piece Workers)
Electrical Manufacturing (See i'ini-
mum 'Uaes-Piece WTorkers)
I;allerble Iron (see 'ininum -rn.eo-
Piece Workers)


X- io0


135- 20


4- 73


132 8


OVErTI: E PAYMENT


347- 18
270- 9
S 149- 20,5
83- 19
84- 86
83-. 32
278- 92
180- 46
423- 17
170- 13
145- 1G
9- 324
278- 105
145- 3


Machinery and Allied Products
Wood Heel
Machined Waste Manufacturing
Soa- and Glycerine
Fabricated Metal Products
Soap an'- Glycerine
Trucking
Photo Engraving
Drop Forging
Grinding Wheel
Furniture I!anufacturing
Lumber and Timber (See Emergency Work)
Case 2- Trucking (See Wape Adjustment)
Furniture Manufacturing (See Salesmens
7ages)
Cast Iron Pressure Pipe (See Emergen-
cy Work)
Concrete Pipe f:. (See Overtime When
Allorec')
Soao and Glycerine (See Consecutive
Hours)
Furniture tantfrcturing (See Industr"
Clansif, rot Inte-ral Ppart)
Soap and Glycerine (See Working ;Iou--s
Salesmen)
Flat Glass ?Ifg. (See Averaginr)
Warm Air Furnace (See Averaging)
Soae.p and Glycerine


192- 5

185- 11

83 63

145- 25

83.- 62

541- 3
137- 11A
83- 98


9843






-42-


,TIGHT WC:RT'


14M- 25 Furniture I.fg. (See Industr.- Classif. !ot
Integral Part)
145- 10 Furniture Mifb. (See Overtime Payment)
105- 59 Automotive Parts & Equipment (See Sub-
i'inimum Wages Female Diffarential)

M.THOD OF WAGE FA:flT

282- 5 Restaurant
60- 18C Retail Trade (See Unlimited Hours)
169- 12 Savings, Building and Loan (See Deduction from
Wages-Purch.se of Stock)

SUB-Cc iJTRACTI NG

64- 37 Dress i.ar.ufncturing

AREA RATFS

278- 57 Trucking
278- 88 Trucking
278- 89 Trucking
278- 90 Trucking
399- 13 Household Goods, Storage and Loving Trade
278- 91 Trucking
287- 404 Graphic Arts
83- 57 Soap and Gl;cerine
244- 48 Construction (See i.inimum Wages-Labor
Agreements etc.)

BRKTCH OFFICES

5- 12 Coat rand Suit

PAJT1'TRS AID OWNERS

84- 110 Fabricated Metal Products Mfg. (See Unlimited
Hours)
LPO10- 6 Brewing (Sec Unlimited Hours)

DED'JCTIOUS FROL WAGES

SPOILAGE. SHORTAGE. ETC.

23- 9 Underwear and Allied Products
501- 8 Lan-ufacturing and Wnolesle Surgical
282- 5 Restaurnrt (See I'.ethod of Wage Parment)


9843





-43-


PURCHASE OF STOCK

169- 12

HOLIDAYS

489- 9


TRAVELING EXPENSES

169- 12


Savings, Building and Loan Associations


Safety Razor & Safety Razor Blade (See Hours
Holidays)


Savings, Building rind Loan Associations


TRQj:SI-ORTATIC:iT

Lurlesque Theatrical


348-


9843




-44-

APPENDIX NO. 4

LIST CF INTERPRETATIONS OF GENERAL LABOR PROVISIONS

APPRENTICES AID LEARNERS DEFINITION 12) REGULATIONS


ORDER 1iIUBER


CODE


Coat & Suit
Ladder Mfg.
Cotton Garment
Boot & Shoe Mfg.
Cap & Cloth Hat
Fabricated Metal Products Mfg.
Electric & Neon Sign
Cotton Cloth Glove
General Order
Throwing


SUB-LETTIKG LABOR CONTRACTS


2441- 10
64- 37


Plumbing Contracting
Dress Mfg. (See Wages-Sub-Contracting)


SUBTERFUGE

RECLASSIFICATIOINI OF EMPLOYEES


521- 5
60- 70


Adhesive & Ink Mfg.
Retail Trade (See Wage Adjustment-Sub-
terfuge)


HANDICAPPED WORKERS


LP 17- 6

275- 9


Wheat Flour Milling (See Overtime-When
Allowed)
Chemical Mfg. (See Sub-Minimum Wages-
Handicapped workers)
Motor Vehicle Retailing (See Sub-Mini-
mum Wages-Hand capped Workers)


46- 52


HOLiEWORK


X-134


General Order


LIGHT TASKS REGULATIONS


Soap & Glycerine

NIGHT WORK


Furniture Mfg. (See Overtime Payment)
Furniture Mfg. (See Ind. Classif.-Not
Integral Part)


CHILD LABOR


Wheat Flour Milling


LP 17- 3
9843


5- 8
107- 5
118-54A
44- 5
457- 14
84- 82
506- In
187- 25
X-137
54- 29


83- 9


145- 10
145- 25





-45-


APPENDIX NO. 5

LIST 3F INTERPRETATIONS OF OCCUPATIONAL CLASSIFICATIONS


DZFIITITION OF TERBS


ORDER ITJMBER


CODE


275- 8

48- 14
149- 2B
39- 11
142- 22
60-103
6n-163
67- 38
280- 81
249- 8
182- 24
363- 21
162- 7
164- 0SO
90- 17
S 287-424
15- 41
15- 42
120- 45
15- 24
126- 31
120- 44
423- 16


Chemical Mfg. (Executive, Adninistrstive
Supervisory, Tech.)
Silk Textile (Productive Emrployees)
lArchined W-.sto ivIfg. (O0.tside Crews)
Ftrm Equinment (Field Service Men)
Retail Jewelry Trade (Professional)
Retail Trade (Professional)
Retail Trade (Professional)
Fertilizer (Agent)
Retail Solid Fuel (Salesmen)
Ta-g Industry (Salesiaen)
Retail Food and Grocery Trade (Salesmen)
Men's Necvear (Cutters)
Domestic Freight Forwarding (Clerk)
Knitted Outerwcar (Shinr.ing Crew)
SFuneral Surnly (S-upervisors)
Gra-ohic Arts (Binding & Ruling)
Men'ts Clothing (uIon-Manufacturing)
Men's Clothing (Manufacturing)
Paper & Pulp (Tour Workers)
Mlen's Clothing (ITon-Manufacturing)
Chinr-ware & Porcelain Mfg. (Watchmen)
Paper & Pulp (Artisans)
Drop Forging (Plant Engineers and Main-
tenance Men)


15- 18
15- 20
15- 21
15- 22
15- 23
15- 24
15- 25
15- 26
15- 27
15- 28
15-j 40
28- 17
60-208
285- 5
71- 6

83- 15

145- 32
84-110


Men' s
Men' s
Men's
Men' s
Men' s
Ment s
Men' s
Men' s
Men' s
Men' s
Men' s


Clothing
Clothing
Clothing
Clothing
Clothing
Clothing
Clothing
Clothing
Clothing
Clothing
Clothing


Transit
Retail Trade (See Minimum Wages-Salesmen)
Railway Car Blag. (See Unlimited Hours)
Paint, Varnish & Lacquer (See Minimum
Wages-Weekly, Daily, Hourly)
Soap & Glycerine (See Sub-Minimum Wnges-
Light Tasks)
Furniture Mfg. (See Minimum Wages-Salesmen)
Fabricated Metal Products (See Unlimited Hours)


9843


Askm_...






-46-


DEFINITION OF TEJMS (CONT'D)

ORDER I1UMBER CODE

60- 18C Retail Trade (See Unlimited Hours)
83- 59 Soap & Glycerine (See Sub-Minimum Wages-
Light Tasks)
83- 7n Soap & Glycerine (See Sub-Minimum Wages-
Light Tasks)
83- 71 Soar & Glycerine (See Sub-Minimum Wages-
Light Tasks)
83- 77 Soap & Glycerine (See Sub-Minimum Wages-
Light Tasks)
83- 62 Soap & Glycerine (See Working Hours-
Salesmen)
189- 8 Coated Abrasives (See Minimum Wages-
Salesmen)
46- 15 Motor Vehicle Retailing
83- 85 Soap & Glycerine (See Unlimited Hours)

MORE THAN ONE OCCUPATION

164- 13 Knitted Outnrwear
254- 6 Athletic Goods Mfg.
83- 5 Soap & Glycerine
57- 11 Pump Mfg.
15- 19 Men's Clothing
15- 29 Men's Clothing
28- 15 Trnnsit
60-208 Retail Trade (See Minimum Wages-Salesmen)
83- 43 Soap & Glycerine (See Working Hours More
than one Occupation)
83- 92 Soap & Glycerine
445- 66 Baking Industry

SUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES ENGAGED IN PRODUCTION

149- 2A Machined Waste Mfg.

PROCESS IIJGN AMD LABOR INCIDENT THERETO

56- 12 Heat Exchange















9843







-47-


APPENDIX 1K0. 6

LIST OF INTERPRETATIONS OF INDUSTRY CLASSIFICATION


ORDER UThRER


CODE


Canning & Packing Machinery
Soap & Glycerine
Concrete Pipe Mfg.
Construction
Athletic Goods Mfg.
Trucking
Rayon & Synthetic Yarn
Retail Farm Equipment


MAInJFACTURING FOR OWN USE


3- 11i
118"- 45
57- 9
79- 4.

83- 20
67- 52



275- 10
278-123
244- 40
145- 25
275- 12
287- 21C
64- 11
Office Memorandum 282
Policy Decision No. 5
Policy Decision 1o. 3


Wool Textile
Cotton Garment
Pump Mfg.
Novelty Curfains, Draperies, Bedspreads,
Etc.
Soap & Glycerine Mfg.
Fertilizer

NOT INTEGRAL PART


Chemical Mfg.
Trucking
Construction
Furniture Mfg.
Chemical Mfg.
Graphic Arts
Dress Mfg.

(Code 278)
(Code 287)


MULTIPLE COVERAGE


Office Memorandum 282
X-122 General Order


9843


75- 8
83- 17
185- 10
244- 24
254- 10
278- 85
14- 2
197- 1i-






-48-


APPEmIX :iO. 7

LIST CF CODES AS TO WHICH I iT -RPTATIOniS OF TRADE PRACTICE
PROVISO1S1 W-ZRE IS3UED.


(See page 5 of this exhibit


CODE


Anti-Friction Bearing
Asphalt Tile Industry
Baking Industry
II II
Bedding Mfg. Industry
n 11
Booksellers Trade
II It
Bottled Soft Drink
II II
Buff and Polishing Wheel Ind.
II II II I
Builders' Supplies Trade
Candy Manufacturing
11 n
Canning and Packing Machinery
11 It II II
Carbon Dioxide Industry
Cast Iron Soil Pipe
Chinaware and Porcelain
Coffee Industry

CcnplLote, Wire & Iron Fence
Concrete Pipe Mfg.
Construction Industry
It It
II II
Cotton Cloth Glove 1'fg.
It It fl
Cotton Converting Industry
It If II
Cotton G-" -z-.:ent
Crushed Stone, S-nd and Gravel,
and Slag Ind.
U l II It
Cutlery, Manicure Implement &
Painters & Paperhangers Tool Mfg.
Dress Manufacturing Ind.
ii ii ii
II II II


Dental Laboratory
Electric Storage & Wet Frimary
-_-atter-y .


for types of


ORDnR :IO.

138-15
150-8
445-14
445-27
219-2A
219-5A
60A-8
60A-O10
459-12
459-15
96-7
96-19
37-15
463-10
463-19
75-18
75-22
275B-5
18-19
126-29
265-8
255-9
84L1-18
185-11
244-28
244-29
244-51
187-13
187-24
1A-2
1A-3
118-39

109-10
109-11

84J-7
64-12
64-13
64-18
64-35
217-25


40-12


provisions affected.)


DATE


Dec. 26, 1934
April 19, 1934
Oct. 12, 1934
Jan. 8, 1935
Mar. 23, 1934

June 14, 1934
Aug. 29, 1934
Aug. 29, 1934
Oct. 6, 1934
May 8, 1934
Jan. 5, 1935
Aug. 7, 1934
Aug. 30- 1934
Oct. 29, 1934
Aug. 17, 1934
Oct. 23, 1934
July 9, 1934
Jan. 4,* 1935
Dec. 18, 1934
June 5- 1934
June 5, 1934
Jan. 3, 1935
July 27, 1934
Aug. 6, 1934
Aug. 9, 1934
Jan. 2, 1935
July 24, 1934
Jan. 18, 1935
May 3, 1934
July 14, 1934
March 30, 1934

April 16, 1934
April 18, 1934

Oct. 18, 1934



Nov. 27, 1934
Jan. 25, 1935

Sept. 12, 1934


9843


p


L





-49-


Excelsior & Excelsior Produicts
Fertilizer Industry
II IT
II I1


Fire Exti.iguishinf, Apparatus
II II II


Funeral Supply Industry
Fur. Manufacturing Ind.
Fur Manufacturing
Handkerchief Industry
Industrial Safety Equipmrent
Investment Bankers
Job Galvanizing Letal Coating
Knitted Outerwear
Lace Manufacturing
Laundry & Dry CleMning l.ach.
Leather & Shoe Findin.us
Light Sewing Except Garments
Lye Industry
II II
11 II

Macaroni Industry
It II
Machine Knife & Allied Steel
Products
Machined Wqste Mfg.
Malleable Iron
Mayonnaise Industry
It If
Men's Neckwear Industry
Metal Window
11 11
Mica Industry
Motion Picture Industry
il II 11
Motor Fire Apparatus
It II II
II IT If

Motor Vehicle Retailing
Non-Ferrous Foundry Ind.
Nottingham Lace Curtain
Open Steel Flooring (Grating)
Manufacturing Industry
Outdoor M.Advertising Trade


146-6
67-6
6?7-.
67-12
67-13
67-19
67-20
67-21
67-22
67-23
67-24
67-25
67-37
98-3A
98-7
98-15
90-13
145-8
436-21
53-4
315-5
141-18
8431-9
164-19
6-0
34-14
201-1-8
226-16
300-3
300-4
300-5
234-20
234-21

263-8
149-4
132-9
349-4
349-13
383-4
205-4
X43-1I
306-3
124-14
124-39
108-8
108-10
108-21
465-5
165-22
78-8

84-01-8
304-4


Jura 13, 1934
.,wrch 16, 1934
April 12, 1934
April 12, 1934
Ar., ril 12 1934
April 12, 1934
April 12, 1934
April 12, 1934
A]ril 12, 1934
April 12, 1934
April 12, 1934
-Jov. 5, 1934

July 23, 1934
AugE. 28, 1934
Oct. 29, 1934
Nayr 11, 1934
Feb. 18, 1935
May 9, 1934
Sept. 8, 1934
June 29, 1934
roV. 20, 1934
Aug. 29, 1934
Aug. 30, 1934
Oct. 10, 1934
Oct. 19, 1934
June 21, 1934
Aug. 1, 1934
Aug. 1, 1934
Aug. 1, 1934
Oct. 18, 1974
Nov. 9, 1934

July 6, 1934
Feb. 5, 1934
fn-ry 17, 1934


Kay 14, 1934
April 19, 1934
Nov. 19, 1934
1vy 3, 1934
April 17, 1934
Nov. 8, 1934
July 31, 1934
Aug. 2, 1934
Dec. 27, 1934
March 7, 1934
Dec. 20, 1934
Aug. 2, 1934

Dec. 20, 1934


9843


W&- __





-50-


Oxy-Acetylene Industry
II 11


P-aint, Varnish & Lacquer
Mfg. Industry
I! II fl
II II ii
II II II
II II I!
H II II
II II II
It II I1
1t II II
II It II
II II It
II II II
II II II
II II II
II II II
It II I1
II II I1
II n l
Paper Bag Mfg.
Plumbing Fixtures
Precious Jewelry
Reinforcing MIaterials Fabri-
cating Industry
Retail Farm.Equipmrnt
Retail Food & Grocery Trade
II It It


Retail Jewelry Trade
Retail Lumber
Retail Monument Industry
detail Tobacco Trade
It II II

Retail Trade
It It
II II
II II
II It
II II
II II
It II
II II
11 II
II II
II It
II II


155-5
155-6
155-7
155-9
155-11
155-13

71-4
71-10
71-11
71-12
71-14
71-15
71-16
71-18
71-19
71-20
71-21
71-22
71-32
71-33
71-35
71-36
71-55
71-46
230-16
204-21
130-13

127-11
197-11
182-18
182-20
182-33
142-44
33-12
366-13
466-7
466-16
60-18A
60-18B
60-18D
60-18F
60-18G
60-27
60-59
60-65
60-66
60-68
60-96
60-97
60-113


Feb. 16, 1934
Feb. 16, 1934
April 17, 1934
April 20, 1934
May 4, 1934
June 13, 1934

March 30, 1934
May 28, 1934
Eay 28, 1934
May 28, 1934
May 28, 1934
May 28, 1934
Fay 28, 1934
'ay 28, 1934
kay 28, 1934
May 28, 1934
hay 28, 1934
.ay 28, 1934
Aug. 24, 1934
Sept. 1934
Sept. 17, 1934
Sept. 21, 1934
Dec. 21, 1934
lov. 6, 1934
Aug. 27, 1934
Dec. 3, 1934
Nov. 27, 1934

Aug. 30, 1934

July 24, 1934
July 25, 1934
Sept. 25, 1934
Dec. 21, 1934
April 17, 1934
Oct. 19, 1934
July 28, 1934
Oct. 26, 1934
Iarch 6, 1934
March 6, 1934
MLarch 6, 1934
March 6, 1934
March 6, 1934
April 6, 1934
April 20, 1934
April 26, 1934
April 26, 1934
April 26, 1934
June 4, 1934
June 7, 1934


9843







-51-


Rubber Manufacturing
II II
11 I1
II II

Salt Producing Industry
II ii 11
Slate Industry
Small Arms and Ammunition
Mfg. Industry
Smoking Pipe Manufacturing
SSnap Fpstcner
Solid Braided Cord Industry
' Standard Steel Barrel and Drum
Mfg. Industry
Steel Package Mfg. Industry
Tool & Implement Mfg. Ind.
II II It
Toy & Playthings
Transit Industry
:Velvet Industry
Venetian Blind Ind.
Vitreous Enameled Ware Mfg.
N! II
11 n 11 1
Wholesale Automotive Trade
Wholesale Confectioners'
Wholesale Food & Grocery
it f1 I1


Baking Industry
Carbon Dioxide
Complete Wire & Iron Fence
Electric Storage & Wet Primary
Battery
Non-Ferrous Foundry
Retail Trade
Standard Steel Barrel & Drum Mfg.
Crushed Stone, Sand and Gravel
and Slag Industries


156-10
156-11
156-12
156-13
20-5
20-12
218-13

354-5
225-4
84P-11
309-9

84Z-11
84Y-11
84G-2A
84G-5
86-22
28-19
188-11
229-4
84Q1-2
84Q1-7
84Q1-12
163-13A
458-10
196-13
196-15
196-17
196-23
445-45A
275B-21
84L1-23

40-22
165-29
60-357
84Z-15

109-44


April 23, 1934
April 23, 1934
April 23, 1934
April 23, 1934
Aug. 28, 1934
Dec. 15, 1934
Oct. 11, 1934


May 31,
June 6,
Feb. 8,


1934
1934
1935


Dec. 20, 1934
Dec. 20, 1934
April 9, 1934
July 12, 1934
Nov. 20, 1934
April 26, 1934
Sept. 22, 1934
June 9, 1934
Oct. 15, 1934
Nov. 20, 1934
Dec. 3, 1934
Sept. 19, 1934
Aug. 27, 1934

July 24, 1934
July 25, 1934
Aug. 30, 1934
Feb. 21, 1935
Feb. 7, 1935
March 13, 1935

Feb. 21, 1935
Feb. 9, 1935
Feb. 5, 1935
March 2, 1935

Oct. 6, 1934


9843






-52-

LIST OF TRADE PRACTICE RULES WHICH WERE INTERPRETED.


(From Codes listed on Pages 48 51)


CODE PROVISION


CODE


Advertising
,,
"Bankrupt and Fire Sales"
"direct-to-you"
Finance Charges
Installment Sales
"No Down Payment"
as to Repairs
Mention of Retailers
Of "Sales"
Allowances
I! II
111
11 1
I11


Alaska, Sales To
Assent to Code
Audit of Records
Bids, A`iQ-ulotinns concerning
Billing, at other than filed price
Jlr'.nx Orders
Break and take,
Break and- take,
Brokerage, as Rebate
Definition of
Cancellation of Order
Capacity Control
II I
," 1'New Machinery
Catalogs, Filing of
Chain Store Sales
Clearance Merchandise, Marking of
Closeouts, Invoicing of
Colors, Allowable Number
Combination Sales
II 11
Commissions
Concessions, Employing of Purchaser
Confirmation of Order
Consignment Selling
Contracting at Fixed Price
Contracts, Details to be Included
II Reporting of
Cooperatives, Comrissions to
Costs, "Actual Capital Costs"
", Calculations of


Baking Industry
Cotton Converting
Retail Trade
Retail Trade
Retail Trade
Retail Trade
Retail Trade
Retail Jewelry
Velvet
Retail Trade
Dress Manufacturing
Mayonnaise
Outdoor Advertising Trade
Small Arms and Ammunition
Standard Steel Barrel
Vitreous Enameled Ware Mfg.
Paint, Varnish and Lacquer
Retail Trade
Coffee Industry
Construction Industry
Cotton Cloth Glove
Cast Iron Soil Pipe
Candy Manufacturing
Wholesale Confectioners
Salt Producing
Salt Producing
Dress Mfg.
Lace Mfg.
Moving of plant (Crushed Stone)
Excelsior & Products
Complete Wire & Iron Fence
Bottled Soft Drink
Retail Trade
Furniture Mfg.
Paint, Varnish & Lacquer
Paint, Varnish & Lacquer
Retail tobacco
Machined ''nstes
Fertilizer
Nottingham Lace Curtain
Paint, Varnish & Lacquer
Paint, Varnish & Lacquer
Retail Monument
Paper Bag Mfg.
General Interpretation
Rubber Mfg.
Retail Trade


9843




-53-


Costs, Calculations of Premiums
", Inclusion of Discounts
I, Reporting of
Datings
11
11
Discounts & Credit Terms
1 II II
II II II
. 11 11 11

Cash
To Co-Operatives
S Maximum
,Quantity
S To teachers
Trade
n 11
S" On Trade Orders
Dividends to Customers
IEmploying Purchaser
11 n
Exhibitions
Export Exemptions
False Invoicing
Filing of Prices
SFiling of Zones
: Financing Charges
Free Goods
S I Services
Trials
11 11
Government Contracts
Guarantees, Price
SGuarantees, Product
Installation, Sub-Letting of
Contracts to Buyer
Installment Sales, Finance ChargE
Invoicing, of Closeouts
Other than at Filed Pi
Labeling, Descriptive
Labeling, N.R.A.
Loans to Purchasers
Loss Limitation Provision Retail
Machine Hours, daily limitations
Marking of Clearance Merchandise
Mark-up, for Wholesale Functions
Moving of Plant
New Machinery Limitations
Open Prices
Penalties reducing price
Premiums and Prizes
It i


Retail Trade
Retail Trade
Rubber Mfg.
Anti-Friction Bearing
lien's Neckwear
Paint, Varnish and Lacquer
Anti-Friction Bearing Industry
Handkerchief
Motor Fire Apparatus
Snap Fastener
Paint, Varnish and Lacquer
Fertilizer
Laundry and Dry Cleaning Machinery
See Quantity Discounts
Booksellers Trade
Bias Tape Industry
IJica
Retail Food & Grocery
Baking Industry
Fertilizer
Re-enforcing I;aterials..
Sr.iall Arms anr Amrmunition
Fir., E-tin;uishing Appliance
Cutlery, ILanicure Implement, Etc.
See Price Filing
Fertilizer
Retail trade
Machine Knife
I.alleable Iron
Conning & Packing machineryy
Paint, Varnish and Lacquer
General Interpretations Order X-48
See Price Guarantees
Bituminous Coal

Iietal Window
Es Retail Trade
Furniture Ifg.
-ice Cotton Cloth Glove
Solid Braided Cords
Fur ITanufacturing
Paint, Varnish and Lacquer
Drugs Retail Trade
Cotton Garment
Retail Trade
Wholesale Food & Grocery
Crushed Stone, Sand & Gravel
See Capacity Control
See Price Filing
Bituminous Coal
Baking Industry
Bottled Soft Drink
Filing of (Candy Manufacturing)


9843






-54-


Premiums and Prizes
II II
Race lNights and
Bank Nights


Price
Ii

11

11
n
II


11
11
II


11
N




I!
ii
II
'1


!1
l!
!i
n
11
II
11
II





1i


11
11
ii
ii
T1


Price Guarantees
Protection
Provisions, Effective in small
towns
Prices, Audit of most records
Prices, Charge for Analysis
Prices, Cost Basis
Prices, Direct Delivery by Mfrs. to
Retailer
Prices, Grocery
Prices, For similar Quantities in
Different Containers
Prices, to Government Purchasers
Prices, Identical Products


Filing
I!
11


11

11
11
1I

11
!I



11
'I



11
11
11
I'


ti
Ii
I1


11
'i

1I
II


11
11
Ii
'i
Ii
11



II
11
i'


, Access to records
, Advance disclosures
, Agency to Receive
, Billing above or below
filed prices
By Dealer.
Catalogues
Date of Re.ceipt
Date of Revision
Date of Revisions
Date of Revisions
Definition of Price
Discounts
Discounts
Effective Date
Effective Date of First
Inclusion of premiums
, Items not filed
New Prod.
, Prescribing of form
Revisions
Revisions
With Reservation Clause
Sales by Agent
Selling prices above thc
minimum
, To meet competition
, To meet competition
, With whom filed


Macaroni
Paint, Varnish and Lacquer

Motion Picture
(Vitreous Enameled Ware Mfg.)
Builders Supplies
Retail Lumber
Vitreous Enameled Ware Mfg.
Tool and Implement
Crushed Stone, sand and Gravel
Plumbing Fixtures

Cotton Cloth Glove
Fertilizer
Complete Wire & Iron Fence
Industrial Safety Equipment
Fire Extinguishing Appliance
Motor Fire Apparatus
Venetian Blinds
Light Sewing
Laundry and Dry Cleaning Machinery
Snap Fastener
Macaroni
Filing Motor Fire Apparatus
Candy manufacturing
Fertilizer
Buff and Polishing Wheel
Job Galvanizing Metal Coating
Complete Wire and Iron Fence
Rubber Manufacturing
Carbon Dioxide
Fertilizer
e
Carbon Dioxide
Crushed Stone, Sand and Gravel
Fertilizer
Fertilizer
Cast Iron Soil Pipe
See Price Guarantees

Retail Farm Equipment
Coffee Industry
Non-Ferrous Foundry
Buff and Polishing Wheel

Wholesale Food and Grocery



Retail Tobacco
Slate
Wholesale Food and Grocery


9843





-55-


Sirices, Inclusion of Tax Wholesale Food & Grocery
S Inclusion of Tax Retail Food & Grocery
Reduction by penalties Bituminous Coal
S Prices, Sales between Members Slate
Selling below publisher's list Booksellers Trade
To meet competition Retail Food and Grocery
Prices, See Premiums and Prizes
Processing, Charge for Paint, Vnrnish and Lacquer
Products Guarantees Bituminous Coal
Product Guarantees Smoking Pipe
Product Guarantees Electric Storage Battery
Quantity Differentials Standard Steel Barrel
It Steel Package
Discounts Bins Tape
| 1 "Bottled Soft Drink
Chinaware and Porcelain
| II "Fertilizer
I" "I Knitted Outerwear
Motor Fire Apparatus
Wholesale Automotive
Rebates: See Secret Rebates
Quantity or Volume Vitreous Enameled Ware Mfg.
Rental Charges, To State Governments,
etc. Oxy-Acetylene
Repaired Batteries, Definition of Elec. Storage Battery
SRepairs, Advertising of Retail Jewelry
Reprocessing Paint, Varnish and Lacquer
Resale Prices Fertilizer
Returned Goods Smoking Pipe
Sales Below List Price, to States,etc. Motor Vehicle Retailing
Sales Below Publisher's list price Booksellers Trade
Between M"embers Paint, Varnish and Lacquer
To Fraternities Precious Jewelry
To Hospitals Asphalt & Mastic Tile Industry
Second Hand Material Bedding Mlfg.
Secret Rebates Dress Mfg.
Shipping Terms Cotton Converting
Solicitations Investment Bankers
Special Services, Charge for Non-Ferrous Foundry
Standardization, Tool and Implement
Store Hours Leather and Shoe Findings
Style Piracy Toy and Playthings
Substituting, of Higher Priced
Articles Open Steel Flooring
Terms of Sale, Shipment Cotton Converting
Trade Acdeptance, Payment by Paint, Varnish and Lacquer
Trade Discounts, Bias Tape
Transportation Charges Funeral Supply
Transportation Charges Oxy-Acetylene
Paint, Varnish and Lacquer
"Destination" Lye Industry


9843





-56-


Transportation Charges governmentt Furchpses Lye Industry
S" Stop-in-Transit Lye Industry
Trials, Free Canning & Packing Machiner7
Tying Contracts, Short Subjects-Serirls .lotion Picture
SZones, Filing of Fertilizer.












































9843
ii





-57-


APPENDIX NO. 8

NRA .FCCEDUT.E ON T.PC ISSUArTCE OF IITEIPRETATIONS

General Inter-oret; tions.

The NRA Office Manual (*) stated tnat "identical language which
appears in different codes should be interpreted uniformly."

The term "general interpretations" was applied to rulings of
general application witi. respect to the meaning of provisions of codes and
in some instances to the meaning of otier documents, sucn as Executive or
NRA Orders. These were authorized only v.'nen issued over the signature of
tre Administrator or in the name of tne lati-,nal Industrial Recovery Board
by the administrativee Officer.

Par icular Internretations.

These are contrasted with general int'-rnrptations in the Office
Manual (**) by calling them "Other Intproretntions." Thus were included
all the interpretations wvich were applied to specific cases, such as, the
meaning of thp provisions of a single code; the classifying by interwreta-
tion of enterprises -is to code- jurisdiction; the resolving by interpreta-
tion of nroblerhs arising from thie overlanping definitions of particular
codes. Interretations of this ty-one might be approved by NRA division ad-
ministrators.

An NIlA committee prepared in May 1935, procedural "flow charts"
(***) based on trhe orovisicns of thcliR.- Office M anual. The charts on "Gen-
eral Interpretations of Codes" -ind "Interorotptinns for Individual Codes",
are reproduced in this appendix exhibit in illustration of the required
procedure as of April 13, 1935, for Las- iss-uince of interpretation rulings.
There were no important variations in the proc-durv of any of the IIRA In-
dustry divisions, although it wa9: found that only six of the eleven divi-
sions followed exactly tn proc-dure illustrated.

The broken lines used in the charts to denote intermediate move-
ments and conferences between thp various administrative units, did not
always represent a sim.)le and direct exchange. On the contrary, these ex-
changes \were oftencomnlex -nd involved much discussion.

The charts were drawn to illustrate cases in wLiich request fnr
interpretations originated with a code authority. It should be kent in
mind that the ITRA might issue an interpretation on its own initiative or
that a request for an interpretation migut originate outside NRA from other
sources tian the code authority. A general interpretation might be issued

(*) Part LII, Index 3121.1- Office Manual, August 30, 1934.

(*) Part III, Index 3122 Office Manual, August 30, 1934.

(**) Report of tne Committee for the Study f AMministration Procedure.
( dated May 21, 1935, Central Record Section, IRA files.


9843






-53-

iT. the form of nn Yxecutive Or-'er, without recourse to the NR A procedure
illusr-.ted by the charts, although crdinarily the Order would be issued
uoon the request of IThA and after receiving consideration by it. However,
wnether or not they originated with a code authority, the great majority
of internretptions issued subsequent to the date that the Drocedure illus-
trated was established, undoubtedly passed through the NBRA administrative
channels indicated by the charts.


9843










Part One


GENERAL INTERPRETATIONS


Advisory Board


Ind. Industrial
Lab. Labor
Con. Consumer
L.D. Legal Division
R&P Research & Planning


.. ..... ....... ... ........


-* I . -. . . > . .



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d 0
U N
ri o
p-I *^ ; r


......... ....... ..... .........4


------. -----..------


I Steps of Progress


InterTediate Move-
nents, Confcrences,
etc.


------- In Exceptional Cases

--------- ter Signature


Exceptional cases r..ay go to Advisory Council.
-iay go to Advisory Council in special cases.


9843


I----
I
I

I- - -
I


3


Delays


AMM






-40-


INTPFRETATIONS FOR INDIVIDUAL. CODES


53


I Div. Admo


I

I
I

I
I
I




I



I
p
uI
-- -



I


St-'ps in Progress

................. Intc.rncdia.te Move-
i.ents, Conferences,


--..--- In Exceptional Cases

-------After Signature


etc.


Delays


1. Possible exceptions to policy must go to Adninistrative Officer.
2. Exceptional cases na.y go to Advisory Council.


9S 43


Part One


................... .. .... ..... ... . ...... .......-.--- -->-


Advisory Boards

Ind. Industrial
... .Lab. Labor
-- -- ; Con. Consumer
5 L.D. Legal Division
*> M&P Research and
0 Planning
C4






OFFICE OF THE NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION


THE DIVISIONl OF REVIEW

THE WORK OF THE DIVISION OF REVIEW

S Executive Order No. 7075, dated June 15, 19-.., ezt?.'iziihel the Division of Revieu of the
National Reoovery Administration. The pertinent p+rt of t-.e E:e:utive Order reads thus:

The Division of Review shall assemble, analy:-_e, a.n report up.n the statistical
information and records of experience of the operations of the vario-,us trades and
industries heretofore subject to codes of fa._r coipetatLon, shall study the ef-
fects of such codes upon trade, ind'strii.l arn:1 labor conlitons in general, and
other related matters, shall ma'-e available for the protection and pro-lotion of
the public interest an adequate review of the effects of the Adninistration of
Title I of the National Indust.ial Recovery Act, and the principles and policies
put into effect thereunder, and shall ot..er.'.is? aid the President in carrying out
his functions under the said Title. I hereby appoint Leon C. Marshall, Director of
the Division of Review.

The study sections set up in the Division of Revie'.w covered these areas: industry
studies, foreign trade studies, labor studies, tra-.e pr.ac-tice studies, statistical studies,
legal studies, administration studies, nisc3llsneus3 stu-ies, and the writing of code his-
tories. The materials which were produced by tr:ese sections are indicated below.

Except for the Code Histories, all items mentioned below are scheduled to be in mimeo-
;raphed form by April 1, 1936.

THE CODE HISTORIES

The Code Histories are documented acco'.'nt of the for.-.at.ion ani. e.trinistration of the
*odes. They contain the definition of the i.ust.r; a-in th.e principal prcodu-ts thereof; the
classes of members in the industry; the history of :-.I? f)ornaticn inciulinz an ac-o'unt of the
sponsoring organizations, the conferences, nenmottaons ?n: hearin-s '.htich .'ere held, and
the activities in connection with obta-ninz t.pr3:"?. ofr tU.? code; the hitory, of the ad-
ministration of the code, covering the or.-n_.1at:n and cpr-_tion of the code authority,
the difficulties encountered in adainistr.ijon. t.h? *ut.r:t. if co .plia'.nce or non-co-ipliance,
Lad the general success or lack of success of ti-.e c,.i.; ?nd an snalyis of the operation of
'code provisions dealing with wages, hours, tra:le p.-actice:, an.I oti..?r provisions. These
and other matters are canvassed not only in tri.s of :e materials to be found in the files,
but. also in terms of the experiences of the dep !tLes an.i others concerned .':ith code fornation
and administration.

The Code Histories, (including histories of certain !IRA unitts or agencies) are not
mimeographed. They are to be turned over to the Depart"e'!t of Cc:'ier:e in t'pe..'ritten form.
All told, approximately eight hundred and fifth; (,50) histories .:ill be completed. This
number includes all of the approved codes and so.ie of the unlopro'vei cedes. (In Work Mate-
rials No. 18, Contents of Code Hitor2-?z, '.'ill be found the outline uinich governed the
preparation of Code Histories.)



(In the case of all approved codes and also in the case of soie codes not carried to
final approval, there are in NRA files fartiher materials on industries. Particularly worthy
Of mention are the Volumes I, II ani III which constitute the material officially submitted
'to the President in support of the recommendation for approval of each code. These volumes
9768-1.









-ii -


set forth the origination of the codes, the sponsoring group, the evidence advanced to suip-
port the proposal, the report of the Division of Research and Planning on the industry, the
recommendations of the various Advisory Boards, certain types of official correspondence,
the transcript of the formal hearing, and other pertinent matter. There is also much offi-
cial information relating to amendments, interpretations, exemptions, and other rulings. The
materials mentioned in this paragraph were of course not a part of the work of the Division
of Review.)

THE WORK MATERIALS SERIES

In the work of the Division of Review a considerable number of studies and compilations
of data (other than those noted below in the Evidence Studies Series and the Statistical
Material Series) have been made. These are listed below, grouped according to the char-
acter of the material. (In Work Materials No. 17, Tentative Outlines and Summaries of
Studies in Process, the materials are fully described).

Industry Studies

Automobile Industry, An Economic Survey of
Bituminous Coal Industry under Free Competition and Code Regulation, Ecnomic Survey cf
Electrical Manufacturing Industry, The
Fertilizer Industry, The
Fishery Industry and the Fishery Codes
Fishermen and Fishing Craft, Earnings of
Foreign Trade under the National Industrial Recovery Act
Part A Competitive Position of the United States in International Trade 1927-29 through
1934.
Part B Section 3 (e) of NIRA and its administration.
Part C Imports and Importing under NRA Codes.
Part D Exports and Exporting under NRA Codes.
Forest Products Industries, Foreign Trade Study of the
Iron and Steel Industry, The
Knitting Industries, The
Leather and Shoe Industries, The
Lumber and Timber Products Industry, Economic Problems of the
Men's Clothing Industry, The
Millinery Industry, The
Motion Picture Industry, The
Migration of Industry, The: The Shift of Twenty-Five Needle Trades From New York State,
1926 to 1934
National Labor Income by Months, 1929-35
Paper Industry, The
Production, Prices, Employment and Payrolls in Industry, Agriculture and Railway Trans-
portation, January 1923, to date
Retail Trades Study, The
Rubber Industry Study, The
Textile Industry in the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, and Japan
Textile Yarns and Fabrics
Tobacco Industry, The
Wholesale Trades Study, The
Women's Neckwear and Scarf Industry, Financial and Labor Data on
:9768-2

L_______________---------------------------- ---








- iii -


Women's Apparel Industry, Some Aspects of the

Trade Practice Studies

Commodities, Information Concerning: A Study of NRA and Related Experiences in Control
Distribution, Manufacturers' Control of: Trade Practice Provisions in Selected NRA Codes
Distributive Relations in the Asbestos Industry
Design Piracy: The Problem and Its Treatment Under NRA Codes
Electrical Mfg. Industry: Price Filing Study
Fertilizer Industry: Price Filing Study
Geographical Price Relations Under Codes of Fair Competition, Control of
Minimum Price Regulation Under Codes of Fair Competition
Multiple Basing Point System in the Lime Industry: Operation of the
Price Control in the Coffee Industry
Price Filing Under NRA Codes
Production Control in the Ice Industry
Production Control, Case Studies in
Resale Price Maintenance Legislation in the United States
Retail Price Cutting, Restriction of, with special Emphasis on The Drug Industry.
Trade Practice Rules of The Federal Trade Commission (1914-1936): A classification for
oomparision with Trade Practice Provisions of NRA Codes.

Labot Studies

Cap and Cloth Hat Industry, Commission Report on Wage Differentials in
Earnings in Selected Manufacturing Industries, by States, 1933-35
Employment, Payrolls, Hours, and Wages in 115 Selected Code Industries 1933-35
Fur Manufacturing, Commission Report on Wages and Hours in
Hours and Wages in American Industry
Labor Program Under the National Industrial Recovery Act, The
Part A. Introduction
Part B. Control of Hours and Reemployment
Part C. Control of Wages
Part D. Control of Other Conditions of Employment
Part E. Section 7(a) of the Recovery Act
Materials in the Field of Industrial Relations
PRA Census of Employment, June, October, 1933
Puerto Rico Needlework, Homeworkers Survey

Administrative Studies

Administrative and Legal Aspects of Stays, Exemptions and Exceptions, Code Amendments, Con-
ditional Orders of Approval
Administrative Interpretations of NRA Codes
Administrative Law and Procedure under the NIRA
Agreements Under Sections 4(a) and 7(b) of the NIRA
Approved Codes in Industry Groups. Classification of
Basic Code, the -- (Administrative Order X-61)
Code Authorities and Their part in the Administration of the NIRA
Part A. Introduction
Part B. Nature, Composition and Organization of Code Authorities
9768-3.

|------------------------;"__ ___^__









iv -
Part C. Activities of the Code Authorities
Part D. Code Authority Finances
Part E. Summary and Evaluation
Code Compliance Activities of the NRA
Code Making Program of the NRA in the Territories, The
Code Provisions and Related Subjects, Policy Statements Concerning
Content of NIRA Administrative Legislation
Part A. Executive and Administrative Orders
Part B. Labor Provisions in the Codes
Part C. Trade Practice Provisions in the Codes
Part D. Administrative Provisions in the Codes
Part E. Agreements under Sections 4(a) and 7(b)
Part F. A Type Case: The Cotton Textile Code
Labels Under NRA, A Study of
Model Code and Model Provisions for Codes, Development of
National Recovery Administration, The: A Review of its Organization and Activities
NRA Insignia
President's Reemployment Agreement, The
President's Reemployment Agreement. Substitutions in Connection with the
Prison Labor Problem under NRA and the Prison Compact, The
Problems of Administration in the Overlapping of Code Definitions of Industries and Trades,
Multiple Code Coverage, Classifying Individual Members of Industries and Trades
Relationship of NRA to Government Contracts and Contracts Involving the Use of Government
Funds
Relationship of NRA with States and Municipalities
Sheltered Workshops Under NRA
Uncodified Industries: A Study of Factors Limiting the Code Making Program

Legal Studies


Anti-Trust Laws and Unfair Competition
Collective Bargaining Agreements, the Right of Individual Employees to Enforce
Commerce Clause, Federal Regulation of the Employer-Employee Relationship Under the
Delegation of Power, Certain Phases of the Principle of, with Reference to Federal Industrial
Regulatory Legislation
Enforcement, Extra-Judicial Methods of
Federal Regulation through the Joint Employment of the Power of Taxation and the Spending
Power
Government Contract Provisions as a Means of Establishing Proper Economic Standards, Legal
Memorandum on Possibility of
Industrial Relations in Australia, Regulation of
Intrastate Activities Which so Affect Interstate Commerce as to Bring them Under the Com-
merce Clause, Cases on
Legislative Possibilities of the State Constitutions
Post Office and Post Road Power Can it be Used as a Means of Federal Industrial Regula-
tion?
State Recovery Legislation in Aid of Federal Recovery Legislation History and Analysis
Tariff Rates to Secure Proper Standards of Wages and Hours, the Possibility of Variation in
Trade Practices and the Anti-Trust Laws
Treaty Making Power of the United States
War Power, Can it be Used as a Means of Federal Regulation of Child Labor?
9768-4.











THE EVIDENCE STUDIES SERIES

The Evidence Studies were originally undertaken to gather material for pending court
cases. After the Schechter decision the project was continued in order to assemble data for
use in connection with the studies of the Division of Review. The data are particularly
concerned with the nature, size and operations of the industry; and with the relation of the
industry to interstate commerce. The industries covered by the Evidence Studies account for
more than one-half of the total number of workers under codes. The list of those studies
follows:


Automobile Manufacturing Industry
Automotive Parts and Equipment Industry
Baking Industry
Boot and Shoe Manufacturing Industry
Bottled Soft Drink Industry
Builders' Supplies Industry
Canning Industry
Chemical Manufacturing Industry
Cigar Manufacturing Industry
Coat and Suit Industry
Construction Industry
Cotton Garment Industry
Dress Manufacturing Industry
Electrical Contracting Industry
Electrical Manufacturing Industry
Fabricated Metal Products Mfg. and Metal Fin-
ishing and Metal Coating Industry
Fishery Industry
Furniture Manufacturing Industry
General Contractors Industry
Graphic Arts Industry
Gray Iron Foundry Industry
Hosiery Industry
Infant's and Children's Wear Industry
Iron and Steel Industry


Leather Industry
Lumber and Timber Products Industry
Mason Contractors Industry
Men's Clothing Industry
Motion Picture Industry
Motor Vehicle Retailing Trade
Needlework Industry of Puerto Rico
Painting and Paperhanging Industry
Photo Engraving Industry
Plumbing Contracting Industry
Retail Lumber Industry
Retail Trade Industry
Retail Tire and Battery Trade Industry
Rubber Manufacturing Industry
Rubber Tire Manufacturing Industry
Shipbuilding Industry
Silk Textile Industry
Structural Clay Products Industry
Throwing Industry
Trucking Industry
Waste Materials Industry
Wholesale and Retail Food Industry
Wholesale Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Indus-
try
Wool Textile Industry


THE STATISTICAL MATERIALS SERIES

This series is supplementary to the Evidence Studies Series. The reports include data
on establishments, firms, employment, payrolls, wages, hours, production capacities, ship-
ments, sales, consumption, stocks, prices, material costs, failures, exports and imports.
They also include notes on the principal qualifications that should be observed in using the
data. the technical methods employed, and the applicability of the material to the study of
the industries concerned. The following numbers appear in the series:
9768-5.


- V -









- vi -


Asphalt Shingle and Roofing Industry
Business Furniture
Candy Manufacturing Industry
Carpet and Rug Industry
Cement Industry
Cleaning and Dyeing Trade
Coffee Industry
Copper and Brass Mill Products Industry
Cotton Textile Industry
Electrical Manufacturing Industry


Fertilizer Industry
Funeral Supply Industry
Glass Container Industry
Ice Manufacturing Industry
Knitted Outerwear Industry
Paint, Varnish, ann Lacquer, Mf'. Industry
Plumbing Fixtures Industry
Rayon and Synthetic Yarn Producing Industry
Salt Producing Industry


THE COVERAGE

The original, and approved, plan of the Division of Review contemplated res'-rc3s suf-
ficient (a) to prepare some 1200 histories of codes and NRA units or agencies, (b) to con-
solidate and index the NRA files containing some 40,000,009 pieces, (c) to en-a-e nr. 3x-
tensive field work, (d) to secure much aid from established statistical a-encLes of Lovern-
ment, (e) to assemble a considerable number of experts in various fields, (f) to conduct
approximately 25% more studies than are listed above, and (g) to prepare a comprehens-ive
summary report.

Because of reductions made in personnel and in use of outside experts, limitation if
access to field work and research agencies, and lack of jurisdiction over f-les, the pro-
jected plan was necessarily curtailed. The most serious curtailments were the omission of
the comprehensive summary report; the dropping of certain studies and the reduction in the
coverage of other studies; and the abandonment of the consolidation and indexing of the
files. Fortunately, there is reason to hope that the files may yet be careC for under other
auspices.

Notwithstanding these limitations, if the files are ultimately consolidated and in-
dexed the exploration of the NRA materials will have been sufficient to make them accessible
and highly useful. They constitute the largest and richest single body of information
concerning the problems and operations of industry ever assembled in any nation.

L. C. Marshall,
Director, Division of Review.
9768-6.




























































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