Cuckoos and shrikes in their relation to agriculture. The food of cuckoos / by F.E.L. Beal ; The food of shrikes / by S....

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Material Information

Title:
Cuckoos and shrikes in their relation to agriculture. The food of cuckoos / by F.E.L. Beal ; The food of shrikes / by S.D. Judd. --
Series Title:
United States. Agriculture, Division of. Biological survey. Bulletin ;;
Physical Description:
26 p. : ill. ; 23
Language:
English
Creator:
Beal, F. E. L ( Foster Ellenborough Lascelles ), 1840-1916
Judd, Sylvester D ( Sylvester Dwight ), 1871-1905
Publisher:
Government Printing Office
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Cuckoos   ( lcsh )
Shrikes   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030147463
oclc - 61634956
System ID:
AA00018816:00001


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LhTrER OF TIV ANSMITTAL



U FA. mpAurmwT OF dk1OULT-UR1&7
#i
_VlMfOW OF ]RIOLOWCAL SURVEY,
Washiuoon7 D. G., June 15,, 1898.
to thsAmithero*ith or pub
7' and recommend
0 of jAyWoB,, two papers on the food bAbita
tigatkmm eonduated in the laboratory of the
Pmr. P Ig. u Beal and Mr. Sylvester D. Judd.

IIA T MARRI A
Chief, BWWie-al Burvey-










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AN SRIESINTHIRREATONT
AGRICULTURE.
THE TOD O CUCOOS.
By F. E.iL.iiiiiiiB.iS

GIM&iA-L NOTRI4.
qiilt an Tater ihy brds Wbiiithyidinotiioi
haea a f oeeln- hm


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iiii




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J g to'k braebe or n exosq
l... v e!t ae6e




OUK0 A"LI=I RLW
tofu.TeErpa ukolk u obrly
net ofohrbrs erhnil ai o hrd v
-cuiatog ocsoa ntneso ahprde
obevd u ukosd o sesbyrermr hno,-
a esnbtteyfeuntylyt~t gs pitrvl o
yonghtc uce 4elth atregs engicuaedi
young-m
Thre spce.adtosbpcisocri h ntd
thsoeseisadoesbpce r etitdams
th'soten osto loiaadar roel Ws
Th ter cuy rcialyte hl outy xcp h
deet, huh nwnerte aefud nte xrm
ony heylowbledcco (oyu- mriau) res
Gulfof exic tosouternCanda; he lackbiled
rohhias ragssilfrte ot.Te otwr n

no ei n pigi elavne' n suu lly
th n fMy.Ms fte id ev teNrhr




[lk noCMCCOS
Oosb'iwe1b n- hs bevtoaso
atetut ut0 eut fou netgto
t,14ot" usahai-
of!cowcmsso otesgasoprccds
1! fisctrilrad idro hc ribpei
00!tt oeta he-o~hTegetmjrt
ti n ntesoacswr am ins aepfas
tr cikt r xcl he-ryta tcok ih
,t m!efo hirpcda ehdo hnigi oig.
itmeao rshpesetnfrihadtoa ro
| A lgae htbrsae atclryfn fgas


spee o aurl rudfedr eoes
sesn
rIfcmo bevto ha uko edlreyo
i oaoahn" tinn nycnir hsbtso
t te id hyetfel fbar n rsl pcis
th u|w odwsfudt ectrilr.A
!~&t bana prxute1dao h culnme
I~ on~ h ed ndas u nmn ae
tipsilSvty fte1fot er ey on n
miue h euto hi siaebwvr
6 hn271ctrflxswr otie nI2
911o oeta 1i ftewoenm
i hi osdrd teaeaei edcdtl8 n
-ta -smc eoIeata ubr
Ma' 4xo mtetctrilrwedflutnthfri
in0xpstae*foth ukosfo.Weccko
"O h aoiitste paetyeta ayo

*a'oto hesoah ht otie h
W" wi hm oehvn mr hn10id-




717o
10 CUKM N SEIM -mtbr O
silrmaist edtrie.A ote'knso

imabesithttehiyadsiyspce h'iP
smohbtthsmy ede ihe oth ratraith
haiy oesor o he ir's reereee
Thsde f r aepllr a urosefe
S t o m c h s A c a k ~ s t o m a h n l i k t h a o f e e d a t i n ,'z
onl athn usulr oa~o te utid, ndth uua
is amstenti~ dvid f ag r olssoc
stmcso mn id. hsinr ae sa most nmm
pire ya etafwctrilrhm| fe ys o
compltelyfurrd an themembane tsel almst,
rInietlytiharliigafrsaexelnmeao
the~~~~ ~ ~ moino h oddrn igsin fasoahI
plan ofits wo reatr dametrs he hirson w bafwm'
brsedrun ene lk henp nte o o ilk
tht h woe as f od eole i ti pae.I
noicdthtth sis fcaerilastaenfomteEt
amalas wstdliea od rroe adoferqire


untisin beor teirchrater cn e dtemied
In areviw ofthefoodof cckoo th mos strkin
grea numer f cai~rp~ar or epioptrouslarve wirA
theyer' det Thseitsetsar crdefedesea ing
amo un ofra urtoii n n fte utb
stmacso id hthaeetnlreyo eaeplmrs
a uatiy f hi fney utveetbl mttr~erve fo
soah.Adietoinbrssrpdiwoldse
fillthe tomah seeraltims a ay wth fnch uic ly 4
slgtyntiiujfo isti_ hl h ubro
in a tmc tayoetm rbbyrpeet u
ofteata al osmpin rmteecni
thtccpsms a neomu ubro avei h






4%PrOllar has done, nwy others
,wo h4ve 000 Of nataWs most effi-
of. theso harmful species. If is said that
p0t"ted, by t6Ar 'coats from the attacks. of
be true$ IM work of the cuckoos in
V is complementary to that of the ichneu-
to dostroy the swooth-coated caterpillars. 0onsider-
grwsh0VpersIoeUatSj and. other insects that cuckoos
it is evident that from an econonm point
4rel-wo of- onir'most'valuable sWies, and as they
040W of do-tng a"ay''harm they should be protected
:W, Avery *poaidblo way.
pqj a nittober of spiders were found in the
"W"Ost of ,Oo% the long-legged kinds commonly
longlep, or harvestmen (Phalangidw). One
ba';Oams of taugled legs looking like a bunch
WfimVe.consWr tfio disgusting odor of these spiders,
Awt *stthejr bodift have the texture of sand-
.4thatusteadiffer. Butthemost
the cuokoos bad '"ten was a, small tree frog

On that the yellow-billed cuckoo sucks
bo,',said that, eggshells werp fotmd in
401y -and Auguist but o'nV in very small
d- W, the stomacbg of nearly every, spe6es
It probable that these were merely empty
li 'i"they contained. It.,may-be added
wfikh was pro!)ably*Uken for
h -00 to
eontained ew &OM o
Vero swallowed was not appar-
Wid even if they did their stomwhs
iLre those Of
rj

dg.



40verAl familieio no oue of
i, wo,
tatiood. T -he stowwh
f beetles Wooging
oq44dtut6 14,?,perwitfof
after July prsidi-
W h isMe iWily
*We the, MWko"
n 4f`VWo-
J
A




,AW




12~~ ~~ ~L "UK0 N HIEOI EANT
whih, t my e aded ison ofthemos dsgutin t
..a rbbytems sfl netta h id aq
bmd wr omwatoenueos hu te bem
noicaleo tee a tegodmihbete CtapIn
wa oudin3intncs6 pcmesinotooomc ad&


of be:'oher. wo to ach cotanedeah 2spcin"*
Coloado otat beele (oryhora10-lne~t). Eateicv
TenerioidwGermbyodwlamprid, an a ew R---
suutbete, ee lo ond mogth ate wsI~ l
th iewevl(aadr rz) ltgahrbete ositu#

mo ta 6prcn o heyarsfod
]BUC-8 (jff=1PTBRA).
..eitro ugaerpeete yccds enttzdl

fewoter. hegratbuk s ad u o ccaas o dg-A


flie, whch sem t be faorit artcle f fod, a noles h*V




Ja
VA=-YCIKO. 13
uSW!i-eew ) wihwsrcgie
-ailua cetil otiedi in oe
1mtofamvtr o pstv dniiain
wiem hssposcnb baie nydrn
an htol 0soah wr olce n hs
bo ent"mr hnoethr faltebrsta
,#o neahd ae hm.Tog h ean nmn
owdnt eietfe ihcrany hr s-oraoal
the catflmcnttt t thl faltefo
_,a lla hc pervryf-qetyi h ukol
,0 etuiefl e-om Iylnraona.I n
hed fti n eecutd -dtefamnso
Ou Wwpdb errth orc ubr h




eae ifte ilsifetdwt hmwr
vilt fwos adsetn aeplaso

ofe nu&i nieloftelri ftelre
th atr rtpr 1rln n ekhl
a ee4soa nfcahni avapa
-mk paWepooto ftehiictr
Wkom.wr ersne yoeIav fTk
Vilt r wii y1 aye n oa oh
14lreA aifne.Ol
ek M-aof'ainma
olh l p
Unii iipt tetidteav
NVm uko a aylrwo ei
#otw mW-% w ei fadol nc.I hs
Old!! th heads.of.........ma...mo....o....

xxor tSm*





14 uumoos Alm SHRiwcs Xx Rounow 70 AGW`C

americana) were found in several stomachs. Antis toa, 41*
eaten; probably captured when crawling over leaves or b
poiwibly wlieu tending their dairies of plant Hee. One
western Pennsylvania taken on June 2, coutsined7 smong otW1
2 curions heads of ants, which were identified by Mr. P4&"O,
Division of Entomo logy7 as belonging to the gehns.,Vryptoew,%0,,
genus is not known from the United States, but is abundaixtm''
and the West Indies. The bird was probably a late migr4ut.
other Hymenoptera were found, among thema specimen of'tthh";
long-bodied creature, Pelecinu8 polyturator. In the stomachs
a few dragon flies were detected, but not enough to constito*-
ceptible percentage. There were also some spiders mainly-
As a matter of interest to the entomologist, as well as 'dwi
tbologist, a list of insects identified in the cuckoos?
appended:
INSECTS IDENTIFIED IN THE STOMACHS OP CUCIC008.

Lepidoptera:
,4
Calosoma scrutator. Anisota senatoria.
Lachnosterna op. Auisota virginiensis.-
Oemoderma op. Alypia octomaculata.
Cotalpa lanigera. Acronyeta ameritana.
Gnorimus maculosus. Hyperebiris *10.
Euphoria melancholic&. Eacies imperialis.
Dichelonyoha op. *meriewaa,.
Lueanus op. Cerura op.
Scandals petrophya. Datans miaistra;
Lina scripta. Datans contracta.
Disonycha'abbreviata. Dryocampa rubicund*.
Chrysomels scalaris. Deilephila lineata.
Doryphors 10-lineats. Eudryaa unia.
Romaleum atomarium. Edema albifrons.
Prionue op. Heterocampa mantea.
Lepturs isp. Hyphantria cunes.
Buprestis op., Leucania unipuncta,
Chauliognathas op. Nadats 'ibUoos.
Phytougmus, nigrirostris. Notodonts op.
Tsloderwa iereum. Orgyia le UC'Mtigxna.
Pissodes op. Psychomorphs epiments.
Calandra orywe. amerinthus op.
Cratoparis luuatu8. Protoparce earolina.
Hemiptera: Spilowma virginic&
Brochymeus op. Telea polyphemus.
Eusehistue op. Eudataus tityrus.
Kezar& hilariB. Vanea'a antiopa.
C leads pruinama. Limenitis disippus.
Cicada tibimn.
Opwa: Pelectaus polyturator.
CEdipods op. Lophyrus op-
pazotettix op. Cimbex americana.
Centhopblius ap. Ca=1mmotas 4,16
CEcauthus nivous. CqPtoearm 510.
















THE FOOD OF SHRIKES.
jiy SYLvxsTzR D. JuDD; Ph. D.

HABITS OF SURIKBRO

species of shrikes inbalAt North America. One, the loggerhead
(14,siu* lud"iaajus et subqw.); in a permanent resident in the
States- the other, the butcherbird (Lanius borealU), visits us
the "rth -winter. Either might be mistaken for a mocking bird,
M151P042C on is seen to have the hooked beak of a hawk;
Womm of poswsing talons, however, it -has weak and Alender feet,
0 loombiltdog characters of a bird of prey with those of a song bird.
-bating cold weather the shrike in wait for prey takes his stand on
PM*o high pen& that commands a wide view. In this position he
*Acbea ready to pounce on the first bird that twitters in the brlers,
vr wous;6 that rastles in the grams. When the quarry has bimm secured,
p owded to sharp twig or thorn and spitted, and then the hunter,
aW to saUsly his desire for the cbas% goes off to the hedgerows
for more game. lia Germany it is said that a. closel' allied
daily kills and impales nine victimj from which belief came the
jaame-t NOW Miter' or Winekiller. It is: well known that- the
kill aw hangs up in his sbambl s more than be can utflUe. But
wwton slaughter may often be the salvation. of maijy a
wbow hunt over snow-covered -fields has yielded no return.
!A 4 4,a-U* habit a j its prey is well described by Mr. Benjamin
W* -in writing from Oran go, Fla., says:
U*Vmk jMV- two inat"Doe4 of the 10Onwhead shriko's lkMag smaller birds
'404M bw Awu*. U both cames the victim was a gramhopper "rrow,
W& of this spoeUs -wem few and mattered at that time, while the
Wssvmy ebmWmto The aparrowe were impaled by the mwk upon
&A4 there *aft Ao wouods on any other part of the bodyw
J#wshtike) lamwbo itz preW -not only -rhen it visha to preserve it., but
bA0WW U 4evour It, i effistoly,0 nn4 the long eliven on frwh pine
0006oidyselooW:&r Oe porpoSo wherever they can be found. The
*,i i i's i Owith, Uo Victim., wmally # beetlo, and forces it upon a shver,
thMA UVg *MV*U$Mt PIOAM tP stand and a. convenient
Uri&i" open *6 hard sheii and eats the softer parts.
*say tiom by Ahe bird, so ihat it in common to
ving a%** of beMbs about them curiom dining
15




ilop
16 CU108ADSRKM (SCAKIO
Th aio iln ml, nml n agn p"
gvntesrkthaprpitgeeinaeaau i*
4bthr1Tenm ueebr'i oepoel'f
lagr othr brwhl t hesale ndmrewu
th tte ogehed hrk i ivn
Difeetdesafcintmth tatrofa nzaJ
patsar dveopd orprcuin ad igmlngfod
thtfo aispa nteprdcino uhvrain
befulwokdotAUsrcue r'eeaiydv
mantind n irctreato t fncio. hrke hv
lir utd Whi euia edn abt.S g as h"
shie rbteebrAi esrcedt n nml!it
reatv scriyofiscs..teNot uiu oto
mustbe oreof mea eaer hanits outerncouinthem
The stugefreitne'nte ot t oke htt
bird duigcl etems odislnra inest
firt ir ormosetht i Ig~ed
Th odhbt ftesrieg a sdtrie frm
nain f15 somcs clece arn eeymot orh
Sakthea oFlrd adfo teAlatct tePtific
siia otos ftesaro ak htIi osy h
sit fmcsml idad nettelatrmtl
Bohbrsaemc ls netvru i odta n'am
th ocmig fwitr ndcnsqun iceain eat Ity
neesiatn acaneinfod IM
Indicssn teineci~ru hbtsofte hik it sah
esar o ttetatte etrcioofgashppr i gL
tote'aner h srkea9 dvus' arenmbrO




MOTM RK R UCEBR.1
#tttebnfcaw!i fbt hie oteg h nui
__i/sprbbetatwe tispsil t td h
fi! aiso h ucebrti pcelk t otei
th ogred il1efudt1eadstoe fqatte
an thrnoiusiset
MOT1U HIEO UCEBR.
'nrbr hie sabr fte usna oebedn ri
toAakadvstn h.UntdSae nwne ny


Usfodsupy alsa teNot. uin tswntrsoorni






a hefl evc ykligrshpes nls paros









tl omnrloriraemteri netonlysalwd

lbrem wems onie ht nml t etos




18 CUCKOOS AXD SEERIKE8 IN RELATIONOV0 A-491C,

destroyed by, the butcherbirds, if allowed to live, would have #
at the end of the first year to 118,800, and at the end of the
to 1,306,800 individuals. The abrike is at work every wi
citiee, of the northern tier of States, killing the sparrowe w
increase until they beoome so abundant that more are obliged
to the country for food. In a number of instances where Eno*,",
rows bad been devoured, their stomachs, containing seeds 8414#
were found within the buteberbirds! stomachs. A gel
kinglet's stomach also was detected, filled. with fragments of,
and scores of tiny gnats. Mr.'Frank M. Drew, in an ardcl*.
F161d Notes on the Birds of San Juan County, Colorado'
Ornith. Club, vol. 6, p., 89), says that this shrike lives by
little troops of titmice. Dr. G. S. Agersborg, of South Da
(The Auk, vol. 7, p. 279) that it seems to follow tbe wake of
sparrows (Aoizella monticola), and leaves in the vring at the
they do. Prof. F. E. L. Beal while at Awes Iowa, noted the
bird attacking birds only once, although he bad time and again,
their killing mice. In this. exceptional case the victim wim 6
woodpecker (Dryobatespubmcms) which the shrike had hung iu 4",
while devouring the brains. The most remarkable acconat iae-'
butcherbird's not molesting birds also comes from, Professor'
the same station. A shrike. was perched on a telegmph wire
a rank weed patch which was all a-twitter with hundreds of-,
isparrows. Every now and then the shrikewould leave the,,'.
scour the prairie, appoirently hunting for mice, and then retum
perch. He paid no attention to the sparrows, and they
signsof apprebensiofi.
IL
Following is a list of birds that the butcherbird has been
A
kill:
Chickadee (Paru8 atricapillus).1
Bush tit (Pealgriparuo).
Englisb sparrow (Pmmw don"tiow)49
Tree spamw (Spizella montim1a).2
Snowflake (Pimtropkenam sivalis).
Downy woodpecker (Dryobatmpubesoms).
Virso (Vireo sp.).
Junco (Ameo kyenaUo).2
Kinglet (Rquius satrapa).2
Field sparrow (Spizella puAlla)-2
Goldfinch (Spinuo tristis)."
Sinkin (Spiivs piftw
'Yeilow-rumped wu4liler (Dondroica oprosst*).'
Mourning dove'(Zmaidura maeroura).
CaMinal. (CardiaaUe eardinalie).
lAuppur (Caloariva).3
ShM lark (Otoeorjp).3

Dr. J. Dwight, jr. 2 Identified in the laboratory,
3 OMithologUt and Oologist.




'UD
10I1 U~gID
ofaark bthsrety ae os sfudt
J1lgm.lo x-ihbnsi h etr tsmoj
Urg e kmt astruhtea netntee
AxO dtruhtemuh ubro idicu,
mxmio) r nw odsog
Uamno fbiso ry
Axdi n-hr ftetmalseaiecntttn
thfo| n o ae os rqetyi ae.O
wo dniida olw:I bt-otdmue(eo
|-~~ ("trd~oy) u,8 edwiNc
I~u a os steoeta feetfu itmt
LS 'M.WlimBeseomabigX~ssae
(VLXp 2)$a eswaibiesiealremao
'A -bcdamtars b soad hndo t h
oftyn oee .qrn a teark addoei
artebrb eea elamdpsesc
6a jnvw n hnatelte undt u
Y bIm n ore tt-da-,a -ere ol
m omwsaewrabreo ntem~i~ lw n
-i r6 edwmc;bsie osmn rs n
Ue anm-ehuemue nadto-t at
vatnydsry ri sadn ntesok
SttsAm,#aej alte htaoe
miv exis l upon- medo m ice iiiiiiii
Sot (h uVl 1 .18 le nIsac
wa.mgt nteat fg[] caet























































butcherbird IS yellwxisl; anbdr the black Dars on the ai.ei i
meet across theuforehea4, but fail to do so in the butchebi,
the loggerheadswanude' pauthward, but in spring they rot
breeding grounds aw; dns in thorny shrubs.

"<'* (if ~i ^. *
BIRDS RATEN BY THE LOGQRR UA. D,1

Only 7 birds were found in the 88 loggerhead Somacks e
One of these was an Enlish sparrow, another a tree spa
most of the others, which were not spea ialy. ptie w
meed-eating birds. ... :. ..,. . ...
%"i ... Ji


IL,


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* i,. ;:11




LOdfiD HIK.2
-*ote ohaebeniid h


aiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
Swiftiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii


JO~efttionk hore s no eidencitoiiiiitia
but Mr Rober Uidgay hasmeiiiiiiiiihatii
UggrhOOL iC ar OAM funiinstoachio
47t WM *08onthey, o" pern t, nd o
v~j Ofthe fod Th --lbiiiimceiar



pftttiiiit
mai t-*O ais *f 'hi moseieritaeiiio

a odMosrdrigcl
wi sios a~~~ a bbthridi
A o~dw a



Arw wetIogred teero1 W
"iU1,6tte4Brsoio GenAdCnh



4k;VLIy187 .25,stt hti h

94 oggexda~k sogored._o




-L-7 ,-.b

22 CUKO N HRKSY EATO OAO








IL~
INRC1 RTN TTH OGA"ED
Th agrprto h nec odo hi biecnisao
(gasoprsadciktsadte eane s rnial
Insimr he rshpes r bnat telgeha

semt takbid.Tefc ta ntteofpet!oe
kiledan ipald ha cn e uilze idicti tatth
oftee et esryd smc getr hn.. h abrtr
tin ho.Te aesttmntwud o ol odin h
thedesrucio ofbirs, ecusedurngcol wethe wen itij,
killd thre s a carcty f fod, nd al th spils f te os
prob bly utiize G ass opp rs nd ricket we e f und ilt i
forh ftesomcseaie nd1 fte8 hiko -







tw-O- -s grup f e rintac

!a hlregenadgl ube
E[1wN]# Tih ix)adcrio ete
'h h atrisct aebe on
! 'rm h q eh a ,li e h t o h ue ebr

1| o," fctrlii aps n iie& I h
ia h boe f' arews vt t tn
'"!0lgeb'di ient ac ag net
tw tmc a itne ihalregas
amron[ uthrcnandam]ecikt n
*t ou a y(rmu) hslas._sp
i w ^~bb pmuigtes hsmkn n
dvUycnkrwrs Goe
i *4nfr;te
iJ~hd) n vnbidyctrilr Aefd)




m7
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