Effects of tick eradication on the cattle industry of the south

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Title:
Effects of tick eradication on the cattle industry of the south
Physical Description:
26 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Ward, W. F
United States -- Bureau of Animal Industry
Publisher:
G.P.O.
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

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Subjects / Keywords:
Cattle -- Diseases   ( lcsh )
Babesiosis in cattle   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by W.F. Ward.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030008167
oclc - 81287721
System ID:
AA00018800:00001

Full Text
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EFFECTS OF TICK ERADICATION.


standpoint of beef production. This may be due to a number of
causes, very prominent among which stands the cattle tick. These
animals could not grow normally while young nor develop when
older while they were infested with ticks, which not only decreased
the vitality of the animals by the drain upon the blood supply, but
weakened and stunted them by transmitting the protozoa of Texas
fever. Then, too, these cattle could not be improved rapidly by
crossing with good beef animals, because these beef cattle were
usually brought in from the North and would generally die of fever
before they proved of much service. This happened so often that
the shipping of good cattle into the South was discouraged and
almost given up for several years. The scrub was said to be the
only animal which could withstand the former conditions in the
South, but in reality the animals which were submitted to these con-
ditions for a period of years often deteriorated until a scrub re-
sulted. Scrub cattle were, therefore, accepted, not because they were
wanted, nor because there was no desire for better stock, but because
the cattle tick, frequently combined with poor treatment, immature
breeding under range conditions, and often inbreeding for genera-
tions, gave scrubs as a result. This held true for so many years
that the idea became fixed that only the scrub would live in the
South despite any precautions that might be taken or conditions
which might be changed.
However, the use of purebred beef bulls upon these herds of scrub
cows, especially when the herd has been kept free of ticks, has re-
sulted in such an improvement in the calves, both as to size and
quality, that the old notion that good cattle could not be raised in
the South is rapidly being dispelled.
IMPROVEMENT OF THE CATTLE.
The more progressive farmers in sections where the cattle tick has
been eradicated have purchased good bulls to use in grading up their
herds. The result has been wonderful. High-grade cows, produc-
ing deep, broad, blocky calves that mature into 800 to 900 pound
steers at 2 years old have now replaced the small, cheap scrubs that
were formerly on the farm. Scrub calves that were formerly worth
from $4 to $7 at 12 months of age are supplanted by the grade beef
calves that weigh 450 to 600 pounds at a year old and sell for $15 to
$30 a head. Such grade calves have been marketed for the last three
years by the Bureau of Animal Industry in the Alabama cattle-feed-
ing experiments at prices ranging from $25 to $36 a head when
fattened before being put upon the market.' Good profits were made
on raising and feeding them.
1 Bureau of Animal Industry Bulletin 147.





zn s OF TICK ERADICATION.
.I counties which have been released from quarantine because of
i s theradicati^on of the cattle tick the live-stock industry has imme-
i Wiely =begun to improve, for better breeding bulls have been shipped
i 'in these counties and the cattle have advanced in price. This
*Ill iiiwiAprovement has taken place on the farms of men who are primarily
Jateresed in the cattle business and not on the small farms where but
to ~cattle are kept. It is well known that the small farmers out-
)* em^^^^^^ ber the cattlemen many times over, hence the small farmer is not
I tLtin ::iig the full benefit to be derived from the work of cleaning up a
: 741 1 uty. There are a number of reasons why this is true, chief among
SIrich :is the fact that he has not cows enough to justify him in buy-
i... ... aS good bull, and very few of them have the money which they
ul'"' ld spare for this purpose. Then, too, because of the fact that he
hs1'! but two or three cows he is often indifferent to what they are
bind td. There is the mistake. If he has but two cows, all the more













Flo. 1.-Export steers on pasture in Virginia. (Courtesy of Virginia Department of
i Agriculture.)

important is it that he breed them to the best bull he can, instead of
turning them out to mate with any scrub they find, because the man
who produces a few calves is invariably in a better position to raise
good ones than the large breeder of stock, as better care and more
attention c e n can be given to them. Again, the small farmer often needs
the money which good calves would bring far more than does the
farmer who is well fixed and owns quite a herd of stock. It will
cost but little more to keep a good cow, whether for milk or beef
purposes, than to keep a scrub, and the net income will be many
times greater on the former, so why not produce a high-priced calf
too? In these times of high-priced live stock it is just as important
for the farmer to breed his cow to a good bull as it is to send his mare
to a good stallion. The difference in price between the progeny
from the scrub and from the good sire is relatively as great with the
cow as with the mare; yet how many of our small farmers have made





EFFECTS OF TICK ERADICATION.


a practice of taking a cow to a good bull instead of breeding her to
some little angular scrub, just because he was near at hand, although
he was worthless for any purpose?
If these small farmers are to get their just benefits and profits
from the work they have helped to accomplish in the county, they
must begin the practice of sending their cows to a good bull to be
bred. This is done by the small farmers of the corn belt, and accounts
largely for the high prices of cattle in those States. The farmer
there who raises from 3 to 10 cattle a year often has better animals
than the regular cattlemen.
The first objection raised against this method by the farmer of
the South, however, may be that there are no good bulls in his neigh-
borhood. If this is the case, why can not several of these farmers
buy a bull to be kept at some centrally located farm for breeding?-
Or if some farmer knew that his neighbors would patronize a bull
in the same manner that they do a stallion or a jack, how long would
it be before some one shipped in a good bull? This could be ac-
complished by the farmers organizing bull clubs, either for the pur-
chase of a bull or pledging themselves to breed their cows to a good
bull at a reasonable fee, provided some one in the community would
buy one. A certain time could be fixed for this breeding, say, just
after sundown or at noon, in order to find the owner of the bull at
home. This method was followed by one farmer in southern In-
diana, who kept an exceptionally good bull for his own use. In
some years as many as 40 outside cows, belonging to 30 or 32 people,
were bred to this bull at a fee of $1 for a bull calf and $1.50 for a
heifer. In this way the owner secured a nice sum to help pay for the
keep of the bull, and at the same time cattle all over the community
were improved. The effect of this one bull upon the cattle of that
neighborhood could be seen for several years. Some of the cows
brought to that bull were led from a distance of 1 to 11 miles, and
where care was taken to bring the cow quietly it was seldom neces-
sary to return her for another service.

IMPROVEMENT OF THE PASTURE.1
The farmers can raise more and better cattle by devoting a little
time and attention to improving their pastures. Bermuda and car-
pet grass are the two standard pasture grasses which should be used
as a foundation for making pastures. The Bermuda will do well on
all soils, but especially on the stiffer soils, while the carpet grass will
do exceedingly well on the sandy soils. If these grasses are not al-
ready present, the Bermuda should be planted during the wet weather
of the spring, when other work can not be done. Bermuda sod or
I For a full discussion of this subject, see Farmers' Bulletin 509 of the U. S. Department
of Agriculture.




'.. .........

i FFECTS OF TICK ERADICATION. 5
uttbag should be used for planting. The carpet grass seed can not
407 purchased on the market, but if the carpet grass is not grazed
!*tr July it may be cut in September and the cut grass containing
71 seed scattered over the pasture lands. The grass may also be
nP a~td by transplanting the sod. Once it gets started in a pas-
bre it soon spreads over the entire pasture if grazed by cattle. Graz-
...n M and trampling seem essential to its best growth. The seeds of
V4i ous kinds of clovers or grasses should be sown upon the pasture
Ias in order to extend the grazing season. In the Southeast, if 4
S5 pounds per acre of bur clover seed (in the bur) is scattered about
W!(I' pasture in August and an equal amount of lespedeza and white
r in March these clovers will help the pasture wonderfully and



















FIG. 2.-Steers on pasture in Virginia. (Courtesy of Virginia Experiment Station.)
will spread so that in a few years they will be found all over the
ground. The bur clover gives good grazing in February and March,
the white clover from April 1 to July 1, and the lespedeza from
July 1 until frost in the fall. All of these grow well on Bermuda sod
and reseed themselves each year. A little alsike clover, Paspalum
dilatatum, and red-top grass planted on damp bottom lands produce
excellent grazing. The seed of Paspalum are high in price and are
low in germination, so it is rarely advisable to purchase seed. The
best method is to strip the seed from plants by hand in October or
November and sow them over the pasture lands at once, and imme-
diately disk the land. A fair stand is often secured by scattering the
seed on top of the sod and giving no further attention.






EFFECTS OF TICK ERADICATION.


In portions of Texas and Oklahoma where conditions are so differ-
ent from those in the Southeastern States some of the methods ad-
vocated above are undesirable. For instance, on some of the semi-
arid lands, Bermuda grass, red-top, Paspalum dilatatum, and the
clovers will not grow, and planting them would be a waste of time
and money; but there are the native grasses, mesquite trees, and
cactus, which furnish some feed for the cattle. Then, too, milo maize
and kafir corn replace the Indian corn grown east of the Mississippi
for forage crops. Alfalfa also does well on irrigated land and onil
some of the soils where as much as 33 inches of rain falls during the
year. Kafir corn and milo maize will make excellent crops of forage
under drought conditions which would destroy a crop of corn. They
can be used as dry fodders and grain and they make a good quality
of silage. Larger pastures will be required for cattle here than in
the other States, as greater acreage is required per animal.

FUTURE METHODS OF IMPROVEMENT.
Briefly speaking, the plan farmers should follow as soon as ticks
have been eradicated is as follows:
1. Get Bermuda or carpet grass started on all pastures. Improve
the pastures further by sowing some lespedeza and bur clover on the
uplands, and some alsike clover,white clover, and Paspalurn dilatatum
on the bottom lands.
2. Grow more hay and other forage on which to winter the stock;
or, if a farmer has as many as 50 or 75 cattle, erect a silo.
3. Bring in good bulls of the beef breeds to use for grading up the
native cattle. Do not try to raise pure breds to begin with.
4. If not able'to buy a bull for individual use, form a bull club, and
let each member buy stock in the bull and place him on some central
farm; or let one man buy the bull and the others obligate themselves
to breed their cows to that bull.
5. Form a community club or a county live-stock association, so
that members may exchange bulls every two years in order to get the
maximum service from a bull without breeding him to his own off-
spring. The members of a club should agree on what breed they
want to use and all get bulls of the same breed, in order that the
community may develop a trade and make a reputation as growers
of this breed.
6. If the bull is young, do not let him run with the cows, but keep
him in a separate pasture and give him some feed each day so as to
keep him growing.
7. Do not let a young bull serve a cow but once. One service is
often better than a half dozen.
8. Heifers of the beef breeds should not drop calves until they are
at least 30 months of age, and should be bred accordingly.







9. Breed the cows so as to calve during February, March, and
rApril.
n 10. Castrate all male calves at an early age, either before or at
weaning time.
Mi::iL::"" EFFECTSS OF TICK ERADICATION.


.. 1i. Wean the calves in the fall about the time the cows are taken
*,rom pasture. Give them plenty of good bright hay, silage if avail-
able, and about 1 pound of cotton-seed meal per day for the first
month after taking them from the cows. After that they can be
wintered on the roughages produced on the place, with a little con-
centrate. Cowpea or lespedeza hay is especially good for the calves,
:, though there is no better roughage than silage.
Ii*;.m12. The breeding stock may be given the run of the stalk fields until
hei: middle of winter and then fed on the roughage about the place
:,i terest of the winter. As the cows will be carrying calves, they
should not be permitted to get poor, but should be kept in a thrifty
condition.
18. If possible, dip all of the stock each spring and fall to keep
them free of lice and to put their skin in good condition.
14. Farmers who have a number of cattle will usually have to let
the bull run in the pasture with the cows. If this is the case, do
not put him with them before May 15 or June 1, and take him away
thb 1st of September. By doing this the calves will be dropped
in the early spring months. Owners of large herds of cattle should
wherever practicable keep the steers in a separate pasture from the
breeding stock, and the bull may be turned in with them during the
season when he is not with the cows.
15. Never keep a grade bull for a sire if a purebred one can be
secured.
The natural sequence to the formation of community clubs for
breeding and raising cattle will be the cooperative shipping to such
markets as show the greatest demand for the class of cattle to be sold.
In counties where the farmers are largely- raising one breed of cattle
it is not hard to induce buyers to come, provided there is consider-
able stock for sale. One county might make a specialty of raising
cattle for stocker and feeder purposes, while another might finish
the cattle in the feed lots if conditions for this are favorable. The
quality of cattle should improve constantly, and if it does the prices
paid for them will also increase.

INTERVIEWS WITH CATTLEMEN AND FARMERS.
To ascertain just what effect tick eradication was having upon the
cattle industry of certain sections of the South, a trip was made by
three representatives of the Bureau of Animal Industry through
Tennessee, Mississippi, and Georgia, visiting farms in counties which
had been freed of the ticks, others where the work was in progress,


^ ^ :: ;:';:::: E m : ::__EE.






EFFECTS OF TICK ERADICATION.


and still other counties where ticks were present in all pastures and
where no effort had been made to get rid of them. The cattle were
inspected and farmers, bankers, cattle buyers, and butchers were
interviewed to see just how they regarded the work.
The first county visited was Madison County, Tenn., in which is
located the West Tennessee Experiment Station. The experiment
station is about 1-i miles from Jackson. The land has been improved
by growing leguminous crops and maintaining a herd of cattle for
milking purposes, putting the manure back on the farm. The clovers,
vetch, alfalfa, and various other forage crops were growing luxu-
riantly. The farm had been freed of ticks for some time and an
excellent herd of Holstein cattle were seen, some of which were
making wonderful milk records.
Mr. S. A. Roberts, the superintendent of the farm, made the follow-
ing statement:
The cattle industry in those counties of western Tennessee which have been
freed of ticks was never in a more prosperous condition than at the present
time. More interest has been taken by the farmers since they have learned
that they can bring in cattle from above the quarantine line without danger
of loss from Texas fever. A number of good beef animals have been brought
into the county for breeding purposes during the past year. Much interest
is being taken in better dairy animals, too, and the West Tennessee Experiment
Station can not fill the orders received for Holstein breeding stock. Many
beef cattle are fed in the county and shipped to the St. Louis or Memphis
market. This is strictly a livestock county, as all kinds of clovers and other
forage crops do well and can be produced very cheaply.
Mr. J. J. Moffitt, who is a large cattle buyer and shipper of Jack-
son, Tenn., was next interviewed. Mr. Moffitt expressed his views
about the tick eradication work in this way:
There was a great deal of opposition to the work at first, but now that our
county has no ticks, the people realize the advantages of the work, and we
would not go back to the old conditions for any amount of money. The greatest
benefits have come from improving the quality of the cattle by bringing in pure-
bred stock from above the line. About 500 head of cattle were fed in the county
last winter. During the past year over $50,000 worth of cattle have been sold,
and they brought 1 cent a pound more when placed in the free pens at the
market than if they had been sold from the quarantine pens. Cattle have
brought good prices and we have received great benefits from the eradication
of the tick. As the ticks are eradicated from all the other counties about here
the good results will increase, because of the increased territory in which the
cattle buyer can secure stock to ship.
Mr. E. A. Moffitt, of Jackson, Tenn., made the following state-
ment:
I handle from 2,000 to 3,000 cattle a year, some of which I sell locally, and
ship the rest to market. I ant heartily in favor of tick-eradication work. The
people in tick-infested counties have no idea how much money they are losing
by the ticks, and they will never know until they have freed their premises and






EXPECTS OF TICK ERADICATION. 9

S"a thie difference it will make in their cattle. The cattle that go into the free
io;i: native pens at the market bring from one-fourth to one-half ceut a pound
i re than if they were sold in the quarantine pens. Recently I shipped some
:&tfie from this county and some similar cattle from a ticky county to the same
aket. The cattle that went from' this county into the native pens sold for
4 G;:eents more per hundred pounds than did the quarantine cattle, because the
"lek-free cattle could be sent out into the country for stockers, whereas the ticky
I ttle had to be sold as canners for immediate slaughter. Another bunch I sold
"i' the quarantine pens brought at least half a cent less per pound than they
S,,, * ld if I could have sold them on the opposite side of the fence. Another
I o'on the quarantine cattle bring less is because there is no competition between
Small butchers and the packers for these cattle. They must be slaughtered
aonce, and the small butcher can not use a carload at one time, whereas he can
a car of native cattle and put them in the feed lot or on pasture and
"i:::.:Aftughter them just as he needs them.
.iiiiiiii:? i..... !i.. .. .. ..... ....
N The cattle here at home have increased in value'at least a half a cent a pound
00 nce the county was pronounced free of ticks, for the local butchers had to
as.W^ t the.advance in price which was paid at the market or lose the cattle.
Cattle can now be bought in Hardeman County, Tenn., at 3_ to 3X cents a pound
*that would bring me 5 cents a pound here if I could ship them in. I could use
C i: 0 0 bead of Hardeman County cattle right now at their prices if I could ship
here. After people once see the advantages of being rid of ticks they
W':ll' -"" lbe careful never to let ticky cattle come on their place again. The cattle
ft:": ths county are improving in size and quality, because breeders are now
tz nglg in good breeding cattle without the fear of losing them from Texas

.i:M :.i: : ::X i 3. J..D. Mason, of Jackson, a large buyer of cattle, was also in-
tr: :, viewed, with the result that some surprising figures on the losses
of tattle near Jackson were brought to light. He is quoted as follows:
|NN. ''The opposition to the tick eradication work is due to ignorance lone-igno-
:: : ce of the damage done by the tick, of its life history, etc. I lost several
r thousand dollars' worth of cattle myself before I was convinced that the
AN. trouble was the tick. Before this county was cleared of the tick the people of
the city of Jackson and the surrounding territory lost $5,000 to $8,000 worth of
cattle every year. The cause was not then known. These cattle were chiefly
i milch cows that were kept in town and sent to surrounding pastures which
were ticky in the summer. Since the ticks were eradicated the loss has been
practically nothing, being less than $100 a year.
Eradication is a great boon to the cattle buyer who formerly lost so many
cattle when buying odd bunches here and there over the county. The cattle
would mix, and many of them would become ticky and die. Buyers can now
pay the farmer better prices for cattle, because the risk is avoided. In other
words, the eradication is an insurance policy for the cattle buyer.
The sentiment expressed by farmers or cattlemen is not always the
same as that of other conservative business men, such as bankers. As
the attitude which the bankers take toward any line of work has
very material influence upon it, Mr. C. B. Caldwell, who is cashier
I'This statement was made while a portion of Hardeman County was still in quarantine.
S Th. e remainder of that county has since been released (Sept. 1, 1918).
S29209-14- 2





EFFECTS OF TICK ERADICATION.


of the First National Bank of Jackson, Tenn., was next interviewed.
He said:
I am heartily in favor of tick eradication and believe it is only a question of
a few years until the whole South will be carrying on the work, and soon after
that time the whole country will be free. Then we can produce the cattle
which are so badly needed at the present time.
I have 30 head of Angus cattle, and can not supply the orders I get for breed-
ing stock. I could sell 10 young bulls right now if I had them. All of my
stock are sold as yearlings, for which I get $50 to $100 each. It has been 10
years since there have been any ticks on my place, and I wouldn't have any
get started there now for a thousand dollars. There has never been any money
spent by this county to better advantage than that spent in helping to eradicate
the cattle tick.
The other men who were approached on this subject were of the
same opinion as those quoted above concerning the value of the work.
Everyone seemed to realize that the county was in a position to raise
better cattle at a greater profit than ever before. Some of the men
who had formerly been the bitterest enemies of the work, declaring
that clearing a county of cattle ticks was an impossible task, were
loudest in praise of the work after it was completed.
From Madison County a trip was made to the Lespedeza farm, at
Hickory Valley, Hardeman County, Tenn. Much of the land passed
over was poor in fertility, due to the treatment it had received in the
past, but very little of it was soil which could not be easily and
rapidly improved in fertility by the use of legumes and live stock.
All of it could be made to grow excellent pasture grasses, as was
shown at the Lespedeza farm. This farm, which now consists of
about 16,000 acres, of which 2,500 are in cultivation, was formerly
an old worn-out cotton plantation, so poor that much of it had been
abandoned and permitted to grow up in sedge grass, brush, and
briers. Quite a little of it was covered with a natural growth of
timber.
The present manager wished to convert it into a stock farm, but
there were two great drawbacks: (1) it was as ticky a place as could
be found anywhere, and (2) it was so poor that little feed could be
raised at first, and the pastures were very poor in quality. The cattle
on the place were scrubby, stunted animals weighing from 500 to 700
pounds and covered with ticks.
A stock farm was to be made, however, so the first thing to be
done was to fence the entire place and put double fences about 7 feet
apart along the public road so that animals passing along the road
would be unlikely to get inside the pastures. A dipping vat was
installed, all of the cattle on the place were collected and put into a
pasture near the vat, and the gates to all of the other fields were
locked. The cattle were dipped every two weeks during the summer,
and in a year the entire place was free of ticks. The ticks were


10






EFFECTS OF TICK ERADICATION.

s*med in the unoccupied pastures and killed by dipping the cattle
w. Vch were kept in the other pasture. Since that time not a tick has
sppeared on the entire property.
The problem of improving the pastures and the soil was also
UPV Lespedeza seed was scattered over the pasture lands in
the early spring, and a number of small fields were plowed up and
,anted with mixtures of &4erent kinds of seed, such as red clove
41sike clover, lespedeza, fescue grass, orchard grass, red top, and
blue grass. The cultivated lands were planted in com, sorghum,
cowpeas, soy beans, rape, and other forage crops for cattle and hogs,
and Mi the fall were planted with various grains, including rye, oats,
wheat, ietch, etc. These fields were grazed during the winter by
4he stock, and in the early spri-ng permitted to grow up, and the

'0

















FIG. &--Purebred Shorthorn bulls on a Tennessee farm free of ticks.
crop was then plowed under with disk plows or deep-tilling ma-
chines., Silos were built and filled with silage made of sorghum,
CUM, and soy beans. Some of the best Shorthorn cattle that could be
bought in Kentucky were brought down and grazed on the meadows
during the summer, and wintered on the farm-grown feeds and some
cottonseed meal. All of the cattle did exceedingly well from the
start, and since that time a herd has accumulated which ranks among
the best in the United States. Some of these cattle are shown in
figures 3 and 4.
The native cattle which were formerly on the place were put into
different. pastures from the purebred cattle, and purebred Shorthorn
bulls were put with them. The scrub cows were valued at $12 to
$20, a head, but thy produced some very fine calves by the Short-






12 EFFECTS OF TICK ERADICATION.

horn sires. The calves were taken away from their dams in the
fall and fed on farm-grown feeds. When fat they weighed 870
pounds each on the farm and ranged from 15 to 18 months of age.
They were shipped to the Chicago market, where they averaged 800
pounds in weight and sold for 8 cents a pound. Scrub cows worth
about $17 each when bred to good beef bulls, therefore, produced
calves which at less than a year and a half old sold for $64 a head.
Those calves never had a tick on them; their mothers had been kept
on good pastures, and they received good treatment from the time
they were born until they were sold.
What has been the result of this kind of farming? There are
to-day on this farm crops which five years ago it would have seemed





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... .. ..>-:;

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. . .* *' 1 *"*'













FIG. 4.-Some excellent Shorthorn heifers raised on a Tennessee farm.

impossible to grow, a herd of over 200 purebred Shorthorns, another
of more than 200 grades and native cows, good barns and other farm
buildings, beautiful cottages, and some of the finest meadows of
clover and grasses to be found anywhere. Nine large silos, two of
which have a capacity of 300 tons each, are filled with silage each
year; there are large barns in which to store the cowpea and other
kinds of hay produced, and several hundred good hogs and sheep are
kept on the place. The whole property is divided by good fences
into numerous pastures, fields, and paddocks. The immense amount
of manure produced is hauled direct to the fields, and this, together
with the legumes planted and the green crops which are plowed
under with deep-tilling machines pulled by a gasoline caterpillar"
tractor, or walking plows drawn by large Percheron mares, is build-




N.U J OCTS OF TICK ERADICATION.


ip the soil to a high state of fertility. Two large draft mares
e four medium-sized mules at the disk harrows and other
wry. Everything is done in a progressive, businesslike way,
the farm stands out as a shining mark of progress and a good
lmple for others to follow. While things can not be done on the
..l farm in the same way as they can on this large one, neverthe-
this place is an outstanding example of what may be accom-
t d on thousands of farms all over the South with respect to
S a the cattle tick, improving the pastures, building up the
` growing plenty of forage crops, raising good stock, and having
buildings and a home of which one may be proud.
manager, Mr. Dan S. Combs, made the following statement:
0 ~can produce just as good cattle or other forms of live stock as any
.... tUt people will first get rid of the ticks, improve their pastures, build up
Sand use the same care in raising their stock as do the farmers in
i1 vthe country where good cattle are produced.
ALmagnificent Mherd of cattle, which will compare well with any
4j we n produce them cheaper here--than can be done in the North.
0 t .ble in seling our breeding stock at good prices, and many of
.bulia-re going Into those counties in Mississippi and Alabama where
lonwork is being conducted.
.. eag t opportunity in the South for the stockman and farmer, and
** goodd bulls which are sold in counties where eradication work
4 e on are bound to leave their impression on the cattle of those
... . ...

was ade ~to the farm of Mr. J. M. Aldrich, of Michigan
.. County, Miss. The story of his work is given here:
S.. nuuat of 1,400 acres of land,- which was formerly an old, worn-out
T. he land was so poor when I bought it that but two bales
AM 40 bushels of corn were produced on it the previous year, the
,... ....ti.he .... ..i..f land being considered too poor to cultivate. This place was
0fr0e of ticks until about 10 or 12 years ago. I was a cattle buyer and brought
f in cattle from various counties surrounding Benton, and, finally, shipped in
I some cattle from central Mississippi. These cattle were covered with ticks,
but nothing was thought of it. In about two or three weeks some of my cattle
S began dying very suddenly, three being found dead near the center of the
Pasture one morning. At first I thought someone had given them poison.
S Some of the sick ones were brought to the barn, fed and doctored, but most of
| those which became sick died. I noticed also that none of the cattle which
I shipped in died, but they did well on pasture, while many of the cattle already
.on the place got sick. My loss was heavy. Soon after this I heard that ticks
III: gave cattle Texas fever, and that the symptoms were practically the same as
S those from which my cattle died. When I learned the life history of the tick
S and began reading about Texas or splenetic fever, I knew that the ticks had
S caused the damage. I remembered, too, that I had found ticks on most of
II: the cows which died, and as the cattle from central Mississippi had been ac-
S cuatomed to the ticks all of the time, that accounted for none of them dying.
I1 began hand-greasing my cattle. Every time they would show many ticks
i7 would have them rounded up and grease them. I used every kind of grease

I: or solution I heard of, but this method was very unsatisfactory, as grease could
I~ii: .:.. i .


18






14


EFFECTS OF TICK ERADICATION.


not be put on all of the ticks, for some parts of the cattle would be skipped
over in the hand greasing. For four years I did this, and it was both hard and
expensive work. At the suggestion of a tick inspector of the Bureau of Animal
Industry who visited our county I built a dipping vat, the first one in the
State of Mississippi. After dipping was regularly taken up it did not take
long to free my cattle of ticks.
When tick eradication was first started in this county there was much oppo-
sition to it, due to ignorance of the work and all kinds of misrepresentations
made by people opposing it; but as the work progressed this sentiment died out.
Since the county has been released from quarantine I do not believe a man
could be found who will say that the work was not of great benefit to everyone.

.. ...... .. .... .. M
;\... 6 4... .. ........

























FIG. 5.-A Hereford bull in Mississippi, McCray Fairfax, 361803, grand champion Here-
ford bull at the National Feeders and Breeders' Show, Fort Worth, 1913. This Is the
type of bull which should be used in breeding up the native southern cattle. (Cour-
tesy of La Vernet Farm.)

My herd of cattle contains about 50 registered Angus, the remainder being
grades and natives. Last fall I took my grade calves from their dams, started
them on a ration of corn silage and cottonseed meal, and fed them for 120
days, in the barn. They made good gains for the whole period, and sold for
7j cents a pound this spring. Accurate records were kept of all the feeding,
and I made about $15 profit on each of them. Hereafter I will fatten some
cattle for the market each year, and expect them to do even better than they did
this year.
I have no trouble at all in selling all of my purebred yearlings at good prices
for breeding purposes. In fact I have no bulls on hand that are for sale at the
present time. The cattle industry of this county is now in the most prosperous
condition that it has ever experienced. Many cattle shippers who formerly
sent most of their cattle to the New Orleans market are now shipping to St.
Louis, because their cattle go in the native pens and bring better prices than






PEFFECTB OF TICK ERADICATION.


w':fi$ iquarains cattle. This Increase in value of the cattle sold on the
.. . .ould be inducement enough to make any people exterminate the tick
W00 eonslderlng the many other benefits which accrue from such work.
ds County, Miss., where the people have made such progress in
,:na ting the tick that the county has been released from quaran-
e was visited. The farm of W, J. Davis & Co. was first inspected.
'&thia farm are to be found some fine specimens of the Hereford
..... of cattle. sThere is a large herd of them, and all are in excellent
6gndidtion. The breeding cows on pasture were in superb condition
ti):." cattle and showed they had received good treatment during
.. .. i ... .. . ..
t .l......... ter months. The young stock looked exceedingly well and
.... ..p .. ry Bgrowthy and vigorous, in great contrast with the calves
V:k. ound in the State.
Etw interview with Mr. Davis he made the following statement:
0 doubt about. the ill effect which ticks have on all cattle in general
ng stock in particular, but one of the hardest questions we ever
.:uV whether or not to eradicate all ticks absolutely from our
..m to.ke.m Iin. eck, but still ha-ve enough- so that all of our
iMe- upon them and thus be accustomed to them. Our situa-

I for we are not raising -cattle for- beef, but raising pure-
.. ...... :,:=.. .. ...

Bill*llllllA.lra for breeding purposes. The amount of
.v..... soldh.:.,the: North Is' small and possibly nevet will be
atqtitirely to the southern trade, and it was a ques-
we... would hold this trade if we got rid of all ticks and could not
... : ........ .. .
.. .., who lved in tick-infested districts. We would then be
: N. .as. the northern breeder in regard to selling stock in the
**.:Aw:q thought it better to keep our premises lightly infested, so
. ... . breeding stock to go into quarantine territory, and dip under
H. n :those cattle which we wished to ship into free territory.
1.,yi-W g the questions seriously, however, from every possible angle, we
ln q:.:.,.ed" that with the progress Mississippi was making in tick-eradi-
~::w,... ::. ..twould not be long until most of the State was free from ticks,
i" that the work would evidently make great progress in neighboring States;
S.. h .. ....:at in the counties which exterminate the tick are the farmers who are
.fit gbing to buy the largest number of good bulls, for these counties will
very probably develop quickly into the best live-stock counties of the State.
::.immediately we began regularly dipping all animals and soon cleaned up the
entire place. Now we are glad of it, for not only are we relieved from the
losses of animals and the stunting of others from tick fever but we see that
our surmise was right about the men who would purchase our surplus stock.
All farmers who are progressive enough to desire to raise good cattle or regis-
tered cattle will interest themselves in tick eradication in order that they may
raiqe their stock more profitably.
The next farm visited was that of Mr. A. A. Morson, of Jackson,
: Miss. Mr. Morson keeps a good herd of Jersey cattle, milking from
S 40 to 50 cows at all times of the year. He buys the best Jersey bull
; he can find for the head of his herd, for he recognizes the importance
S of the sire in raising calves for future use. He was two years in get-
I ting his farm completely free of ticks, but he did not get started to


15





16 EFFECTS OF TICK ERADICATION.

dipping until late the first year, and then did not dip regularly.
During this summer he lost several good calves from tick fever, and
after that he dipped constantly until all of the ticks on the place
were exterminated. He says the milk flow of his herd has increased
and they are in better condition than ever before at this time of the
year.
Hinds County has been one of the many Mississippi counties which
have made enviable records in tick eradication. After the people be-
came convinced it was a good thing the dipping was taken up by all
stock owners and prosecuted so regularly that premises were rapidly
cleaned up.








. Pi^
.--r-...t-.-^& .^ t M |
i:. ^":: :::': l '. .:::^ ":. ** "....L..-:'. 'i'.:..: ,. ":". .:' *", ':2 .. "*.. '.. ***'














FIG. G.-The type of Hereford cows which should be raised in greater numbers throughout
the south. (From a Mississippi herd.)

From Hinds County a trip was made into Copiah County, which
had just begun the fight on the cattle tick. This county was one in
which the cotton industry was almost destroyed by the boll weevil, but
the farmers retained their labor and began diversified farming and
trucking with such good results that they are to-day in better shape
financially than they have been for 10 years. The cattle industry
had never received much encouragement in this county, and as a re-
sult the cattle, although found in goodly numbers, were the native
scrub stock that is still so common in some parts of the South. They
looked far more scrubby and worthless after seeing such magnificent
beef cattle on the farms previously visited. These people are aware
of the progress made in adjoining counties and have determined to
build up this valuable industry. As a result a campaign is being
made against the tick and for good cattle.








7 ". yom o6f "Mr. Ben Ramsey, near Hazelhurst, was visited and 250
s tik- ite cattle were inspected. In this -herd were yearlings
-iles than 300 pounds and 2 and 3 year old cattle weighing
: ZOtr farpmo ds. There -were native cows weighing lO0te to 750
I a however, which, if bred to a purebred beef bill, weald pro-
ffood calves. Mr. Ramsey said:
~~e aI branded $68,000 worth of cattle and nearly all of themnwere just
... .. aoes you see here, but there were a few good grades amonrthe young
tche the boll weevil put the cotton farmer so nearly out of business
$h number of cattle on the farms has increased rapidly. Good bulls are
iiiuht In, and as soon as the tick is exterminated the cattle industry in
ii. m inty Is going to come to the front.






















4.,,- ,*, "", 4r '
iiUi E







... .... . ..:...





= .:.. ... .. ..





lwft. 1.--The type of cattle usually found throughout those sections of the South where
ticks still prevail. (Taken in Coplah County, Miss.)

Other farmers expressed similar views. Some stated that about
..... 2 acres was allowed per cow for summer grazing, and that this
amount of land furnished plenty of grass. By planting other grasses
and covers on these lands they could be made to produce three times
as much grass and hence graze three times as many cattle.
From Copiah County a trip was made to Adams County, and thou-
sands of acres of good pasture lands were passed over, a large per-
centage of which was still idle. However, new fences could be seen
qaite frequently, which indicated that more of this land than for-
iorwly wuas being devoted to grazing.
W, 1i:. Ufl...,i, "

iii .:... : .......nh






EFFECTS OF TICK ERADICATION.


Adams County was one of the pioneer counties of Mississippi in
tick eradication. The county is composed of hill lands and large
areas of lowlands adjacent to creeks or the river, which furnish ex-
cellent pastures for live stock. This county was damaged by the boll
weevil to a greater extent than any other county in Mississippi.
When the weevils appeared in large numbers the farmers became de-
moralized and immediately discontinued the credit system in supply-
ing the negro labor. The result was that most of the laborers left the
county for the delta lands north of there or the rice fields of Arkansas.
The cotton yield dropped from 25,000 bales to about 1,100. The land
was permitted to lie idle. In 1912, however, the overflow of the im-
mense Louisiana territory by the Mississippi River forced the plant-
ers to ship thousands of cattle to Natchez to be pastured until after
the water went down. These cattle came in by boatloads, covered
with ticks and so poor they could hardly be driven to the pastures.
All of them were dipped on arrival and every two weeks thereafter
while they were in Adams County. All were dipped before going
back to Louisiana, so they were free of ticks when they arrived on
the Louisiana plantations. The overflow had drowned the ticks on
these plantations, as most of the land was submerged from 4 to 7
weeks. The result was that the cattle fattened to a greater extent
that fall and passed through the winter in better shape than can be
remembered by the oldest inhabitants. In commenting on this, Mr.
R. L. Parker, of Natchez, Miss., a large buyer of cattle, made the fol-
lowing statements:
In the spring of 1912 cattle were brought into Natchez by the thousands fromln
the overflowed districts of Louisiana. These cattle were so poor and weak that
they sold very cheap, some for little over 2 cents a pound, or some whole herds
of cattle for $10 around, because the loss from them would be heavy, due to
their emaciated condition. Many were so weak that they gave out and died in
the road while being taken to pasture. All were dipped on arrival and con-
tinuously during the time they remained in Adams County, and those which
were returned to Louisiana were free of ticks. The plantations were freed of
ticks because of the long inundation. The result was that the cattle fattened
rapidly and wintered in fine shape.
This spring (April, 1913) when these same cattle were brought out of the low-
lands because of the overflow they arrived in Natchez fatter than any cattle I
had ever seen come out of Tensas or Concordia Parishes at ainy time of the year.
They looked so well that few of the owners would sell, and even then only at
prices ranging from 5 cents a pound upward. Some of these native cows I
purchased at $50 a head for beef. This difference in price for the two years
1912 and 1913 was due to the condition of the cattle, and the difference in the
condition was due almost entirely to the absence of ticks from the pastures,
although the mild winter of course had some influence.
If the cattlemen in the alluvial lands of Mississippi and Louisiana will get
rid of the ticks, there is no section of the country which can grow cattle cheaper
or with greater profit. The past two seasons have demonstrated most clearly


18












































Wi. c-rrrauu.iS":h
f i. 8.--Part of a herd of 300 purebred Devon cows on a tick-free pasture in Mississippi.

S were fat, and many of them had large udders, showing that they gave
a heavy yield of milk, besides making good beef animals.
Mr. Minor said his cattle had kept in far better flesh the year
S through, and the young stock grew much faster since the cattle had
S been kept free of ticks. Also, that a man could not believe how much
S fatter cattle would become if kept free from ticks, unless he actually
S saw a herd of cattle before and after being cleaned of ticks. The
I demand for breeding stock has been excellent, and they had sold
S everything they had to offer this year.
S A herd of Red Polled cattle from Louisana, which belonged to Mr.
A. G. Campbell, a banker of Natchez, was also inspected. These cat-
I M:'E::':






EFFECTS OF TICK ERADICATION.


tie were in fine condition and had been freed of ticks for over a year.
The following statements were made by Mr. Campbell:
My cattle have never seemed to thrive better or fatten more easily than
they have since they were cleaned of the cattle ticks. They wintered in fine
shape and were fat for grass cattle by the 1st of May. I know of no one thing
which would help our farmers more than freeing the whole South of this pest,
which has done so much to retard the cattle industry. This is a good stock
country, and the farmers who raise good cattle should make money by it.
The farm of W. S. Lovell, at Palmyra, Miss., was not visited but
the conditions on this farm are familiar in every way to the author of
this bulletin. Mr. Lovell has done much to encourage the growing
of more and better live stock in Mississippi. In 1911 a herd of steers
raised and fed by him and shipped to the St. Louis market sold for
thle highest price ever paid for Mississippi cattle on that market up
to that time. Last year there were on this farm 700 head of pure-
bred and high-grade Hereford cattle which had never been subjected
to the ravages of the cattle tick.
Mr. Lovell wrote as follows under date of June. 19, 1913:
Replying to your recent inquiry, will say that, as you know, owing to fre-
quent overflows, my place at Palmyra, Miss., is free from cattle ticks. The
advantage of this fact is clearly shown in the cattle that I am raising in com-
parison with those raised within a few miles, where the pastures are tick
infested.
There is one disadvantage in being free of ticks and surrounded largely by
tick-infested territory. Last year I shipped about 700 head of cattle to Natchez,
in Adams County, which was then tick free. Many thousand head of cattle
were brought into Adams County from tick-infested districts during the over-
flow and broke through the fences holding my cattle. As a result I lost 28
head from tick fever, and those that did recover were so weak that when they
were taken back to the plantation whenever they got in a bog they died because
they didn't have strength enough to pull themselves out. I can certainly say
without hesitation that any man is a fool to raise cattle with ticks on them
when he can rid them of the ticks by dipping.
The best way to convert an antitick-eradication advocate is to let him dip
his cattle for six months and see the improvement in them. Let him weigh
them before he starts dipping and gain when they are free of ticks.
There were a few farms in Adams County which were reinfested
with ticks from cattle brought in from the overflowed districts. All
of the cattle were dipped on arrival, but evidently there were some
mature ticks which the single dipping did not kill. These premises
are being held under quarantine and the cattle dipped regularly
until they are absolutely free once more.
Mississippi has made some wonderful strides in the eradication
of the cattle tick, and the people of that State are to be congratu-
late(l on the work.
The stockyards and packing houses at Atlanta, Ga.. were next
visited. At the present time the stockyards at Atlanta do not handle


20






I EFFECTS OF TICK ERADICATION. 21

0t numbers of cattle, but the city of Atlanta is so situated that
AY. me day a good market may be developed there. It would be a
0: ta 1 point to which the farmers of Florida, Georgia, Alabama,
i'e qsee, and North and South Carolina could ship their cattle.
'ere is no one who is more capable of telling whether the cattle
af: State are improving than the commission men or the packers
t th e market where those cattle are sold. They see the stock daily
Years, and the buyer for a packing house has to make a study of
.... ....cattle which he purchases in order to know what he can pay for
**^: :ik. His knowledge extends from the animals as they stand in
ie yards until the carcasses are weighed in the coolers. Recogniz-
""....:: "" '"' "^f -
1 ug these facts, several men representing commission men, packers,
oV; r::butchers were interviewed.
!: ~Mr. F. A. Suttles, of the firm of A. L. Suttles & Co., commission
S men and wholesale butchers, made the following declaration:
II Most of the cattle which are sold on this market come from Georgia, South
OWrQina, Tennessee, and North Carolina. A large percentage of the cattle
; coming from the latter two States are fed cattle, but some fed stock comes
; from central and south Georgia. Mr. W. P. White bought 250 head of cattle
: i'Mr. Comer, whose farm is near Savannah, Ga., and shipped part of them
to ths market These.cattle were sold for 7 cents a pound on the farm. One
Sif .'of this lot which was shipped to this market contained 15 grade beef calves
a iglng from 16 to 18 months old and weighing an average of 634 pounds.
They sold for $7.371 per hundredweight, or $46.75 per head, which is not a bad
price for yearlings.
Georgia has just as good land for raising cattle as-Alabama, Tennessee, or
MissIssippI, if the farmers would only plant some grasses upon it. The tick
Is undoubtedly a great drawback to.-th' Cattle business, and cattle do much
better where they are not bothered by this pest.
In an interview with Mr. T. A. Plaster, cattle buyer for the White
Provision Co., of Atlanta, he expressed his views regarding the
cattle situation thus:
Better cattle will naturally come in the wake of tick eradication. The
cattle that are here will improve in quality and better cattle will be brought in
for breeding purposes. The effects of this improved blood will show up within
a few years to a considerable extent. The quality of the cattle in Georgia
is improving some, and more cattle are fed than formerly. We get some good
fat cattle from central and southern Georgia during the winter and spring
months, but the people of north Georgia do not furnish many cattle. Good cattle
could be raised all over the State if the farmers would try. We expect the
cattle business to improve right along. The State law which requires all
cattle shippers to have their cattle free of ticks before they can be moved is a
good law, and it will not be very hard for the shipper to dip, spray, or use
some other method of cleaning the cattle of ticks. This law has not bothered
our trade in the least.
Mr. J. K. Shippey, of the firm of Shippey Bros. & White, is
quoted as follows:
The quality of the cattle sold in Atlanta has improved quite a little in the
last six years. The greatest amount of improvement is yet to come, however,






22 EFFECTS OF TICK ERADICATION.

for the distribution of good beef bulls has not been very extensive in Georgia.
This is shown by the cattle sold on the market. Nevertheless, a start has been
made, and other improvements should follow. The new law requiring all
cattle to be free of ticks before they are moved from place to place has not
affected the receipts of cattle at all. We are anxious to cooperate with the
tick-eradication officials in any way we can for the betterment of the cattle
industry, and the extermination of the cattle tick will be one of the greatest
blessings which could come upon the farmers.

VIEWS OF COUNTY OFFICIALS.

To obtain further information of the attitude of the people toward
the work of tick eradication, Dr. J. A. Kiernan, of the Bureau of
Animal Industry, wrote to the county board of supervisors or the
county health officer of counties in which tick eradication had been
completed, asking if they had derived any benefits from the work.
The answers received from the different county officials are given
below. Many of these statements show clearly that material benefits
far in excess of the cost of the work are received in a short time.
From Hon. Frank L. Lynch, county judge of Franklin County, Winchester,
Tenn., April 25, 1912: The work of tick eradication was finished in this county
last year. I do not think that during my tenure of office, covering 10 years, 1
have done anything that has been more generally approved by and was of more
material benefit to the people in this county. Practically all of our farmers
raise more or less cattle, and many cattle are shipped out now from this county
each year; and by virtue of being a free territory the farmers realize from
$6 to $10 a head above what they did when we were under the quarantine.
From Mr. J. C. White, president of the Rankin County and Lincoln County
Live-Stock Association, Brandon, Miss., December 1, 1912: In response to your
letter asking for a description of the work done in behalf of tick eradication
in Rankin County, with my opinion of the same. it gives me great pleasure to
state that this work was started under many difficulties about November 10,
1911, by building the first vat near Brandon. The work of building the vats
continued through the winter, being necessarily slow on account of the roads
and bad weather. We commenced the dipping of cattle under inspection May 1,
1912; several vats were not finished until 30 days later. This dipping was
continued regularly all through the season, and in October, 1912, the Govern-
ment showed that Rankin County dipped more cattle than any other county in
Mississippi. The results have been as follows: Cattle have grown better, fat-
tened faster, and sold for more money for the same class of animals than during
any previous season. Cattle buyers from other counties not engaged in tick
eradication at all times endeavor to bring their cattle from surrounding terri-
tory to be dipped and shipped out of Rankin County so they can receive the
increased price for them.
The work has been in progress under inspection only since May 1, 1912,
and at the present time over three-fifths of the county has been recommended
by the United States inspector in charge for release from quarantine April 1,
1913, after which it will be free territory. The rest of the county will prob-
ably be released a short time after.
In the present forward state of the work which is now so near completion, the
cost so far to Rankin County has been about $4,000, or 20 cents per head for
the estimated amount of grown cattle in said county; and the work will prob-
ably be finished at a cost all told of from 25 to 30 cents per head,






.EF..FECTS OF TICK ERADICATION. 23

.. .... 1. -ai not too highly indorse the work of tick eradication, Judging by the
oetts -already received. As conditions in this county have changed to such
extent by the introduction of the boll weevil in the last few years that it
.iI ow impossible to kaise our staple crop-cotton-in paying quantities, we
.II....!!...a t depend on cattle as our source of ready money from this time on; and
E i ;:.,:'. ; ... .... . ..
tr can not be raised with profit without tick eradication.
'horn.... Hon. George P. Burnett, county judge of Cumberland County, Cross-
:i...., Tenn., April 19, 1912: Some five or six years ago Cumberland County be-
eilIn:fp!. .ected with the cattle tick. Steps were immediately taken by the de-
:"rt "at to eradicate the tick, strict quarantine regulations were established,
^' d. all proper and necessary steps taken for the complete eradication of the
Li- ... }. ti Within 12 months the quarantine was raised, and our county has been
e.. .from the cattle tick ever since. There is not to my knowledge a single
i.,od where the tick can be found.
: T:he"tie ury to our county by the infection was great, since cattle raising is
I one. of our chief industries, and had the disease continued I know of no other
one thing that could have brought a greater loss to our farmers and cattlemen.
i; .rom Dr. E. W. Hale, commissioner of health for Shelby County, Memphis,
Tuna., May 14, 1912: In answer to your letter in regard to the results of the
HE wo41 of tick eradication in Shelby County, would say that we have been en-
sIa .d in this work for about five years. When the work was begun the cattle
rmi-i this county sold for about 3 cents a pound gross weight; now they bring
i fm 4 to 5 cents per pound. Much of this results from tick eradication. When
we first began this work cattle could only be shipped to other markets three
::moaths in the year, and then only for immediate slaughter, and now they can
be shipped out of the county to any market at any time and without any
restrictions.
For the first two or three years there was great opposition from the farmers
and great difficulty on the part of this board in carrying on the work; now the
f-arners see the great advantage of it, and they cooperate with us in every
way. There has been new interest felt in cattle raising in this county, better
grade of stock, more buyers, better prices, and many more shipped to other
markets.
The ticks have been practically eliminated from the infected pastures. In
short, the cattle industry has been revolutionized in this county, and in a few
years the value of the cattle industry will be increased to an extent that would
seem incredible. The work is now being fully appreciated, and what was at
first condemned and opposed from almost every quarter is now being praised
and assisted by all our farmers.
From Hon. J. Hogue, county judge of Overton County, Livingston, Tenn.,
April 20, 1912: The people of Overton County are highly pleased with the result
of tick eradication here. The quarantine has been lifted and our cattle go on
the market in much better condition than before and therefore bring better
prices, because they get much more flesh, both on the wild ranges and in the
inclosed pastures.
We have absolutely gotten rid of all ticks of every kind which were here in
abundance four years ago. The eradication of the cattle tick was the greatest
boon to our stock farmers of anything that ever has been or could be done for
them, and now they know it; but when the movement first struck this county it
was the most unpopular thing ever heard of, and now is the most popular.
From Hon. W. H. Potter, county judge of Scott County, Huntsville, Tenn.,
April 22, 1912: In answer to your letter of the 18th instant in reference to the
tick question, we had some ticks up to last year, but for the last year no ticks





24


EFFECTS OF TICK ERADICATION.


have been found in my county. The county authorities have had a tick in-
spector until the last year, and we don't find that there are any ticks here now
and have no inspector this year. If it should be that we find any ticks we will
have an inspector and destroy what we can. As I now see it, the ticks will
soon be exterminated. I hope that the people will use all of the precaution
that they can to rid the country of this pest.
From Mr. T. M. Gailbreath, chairman of the county court of Jackson County',
Gainesboro, Tenn., April 28, 1912: In reply to your letter of the 18th instant
will say that the people of this (Jackson) county are highly pleased with the
eradication of the cattle ticks. Our cattle can be sold in an open market and
bring much better prices; can be marketed at any season of the year without
inspection, which is a very great advantage over the conditions existing before
we got rid of the ticks. Young cattle grow much faster and gwt fat on the
pasture and on the range. Milch cows do much better in. every.way, giving
more milk and keeping in better condition and much easier wintered. It would
be hard to estimate the benefit the farmer and stock raisers have derived from
the eradication of the t!cks, the benefits being seen and appreciated in so
many ways.
From Dr. J. F. Adams, county health officer of Cannon County, Bradville,
Tenn.: Replying to your favor of the Gth instant regarding estimate of bene-
fits received from tick eradication in this county, will say that while the work
was in progress the men in charge met with more or less friction', and often I
have heard it said that tick eradication was not going to be of any value to us,
but since the quarantine has been raised our cattle have brought better prices
than ever before, and farmers have entered into the business of raising cattle
with renewed energy, so that now our cattle industry is a source of far greater
revenue to the farmers of this county than ever before. Aside from getting
rid of the tick we have been educated in many ways, and at least a part of our
improved methods of farming is no doubt directly due to lessons we learned
while tick eradication was in progress. Certainly the work can not easily be
overestimated in a county like ours, where the raising of cattle is a source
of so great revenue and where so much improvement in this industry is now
being made manifest. Our farmers are enlarging their herds and improving
the breeds, and coming as it does directly in the wake of tick eradication forces
us to the conclusion that the educational value of tick eradication is worth the
money we expended here.
From Hon. Charles T. Williamson, county judge of Marion County, Jasper,
Tenn., April 19, 1912: Farming and cattle raising are the chief industries of
Marion County, and in the eradication of the cattle tick the citizens have been
greatly benefited. In fact this has done more to increase the profits of the
farmers and encourage the raising of blooded cattle than any one occurrence in
the history of the county.
Since this county has been placed above the quarantine line there has been a
marked increase in the cattle business, and that is the avocation this section
is especially adapted for. Just the fact that cattle, are raised and fattened
above the quarantine line makes a perceptible difference in the price per pound
in the northern and eastern markets.
This stroke of progress not only caused hundreds of farmers of this county to
invest in blooded cattle, but along with this advancement came improved farm-
ing methods. It is natural that when a man gets one thing of the best he then
strives to bring all his interests up to that standard. This is being done in this
county, and we are now farming more intelligently and getting better results.
The eradication of the cattle tick is a great thing for Marion County, and
all the citizens highly appreciate this commendable work.




..............................
iiiiiiii i :im : -:.: ... .: .. .. .. .
V EFFECTS OF TICK ERADICATION. 25

U1m Hon. L. B. Davis, county judge of Benton County, Camden, Tenn.,
:q 1,4 1912: Almost three years ago we took up the work of tick eradication
It -Menton County. We met with a great deal of opposition at first, but at
w end of the first season the results were so marked that many who first
.... sed the work came to us and expressed themselves as entirely satisfied
PA.t It was possible to rid our county of the tick-and we got a large propor-
," of our territory released from quarantine the first year. But where we
'. not get the cooperation of the people the work was slow, and the result
i~iii;. .. ...... .. n
that we have a small portion of our county quarantined yet, but we hope
I. entirely free this year, and possibly by the 1st of July. At our April
tMp. of county court the question was before the court, and the justices that
i Sa"". ".ijalways fought it before spoke in favor of it and said that the end seemed
*. Hi near. that they could not afford to oppose it any longer, and besides they
wr ""e convinced now that it was possible to rid a county of ticks. The cattle
S Industry has grown in our county and prices have more than doubled.
In conclusion, I feel safe in saying that our money has been well spent, and
S I believe our people are well satisfied with the work and are fully agreed that
Sany count.or territory can rid itself of the fever tick under Government
suervision.
I hope t' will be an encouragement to some others to take up the work
and push i a finish, for cattle are too precious for the tick to eat.
From H., Ward R. Case, county judge of Fentress County, Jamestown,
-Arn., Ap 22, 1912: Replying to yours of the 18th instant, will say, while
there was a first some hostility on the part of the farmers toward the authori-
ties endeavoring to eradicate the cattle tick, there are now but four or five
farms infected, and I believe the people generally appreciate what has been done
for them and are taking an increased interest in improved methods of stock
raising and farming.
From Mr. J. R. Brown, chairman of the county court of Bradley County,
Cleveland, Tenn., May 10, 1912: I take great pleasure in stating that the prog-
res made in the eradication of the cattle ticks in Bradley County, Tenn., is
entirely satisfactory to all the people of the county. We have rid our county
of all the ticks, with the bare possibility of one farm, for the year 1912. There
were no deaths or sickness for 1911.
There is no one in Bradley County who would dare make an unfavorable
criticism of the good work and results of the completed work. To say that
everybody is delighted with the eradication of the ticks is to put it mildly.
The price of cattle has more than doubled. The first eight months after we
got above the national quarantine line our people sold and had shipped between
thirty and thirty-five thousand dollars' worth of cattle for more than twice the
former price. The interest in live stock has had a great uplift, since we can
raise and keep our cattle with the certainty of their living to maturity and to
an age to justify a profit on their raising. Our county is being filled up with
better breeds of cattle, none of which have died; this could not be done before
1907, the beginning of our work. Money would. be of no inducement to us to go
back to conditions in 1906. It has been more to Bradley County than any
other blessing that has come to us in the last 50 years.
From Dr. John Roberts, health officer of Roane County, Kingston, Tenn.,
May 6, 1912: The people of Roane County are all highly pleased at the results
obtained from eradicating the fever tick from their county. We were three
years below the line and the cattle business was at a standstill, but we spent
two years in a successful campaign against the tick and are now released
from quarantine. The cattle business is good in the county and everybody is
pleased.






EFFECTS OF TICK ERADICATION.


From Messrs. J. C. Crocker, chairman, and J. A. Gibson, clerk, of the county
court of Coffee County, Manchester, Tenn., April 22, 1912: While we have not
heard much said in regard to the eradication of the Texas-fever tick for some
time, yet we feel safe in saying that we are sure that the price of cattle has
advanced at least 25 per cent since the quarantine was raised, thereby increas-
ing interest in cattle raising and also otherwise improving farming methods.
The people of this county would not be under the quarantine for any amount
of money. We recommend that all farmers now living in quarantine territory
take hold and assist in every way possible to eradicate the fever tick.
From the board of health of Sequatchie County, Tenn., May 7, 1912: We the
undersigned, county board of health of this county, desire to make the following
statement in regard to tick eradication in our county: We began this work five
years ago this spring and thoroughly worked at it for three years and have suc-
ceeded in exterminating the ticks. This work did not take well at the start
with a considerable number of our people; in fact, some indignation meetings,
with large crowds, were called together to condemn and to hinder the work, but
we kept the work going under the instructions and assistance of your office.
This is a good cattle-raising section, and the farmers are more interested in
this business than ever. We have been acquainted with the stock-raising busi-
ness in this county for 40 years, and can truthfully state that good, nice, fat
cattle off the range six years ago sold for 2 cents per pound, and from 2 cents
to 2j was the best price ever received before the work of tick eradication.
Since then our stock have increased in value every year, and for the last two
or three years our people have sold the same grade of cattle off the range for
4 cents per pound, and no trouble to find buyers.
Our farmers are highly pleased over the conditions which now exist, and it
has put new life into the cattle business here.
(Signed) J. A. LAMB, Chairman.
JOE MINTON, Secretary.
J. H. HEARD, Judge.
From Mr. W. R. Burton, chairman of the county court of Moore County,
Lynchburg, Tenn., April 20, 1912: We are very grateful, indeed, for what has
been done for us in the way of eradicating the tick, and can not find words in
which to express the appreciation of the good people of our county. I hope that
every State in the Union will be free from the tick as we are. It gives me great
pleasure to contribute anything that would be of any benefit in eradicating
the tick.

Any reader who may desire verification of the foregoing state-
ments as to the advantages of tick eradication may feel free to write
to any person whose name has been given in this bulletin, as permis-
sion has been granted in each case to use the statement for publication.

0


WASHINGTON : GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1914


26









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