Chemical testing of milk and cream

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Chemical testing of milk and cream
Physical Description:
42 p. : ill. ; 19 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Shaw, Roscoe Hart
United States -- Bureau of Animal Industry
Publisher:
G.P.O.
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:
Edition:
[Reprint with slight revision]

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Milk -- Analysis   ( lcsh )
Cream   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
General Note:
At head of title: U.S. Department of Agriculture. Bureau of Animal Industry.
General Note:
"Issued May 10, 1917."
General Note:
"A.--12."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030007869
oclc - 18112529
Classification:
lcc - SF253 .S45
System ID:
AA00018798:00001

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rumd ma lot ml-
TOP AGRICUTUM
,or DO)USMYO
A* V6 AMV,3Wv CW4:



TESTING OF. M11K
AND CREAM.



BY

ROSCOE He SHAW,
Cbe=K -Duk7 DI*Wn.

















WASNMGTON.
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V.P a- 0 w W 0 0 0*0 a a a a a a aa. *SV a
a w k! V )w 40 ww a &a a a a a a Ve a Va a
fi* ut . . V, . 4w a.. a a 0 a a . ift ova Va,
a *.a V V, w a
f6r fat., 0 -.6 a .,w 0 a a w a a w o, a 0. w 0
for fat a a a a PjjFkftM.WAMVOMO X3
ALA
whey forlat - 25
25
604 lbetaeff. 0 0- a 0 0 a a a 25
4 WW iwli& in mil-al V a V a a -6 a. a w 26
c;,& .0 Ike
m spedwe graw o nulk
AqUe by formuN., '32
addit 36
y of mi llr and eream.
.. ... ... ... .
test-. 37
a M,o Wa lo do w A, w'T . .
Me ehenadm
and cream .......... .40
-*etae ond cilatomary ffitig and
41
Nhrenhett, "d'.. 0 do. or A& ther-
a, it a A. 40 M,.P a 0 'w 4 W. a a a OR a a. *Wwa am am 41

NATM,:: OF: IM M,-

intollikently the:jue dlo& for testing
virwb the: C of muk
)ICAO of
lort=dPOMt Mit. is::& very
Tli6 cmuponent parts may ver

-Akft ftvislan, of spubNeWoAhmad FW
*ow#tJ& In JU pMaraUon fm un bas boe
iiquaiqu tbozibje4, pordeuwly 14111,86UM
PP x"it. v4dngtm =d r. W. WoU (Madbon,
X"06'Of lkestwg abd its Producti.b,
17W 1907)6















































solution in the water of the milk. Frequently, I
properly, the term casein is applied to all the nite
constituents in milk. Sometimes the term total I







eOWfiW#htO WWI
W avexage cow's ndlk
,vent 044 tU albumin from 0.5 to

o I t tIWIO:W t'O a Up:,.111=wn
is a white substance lem' sweet, in
Mil mipris. broken up into lwdc
boeteris, thi bfivVing about the oDur-
OW iB in w1ution in the water of the
to the extent.of from 3.5.to 6per cent.
or the mineral part of Bulk, exists to the
0.75 per cent and consids lwply of the
of modium-, potamium, magnesium,


CIMUMAL COMPOSMON.
W 9 ves the -of more than 5,000
at the New York State AgriculUval Exper-

Per OWL

-------- ------- -------- .12.9
3* 9
----------
......... .......... .7
..........
.......... .7

TFM-1W.G-FOH.,FAT,
r on the testing of railk and
vill be t_"iewut the subject 'M' such um-
aybe Olowed:bylthos6 who have IM neither
nor a CoursO;of 'any sort in milk testing.
bAve, bad.. su& traitning thefollowing pages
vsppear very- eler6entgry and overburdened

TV4GIN= FOR: IrALT.,

*Mpk fir tWino. --As befori.. In e4i
i6ft but i*& ME an emulidon of -very
The6bs bemig fighter thAn the dM9
iue 1, c-snying with them some of the other
in the familIVAr J(!Mj= Of Befwe




mAZ

AILL
TAM C 1 Mle
ned Th co bq b
severW tims *= oue'ewetminta
sapl s mal bakr. recnvmet o
an~fth ml hsnt eand nte
thn fw wm,' ouig ac adlotbfw
40sufien. he i~pyrjth sm le
soeUe "tecmaw hecemlae s
hadAdtoahr o h al#..... hipr
prsre amlS nsuheetiti e o
cotie i amwae nilte fmbo
end ndcn he e asl rmoe
thtnoeo ter" soft




3n
xA
be &*ided.
oj # 4 1 ft 1, den ce 66
90 "t no spam w`
I U AH it boWe Io'Overflo*ing

e"Ao hoeft a rubber or cork
t one-ekhth of an inc4 in 4iame-
to its plice the inflk wM spurt
the hole is.Vwn filled a: piece
40wen plug* Wheii treated in ouch

the Of milk. doe not affect
to obtsiin a repre6m...Udive charga-
*Umt special treatment. In order to
h6tre it is neceagary to diwolve the.curd.
`A&w4 by ad 5 or 10 per cent by
*60ftiftow of Oidum cwwtiq:w& or Potuh
Ww be used. The WUH mufft
0 :
-with the wil until it is COMPIewy
0 0 J
14 test must bo Meas-
made, in the PiRlDentave.. for
by the alWi aolution,,: If degredl -
be added directly talhewi I in
beiAg swre that one Portim io dipm-
is added, and niWing, untfl themilk
N6 correctiou U-necessa7: for the
by the powder;3d lye. When msLMnr a
-,Oftu alkali,' epedal precautions
the mAphuric acid, &P au ex-
generated ind: the cootents of
qM out IN alWi`-is used,
..... ... ...
requi_


Ut in dairy prcodukts., -named -for its
A +em of the Wvcoh-
ik bwod upon th
dd VW diNKAYO thO OOtM
qWww "fveo hun its in
i6 AL 116 A- -
Od is plamd in a Speemy
,Aatofted wi *e prop& quft-














































increase in specific gravity of the serum cau'e4 b.
presence of the heavy sulphuric acid. When the .a
of the serum solids is effected, the complete seo
the fat and serum is accomplished by whirling in.,.
fuge. The fat is gradually driven into thegradate4l
of the bottle and the percentage read directly,.
...A.:0i
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fo *
.... btl il h w
t7!
!MA but5 uiccnm
goIhtteprmaeo
Sevnenadon-al ui
p nth et adtisvl o
&WaeclyI rms"A h
44 hc tebtlsaesadrie h
bitra bu.
of is.
cetmtr eg wc
grm wihis utoe
t ftecag sdi
Thivlm ewe
-m tithneksolte-
|etmta ftebtl
|_c cl fadadid:Ec
is!peetd yavlm
-etmtr n h ek h
boteiee1 e etbt
sudvM*n e
ioorcntye, oal
tocnor oth pciia
-vi tts ura!fSad




VWAVW$--Te niyb iir
Ae rdatdt e~e 7.5'ti
A.,
Bawktstf, ndvriu6t Ar o hemrku







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tester is
mini n I
4kt am" ti &e
*9 bet *Mer
r Of teoW is uved, wb4 be
Thena ni be no'
'of the'twter when Mi motim.
in the. Babcock test is the commer-
wmetimes called oil of vitriol, and
gmvity of betwem 1.82 and L83.
in glaw: bottJo or, jup, preferably with
Ptabb& stoppers, will lut for a One, but-
not peraqjmit4e, as qwk is rapWlyl
0-wing to A
property of mflphunc.



. .. .....



*wU ftumy of glm& Aia bbldkg,17.5 odbk cobtf-
lor weaming acid In. the Bsbob& test.

IvMter fic4u the a'xr, and, thils 16L
nopen amtainer&
Anmely corfosive lJiqw'id:, Which
4otVug, Wood, and most of the Com-
e,,Add be sPilled on lodA4,
A .....the c-..
144 Off
shed wi.th pl y of mter,
applioa Ws in tum viust also. be
tho 464 IS waahm Off immediately
'severe burnsvn t. ACi4
btAwifty be neutralized with -wwh:-
Lead is the only, common metvA
i6id. It jnuch'teg!a*ngis'iq.be done
,Wt*Yw the iesting table wi th keet IeW...
4 IM
-As already entioned,
the q4lphuric acid used should be
IM4 it is much better to urqhaw I t
A o treAgth to bother with
Ocid. 'Cr9amery-RUPPIV housmhan-





AW Aft
JWJ

dle add gumnteed to 'be of the pro*'.
keptin well,-,4oppered containem it will not
the benefit of theoe who:: prefw to toA the add -A
tbs' following dirmiow -are given: A
use of MO.

hydromeiff

ing: a ffpecffilq,
about that of
trated BOY&Uric
(see fig,
490daldized at,
and for COMICt
must be used Wifth,
at that te
FiG. S.-A 2-bottle hand t;ester.
only* The
temperature ispoured into the hydrometer cyljnd#rl
the hydro 'meter allowed to float in it. When it has
to rest, the Point on the scale intercepiing-the.
the acid indieates thespecific gravity'. IfItIl'Bra-A61
.. .. _Ueh
1.82 it can not be used for
testing milk, and should
be discarded and 'a fres4
lot of acid obtained. If it
'is above 1.83 it -may be
diluted with water until it
is of the proper strength.
There are two ways of,
doing this. The acid. MY
be exposed to the air un-
til it absorbs sufficient teffW fW
water to lower its- specific FIG. 96-A hwd IMAXII
gravity; this is the, safest and best way if 6
gravity of the acid is not much above the'
The second way is to mix the acid with, a Small
of water. A small quantity ofwater is placed 1' n 4
or 6 ar and the acid IL f' 4
poured Onto it. Never jpour 6,
acid, as a serious accident may result. After the
-has cooled to 600 F. it is again tested with th I o hyd,
and the process repeated.iff necessary.




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of
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im O




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.dwlutlFa10 f. bmtw
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to adte-Afbk~~tt m
wed ut, nd, itbtheWW*,dat M,.
b~tt* bob
th ae-tm othtaymi &einttw
bei~d on.Fo toreomthSi&_Q
potdinote ide fte ote is
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FW 1HY r.M-h ihtvYo
drmte n ignftt hats
cyide sd Frh~ ndWl
inefngsl 0k n t Pout.
phuiedd






Nip,
J. AmWlM/9J,
V-s ftjjIj J

t o bap
*n O miko.4





idLi
wrm v
adiicO wllo*
zo oeo Frrjqm





d t 111
oddziuobooftmt 1*de at" o-
my due oblneten~u"Mi
wei bwtesris oerdi odrt
frmgttn od n oprtc heoe'Mtr
glw nd. cd bolday f hebttegb"k
isnw~t n oiu n hebtle h~o t
atpoprsee-.. ..Ibwl ilbes~ t ;
tg,: te, ou
tialy a~te U fc. n a
handtestr isused A-b
into he jcket of te. tster to kep the mtt*
Sped6) &~i(Ui-F&1gtn:un W1
l~edte:-roersee f eses.wthw ee]
dimtest b sfolw.:..

Diameer ofwhea in Iches
10.... ....0.. .. . :...I.I..
12 .. ... ... ......
.1 . . .. . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . .
16.. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ....
18 .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. ..4I.. .
20.. .. ... P .. .. ..... .. .. .




tA #i


v
AM, ObjWt DdAg to add
AJL -A,
NOW =0 C Of
R g wffi,!* betwwn
'41
"A
Pjh*mbty bwwft or con-
,Thersw4tiwd water is liable to esum
W x I'vilts e&*bonst4*; them am, decomposed
;01 -1 116 liiwbon &oxid, WM& M-Avy CxWM
*a Ut column md. obseum the meniz-
WWRW 4w. -eo*&mwd stem!jz wt avaHable ,
W !nod if, before, its-S %m drope
iie addW.
the test has been mieceWuffy
$at vill be in of elm,: lyellovih bqitid
saps".ftomAho ekiar-And negrly color-
below it andwith no foam
bealew, zhGdd be- kept waim e4ther in the
walmr unti1f"d, and fW. abould
'at bet"M "W, 4ad.140OF r
.rho f" at
Wfir." if' Oflwr Conditions have been 'cor-
at bqth the top and.1he
taadiwm am nude from the.extreme I)ottom
us-to ffio extmme top the upper men-
15 jkows, this kmptaicaU y. An.. ordiAary
in Usefal M* Mwang Ahisxeadmg. The
at the upper and lower 16% a,. then
,4)ne point ja at the 0 mafk;,,the Oth". point
*e m& ist the, correct pmentage for the

touteii Whem &6 exh"A steam ew apes
-iwd no vimfilation m' provided, the tem-
bottles vW be too highe In much case, the
,be sMowed to cool to L300 to 1400:. Fe by plw-.,.
at, that,,tempemture for several
qW,
dimdow hAve -beep
ftUMWjkft" I&6UM remdt. RiS WtAO
`*a* *at *e be&n" wM al"" mf*t
11116""'Dett two* be heI*I









lower
Mni0.0, l"WwngmyCmm
Tm
.. Mi ci ma se -h
. .. ......
Marwhe adedto homd li~
MiI[ W t40 W43DWhapLe
=-7I
..... .. ::I
addd; th 8C
inte h mdk
An te to
oltintf~voplt; rq b
*kww.AlowAA -d
-te-tsttebfoebea
T th tr.34




al
t # tt
SHOWS Mw Of fat in
low*_ groity, 10 much
do DA
# jwi in the ewe of milk.
oome being thin and some
X* 4
more wouldadhere,
Wta thazi in othem. For these rew
The chwV
the test bottle.
_test bottiles,"e In the
all *SAOUS (Seefigu" 16.)
mqi#ements of ihe Vnited
duw from 'Co onIY
_bq *gth aAd dia o4otkr, of the
treo *=ado foT both- an ig*ftm and a

tkpeo 6f balkncoo,(*
cha"- we oo the et (fiw 417 18,
tbrsi0n, bApces prove to be yior, Y sat-
'Uk*AhAt the ituportant 16Pii
14 _Pwrts
i&6uld I togt'
be*, pW for
md should a1w. kept

#f4wj",._ _.Hfto Ix"t never to, helod
Maw Jnr milk ig dmt the =aJI: quantity,
must bo truly r'epresen"ve- I No matter
t0tia caxiid 6uts if the efiarge taken
re t the cream or milk to be
Paration, of
tm*,d iffer from that of
':be e*enly disbibuted =d if there are..
by pqkTg from one
&0 cream O&tIy if cold.
it b4s be6a advised t'pqm the cream
*b the lumw through with the
vmxM. If the eream bas aWW
the top mtyhavwbecom,
reniove. in, ",a0eL7_th6
Wwm "ter until the contents have
'r*W-tho *"M *M b-t 90-4 ud',
', t -ttt't , I t






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FM1e-lps'f9-m ndIgm p bte
reurmet f h nie tae 3uruo






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i ho
Gii -I W_ *' Pk
A oe, Z1
WK Ku"- h o ioe
ben ded1Th uatit ai rqiredt
ticoovaiswtthofft I'MIth
Ifth cem ndaid-wenOxeabu 7,0P
on-qate:&`fi-ki-9h IUii t

U,,
.. ... ..V-

FiG ig-T ceJxxera botF

'y b o al.. .. .. .
prceur p:1.i
the ameas n, h t . &'~hewbilngi.
t~tbotlg r Isi' o t ,Pol; b -h ftc
inwtra 15'tJ0IF u utb ak fm,
nigi h~*tkfo bu 1,tiuA4 hyw
moe n h raig udy.:ae h m
difrne ewe raighera UAdh
tetistati hecea es h ftcounI!cu




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15
14




an arrW 00








-rhe
Ise,




the fbioc*
i
cd naftg;At
coluum, in
f -cram twbw.
PAod UWU a
C, Uot a to 6,
-Ibw--VW Wh

is dti*en W6
4))4ta, :by ;6ft
Wk* t"Ij ui6h' *e 16'*





"WA,711k Ood, MON loc. tit





4r


Ofii 9*
"a N
P 4, &
UM,
16 a re 'Wr
O'be art tat6*1' Aia a alk
th6 i6&g Is tolo** and doeA 16& gi*o
W of fat. The skim-milk teat isYIuhblo I&
COJAPIetenefis of the ski
Meted F,
Sultis raust not b W
-milk
The Ahn tek
the whole-Wilk' eat b6ttTe
necks, one of small bore'gmd
d I dths.: per cent f 'or. thee
and on6 extnding nearly to &
the- bottle f6i filling.' ($ee ng, 21
Sev6nt6en =d one-halt 44,
ters of the sIn'm milkd VWed ib
'bottle -bymeaw of 'the fal
ty. cubic centimetqw qf sulp4uic,
added. in two portions of 10 cub F
ters each,: otter, e4eh
Great care m4at be taken wb*l
,W be sui3 that n, particl r M.,ch',
tube; 6therww.. it wjl1:.,becoW,,.
and the.. test raine.40 The test
placed in the tester with ihe M*gl
toward the center.. The fxot
continued due or two my es, !on"
when testing whole. mil As i#
FiG. 21.
tes#ng, hot water is added in VWO
.the seewid one bringing t fat about half way 4VA
The reading should be made *1 diaWY aftozt1w
whirling. If thefat is in the lower peA of the tij
be forced into the graduated part.4yA.,he. prea":.
-fmgpr at the mouth.. of th., e filling tute.. Sobe
test bottles have the ftouth',Of- the fat tube
receive a.. rubber stopper whickmay be uwd to
fat Cobuhn for reading.









i= ly the ame
bxviqgleoe "do
Yt A# acid


it Is eep ae*A '-'to, k puple of ini
it a, preswvative
to- pievlf "tion. Tormalin
't guti64 d ehydp) cowmve.
chlon"d) poujogwxt "WOOMAte
hm th
eg4y', 01ftthe 440"hwd, it
fl and ton
Ipaoem dering, if
&*aVe W4 df iiie -mlphuric- geid. One
V IN,
,etdd ke6p &Vmt or'quwtof milk or
"Ve subU=te, wbRe
P`Q Sam-
T* 1) in W,
_R.'i&oiAc `e-i*Aor6d s e' ay to
Ce I Ithe pm Tablpff of COUOve
Ao
nu forilig InAtt(V we on the market
'bichrowate used tlb, samples should...)*
If's to 20 giabs,"is siaffident D
s'retwinable 1,ogthldtti=e.

`O'XXNMd TrSTBOTTLW.

ot): and. before the test bottlies have beebwe.
be ItMiptied with a shake or two talooken:
dvodtof cjciuiji adphatewhich accur
-,Oko tUttaw'. A convenient, dirdce'is .'ahown
ondwW of u &gaUon stono jAr with a
,'-'AAvhich onoAuW-inch hcho bavo be=
est necks of the batles vwpla6od in
oooWnts allowod to run out,, gxvmg ech-
Tho botd* aftertheir o6n.*,
'Awdd,- be 6n66d twW 41fi` hot
dilute wAud6h of 1ej -seep,







powdex, Aot *0vow,
retelVe 4 f! and be
let e


'Ais brought out eitifierin'thiseirc.,Ol'r!tnnl-r 1_ F.
of water and tho vwious solids iciollectively. 0
solidsor 'Milk solid f4 ,
s. Mam"festly the himlil
determh*t-ng the amount of toW solids iI U, a Pvch
of Mil is to Peparate themi
wat A weigh
er- an the
claely the' mamer in MrIbia,
solids in milk are
laboratory,.. A *small qua41
MWOighe Into A."low
dish and then heated. until A
Yie, 02 T r 'D i Chl
with poun the milk ra t be 14WI64
foraw, co:ver a 4 egI or iso above
for trSe Ilq 4 w, 'a t-e r because, at,-- a"
bot" pewuesme of the. Bolid
p osed.
Ovm.-evieiral types of ovenis -are. used for h4d"
milk at the right temperature' d unng the eva or
The Kimplest type is perhaps the sio-called double-*%
drying;oven (fig,,, 23 r f,
Mspieceo. apparatas is really boa'
oven inside of another e space between the two beh*,
perfly filled with water. A burnerplaced-um4er the evt%
boils. the water, and the re ng spaco. b0t*qfti' s
walls is filled with -steam intal'inin
Mai g &cowtanttempetw,,-:,,,,
ture Mi the inner compartment which holds ih4k
'the oven -Jl
dishes. Unless carofully wa"ed
1P to atta&
dryP. to, *e7ent which.it is a good plan
sort.:of condenser. TheAype of-caiidexwer knovm av
globe eonden6erlis ver:LsAtidactoryforthis pur'powi sobwl"
ovens a* comtructed. id, th aconstant-lovel Attachment-,
Balai&w.-Nice: weigh aft: reqUired in, the
nation of total solidslin Milk, aad x6tis neceomwly th um




*4k-2 4 IP ,&
II
OAA ta


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&W W b re~n|
Uang tI







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ant lar is o UT
0 lmbta wio o =t


Ins m




jj

,a$ VW J=jL I &il 1

th,&" n%&Vmk1*1
before.**
xtd ovre jrco mg~ktIw*
chordwhi almo oitpI ah
tur~i te ncosd pae u~unin i.lub
CO Mn o otae wl, fcoreprn

441
... ....

FI. 4LA=ytW Imm
tob etmiitwtou bobngay h
chlri, hih-fom lye aou IIn ee'p nte
to fte eictrsol b eee a o i t
an sgs f ostre Te oer o hedl4ctra
bernoe o~yi fena s ndV4nfr




04-





cod,






JOU a pivetu and-, A
bo dish undil
the bottoza;

+ Of 00 25.-Dashxzto.r,.:
hvM Aho
V the Chw and ishoWd-: 11MO

Ws-The dishowcontaim'M the MUK
wou,44'ed
-40*Catm uuo vwl, whed they are
0
#wA ri$=ed 46 tho oven for 30 Runw.
w+ cooled+ sd we*hed 4a beforet
if th" is no 1088 in wd-h'
or #6e- is a alight g'u'in in
wei duAng. the 30 min-
utes tWiestieo &at 9JI the
waW Wdrien off, and this
1"t minus the we, ht
diah is the
vu total, so
M 6 by'100-*M div A*4 by
e, ves the perntage. If *,there.
dudW ffie 30 minutes, the dupes
*V*e jmd cln'ed for another peo"od or until-
WAM
fat"'ie-o-The pemmtoo




jrjrL

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P-
...... ... ....
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"It b


'goitA PUM water..at ....
Who4 th'e p1dm-
SL liquid
idAidond *dghts are..
ai
t iDequ!-:'
Akxific gmvity 'I's read 6ff
V4UO 4, thO w4ghts and
*o bam. DeWled dUW'
the ijxsU
lact6metem are not
thlo spee
Twoft than aVp-roximate
a the:.
na a- AW, the frpecW*- laetotmx,.:
thmLed 'i's advbod-
"Iy approxill mate results an
lueto,,aeter,, of %)Ach
types on the WM:
lit
(fi& 29) is u9ed exacay' in
as is the hydrometer in,
acid -41"W=S for which 40
12 --fame imust he tsken
is at ihetemivratim at *Heh...
and t1at tbe:
boely in the 'cylinder.,
griyitj of milk Can not be
Ae'three or four, hours
Vul thatp*e of the ladome-
of ihe w--ilk intercepts
which is






















































iQuevenne degrees are converted into speciflo gravity b$ ''i^"m
1,000 and then adding 1 to the quotient. ThisIs done ata ,,,,
example, if the Quevenne reading is 32.5, the specific gravity iay

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4 .. .. .. ..:,if
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= vr- -I AilRl
w -- ofm
ow **A taw vow

....... ... ... ...
30 32 33 tu ...36 06

&Art ta U A 4D 66 M 16 M 9
N It S W. 48 1% 72 11D. 97 11.22 IL. 47
10, 02 10.27 16.52 IM 78 11. Ol IL 28 11AW
AW-1208 33,111,11, 58 06 34 IL 59
AL A 10.1410.391O&LIMM4 90 11. 15 U. 40 11.65
7 10 _9. fjfi JKL20 1& 45, -A 70 10. 90 11. 24 11.46 11. n
to. ol 20 Ut U A 76 11.02 11. i7 It. 52 L 77
42 W 10. 11 M 57 A C 11. 06 1L 33 11.58 11-83'.0
13,' la 38, A 63 10.88 11.14 11-39 11-64 IL 89
1& 19 10. 44 IOL 69 10. 94 11.2D 11, 45 U. 70 M 95
$0 A 75 00 1 X 1. 51 1L 78 12. 01
at 56 10. K 06 11.32 U. 57 IL 82 M 07
It 14 A 62 la 87 IL 12 11-38 IL 63 11. 88 1Z 13.
is. 68 10. 93 11.18 11. 44 MAN 11-94 1119:
74 10. 99 It 50 1 IS M 00 1125
16 .10L 80 It 05 IL 31,11. 56 11 81 1106 12. 31
M37
67 10.92 U. 17 A 43 IL 68 11. M% 18 It 43
A 73 A 96 M 23 M 40 IL 74 IL 99 12 12-49:.
34 04 It 30 U'* a W1405120011M
Awl GO- IL- 10 U 3D IL 41 12. U It $6,12. 61
01 'W"Aft I It: 42 X 67, U.'92 12.17 12 42 1168,
11. 'L 48 U. -M It. 98 12.23 1148 1174:
L 64 IL 70AZ 04 1129 1155 11 My
IL M 1, L 60 it 85 1%- 16 11 &5 12. 61, 1% wa
116 It ju 11. 60'It in, M 161 12.42 M 61 ll ft
221L 47,11. 72 11-97*4,22 M 48 M 73 M M..
TL 28 1L'53 IL 78 1103 il 28 12.54 12.79 M '04:
1 1 $4 IL M 11. 84 12. 09 M 34 12.60 ll $5 13. 10.
IL 4TL IL'90 IZ 15 1140 11 12. 9113. 16
M IL21 AL 4611-7111.9612-211140, lZ 7212.97 13.22
WILVILMIt" WMWLIMU."13.0313-W
(W M W 11. 58 il. 83 1108 12.3a a mu M 34:
14 IL 39 U. 04 U. 80 1114 1130 M 64 1190,13.15 40
Od a W 1% 0 M M U % a 4 M 461
M U 11,76 13.02 13-27 110
L IL 1107 IZ 57 It 82 a as, Ix as.,
ILI 1& 13 IZ MAS, It SSIM& m 0 a 64
a amm"a M 70
112,51 12 11MI I& OD, M 21B i M 77
06 it st, m W I& %V A 1& 0

Amu 07
1121 so M a 13. 32 A 2 W t14 13
0 I&A W% 14010
m 1% 19 1% 74 It 00 14. 26
I& 40M Wa% C 4%
I& NIX fka 1 U 1
All





,4ft it


VABLB I.-Por dettraini" Aold wli* *s *4
given ipm oj A
VmWV md


A
plw-. Uftm readingstWF. (Quevvwwdqpw),
Of
N 27 29 S 3D

4.50M. .12. 16 Ix 41 a so M 911& 16 M 49 WIL 144* AAR,
L3 it 0
4.55 1L 97 A 22 12.47 12.72 M 97 13.22 a 48,12.73 12 it
4.60 12-03 it 28 1% 53 12.78 1& 03 M 28 13.54 1& 79 14. m
4.65 12.09,12.34 IZ 5D It 84 3.09 3413.6DI&MA IL*.
4- 70 IZ 15 11 40'IZ 65 12,90 13.15 13.40 13.66 13.91 lt 16 14I L 14. 4,
4.7512.211146117111 13.211& 4613.7213.9714. 49
4. 8D 12.27 1152 12. 77 13. IM 27 13.52 1& 78 It 03 It 29 S# .14.
4.85 12.33 1158 12-83,13.08 13.33 13.58 1& 84 14.09,14.34 IX to
4.90L?,3912.6412.8913.1413.'301&64M9014.-1514.401too
4.951145 17.70 a 95 1& j% 1& 45 1& 70 MOO 14.21
r).ODU.151L?.7613.0113.261&5113.7614.40214.2714.521,4,?g,
5.651IZ5 118213.07L3.,321&571&8314.0814.,DoltS$'ltgdmo , l
16. 10 12.63 1188 13.13 M 38 13. W 13. 99 14.14 14.9 14L 914 14,19100 IM
5.1,5112.69 12.94 13-19 13.44,13-69 1& 95,14.20 14.46, It TO It 0
5. 20 12-75 13. 00 1& 25 13.50 13. 75 14. 0114.26 14. 51 It 26.40
5.25IZ811&061&3113.WI3.8114.0714.32-14L5,714.,82' 40
5.30IZ871&12113713.6213.8714.1314.3814.6314.
5.351493"13.1813.4313-6813 9314.1914.4414.7014C.Sgu
S. 40 12.99 13-24 JX 49 la. 74 14. HAS It $0 1C 76 15. OIL I& X*
5. 45 1;. 05 1& 30 M 55 13.80 14. 14.3114.5614.8215. w
5.5013.1-11&3613.6113.8614. 14.37,14.6214.8815. 1&
5.5513.1713.4213.671-3.9314., 14.4314.6914.941,& M
5.6013-2313-481&7313.9914. 15
B. 65 1& 29 1& 54 1& 79 14.05 14. 14. 55 It 811& 06 15. 15.
5. M 13.35 3.60 1 85 14.11:14* 3.6 1-4. 61 4'. 5. 12 M
5. 75 13.4113.66 13.9114.17 14. 42 14. 68 14. 93 1& IS 15.
5.80113. 47 13. 72 M 97 14.28 14. 48 14. 74 14.- 99 15; 24M M
5.85 13-00113.78 14.04 14.29 14.54 14. 80 15. 05 145' 30 J& I&
5. 1&ovil&8414.1014*3514.6014.8615. 15. 36 15. K is.
I I Is 1
5. 0 1 3. 65 1& 90 14.16 14.4114.6614.92 1 M 15A2 15. 106M971
&OOla.7113.0614.2214.4714. 14.9915. M 48 is, 73 1& 98 x
&.0513. 14,0214.2814.5314. 15.0415. M54 M 79 1&041
6&. 10 13. IC 08 1434114.59 14. 11 .15. 10 15.35 15.00 15. 85 A IM&W,
15 .89,14.14 4.4014.6514.90MI61-5.4115.66-,15.911&16lfL42
6.2013.95 4.2014.4614.7114.9615.221&471.5. &R
6. 25 It 0114.26 14.52 14. 77 15. 02 15. 15.5315.78MOSM 1&64*
30146071C3214.58 4o831&0815*341-5.5915.841&091&Ui&4io*
.35 14.13 14.38 14.64 14. 90 M14 15.40 15.65 15.90 16.15 16.40 M 06 4
6.401CIO14.4414.7014.9615.201S.461S.7115.9616.211, 46,16.72
6.4514.2514.5014.7615.02.16.26 5 5 15. ":1& 02 1& 27 It 52 JM& 7ng
6.5014.31 4.5614.8215.0815.:1&58 M 83'M 08 M 33 58 M 84
& 55 14.37 14.62 14.88 15.14 15o 38 15. 64; 15. 89 16.14M 39 A 64 IL 90
(LOO14.4314.6814.9415. 15.44i5.7oll5.9516.2DM451&701&96
1 14.49 14L 74 15.00 -15. 26 15.50 15. 76 M 0116* 26 16. SIA& 716 17. (M
7014.5 8015.0615.3215.5615.8216.0716. 16.5714.iqll.os
& 75 1 14.6114.86 15.12 15.38 15-62 15-88, 13 16.38 16.63 & MIT. 14
6. 80 IC 67 14.92 15.18 15.44 15.68 15-94: 6.19 16.44 16. M 17.20
85 14.73 14.98 15.24 15.50 15.74 16.00 16.26 1& 6.7ra 11.26.
6.9014.79 Sul M 8117, 17.32
85115.04 15.30 15. 66 15. 80116. 06 M 311& Ea'
& 95 14. 16. 10 1& 36 A 62, 15. M 12 IL 37, A 9A 8717. 1%38

























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.* w "imt ml ?t:t SD.l
: ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~... ... .....:.. ::.





. "fi ij .:.^ ":" :':' p ": *s" ":' ^ 'ir ... ... '" ^ F c ^s







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* j..;. :jll... .l..
~~~ E I.:. .: 0: :1 .:1: i" eI.ri: :i:E.. E E:.is :.... 1.: : ..: :.
.. ... ...:















W^ ":. : ::E ":f:""f^ "P:::" ..t ...." .." ...1^1" "*^ ^ p y j iy&^i ..~ E: : w>
:01." ... .- ;-," ";. -'"























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.... .. ... .. .:. .. ..
4. ... :.: .. ..
.:.: :.. .: i ..... V .
.'... .. ... : E.


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can be used in emm not
for in the table.
DWERMINATION OF ACIDITY OF MMK

Acidity in milk is attributableto two eavm, (1) *er
,enco im, milk of acid phoffphata6 and perhapa of
dioxid, and (2) lactic and other acids produced by
decomposition of the milk sugar by 'bacterW
When freshly drawn milk is acid to, phenolphthalein,
acidity is from 0.07 per cent to 0.08 per cent and IM
to causes given undor (1). Lactic amid 1*8 not:prseot,#,,
freshly drawn milk; it develops -only *n sUn
is not sour to the taste until it has a totai adodity 1#1
least 0.3 p-er cent.
For convenience the total' acidity. of. milk *0
calculated as lactic acid. The le.upowwhioh,_
deterjAination, of acidity is based-is the L
chemical action of acids upon alkaliem(. To illustrate)
action of hydrochloric (sometimes called -niuriatic).,
on a solutibn of caustic sodA may be taken. This,
has a sharp and. very sour' taste, wmie caustic-soda.t
tions have a soapy feel and a peculiax odor and, if,
ciently strong will'attack the sUn. If the Wo
caustic soda is slowly added to the hydrochloric
sour taste will gradually disappedr until the exact
neutrality is reached, when a new substan C*e is piod
sodium chlorid, or common. salt, which has neither
acid properties of the one not the line Wpertiieq
the other. The. sense of taste, 11owever, is not aujEc*
sensitive to determine when the exact point of ne
has been reached, Phenolphthalein is an o*aak
pound, having the pioperty, when in solution, of t: irmn*
pink with alkalies and remaining colorless with
Such a substance iscalled an indicator because it in4l
by a color change when a. certain chemaical reaction
taken place.
Th6re are several so-called acid tests before the-p-ab
The one known as Manns'js acidity test is widely us6d
is conducted as follows:




s87
Ac i
'IL,
*e butegautdt
cetmtrppte
4!3,1bn it 1131,1
t|i e4 r. o ht ecp

s!itio..t'a~ti~oatiah ui
1 tro wihwlt'etaie009O
c outo f hn umtali ad y
10j.asn:Wcbccnimtr f9
em lchl
'I i tdtamigi 4 ihui o
th|et-nra outo fcusi oa
tobte|ivna rm n hm
Wts.LAi epptt 0 ui eai

miko is smaav notebae|O
4r'S'fpenlhhli'souinadd
)WlM )i ayb3aidt~rwxe. h
;wt*te dihdrW a CMa o .1
!vs ~to h*mmicsi efwt
onteIauto.ahe.bain, o

frmtebrteit.ienl rCM.

roItteOmetm.I.wilb oie

'a nQ clrwi
hew el apwonsirnr Omr
thllsl i ddd twl:b ntcdta h

| g'We nd mPam ni inlyi eoe
fo be Twr,.heed h ]l hud
ll4b r''n h'erfrtapaneo
m0





AWN

The k, Of acidity 46aleulat6d UY Ithultipt
the number of cubic centimetem of*
by Q.,009 A".-Alvid.ing, by:: the number of cubic cm
of milk or cream taken the quotient being hmiltiped
ioo. ThuR.
c c. aJkali Y.OD9
kercfintag6: of acidity= X100.
c. e. mmple tested
If 50 cubiccentimeters of the aample required 10
centimeters of the alkali to neutralize, thePWWt*#
acidity would be

lox 0009
X-11 eent.,
A or 0 1.8 per
50-

DETECTION OF PRESERVAITM&
A,
Met'LWiffi''
The preservatives usually w f omaldoydo
borax, and boric acid, and these parent difficult to d
if care is used in conduW-ng the teffW. Untfl (jue is
oughly familiar with the tests it is a good plan to run
samples together, one being the suee ted mmple,
which is known to contain: the preservative looked foil
one known to be free. from tat
Fornwl*hyd.e.-There are' two well-kno*n.. -twts-
detecting formaldehyde, 'one known. as the 11ehner
and the other. as the Leach test.
In the Hehner test, about 5 cubic centimeWrs of th4,O
milk is placed in a 6 by j inch test tube,'and then aboat,,-
the same quantity of concentrated sulphuric acid to.whii
a trace of ferric chlorid has. been added'. The ad
allowed to run down the side of the test tube so as not too, -444
.Mix with the milk. In it few.-mi iutes thepfwnceo;-,
formaldehyde will b6 indicated by 4 violet coloratioxi
ihe j*unFture of the milk and the RC1*d* This must. not*bo,,,,
confused with the charring of the milk by the acid. A
modification which avoids this charring is 'in use in t1m&
dairy laboratory of the Bureau of Chemistry,,. United
States Depactm en.t of Agriculture, the. only. diff4enco
being that the sulphuric acid used is dilutod with wateu*
until it has a specific gravity of 1.80





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ad OpeW V
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-- ade--A *
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40

CHMMAM AND APPARATUS IMM4-
CEMMCAL ANALYSM OV MRKAND-'*X'A
Chemicab: Apparatua-Co
Ammonia water.
Borax or b acid. drometer.
Caustic soda. -for I
Cylinder,
Camtic: soq& tenth-. ter,.
normal solutii)n. Condenaer for oveq,
Caustic potash. D ator.,
Corrosive sublimate. Dishes, mi&.-
Ether. Dishes, e
Ferric chlorido either p orme
Fmaaldehyde. plitinum,
Hy4rqchlorlic acid, con- Drying oven d
centrated. walled....
Potassium- bi'c'hromate. Forceps.,
Fhenolph4dein. Hydromet6r,: adda
Sulphuric acid, com- Jars,. sample.
iAercial. Jaxs, stoneware.
Sulphuric acid, pure Lactome
concentrated. Measure, acid., 17.5 c, a.,
Litmuspaper, 'blue. Pipette, V.6 0. C-.
Litmus paper, red.' Pipette, 50 c. C.
M6
Turmeric paper. Stirring rods, glaw,
Appaxatue: Suppqrt for burette.
Bala n c e, analytical, Test bottles, Babcock,'
with weights. for milk.
Balance, cream test. Test bottles, -Dabcock,",
Balance, Westphal. for cream.
Babcock tester. Test bottles, Bab.c6ck,
Beakers, 250 c. c. and for skim miJk.
500 c. c. Tongs, crucible':".:
Burner Bunsen. Test tubes 6 nch
Burette, 50 Co. c., gradu-
ated to tenths with.
stopcock.
















a-n





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r. psqiraua.x-

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EqulrsinIn


-ton
iSiixiw r~flwe3

0.155usqureinch.
10.764 square feet.
0.061 cubic inch.

OA3S Buaid ounce.
61.23 cuSbi incbes.


1.056
2.64171
15A.43
0.=
2.2046]


(av.)


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1'67
a
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71.07
71.11
70L55
73.80

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148
145
144







LU
1371


'in'
126
1341
133

131
135
129
138
131
136


87.78
67.22
OL. 67
etc
40. ii
65.55
65.00
64.44
6389
63.33
.42.78
OX 22.
61.67
61.11
60.55
60.00
K. W44
Kn
58.33
57.78
5.7.23-
586.67
.56.11

55.00
W" 4m
53.33
an-8
WAS


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5.55
. 00
4.44


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s 3
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85
84
83


29.44
28.89
28.b3


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42
41
40



















































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3L







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
II312III81u1III11I
lllfll3'1262 Ol2ll90l
3 1262 08925 990W