An outline of the work of the Animal Husbandry Office

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Material Information

Title:
An outline of the work of the Animal Husbandry Office
Physical Description:
13 p. : ; 17 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Animal Industry
Publisher:
G.P.O.
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Cattle -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030007794
oclc - 39086327
System ID:
AA00018797:00001

Full Text















Animal breeding inveutgdtions. .,....
Animal Husbandman, in Charge. ,
Scientific Assistant: E. H: RILEY. 3
Supervision of pedigree record associations.
HerdbookiAssistant: GEORGE R. SAMSON. l
Poultry investigations. i|
Poultry Assistant:,ROB R. SLOCUM. j
Hog investigations.
Scientific Assistant: L. R. DAVIES.
COOPERATIVE STAFF.

Animal nutrition investigations.
Expert in Charge: H. P. ARMSBY.
Assistants: F. AUGUST FRIES, W. W. BRAMAN, F. W. CHI- .....
TENSEN.
Beef production in the South. ..
Expert in Charge: D. T. GRAY.
Assistant: W. F. WARD.
Horse breeding investigations.
Expert in Charge of Colorado Work: W. L. CARLYL.L
Expert in Charge of Vermont Work: W. F. HAMMOND.
Poultry breeding investigations. .
Expert in Charge: GILBERT M. GOWELL. -i
Sheep breeding investigations.,
Expert in Charge: GEORGE E. MORTON.
Turkey breeding investigations. .
Expert in Charge: LEON J. COLE. ....
Assistant: W. F. KIRKPATRICK.
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At the second session ot the nitty-eighti Con-
gress, in the act making appropriations for the :|
Department of Agriculture for the fiscal year end- *:
ing June 30, 1905, $25,000 was appropriated for
experiments in animal breeding and feeding. The I
Animal Husbandry Office was put in charge of
this work. The cooperative work now under way
comprizes investigations in animal nutrition in co-
operation with the Pennsylvania Experiment Sta-
tion, in beef production in the South in coopera-
tion with the Alabama Experiment Station, in .:
horse breeding in cooperation with the Colorado :
and Vermont experiment stations, in poultry
breeding in cooperation with the Maine Experi-
ment Station, in sheep breeding in cooperation
with the Wyoming Experiment Station, in turkey
breeding in cooperation with the Rhode Island
Experiment Station, and in zebra-hybrid breeding
in cooperation with the Maryland Experiment
Station. This appropriation has been continued
from year to year and, altho small, promises to
be a profitable investment and one which will '
be highly beneficial to the animal industry of 1
the country. The relations of the Bureau with :i
the experiment stations have been harmonious. 1
The work will be continued and enlarged as ap-
propriations permit.


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recognized breeds and purebred animals." .T:
carry out these provisions the Secretary of Ap....,
culture certifies certain pedigree-record assoig sbC
tioris to the Secretary of the Treasury, and. oanl ...l.
animals which are recorded in these books are en-!
titl6d to free entry. Foreign books of record arI:::::::::
certified only as the associations controlling them
may be affiliated with American associations, ex-
cept in cases where a recognized foreign breed.
may have no book of record inthe United States, ,|
in which case the foreign book is certified direct ;||
It follows, of course, that in practically all cases i
only animals registered in American books can 1||B
imported free. The Department requires ce
fled American associations to submit annual.,.f :@Bi
ports, and this office examines their books whe:.in]
necessary. The certification of the Secretary @(.4s|
Agriculture adds considerable prestige to an
ciation doing business in this country, and t"i0,.`
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ANIMAL NUTRITION INVESTIGATIONS.
__ ... ..
H. P. ARMSBY, in charge.::
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Investigations in animal nutrition were under-
taken some time before the Bureau began any
other investigations in animal husbandry. A
respiration calorimeter was constructed along the
lines of the Atwater-Rosa apparatus for the study |
of human nutrition at the Wesleyan University, ,
Middletown, Conn. The calorimeter is an elaborate
instrument, enabling the operator to place a steer
in confinement and make accurate measurements A
of the amount of feed actually assimilated. It
also permits measurements of the air used in ;
respiration and the effects of work on digestion. |
Results on the available energy of timothy liay":
and of corn and wheat meals have been published, ,'
and others are in preparation. These investigaf .
tions are of great importance to stock feeders, %
giving accurate scientific data on the processes o0t.
digestion and the digestibility of different feedm,.:j,.







work. is done in cooperation with the Penn-
Experiment Station at State College, Pa.
BMF PRODUCTION IN THE SOUTH.
D. T. GRAY, in charge.
The production of beef cattle in the South is one
V -of the most pressing problems in animal husbandry
-0 that section Few localities havebetter oppor.:
i#lWties for beef production than many of the
# thern States. This office is cooperating with
44s, Alabama Experiment Station along this line.
Two steer-feeding experiments have been con-
OoWd and this work will be continued. The
-4 -cooperating, thru the station, with a large
Aqk farmer in the Tennessee Valley, who has
"Ibmu grading up a beef herd from native stock
44 with purebred beef bulls. Careful notes are being
IkePt of his work with a view to publication to
iho` W* how far suchd)perations may be carried on
omicallyIn the South.
RORA9 MMING nwm=Anows.
COLORADO WORK.
4 W. L. CARLYLE'in Charge.
41 The horse-breeding work in Colorado is being
IF4,_done in cooperation with the Colorado Experi-
vmt Station at Fort Collins, and is designed to
d4velop an American carriage horse from native
4astenal., It is well known that the' majority of
Varriage horses on American markets and in our
-Umte shows are trofting bred, but no serious
-Mtempt has been made. to develop a breed from
the stock producing these horses. Furthermore,
'it IS a common practise to castrate standard-bred





























VERMONT WORK. y

W. F. HAMMOND, in charge.

The horse-breeding work in Vermont is being
done in cooperation with the Vermont Expei- *
meant Station at Burlington, using horses of Morgan
breeding and of the Morgan type, but with more .
size than the old Morgan possest. The Morgan Hi
horse is in" considerable danger of being bred out :3
of existence, owing to the desire for extvpme, -
speed at the expense of more desirable qualities *.|
and on account of attempts to obtain inceiease&t: ll
size without judicious selections of sires. T iihusl
far only mares have been purchased, nearly all o,
which were obtained in Vermont, two b4ing.L
bought in Kentucky. A stallion will be added tWal
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SHEEP BREEDING INVESTIGATIONS.
GEORGE E. MORTON, in charge.ii
One of the most important problems confronts NS
ing stockbreeders of the United States at present i
is the development of a breed of sheep suitable ...
to range conditions. In spite of the great develk .*
opment and prosperity of the sheep industry of
the West, breeding methods are not systematic, I
and most breeders are continually crossing, the .
result being a lack of uniformity in the stock and, |
to a certain extent, a failure to attain as high a "i
standard as might otherwise be possible. The
requirement of the range is a breed of sheep that. -
will yield a profitable clip of wool, produce good
mutton lambs, and that will stand flocking i
large'numbers. It is believed possible to combine .
these characteristics in one breed of sheep, and 9
the assistant animal husbandman and Mr. Morton
are now in the range country selecting ewes and
rams conforming as nearly as possible to the de-
sired type.
These sheep will be run on a range near Lara-
mie, Wyoming, and the same methods will be
followed as in other breeding projects of this office,
namely, close selection of progeny to type and
rigid culling.

TURKEY BREEDING INVESTIGATIONS.
LEON J. COLE, in charge.
The turkey-breeding investigations have been
designed to study the origin and prevention,
by sanitation or by breeding, of the disease in-
fectious entero-hepatitis, commonly known as







13

head, which is a serious drawback to
,''Wrkef industry of the East. It is not defl-
known how the infection is communicated
eys, and the experiments are planned to
r this, if possible. Methods of prevention
'naturally follow, and considerable attention
.being paid to the possibility of breeding stock
e to the disease. This work is being done
o(*peration with the Rhode Island Experiment
on at Kingston.
ZIMRA HYBRM INVESTIGATION.

'The- expen'ment in breeding zebra hybrids is be-
Iiiconducted in collaboration with the Experiment
Station of the Bureau and in cooperation with the
*aryland Experiment Station at College Park.
It is intended to breed the large Gr6vy zebra, pre-
*nted to the President by Emperor Menelik, of
'Abysninia, to a numberof good farm mares weigh-
ing from 1,200 to 1,400 pounds, the object of the,
work being to ascertain what commercial value
the resulting hybAds possess. It will, of course,
be necessary to obtain female zebras soon in order
to maintain the zebra stock.
GEo. M. ROMMEL,
Animal Husbandman.
Approved:
A. D.MELVIN,
Chief of Bureau.
WARHINGTO19, D. C., October 31, 1906.













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