Notes on larkspur eradication on stock ranges

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Material Information

Title:
Notes on larkspur eradication on stock ranges
Physical Description:
6 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Marsh, C. Dwight ( Charles Dwight )
Clawson, A. B
United States -- Bureau of Animal Industry
Publisher:
Govt. Print. Off.
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Delphinium   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
By C. Dwight Marsh and A.B. Clawson.
General Note:
At head of title : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Bureau of Animal Industry.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030006756
oclc - 28913417
Classification:
lcc - SF11 .A22 34
System ID:
AA00018787:00001

Full Text











91A #
4
n Iw*9vvr upon the range continue to be
I
reduoed- gradually as stockman use more
wW-Ob havebeen found effective and are
0, pyblic#tions of the UniWd States Department

4bWIWYbjOh the 1o$sew"mayAwx (1) By
,,,romedy (2) by herding th&:animals away
Y oisonous;
P4e, *ae whon he are most P

Pitblicationg, thd`main reance. must be.
41iAr 1ja0holdsinosmuch as 'many.. C'EMS of
the retnedy e4n not. he..,,apphed. bee the
4 at the right time.
to eindicate'ther plant many, areas of lirkspur
Y
"That d2dis work is an' OMj (!4r,&S there
OCOR c su
complete,- er icati a.an sibility, it
ad" on I i Pos
t 00*h.of the plant may be dostroyed...,to
16t, elitAinate the"M completely` for it must be
*O*idbrable quantity Of the plant must bo eaten,
6, to produce serious Mn.e,,s. Even if the work
'Wequently, if would still be profitable, for the
pay for -a large amount of work, d in
the'innual lossos'of cattle are quite large.
evoil, that in some, localities the work.. of digm
liAg not been so successful in eliminating.1he plant
and an exmnination'of the axeas''wheo digging
lod t6th-,'bAe that the cutting of theroots may
"16 13adift i 365, Upited States Department of'
thal "tall- larkspur can be Wled by cutting
m I'surface. This#tatement- Owever,
observations.
es, it; 6e4 desir: able to make some.-deftbite
Ye more exactly what was necesswr to
were actually kMed. T he results-: of- these
Sr"Icaung, TQ LkAipw on eaule Runm in: ae Nadowt Famu;#
.. . ....... .. .








experiments and observations, while not as complete as may be
desired, inasmuch as only a few species have been under observation,
nevertheless are sufficiently definite to be of decidedly practical
importance, and it is thought that they should be published in
order to assist those who are attempting to grub out the plants.
EXPERIMENTS IN CUTTING ROOTS.
The roots of the tall larkspur are "tough and fibrous, of varying
lengths up to a foot or more, and live for an undetermined number
of years, the older part of the root dying off. The annual shoots
,originate on the upper part of the root from buds, some of which
,are beneath the surface of the ground.
' One question for solution was whether, when the upper part of
the root was cut off below existing buds, adventitious buds might
not be formed on the remaining portion of the root, so that there
would be danger of further growth if any part of the root remained.
If it were found that adventitious buds were not liable to be formed,
it was necessary to determine how far beneath the surface of the
ground it was necessary to cut the root in order to stop further
growth.
To settle these questions, definite experimental evidence was
sought, with the following results:
DELPHINIUM BARBEYI.
On an area in the Fishlake National Forest, Utah, on August 13,
1916, 28 plants of Delphinium barbeyi were selected and cut off at
various depths. These roots were marked and examined again on
August 22, 1917. The following table gives the results:

Results of experiments in cutting roots of Delphinium barbeyi.
Plant Distance of cut below surface of Distance of cut below buds. Result.
No. ground.D

1 15cm. (6 in.) ................. Just below the buds ........... Root dead.
2 10 cm. (4 in.) .......-- ....-- ..- ----do ........................ 1 living shoot.
3 10 cm. (4 in.)-............... Junction of stems and roots. 2 shoots: 5 buds.
4 15 cm. 6 in ................. 10 cm. (4 in.) ................. No shoots; living tissue inroots
A 12cm (5in.).. .......... 3cm. (1 in.) .................. Do.
6 12cm. (5 in ............ 9cm. (3j in.)................. Do.
7 10cm. (4 in. Just below the buds .......... 1 shoot.
8 5 cm. (2in.).................. do .............. ..... shoots.
9 ................................ 12 cm. (5 in.)................. No shoots: living tissue in roots
10 ................................ 5 cm (2in.).................. Do.
11 ............................... 4 cm. (1j in.) ................ Roots disappeared.
12 15 cm. (6 in.)................. Just below the buds .......... Do.
13 15 cm (6in).................. 6cm (2 in.).................. Do.
14 8 cm. (3 in.) .................. Just below the buds .......... 1 shoot.
15 10.5 cm. (4.2 in.) .............. 4 cm. (lj in.).................. No shoots; living tissue in roots.
16 10 cm. (4 in.)............... Just below the buds........... Do.
17 15cm. (6in.)............. 6 cm. (2.3in.)............... rDo.
18 10.5 cm. (4.2 in.) .............. Just below the buds ...........I R ots disappeared.
19 5 cm. (2 in.)- ........................ do ........................ shoots.
20 10.5 cm. (4.2 in.) ............... 2 cm ( in.) .................. Noshoots: living tissue in roots.
21 5cm. (2 in.)................... Just below the buds ........... Do.
22 8 cm. (3 in.)................... 3 cm. (1 in.).................. Roots disappeared.
23 10.5 cm. (4.2 in.) ............... 5cm. (2 in)................ N o shoots; living tissue in rdots.
24 ................................ Just below the buds .......... shoots. 1
25 10.5 cm. (4.2 in.) ............... 6 cm. (2.3 in.) ................ Noshoots;livingtissueinroots.
26 4cm. (1M in.).................. 4cm (1 j in.).................. 3 shoots.
27 2.5cm. (1 in.) .................. Just below the buds ......... 1 shoot. :
28 .... ......................... 16cm. (6.4 in.) ............... Noshoots;livingtissue in roots.









there was still living tMissue in: the root.
A twas cut of::f at the junction of the stems with the roots
:rdto buds, and in this case there were 2 shoots and 5
EE .. ..E .:. ::.... iw Wi-
M 1 jOlt woff at distances from the buds vary-
..l e..ntti u (1. inch) to 15 centimeters (6 inches). Of
II'lt l from! only one, which was cut at 4 centimeters

infeorenco from these experiments is that a cut below
stop furWther growth. The fact that. growth appeared
t just below the buds is probably explained by sup-
..... bds were overlooked rather than that the growth was
tious buds. If adventitious buds grow from the roots
ir ..bable that they would have been found on some of the
h were cut at from 2 to 16 centiiieters (f to 64 inches)
-19-t96 buds.
... clear, too, that if, to avoid the result of defective observa-
it is made from 4 to 5 centimeters (11 to 2 inches) below
.,fi: buda" further growth will certainly be prevented.
....t. M were examined July 1.1917. At that time Nos. 2, 7,
...::27 had no shoots, although on August 22 all. had
$ would indicate that some of the shoots start rather late
,.id that the most effective time for grubbing plants is
peod oblossoming, when all the shoots of the year have

.. ibnud be noted that. 13 of the experimental plants still had
S AtieSI t their roots, although no shoots had sprung from
a ifi'^L e;hespatsare still under observation, but it is not deemed
| .k,.at there will be any further growth.
..... .I.... 23 cases notes were kept in regard to the depth of the cut below
kz surface of the ground. These notes have a considerable possible
margin of erro, inasmuch as it is difficult to measure the distance
pi, ay:j.r the... 7 plants cut at 8 centimeters (3 inches) or less, 4
nmtsbos., :Of 4& eut at 10 centimeters (4 inches), 3 produced
ll..1 ..toi 12 cukat i.0.5, centimeters (4.2 inches) or morq, there
p:"fi wtk. The inference for practical purposes is that the cut
iA bft 1i ontimi-,ete (5 inches) or more below the surface.
311111W ,W. JSgg1eston, representing th:e Bureau of Plant Industry,
o::1ll eft .nk thi work, dug up, and examined 15 plants of this
wse species (Delphiniim barbeyi) on the Gunnison National Forest
I CIorado, and found that the buds were from 3to 5 inches below

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The general inference from the observations on D. barbeyi in these
two localities is that laborers who dig up this species of larkspur
should be instructed to cut the roots at least 6 to 8 inches below the
surface to be sure of effective results.
1
DELPHINIUM CUCULLATUM.

Delphinium cucullatum is the common species of tall larkspur in
Montana and is found in some of the adjoining States.
On September 7, 1917, 27 specimens of this plant were collected by
W. W. Eggleston in Cottonwood Canyon near Fairview, Utah. These
were measured with reference to the depths of the buds below the
surface, with the following results:
Results of examination of Delphinium cucullatum to determine depth of buds below surface.

Depth of buds below surface. Number
of plants.

4cm (1.5 in.)................................................................................2
5 cm (2hin.).. . . - - - . . . - - - . . . . .
5 em (2 5 in.) .................................................. ......................... "
6.35 cm (2.5 in.)............................................................................ 4
3'1 cm. (3 4 i n.) ......................................................................... ........ 2
,10.4 c5 (4 in .) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2
11.43 cm (4.5 m .) .............................................................................. 1
12 cm (5 in ) .............................................................. ....... ........... 2
13.99 cm (5.5 in.) .............................................................................. 1
15cm (6 in.) .......................................................................... ..... 1

It is seen that the greatest distance from the surface at which
buds were found was 6 inches, and that in 23 of the 27 plants no
buds were found below 44 inches. It is evident that to be sure of
killing D. cucullatum by grubbing, the cut should be 8 inches below
the surface of the ground.
DELPHINIUM GERANUFOLIUM
A cursory examination was made of a few plants of Delphinium
geraniifolium near Flagstaff, Ariz. It was found that in order to
be reasonably certain of cutting below the buds this species should
be cut at least 6 inches below the surface.
SOME SPECIES MORE EASILY DESTROYED.

It is known that some species of high larkspurs have a much more
shallow root system than the three which have been discussed.
This is true of some of the high larkspurs occurring in Idaho in which
the root is so short that in many cases it is not difficult to pull it up,
especially when the ground is wet. Where this can be done it is
certain to destroy the plant and its eradication can therefore be
accomplished with less labor than is necessary where all the plants
have to be grubbed out.

































* AWWiM r ISWA i % f0 ^ a&-.- UL S LAJ J".tl VA'SLA U&SaWII ttLtI VLW VLAAwp"f Lk s. VI .LLJ_.tL AO
Should not be l.ft in piles where cattle can get at it, for the
.h... spur is toxic and sometimes cattle show an especial fond-
i-f'o it. There have been cases of rather heavy losses under
SirScuaxsntaacesf.
^ iies^t time to dig the larkspur is at about the period of
ri ....for earlier all the shoots of the year will not have devel-


I...nn1 in subsequent years seedlings will have to be dealt with,
ieants grow from both roots and seeds.

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PUBLICATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICUL.
TURE RELATING TO POISONOUS PLANTS.

AVAILABLE FOR FREE DISTRIBUTION BY THE DEPARTMENT.
Zygadenus, or Death Camas. (Department Bulletin 125.)
Lupines or Poisonous Plants. (Department Bulletin 405.)
Prevention of Losses of Live Stock from Plant Poisoning. (Farmers' Bulletin 720.)
Eradicating Tall Larkspur on Cattle Ranges in the National Forests. (Farmers'
Bulletin 826.)
Larkspur, or "Poison Weed." (Farmers' Bulletin 988.)
The Cause of the "Spewing Sickness" of Sheep. (Leaflet A. 9.)
Cicuta (Water Hemlock) as a Poisonous Plant. (Leaflet A. 15.)
White Snakeroot or Richweed (Eupatorium urticaefolium) as a Stock-Poisoning Plant.
(Leaflet A. I. 26.) .
Eupatorium urticaefolium as a Poisonous Plant. (Reprint from the Journal of Agri-
cultural Research, A 33.)
FOR SALE BY THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS, GOVERNMENT PRINTING
OFFICE, WASHINGTON, D. C.
Cicuta, or Water Hemlock. (Department Bulletin 69.) Price, 10 cents.
The Poisonous Action of Johnson Grass. (Bureau of Plant Industry Bulletin 90,
Pt. IV.) Price, 5 cents.
The Larkspurs as Poisonous Plants. (Bureau of Plant Industry Bulletin 111, Pt. I.)
Price, 5 cents.
The Supposed Relationship of White Snakeroot to Milksickness, or "Trembles."
(Bureau of Plant Industry Bulletin 121, Pt. I.) Price, 5 cents.
Mountain Laurel, a Poisonous Plant. (Bureau of Plant Industry Bulletin 121, Pt.
II.) Price, 5 cents.
Results of Loco-Weed Investigations in the Field. Laboratory Work on Loco-Weed
Investigations. (Bureau of Plant Industry Bulletin 121, Pt. 111.) Price, 5 cents.
Barium, a Cause of the.Loco-Weed Disease. (Bureau of Plant Industry Bulletin 129.)
Price, 10 cents.
The Relation of Barium to the Loco-Weed Disease. (Bureau of Plant Industry Bulle-
tin 246.) Price, 10 cents.
Menziesia, a New Stock-Poisoning Plant of the Northwestern States. (Bureau of
Plant Industry Circular.) Price, 5 cents.
The Loco-Weed Disease of the Plains. (Bureau of Animal Industry Bulletin 112.)
Price, 35 cents.
The Stock Poisoning Plants of Montana. (Division of Botany Bulletin 26.) Price,
25 cents.
Stock Poisoning Due to Scarcity of Feed. (Farmers' Bulletin 536.) Price, 5 cents.
Larkspur Poisoning of Live Stock. (Department Bulletin 365.) Price, 25 cents.

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