FIG.I.--hit snaerot orricweed(Eu'atolum rtiwfo!um)
thin andhav rater lng etioes.The temsare'visid-ius
0 10 low|-
Th sal wit foer ae n omondcoyms f|-
6mils-with topre moisture tk-
's it ig a eoarsc+ oknt #
and as th6 hnjitab*
t0w hout tho 'A"
exerem, *nd waybe
to th ground, In iome ew5es
4,WdjvUtJu',ofhw!s theft Is PM-
"11" AM,!"OAI*l oiad'
And aome hfl'ivle b1cody fece&
we animals are u4uwattd, and this
Pept thatAt is quickened aild some-
th"o no si ificant ebAnges-in teid-
anim ,ry 1:4
for i or''
X61PAO(w bef 'I
$o'erXI #as,.,ifterthe &Rp"p*
SM "*#sdue and
I # #
11 no authors' exPeriments wen with
feeding experiments made by' ot&m I
Eupatorium for hoi-ses, and extracts'from, th6',p-
cats, dogs, and guinea pig& So far as reported
it appears that no animals are immune to the' 0
plant. In regard to man. the definite evidencia is har
in spite of a number of instances in which the plant "' r
said to have been poisonous. Some of these cases are clearlk
phal. But, on the whole, there seems. to be little doubt that
beings may-be poisoned bythe plant.
TOXICITY OF THE PLANT,
There is very little difference between the toxic- and lethal do*-,
as determined by experiment. This does not piean that no poisone4,
animals recover, but does show the serious character of cases
poisoning. Generally speaking, the fatal dose for sheep is about',
per cent of the animal's weight, and for cattle about 10 Per--cent,*1'
Sheep, consequently, are somewhat more 'guseeptible, -than cattle.
Although. there is some evidence that the toxic dose is sniallier
when the material is given in a short time, this difference is,,wm-
paratively slight. It appears. from the experimental cases that the
elimination of the toxic substance takes plaee very slowly, so that
there is a distinct cumulative effect. This was evident both in the
cattle and in the sheep.
The plant is poisonous when dried, but it does not have as much
effect as when ih a fresh state, so that while Eupatorium in hay-
may be poisonous it is not so dangerous as the. fresh. plant.
So far as experimental work has gone, it seems quite clear that
the flesh of poisbned animals is not harmful to other animals that,
may eat it.
. Poisoning by Eupatorium is produced by a poisonous principle in
the plant, and not by disease germs carried by the plant to the
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN- EUPATORIUM POISONING AND M114K
There is no question but that gupatorium urtiecefolium.l.'s. poisonous
and produces a line of symptoms closely resembling those said to be
y pical of milk sickness in cattle and other animals. Most cases
of the so-called milk sickness in es e
-cattle occur in loc- jiliti 'wh re this
plant'grow& Field cages seen by the authors have the sameqmp
toms as those which have been observed *in experimentallanlinals,
and have been diagnosed'as intoxication by Eupatonluin urticmfplium. A
There seems little doubt that many. if not most- cases of mAk, S'Ick
apl*jr t6 01
tb cl .Up the, -b
I 23F Ant
W 00 both
w- 09 the two diismsloo 4'11-A bo
t-" Mvostigafifts. It mwy be
to be tMore iadcfly
-ito dl4lfia effe4 on the'
ANIOALS MAY HE 11,01SON190.
1.*d where, E. I fouu
Wse paAummav be coMinued for
4of -case& of 'Poisoning occ-ar in t4e
rogTally m yftm. when there is a, defi-
t com sh age. of forage grassm
,*=a, s a con
-re fined to, a limited area
4bi p-Af tut The- qxperimental v, ork shows that
9-"-e to-&4upstic animals an4 that thdy
'6&O'hods., AS in thalbu$'O Of most
IS a cli 'relatiOn betwom. *qiIOrt69%,*.
h2L,,Jfttiodie's', t 6 r AOV6- Wd
pu_ M be
#I Im d
Wy L'7U .ULU, LLPUIL LtIIiCLU .
..... ... "
:*. .. * .:: :* :d.. ,:: ,: ". i ...I
._* : j " 5 ; ^ ;i jf *y ..% ..;;
_wn ev (Bureau of Plant
Vlant of theNoto mtoft States. (BurMU
OF OOC U)VftM
000tin, AW,) PAM Z mnt&
ot Fwd, (,,f$xv*xs! Rullefin 536.) Price, 5
a4d Seed& (Department Bullotin 2(L)
41-'1,;1Ak&'1_StoeJL. MvpaibneiA Bulletin 365.) Price,, 25
'tUift&li *,of Plaotlndustry Bulfetin)'107.) Price, 1.5
Piantslf (Burftu of Plant industry Bulletin 1113,
"b W.ZaRt. (Bliiftu of Plant 11dustry Bulletin 12
03!1rku of Plant Industry Bulletin 139.) Price,
Atid, Uerbs. (Bureaa ok Plant Industry Bulletin
Diseaft., (Bureau of Plant Industry Bulletin
402_ r i
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