A study of Indian painting

 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Front Matter
 A short history of Indian...
 Script for audio-visual lectur...
 Appendix I. List of slides for...
 Appendix II. List of recordings...
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Material Information

A study of Indian painting experimental audio-visual lecture
Alternate title:
Indian painting
Physical Description:
63 leaves. : ; 28 cm.
Craven, Roy Curtis, 1924-
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Indian painting   ( lcsh )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Thesis (M.F.A.)--University of Florida, 1956.
Bibliography: leaves 61-62.
General Note:
Manuscript copy.
General Note:

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 13364309
System ID:


Material Information

A study of Indian painting experimental audio-visual lecture
Alternate title:
Indian painting
Physical Description:
63 leaves. : ; 28 cm.
Craven, Roy Curtis, 1924-
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Indian painting   ( lcsh )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Thesis (M.F.A.)--University of Florida, 1956.
Bibliography: leaves 61-62.
General Note:
Manuscript copy.
General Note:

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 13364309
System ID:

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page i-a
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    List of Illustrations
        Page iv
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
        Front Matter 5
        Front Matter 6
        Front Matter 7
        Front Matter 8
    A short history of Indian painting
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Script for audio-visual lecture
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Appendix I. List of slides for audio-visual lecture
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Appendix II. List of recordings used in audio-visual lecture
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Back Matter
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
    Back Cover
        Page 72
        Page 73
Full Text


, S

Ir- I ---l-e-~ -PL~hhlpl rr~s_--l II II ICI II -_

--ra~LpalsaBer~aaapr C~ar ~ -- s I ~, ~-L ,--Lp





August, 1956

I 4 Pu


Grateful aknoledgat n mde b the author to the

mWber of his first graduateA coittee to Stuart R. Pursr,

Professor of Art and chain of the gaduecat oamittee to Dr.

Charles Cate, Asoeiate Professor of Educatio and Consltant in

Audio-Viaual Servsoel and to Euwee OGrison Assistant Proteemr af


Aokna d.dent tr also rmade t he author to the mmer

of hi second graduate oamuttee to Hollis H Holbrook, Professor

of Art and ch mnan of the gpdmute oamittme to Dr. 1yron A*

C~mnniw m Assooiate Professor of Eduamtion to P.R M.Intoth,

Professor of Lrt.

I also wish to thawk (iorge Alsup, Assistant Proftsor at

Art, for his patient help in photogrmhing the slides for the le-

ture, and Don I. D~rV, Trntrutor in Art, fbr his help in recording

and discussing mawr problem of the thesis.

Theud are also cde Mr. F V. AndIrea for tasansating ny

puaageea from Rml.
HBert fet thanks are due my wi, Loa A. Craen, far

this work would not hma been soompliahed without her trlsees

and chserft enoourge nt.


ACKITWLllRINnM OEl3S .. 0 . 0 0 0 ,

AST OF ILLUTR ATiOS *o * *. * * * t * *

IMFRODCETION. o ***** o # * * 1

A S'.ORT .IMITOlY OP irIlIAM I'AINTIlO * * * * * o o


1. Indian Paintig (Indtoduction)

20 g... cov li.


CONCLrUTION ** * * * * * *9 9 * 5

APPE DI 9 * * * * * + * 56



BIBLIO;KMIAT * * * * * * * * * 6 1

BI.oRA.ffIY * * * * * * * * * * # .. 63



Mlip I. Indl Schools of Painting r 4


In past years it has become increasingly apparent that

our institutions of learning have been neglecting an ara of

knowledge vital to the make.up of any ell educated Aaerioe

at mid 20th Century. With the educational emphasis on the cl-

tre of Western civilisation, the average American is at a lo

when confronted by the cultres and civilizations of the Orient.

This lack of knowledge becomes more and more obvious a our

contact and intercourse with Eatern nations increases. Since

it appears that this contact will continue, ignorance of a basic

knowledge in this area cannot long be observed.

It is also alarming to note that the time allowed for educa-

tion is already inadequate, and the student is pressed to gain

a knowledge of his own civilization. This is one of the many

challenges which modern day education has yet to meet.

Perhaps one approach to implementing a program of Oriental

studies in the average liberal arts college would be to offer basio

courses in appreciation of Oriental art during the first half of

the undergraduate program. This could bring to the student, at an

early stage in his college work, a point of view which would be,

not only unique in its own right, but also would form a point of

comparison for approaching his own Western civilization and culture.

These courses might be organized along the lines of an


audio-visual lecture series, utilizing a procedure such as is

attempted in this study.

While executing this lecture, I became aware of a need for

a program which this campus could greatly utilize. This is an

audio..viual service center where faculty members could be aided

by technical personal in assenbling a lecture unit. If such a

center could be established, it would afford faculty specialists

an opportunity to catalogue a wealth of information which would

be, not only a great asset to the University proper, but also to

the state as well. Within the Univerity coaunity unlimited

fields of endeavor are represented, and, in every instance, an

effective library of audiovisual inaterial could be readily massed

with the aid of such a progrena

It seems that with the future problems of enrollment, and

the immediate need to teach more students more knowledge in a

limited time, the audiovisual s ethod could go a long way in meet.

ing the challenge of these problems.

In regards to the subject of this study, *Indian Painting",

I as naturally influenced by my own interest in the field, but I

also feel that the choice w a wise one, since the subject is one

which the average student -ight more readily appreciate, and thu

it might form a natural bridge to other and more complex 'rental


hew passing of the historical section here presented, fra

which the lecture was abstracted, as a work whoh was prompted by


the lack of material readily available to the student of art. Since

saot art histories deal briefly and incompletely with Indian painting,

and specialized works are limited in scope, I felt that the need

existed for unifying a abort history which would briefly define each

major school and locate it historically.

So it is with the thought in Rmind of bringing together an

adequate amount of information on an inspiring area of painting,

and presenting it in an audie.visual lecture suitable in length and

format for class use, that this study as attempted.



- Ajanta
- 3ujaratL

m obgul

- Rajasthani
- Pahari









India has an historical and artistic pat which reaches

bock and parallels the great civilizations of Egypt and 'saopotaia.

We have sculptures and intaglio seals from the Indus Valley pittee

which a listed some 2,000 or 3,000 year before Chriat. We know

from literary source that paintings also misted at that time, and

on up into the Christian era, but it is only froa this last period

that we have any actual painting rain and thee exist on the

walls of the Buddhist aonstery caves at Ajanta

Other caves and paintings ar known to be conteipaorry

with Ajants (3rd Century D.C. through the 7th Century A.D.), but

it remains the outstanding early momaant of Indian art.2 These

twenty.nine ares, extending fbr a third of a mile in a weeping

curve froa north to aouth, wre hem by Baddhist monkls frl a living

rook cliff rising 259 feet perpendicular from a tangled ravine.

1The Rig Veda (2000 0.1.) speaks of paintings, as do the
later spica, the Woh t and the Raa ns. Sines these wairk
had a length oral ldatory bor being committed to witten form
we can safely W asum that they refer to earlier painting these
rererxoaes also alde to the descriptive quality of the works, so
we an ssuama also that the vital Ajants form des nded from thee
early works

2agh (500 A.D.), and EiUora (600 A.D.) Caves.

ThUes reote cave, located in weest-entral India, are divided

into two distinct types of chambrs. Theae are ChaitVa (eongrea.

tion) IHall and Viharas (monaateries), of which there are five of

the former and twenty-four of the latter.

It is significant that these early example of Bddhist

architecture rely solely on painting for their decoration, and we

oan surmise that free standing building observed this ame canon.

It is at a much later date, after the Hellenistic influence is

completely manifet, that figure sculpture bec'ses a drwdnant

element, Of further interest is the attempt in these earl caves

to sculpt the tone to represent the wooden construction of the

contemporary buildings, thus giving us a hint as to the nature of

the free standing structure existent at that time, and of which

we have no reasins.

Although there ws activity at Ajanta continuously from

the Wrd Century B.C. through to the 7th Century A.D., it is curious

that here s a lapse of time between the earliest caves and the

later ones which re assigned to the th h.-7th Centuries AD. At this

later period, eaintin was indeed important, but now sculpture as a

decoration come into its own. The stone jmpe alive with figures

of the Buddha, and the effect preview the mood of later Hlndu

temples with their profaely sculptured facades.

IJ, Ferguabon, The di' cry of Indin and "r aestgq
Architecture, (2 Vols.; New Yorki Dodd ad and Co., 199)
1, pp. 123-124.

If this is a period of sculpture, it is truly the hirh

point of painting, Dut troubled times were not far arsw, and by

650 A,D. the ravine was silent and Buddhism was dying, in India.

The life and incarnations of "t-'rha, as told in the

Jataka stories, comprise the subject natter fbr the paintings on

the Vihara walls, and the whole mood is one of life and activity.

A calligraphic line gives a blowing action to the contours of the

figure Vwose hand positions are -ost expressive. Composition.

wise the easternn viewer is confused by the pulaating, crowded seen,

and issues a more organized structure. But the wUll is one conti.

nuous live drama, !uoh like the continuity of a cinema, or, more

like the unrollin of a Chinese scroll painting, with ite flrmine


The monks painted on a moist plaster surface, -ct as they

did not work fast anoufh to cover the wall before it dried, the

process could not truly be called fresco. Their colors consasted

of ourplA, browns, white, .-een, red, and black.

First, an outline in red (as in early Egypt) defined the

deain, and, next, an undercoat of terra verte was added, and the

local colors were wahed on top. Once the wall was oo'n letely

colored, the drawing was restated in brown or black, and a final

burnishing gave the surface a lustrous finish.

This painting, with its obvious Hellenic influences, is

known only in its maturity, and, like -inerva who sprang fully armed

from the forehead of Zeus, has emrged from history devoid of any


example from its fomative period.

The Apollo, who at first un.sily wars the trappince of

Buddha, is, in the and, transformed by the mantle of ensuouanese

and mryticilm into a true Indian creation. As Malraux noted, in

the Orient, the dying Oreek form grew into a now and vital creation

which became one of the hallmarks of Eastern civilization. "La

vie de l Art Hellnistic en Asie n'est pea cell d'un iodele, mais

d'un chrysaalide."

iAnr Valraux. Lee Vnix do Sleonce, (Pris: la Galerie do
la Pl1~ade, 1951), p. 167.

It ima't until the 1th Century A.D. that we find an

Indigenous school of painti g practiced by the Jain (a branch

of 1tindulit) monks of western Inia. Their nilntature paintings

ar direct descendanot of the art of Ajanta, but posases little

of its Hallenistic realimn, and none of its grandLose sale.

Indeed, this primLtive, almost folk.like art saploaehea the abstract

painting of today, and sight give the oontnporary artist a fresh

esurce of Inspiration.

hea pailntings, done purely as illustrations for reli.

gious texts, were at first meouted on pala leaves, and later,

during the 14th Century, on papor, the style war flat and color.

ful, usin brick red, yellow, white, sne blue, black, and gold.

ihe artiste drew their inspiration from temple sculpture of

the times, as did their r -nean contemporaries, the 'anuser pt 11.

luminators of the middlee Aees. vollowring the canona of sculpture in

regards to pattern and ioonography, the f1'ure is conetituted of

broad shoulders and narrow hips, and many standing ftiNue poemse

the twisted stance of their sculptured prototype. An intereAtlng

feature of the triangular heed was the protrusion of the ey from

the forehead, similar in effect to spectaclee, and resulting fwr

the palnta'r following closely the sculptor's figures which

possessed glase eyes, added to the stone to enhance the realities

effect. When portrayed in the paintIngs, an almost 'icaaeoeque

head is produced.

Sponsored by the ric. Gujarat orchanta and Mip builders

who traded with Persia, the school flourished, and as the result

of wealth, rather than religious fervor.

Through this ntercourse with Persia, pape beca asvil.

able and Porelen paiInlrna were i-pnrted. A brighter palette

resulted, and, with the transition from p.l"i leaf to the paper

around, the style became -ore delleate and refined in exocntion,

this heing prevlc.usly intt.a+nahle on the iore obrturte rpal leaf.

ihereaa the palm leaves naturally were of a more restricted sise,

the paper manuscripts grew larer, especially in depth, over a

period of tiem, and, finally, in the 15th Century under 'logul in.

fluences examples are knoin to measure 16" x 60.5 ftith this

additional available space, the painting area grew larger and a

broader palette now included gold, silve, more blue, and screen.

Under the groalwi influence of Mogul painting, stations

in style occurred, stapin~ it finally into the 'ogul 2ode, and, by

the Aiddle of the 17th Century, this early style was dead.

F. Norman Brown, .he Story of Kalakg, (rashing~tons
Oriental Studies, No. 1 'eer Gallery of.Art, 1933), p. 21.



Parallel to the flourishing In the westof this early

Oujarati style, the iBddhists of Bengal and 3ibr pursued a made

of painting identified as the P51 school, taking ite nao tSra

the rulers of the period. Ihees miniatures also served as illus-

trations for religious txte, and literary sources refer to wall

paintings as well, but these have perished.

T she mnastry and libraries of Nalada, the great iiuddhist

*enter of learinc in Biher, was destroyed by invading L al no s in

1199 A.D., which rarks the end of the school in India, but its

style was carried on by the school of Nepal.

Thee miniatures commanded simple Ioopositons and, like

the Oujarsti paintings, were based upon sculpture (figures) with

the lndscapes and reotation mre syabolas

Due to the destrtction of the centers where this art we

practied and housed, we possess few examoles of this school's


It is with the conquest of India by the 'bhannedan "iouls

('inegnla) frti Smarkarn and Kabul that the moat fmiou school of

Indian painting ia born. Baber (15.61530), the f'ondw of the

dynasty, possessed the blood of Zaw and Jinhtis Khan, but tha,

fortunately, was tempered by a strain of a aore scholarly and

sensitive nature, which made hi. a lover of flower and a crmpoe

of verse. Wben, in 1525, he ~nquared India, be brought artiat

with him to DeJli, but of this first vangured, we have no uxanple.

It is with his son Humun (153.01556), that the true start of

the 4ogul school begin, and this, after he had lost and regaind

the lunpre.

In 1540, the neresoo Sher Shah fro t har foroad Humaun

to flee to Persia and intn esale for 15 yuars. It vas in the course

of thia flight ftro India that his son Akbar, the future star of the

dynasty, was born. At the Shah's court in TParsia, Hwluaymn becai-

ipressed with the Parian artists and determined to take me

beak to India when he reconquered it. So, in 1555, *wh he returned

victorious to telhi, he brught with his the two now feoua pointers,

'ir Sayyid Ali and AbdO Saead. These man were the n laus around

which th school was to be formed.

On year later 'thuaun woa dead, and the U yewr old Akbar

eat on the throne. Soon the irnnmale of 'ogul culture ad power ws


to 'e reached in Tndia,

-'uch has been written of the great Akbar (155r-1605), so

here we will sketch only a;. utllne o" his character. cmxr L~ the

wilderness of the Sind, he rrew up accusm-ned to the rigours of

outdoor lfe. 'Tis Interscata are -ore naturally tnclnedo to the

aeto;ns of "Jiht'n;.-' brtd re-ranohp, and :roved to be more than a

small problem t tthe four titors I o, In th.o rnd, pave up t r In

to educate him. Although he could neither road nor write, he had

a greatt Intellert, anx' reambered cverythln(Y that was read to him,

and took great delight in this type of instruction.

As a boy with his "'ther in Kabul, he had taken loaooru

in drawing, and soon shared :uInayn'a avid taste for paintLg.

His curolea ty in matters nf religion were robust, and he took

delight in discussing theological points with the priestess ad

scholars with which he :nurronded himself. In fact, he forrcd

a new relgClon composed of '.he beet point of all the reliEions

which he at one time considered making the state faith, but, in the

end, withdrew.

His military tactic and activities, by which he consoll.

dated most of the Indian continent under his reign, would hae made

Napoleon's essays seen py. He set up system of overnmental

supervision which were so effective in handling the diverse nations

that the British still employed thee during their rule.

It may seem strar.-e thaL a nan with interests in animals

and outdoor life, who enjoyed such dangerous sports as elephant


fighting wJ4ld deliibt in music, poetry, and painting, but his

beet and woet loved friend was a iiindu musician, and his pointers

wre honored, nd, in eome cases, knighted for their sativitiss.

ie eetablisaed a etase art academy where about a hundred

artist, costly '!induxs, worked under the guidance of Iranians,

and, at the time of Akbler*. death he royal library aontnined

scie 24,000 volume o2 illuminated tanuscripta, moot of Wh1i h were

ecuited under his eup~rorlon. lis patronisation of pai .lng,

like his excursions into roligious liberalsla was strongly opposed

by the older and .ore orthodox miabers of his court, and, at tiUea,

the manuesript3 were mutilated by these iconoclasts because of the

fear of idolatry.

ahe Koran codondnn to everlasting A're the artist who

portrays any soul..pooseoaLr creatures tia realira in -ersia was

never attempted, and this accounts for the fact that ?ersian

painting in the last analysis is only an extension of calligraphy,

and, even in its later and nore sophisticated forns, was little more

than exquisite deai -ii 'o it was that many of the :~gul manu

script display a rubbed out face.

But Akbar never wavered in his petroname, and countered

these actions with statements such as, "It appears to as as if a

painter had quite a neCtili r -e"e nf rerognitin (odt for a -amnter

in sketching anyythinr thet has life, must cle to feel that he can.

not bestow individuality upon his work, and is thus forced to think

of oad, the Giver of Life, and Till thus increase in knowledge. 6

ihia, indeed, was a "rlelaiseasne nan n ad r aintin in India grew

and thrived under his rtL:ulating i-petus.

As we have area y ,'- ted, this art is the rWduct of the

blendirii of i'errson and r:nJan achxols, and was co- ,letely in har.

tuony with the political aapirations of Aktar, who wished to .uue the

Li.'du and 'ers1an styles into one stronT; anW new Indian cAulture

ibe s~le can be traced from its beg~iin.inzs as a 'lat,

doo-rative aersian treatment through ita blend:i with rhe lively

Lajahistan style, and on, finally, to it :aove toward reanian.

Zals last phase, brought atr..ut by i'portationa of iuropoan etchi.na

and paintings by 'ortugzese Jesuits, i-iplasented uen novel irova.

tiona as golden halos over ti e a ,~rr's head, ihadinr on rac:o,

abosphere in landscape, and a readerr and .rec accuraLe use of

perspective. Tia actual way of working has been recjna ructed frou

drawings and unflnioied ialitiings. ".'a the paper which iad been

carefully ironed, the prolilnary drawing; was rade with weaR3'lo

red ink wiich, after necessary correct torn, was Lraced over in

black. The sheet was then coated with a thin wash of white iAsment,

on which, with -onac'he colors, the actual miniature wea then painted.

Anally, gold was placed where necessary, and the completed

miniature was irmnad sasein."7

6Alred iernor, Iidlian PaintLin, (Jewne A. A. Wyn., 1950),
p. 5.

"anst KuAoel, Indische initurn,. (Berlins Verlag Gebr.
Mann., n.d.), P. 18.

With the oaAtgr: .if Akbar, Johanoir (1605-1623), his son,

became eramrr. Jahanrir was nrt a giant like his fatl~e, but he

mna a true eonnoiteaur of -'n'.tnr, nd e.n;l.a-od the artists in ore

activity of production than tit Akbar. !'e nrided hiaaelf on his

ability to recornise the rr.o of 1-d1vidual artiste, d, as oame

artiata specialized In certain points of painting, one picture could

hold the work of many seoarete artists. "no artist --it.ht excel in

the execution of faes;{ asnther, hand; wrile another, building ,

landscapes, or so on. Also, a further aspect of specialisattion

was in subject matter itself. For instance, ,Latd Mansur, 'lurad,

and anohar were expert bird and flower painters, and we have

records where Jahansir praised Jansur as "the vrnder of the until

verse8 for his eaintings of the flowers of Kashltr.

I think it can be truly stated that logul painting reached

its enith and matured during Jahaneir's reign.

During the raign of Shah Jahan (1628-1658) we see the

Mogul artiste perfect the art of portraiture, oouameneed under

Jahangir. Their skill in rendering their models, not only in an

accurate naturaliaLic way, but in a psychological manner as wall,

has led soea scholars to claim this to be the greatest period of the

school. But the real emphasis at this time wea on architecture,

and the many mastaerDecee which still dot the plains of central

India attest to Shah Jahan's real obsession. The moet faous Mogul

B D. Piand, A handbookk of 'uhaadan Art. (ad ed.; New
York, Hartedale House, 1967), p. 62.


building, the Taj Mahal in gra, was built during this period by

:;ibh Jahan.

If thls was the high point of the school, the seeds of

artistic decay were CrzvnatinEq, and so it is with ar~ art when the

artiste' skill and mind are one in a slavish tracing of nature. The

true essence of arta which is the interpretation of nature by an

individual, is lost when the object portrayed forces its will oom

pletely on the artist. Thus he become a camera for tranaporting an

optical imaae to a surface devoid of all emotion and human content.

:'ince these artists' chief purpose was to record the pomp

and color of the court, they were, in the end, truer chroniclers of

the times than were, perhaps, the historians, with their flattery.

'orkiovc under the critical and realistic eye of the Fm-neror, they

portr-yed him in any and all of his activities. They went on hunts

withi him and Into battle. 'is e'lenants, as well as his courtiers,

were their subjects. !is woran, enerals, slaves, and flowre are

faithPully :xntr.-:,Yd. The history ot an e,,och is reconled without

the aid of a a :Je word.

''riay Uie )-.L6tory of thVe c,ul i-rpire is "written"Ln its

:-iltiniA, and, as lonr as te ralers were ot-es,, the school

flourishes, but, when the Ltoin starts to brvak up, the painting

wapwe. In cuntrL-3 to the biiiui.nir, where there had been activity

and li, ttio ond dLb:)ays a dead product stiUf, hard, und sterile

frou incestuous r-cupyin,; of itself. The end cate w1n Akbar's

gatgr grandson Aurangseb (1658.1707),p the Ript*, vithdrw his

support on rellgoir grounds, and, thus, the school died, and its

artiste scattered.


In approaching Pajput painting, the Weeaten viewer ay

meet with more difficulty then when be was viewrin "'ogul paint.nRg

Since 'bogul painting is primarily realistic, it is concerned with

the portrayal of distinct individuals and in rerdirn factually

the actual stationn, suoh as oourt saans, and historical happen.

ings. Ihia fars an opposite pole to the aspirationa of tUw

Hindu painter.

1a the Rajput rUtst, all s'n are ayabols and all nature

is s~mbolio, So when he paints a figure of a woman, her lce and

for are identical with other figures of women in the ,ieture, and

they are all, in turn, symtolic of all fenininity.

Ishi bent toward sp*bolian ulminates by being concerned

with no less a desire than that o. clarifying man's relatVsnhip

with God. ThiL is a soocnished by rsooCdnis a the sia'.Mlet mIani.

festations of nature, the -ost ordinary everyday event, and the

basic drives and eotirns as being a merns for expreastn these


Cocaaruas my states, in regards to this problem, "hoee

who wish to study the 'development' of Indian art ~ teanaxipate

thbnselvs entirely fro the innate haropean tendency to use a
upposedly greater or laes degree of the obearvatlon of Nature as

a --uasuring rod by whieh to tree stylistic sequenoee or reeognise

asthotie wit. Indian at only be studied as showing at

different times a greater r less dogroe of oonsalaoUmns a greter

or las anargy; the eWt a we degrees of vitality, unity, gess,

sd the like, navr of llusion.o9

As we hwve s n Hindu panting in weste Indis bhd a

oontinoru history* Rootings ftro the frescos of Ajanta, in th

Medieval period, grew into the Oujarat school, and remants of this

style still xistd, in isolated areas, during the Ogul ora. It

is to be.tbm u remaining sparka of Hndn tradition that, late i

the 16th Century, wee o Iflo aiw as the Mohmaedan style died.

SBae, in the pst, the legal sabool ha beIn more faumm

than the Rajput, w have hbd a trndenoy to overlook the HiUdf forW

but today, in the lst analysis, the Rajput reations mrgm s the

better rt. Ih Mogul style wver outgrew its ol stieim, and,

untfrtunately, displays t tthe en its borot influence. On the

other hand, the Rajpt style took flrely froa the Jogul, and this

integration of Perian ideas nd Wetern realism nth the older

Hindu traditions of deign ard oolar, blsodd into a nrw India

form. 1his nr style had its rmaissenoe over a large a diverse

portion of nort) wt India. It reached southwrd, down, out of ttw

Pnjab Hills, and over into the mountain of Kashuir. For oonav.

enise, the school is divided into to main division, the Rajmsthaen

or plsin style, and ?ahari, or bill style.

9A.l. Cooaruway, The 'ansormation of Nature Ln Art
(Cmbridge, asMe. Harvard Univerity Pross, 1935), p. 117.


After the destretion of the medical Hindu kiyndomg the

SaIwerit tradition had broken dow, and, with the rise of a vwae.

oular litature in the 15th Century, we m the start of a w

iindu rrai .s, With the great Hindu apics and the religious

aripturs available too he oomon ai, we not only s a religious

revival, but the arts were also stimulated nrw. rortunately f

painting, the introduction of paper also pralleld this nm msven

mant, so the time me rips for a hi vment

w we see naw poetry witten md put to amim. Then a

dance would be opposed to go with it, mnd paintings woild carr the

stop further by illustrating the aod of the verse and tune. At

firrt these paintings we asoetie no Mb than diagr.a of the

danCe steps. Thsn the deeloped into a =ore oomnpl xd a ubtle


1m *Regwaala s or WUical mode paintings e the 'most

outstanding type of Rajpot painting, and are unique in the history

of world art. Ihsee "garlands of oolor (of passion) re attempts

to xpres or clarify particular musical sentiments through the de.

piotion of a special human situation. flre (colar) is a asieal

phrau (thO e we thirty-is bMeel Risa) whiah aKpraes an motion

(ler, hate, taedarnsea, sadness, lonelinesl ete.). lhse sotioan

man be either ual (Rlaa), or fmal (Rsa;cg ), and ae, a.sordingly,

restrioted in performance to a definite uonth and time of dqay
Thra is a delightful story wbe an emperor omeoidaed a uaian to

saig a midnight RIa at a idda, ad, as far as the soag ooald be

head arund the muscian, the daylight turned to night.

or an sample of a Rageaals, the Todi RSint will ers e

us, this M nting alwq shows a beautiful young girl playing a

Vine, and the nusio has dramn the der out of the forest to liatan.

Ie postle meaning is that the naiden is becoming aere of her

y~ruthftl charms, which have attracted the admiration of her suitors.

hee visual representations of emotional state are only

one of a group of several approaches to painting in the Rajpot

school. Another is the Ntrib theme which illustrate the clssi..

eal aitastions of the beloved. These, along with the love soone

of Kriarba and Radha were oat popular, and it is in the Kangra and

arhal Hill ashools that we see the predominate, along uith scease

from the great epila, the falaama and th S 1kabh arath .

ur earliest ezuaples of the Rajasthsni painting eames to

as during the 15th Century from western India, and they show a

natural likenees to the O~jarat school from which they spring. T

overall design is flat and brightly colored. The opposition xiata

on a single plane, and is not yet oambrtably suited t tthe upright,

or Perelan, format, being a defcandant of the palm leaf, or hori.

aontal school of painting.

any tines in these early pieces, we see the subject -atter

asxiting only on on narrow belt through the vertical mntiness of

the rectangle. nhils at other times, we se the atit maintainitn
his flat oomposition by combining three separate horiantal piotuwe

bands ao top of one another, thus represantig spase and depth in a


priittve narmer renintaicenat of Egyptian painting and Aseyrian

rellefe. nut, this tfat and stronr deatgn, alonr with the brirht

cnloar re eoo) to be mlted, and, by 1700 the sophistieted atMul

style wa beornnmin to be felt.

The historical development of painting in the % njm b tllls

night be muzmurized as the continuous penetration by the n~reltip n

artista into the ore renote areas of the Hills. This movement

accelerated dvlapuants and mutations in tyle through a maturity

andr, filly, its wane, which uas the reeult of a staenatinr in pL

ration and a lack of support.

With the sawk of Delhi, by the Peran invader Wadr Shah

in 1739, the Mogul o Ppire enllapeed, and with the swinr of the tre-e

route north through the Pnnjab .illa, prosperity came to the Hill

States. With chaos on the plains, the artiate started nirsatin to

wore stable and peace-:l courts where ptronae wes ore reatdly

available and syrpathetict. it wa natural that the artists would

seek esaplyment in the fednl court of the Hills, which we no

rich, receptie, and rrwote.

It is true, the PajaMhitani courts also received 'ogul

painters after the fall of Delhl, but this, in any oeep, resulted

only in a slightly altered continuation of the !ogul styles (i.e.

court scenes and portralntur) in the olain, whereas the Pahari

tyle flowered into a new and vital art. It took the ;bgul mode ad

melted it in with the old Hindu style, to complete a inw Hindu frsa,

which wa to be the pinnacle creation of the feudal Hind~ kIrgdoe


beftb their eollape muder the onsuout of %eetnI eCvtlUmttoee
nrtaps Ube mith of tr s etyleee d tin te emaw d
state of anra. Its re to br mina -m be eontr te I to am
bitrmte onrem ses, the firs% vas m th mrrival I tias, eaO.
Am reand 180, of an arti the easier ~m g stat Oe at',
utp, itf mt arethgx e Mgul wrhet, m tinr dU in4e ig Megaul

mmer of patJig. mbis braout dJgree of relttmep a d
tiestion to nc, paint"i hih r b eiounly IA m adr ror

mtalmpred ad poeauetrim a~
Swaond tmAoudmstmo f sn- w Mthe elomUmo tf s
tdre aft Kugr, In 1775, of 8mar Chmud i ts mee t s iU pai e
of palntfintg It wa to be during 8me r Chmla' re (175.283)

a partod of eIm then 90 years, that ure stye to ft
eul2Ani mAd lolas glodng pltat of enommpllr at i tding Mt
tI me wrld hihtea y of painting
h 8mor Cta d took th t rowm at the w of 10 b he w
quiek eto etAb Ith MUi su wuy over t state, ad Ib 1 Ms
goat o cat the heigth of fadal nr ar, w the ~tat he oem

to ben been fe msim b psmtiUm, and me b ad pdotrmd s

spesoti ad ia t.e-rtn printinC it artt lwen e ema d al
hl eam U 1 o 13 y of aqet Anothw strmog lna t of #
Chadt* -s his dAotlon to the olt of air rita, ad tI diserwt

inir edM bi tt towd paating, wt so me m .i ltonra l l
wr of t e owr, but aotaa ll s a pnmal mL tio t l Utl

Ih olIt of Krishmasm o y pepaw, and svied s -an


mtioeel reles also far the straight.aseed Rasputs. The pastoral

ad erotto esmcpede of the Lred rIa wa with the oeaoside, or

oaLs, as th wer ealled, nd his illicit love affair with the

laiy B as, a married w an, we in direct opposition to the ever..

day propriet of Raelpt ife. Thit is e pecially whn wme onatider

their arswid marries and strict v mnww goverig and w

relationstdp. he interest and porraal of esuh ubjwts as the

affaire of rrisma would indeed ave been fined upan if t it d not

been f~w the religious interpretation placed on theb, ad the lab.

rate sybolila iplemnted in the painting*. uh aina tie lawre

represeted the rejoining of the soul with God, nd ny Mepration

between the lovers portrayed the longing of the soul ffr God. So,

if a painting showd to lover on a *charpe' or bedl after a night

of lov, the implication woe r dolightfWlly elewsr but alo, me

ow the s7rtoUsl for the bliss of the related soil.

It ws in the sesitive portrayal of these bjeco that

the lange artists brought into beinR a new and chws-n art. the

suprae aeoomplitbaent of Kanra paintig ws its prtraal of wron.

She is shown mostly with hetd bent fbrrrd and g ed in a fil aad

spredng dress. The wholo pose is ep esed by a sinTle ca ed line

resulting in a gliding femaiine grace.

Iar a period of oboat 31 anintrrupted yers, paintings

flowed from the brushes of Seneer Chnd's artists, and his eour

enoyed a peac atl existence. But, in 10,I Ourkhas firm lepsl in.

reded t valley andlayed a thr n yeer slge to his apr~enale

fortress. Sansar Chand eventually had to all in the Sikhs to aid

hima and his fedal paorr paused with their domnanoe over the val-

ley. For 16 year he lived quietly under the SUkr, retaining a

nmoh less splendid court, but be still butled his remaining artiste

with painting, and .avy outstanding works com from this period.

After his death, his sumessor rtretated to the rmote state

of Teri-arhImal, here there flowerd a late offaboot of the sebool

but, for all true purposes, Kaing art died with Senar Chand.

0 9* *0e

Another oontender for reatmn-ss in the Pahari stylo would

be the Garhmil school of painting. An aown mor provincial hybrid

than the Kangl fonm, this style developed simf\tapously in the

reote southeastern etrmm of the P~jab Hills.

As we have noted above, the developmnt of the Pahari stle

wa due to the continuous migration of artists so the atual eer-

genae of the Giarhal style me the culmination of a chain of Migra-

tions through several states before its flooring.

The parent ashool of the Pahahri ste idht be found in the

lees remote state of Baheoli, sine a flourishing school had early

(1678-1693) existed there, and it wm also to be its artists who ere

to fora the vanguard, along with the migrating Uoral artiste, who

would sprk the painting styles of nearly all of the other state.

The dispersal of absoli artists in about 1700 aooounta for

the developmnts in Jawm, Chamba, and, mot iaportat hImre its

neighbor state, Ouler. It ws under Faja Dallp Singh (169-.1730)

that the GOler style first flowered, but it ma still foranlative

dwhn SkUh harrassnt forced its artiste to depart for Kangra (1773),

and, earlier, to Garhal (179). It is interesting to note that

tangr w only 40 ailes ftro Oulw, Awile the capital of Gartmal

Srinagar lay 200 iles to the southeast. 0ne mat conjecture that

it was the more remote Gamal that offered the most intriguing r-

trat from the worrisome Sikhs, aine the migration took the artists

there at an earlier date.

It should also be mentioned that a decayed form of Mogul

painting already existed in Garwal. his resulted from Mogul paint.

we being brought there by a prince flying his umle, Aoraugsmb,

in 1658. Tese artist were definitely mediore, and the quality of

their offsprings' ork sowed little merit at the time of the OGlr

migration. So we an easily dismiss the thought of any possible conw

tribution to the now Oartial styl from this quart,.

During the Oular migration, another incident oecured which

proved to be an inactive to draw artist to Gart al This v- the

marriage, in 1773, of a Oarlh al prince to a Oular prince, ad it

wa to be this aue prinee, nine year later, who would beome Raja

fr.fnsan Shah. During his reign (1781.18W ), the atyle matured,

and, like the Kanra paintings, these reaction at first displayed a

strong Ouler influence, but t was not long before the true romant

and poetic style merged.

It is perhaps tragic that we possess le than tment

painting frame the hand of the unknoa master artist of the scbhol.


The porful aham of these fr pictures stand out uniquely fram

the other xampl e which, n a lesser w, imitate tmhir qualities.

Even so, from thes few remaining as terploaeces can reconstrut

his delopmmnt (rom the early Oular influbenes through to his

completely individual form, inspired by the earhml teiraIt

Sringar possessed t famous hill, and as located deep

in a valley on the Alaknanda Rivwe,'whih hld its souro in the

high nomw of land Devi. he swift flight of the river through

the valley inspired the swirling water of the msters painting,

and became one of the trademark by which the school is knoa.

"leafles branches to parallel the feininl form . globs ike

tres. towering spikes of starry flower wo8 e lesmnts which

the other artite borrowed from the master painter, ad ar now

used to idttify the sty2.lo Again, lik the rlara school. it is

the ii these, alog with the affairs of Krisha and Radha

which demand the sost naerou portrals, and these ar poss- ed

with mxcwptional charm

As it as to be Kagngr's fate three year later, the Ockhhb

invaded Garhmal in 1803, but here there wre no SIkhs to help turn

the tide. So, in 180(, Pradhman Shah was routd froe Srinagar an

killed while his brothers took to flight one to Kag and the

other to the British. Ihum, with the Oarlml countryside t anar hy,

the Ourkhas ruled until 1826, tan the Britirsh llbratd the state.

lo, 0. Arbcer, artal Painting. (londoni Paber ad Faber
Ltd., a.d), p. 5.

as might be suspected, hero was no artistic activity

during the Orkha occupation, and, urely, many artiste loat their

lives. It wan't until Pradhunan, Shah's brother, Suderahn Shah

(1816-1825) as installed by the iritish in his village capital,

Tahri, that painting is resumed. Here, a new style of Gar-al

painting was inspired by fresh Oular influences, and "airy white"11

paintings by the artist (haitu Sah added a new brightness to the


In 1M29 Anirodh Chand cane to the wild capital of Terhi,

and a new offshoot school of Kanra pointing was created. Aa late

as 185 artiste in the bazaar of -hi were practicing painting,

but it only echoed the greatness of a former day.

With the decay of the Rajput art centers, and the complete

domination of India by the British, painting became a dead art. It

is true that petty Raja maintained, and atill asintain, artiste at

the present time, but their productions, in aost cases, ae self.

consaoous copies of iWetern art. This, of course, as the result of

the general distaste and misanderstanding of anything Indian by the

average "Epire Builder', who wished to murplant his standards and

'ltuare for those of the native.

It is true that one few Westerners had a genuine sympathy

and understanding for Txdian culture, but, as a rule, thq wre in the

Ilbld., p. 2.

aority. Ths following statement from an Indian art Journal pub.

lihed in 1886 illutrates well the general feeling conerning

Indian painting at the high point of British rule in India. *'he

soat ADUWACED artist have taken to clothing the Gods in Buropea

oostum with Similar uurroundingal t e SMdva is hown sitting in

a hall lighted by candles in glass asader, and Krishna drives a

Phaeton (open earriag) which is filled by his friends and


The peasant paintings, done in the basrsa and sold on

religious holiday, were the only creations that retained any

fresasse, but their vitality is the ame vitality that all folk

art possess. Thy did keep alive sorm of the motifs of the older

paintings, but this could also be understood, since their these

wer religious.

The posing of time has brought a new awareness to the

artists of India, and, today, they are remsmbring their oL post,

and are turning from the graft of Western olturT So, now that

India is a country, flee to forn its own destiny, it can look back

with pride at its contributions to the world of art, and, with

oonfidence, look forward to its future acoplishuents.

l2Mljor T. H. Handle, "Enmoling and Ot3 r Industrial Art
of Rajput.na,4 Th Journpl of Indian Art, II (October, 188t6) p 92.


Part I- l t.Pm Patima (1).

(MUszcC .UP AN DON to SnT)

(2) What do we know Abt India? We n dobt reoogni
thta building to be the Taj ahal, and we mr guess (3) that this
ulti.nmed figure it a peace of Hindt sculpture but, what else?

(4) India is mrV contraditory things. First of all it
is mub..ontlient with ame 4,000 miles of ooatline. (5) It

possess the wrld's highest ountains, and awral desets. (6)

It bee deep jungiL, and gret eitie with modnlm buildings, ad

primtive village with ancient teplea. (7)
India is alL this, and mfe.


(8) It is hard to pin Indie down to a concise deoription,

and anyon who tries might be compared to the blind -a in the

pable of the elephant, which Buddha told in ndia sol 500 ymr

before Christ.
A group of blind sn wr asked to touch diffterat section

of an elephant, (9) and attempt a description of the dhole animal
based e th limited area ich they had felt. atraally, tar

1tambere in parentheses indicate bell for slide chae


r many diOnse deeiptlons as thwe e blind man, a, of

eo s, nor could vianalise the bole beant. (10)

8. it's at the risk of appMrinw to be a bi mn lading

the blind, that I an going to ch only the tall of the elephant by

looking at oane action of Inda's oltue, the planting, and in

doing so, hope you sght, in the future, be rneouaged to tabe

firm bold of the other parts of the niaml, (11) and com to hwe

a broad ai kowlege of thr magRificnt beast which is laia. 112


211 indicates dnrk arewn .no slide being projected.

art 2 A. Mto Cave Paintia s (12)


India has an historical and artistic past which reaohe baak

end parallels the great civUiations of Egypt and lesopotamia. We

bave sculpture and intaglio seals from the Indus Valley cities

which eiated ame tw to three thousand yer before Chris* t,

know fram litrary sources that paintings also listed at that timL

and on up into the Christian ra, but it is only from this last

period that we have w actual painting remains, (13) and these are

found on the lla of the Boddhikt onastery eaves at AJanta.

Other aves and painting are kwa to be contemporary with

AJnta, (U) Third Cantury B.C. through the Sawnth Century A.D.,

but it remains the outstanding early anonment of Indian art. Thee

twnay.ntin caves, located in wet.sentral Idia, wr m h tal

Buddhist monks from a living rook cliff, and, at first re earned

to be eoapartivvly severe, (15) relying solely n painting for

their deoration. But later, in the Fifth Century, undar Helalo

infLmne, (26) culptred figures betca profusely evident*

The paintings on the wall deptct the former Ulv of the

Buddha, (17) and, in doing so. present us with a vivid image of I.

dian uannu and customs prevailing in the Fifth Century AD. Bs
treatment brings to aind the Bible scenes of the R aissanoe painter

who clothed their Propohet in the uropean fashions. (18) wer, in


this painting, for instance, we se a graphic picture of bow a

royal couple surrounded by their courtier met hav looked at this

point in Indian history. (19)

The whole mood at Ajanta is on of life and activity and

a calligraphie line gives a flowing action to the contours of the

figure, whose hand positions are most expressive. Compositio .

wise the estrn viewer is at first oonftad by the pulsating,

crowded sOene, a misses a nore organized structure. (20) but the

well is on continuouu live dra moe like the contaiitw of a

ciroma, or ore like the unrolling of a Chianes scroll painting,

with its flowing tableax. (21)

In this painting, and in the one to follow, we ase a motif

liech is dear to the heart of Indian painters. It is the scene of

the two lovers together in an architectural setting. (2) ere at

Ajanta, with our first samples of ladian painting, w see this

thboe stated which will remain clear and concise up to or last

eanples to Rajpat art in the 19th Century. (23)

his first kman school of Indian painting, with its obvious

Hellenic iaflaoeaoe, to only kno wn in Ite maturity, and, like MUinrva

who srrang lly armed fro the forehead of Zeus, has iserged tho
history dewoid of any examples from its formative period. (24)

the Apollo, who at first ueasilly wers the trappings of

BAdha, is, in the end, tranafbard by the mantle of aenou-anes
and maytiLcis into a true Indian creation. (25)

Carried with Buddhim throughout Asia by aasioEary anota ,


thi wt of Ajata 'ystalids Into new seUthie, ma beenBs I

of the hal3nmrka of EStern civiliatlon.


Pft 0aMatu Padlmai (26)


On the wtern acost of a in the 12tb Century, m flnd

a style of miniature pain" called Qauratl, after be es t n of

th country in whichb t as practied,. (27) apecuted on paelal w

by Jaim on aL (&inis beai the anomrolat sect o findula),

these paintiLng are the direct demaceats of the art of aanta,

but, as u see, pssess little o it. Hellsede realslm or grudiues

saalo. (28) Ldeed, as w me it here, its flat me decarativ styl

approach the abstrat art of today, and iaht sere a brehm

aomae of nspiratlon fbr the contaporary artist. (29)

Ona faot which Ia of interest tfr the modern point of vat

i thm freatent of the eyw. They Sao to protreae ftn the fare

as do b y gl ses, nad emrtoe an image hich a renlaeabnt of
PIoeaso'e paintings, fhe he bu flattened out the a in ard
to sahm anll vl of it a slta"aouly. (30) h reason brea for tfa

distortion is that the painter drl e his inspiration fas th tapla
aOlpture .hiCh aUy tias had glas asdd t tho eMe to sehas*

th effect of realias. his ld the painter into a problem Sat he

ould only solve in this cubsltic wy. (31)

Serving prely as illustratlom for religoj s taets, the
paintings never grew to large dimentions. en after thq r ter s..

ftrrd from the pala leans to paper, traditional aur, sch as tO


red dote w se hbe, which riginally sarvd e string bols to

hold the pai leave together, remain now only a decortions. (3)

Sponored by the rich segoing mrahant of Ojarwt, these

paintings wer are a show of wealth thn the result of religious

fervor. It ws to be through these men that pa ad Persian

paintings w to first come to India, and these Onarati iniaatr

wre thm first to profit by this contact. (33)

The school flourished until it wa subrted by Mogul art

in the 1600's, and eve then, sprka of the style r msind to flme

- in early Rajut painting. X


part Ul ?"nna (34)

(MUSIC: IUP AND r:).'. 0l I)

The first 'oheradans invaded India in the Eleveth Cmtary,

btt Ea O, Usves of these irre warriors were to flow southard out

of the Uztndu~ruh 'luntsane, and through the Kybr Pae before a

crest oalem espie would rule Tadia. It was to be the roguls (or
mbr~nls) from Sanarand and abul that would finally amead, anm

the fbadr of the dynasty, aber, becmaa the first aeperor, and w
sated an the n1hi throne by 1527. (35)
A one m uld suspect, by vwirtng theee gracefUl palaee, the

Moguls ee not only adept at rare, which was their britage fro

aTmrlae and Ainhts Btan, (6) bat thqe eqU wQly aovd by a

train of scholarship and artistie seaitivity which came frn tir

addirstio for, sa- contacts Lwth, the Persian cout. (37)

Baber's son, the Baperor *an (15301556), a actually
the Instigator of iogul painting, and thi resulted from a yew's

exile in Paersa, hre he oberrved first.band te of the country.

(38) hen he returned to India he Iported mau works, alail to the
onesa see bre, but, ,uo-t important of all, he retained tm Beras

. pantens t become the muelene around whtch the new school fmmed,

and our first Mal paintInge reflect this fretan influsaoe. (39)
T early arxaple ovrlape the reign of both Iaagun and hi

mon Atr, aad thum dates froc the last half of the 16th Cetury.

this manuscript eems to have been one of the Mogul artist*' first

projetas, srving perhaps s a training piece for the ~indu artist

working under the direction of the Persians. his detail, from a

complete painting which we will next obaerv, show how, in the

early day, the native artiste' style wa slowly urging in with

the Persian od*. The transparent scarf, treated only as ihite line

and dote, above the back of the figure bending over the wll, point

to a RaUasthnt (or native) origin, as do the red ad white color of

the bodies, the angular pos tion of the elbow, and the treatment of

the eyes. (40)

th subject is the Peraian romea, MHasaaJeina and the

sean shows a great giant sleeping while a lion eats a horse at the

bottom of the painting. Also note, at the top righthnd corner,

the well scene we bae just viewed in detail. (41)

By the tim of Akbar's reign (15561605), the Partugse wre

smiling their lrehant ships to India, and had asttled at Qoa on the

wst Oast. In 1578, Akber, who bahd an extreme interest in all

religions, requested a delegation of Jesuit Pathar to com to his

Agra court. (42) Iis they did, and, a gifts, they thought with them

illustrated Bibles and religious pic tur r heee mropan urk ao

lasminated Akbar that he instructed his artists to aulate their

realios, and this wark shown a Uogul madonna and Child, based oa a

Drer print. TIs, a new elmnt wa added to the forcing Mogul

style. (43) Soon noel innovations mch as golden halo ever the

aror*'e head, shding an faces, abtosphbre in landscape, and a


greater and more accurate use of perspective, start appearing in the

paintings. (44) his third and last formative element, European

reelia, was nized in with Hindu vitality and Persian decorattin,

resulting in a new and vital art.

bnder Akbar's enlightened patronage the new style -ived to.

wrd Iatcrity, and this wa especially so with the c.ntiued arrival

at court of native Hindu artist, and the establishment of the Art

Acadey. (45)

Jahangir (1605%162) nacoeeded Akbar on the "r'ul thine, and

although he was not the giant of an eperor that his father wi, he

we a true coroiseiur of art, and the psintinp vtvle of the 'o al

miniature matured during, his reign. rere we ase hi ~deti.red lad g

a black buck in a painting which seems to somaaris the uali t es of

the nature fbor, since it displays all of the finest qualities of

the style. We are iapressed by the realize of the portrait xre, which

cae as the rest of European influence, and the Persian and

Hind modes are reflected, not only in the color scheme and pore

drawing line, but also in the decorative border deignv and written

script. (46)

The love for animals, which Akbar possessed, seeo to h

ben inherited by his son, because it is during Jahalr's rule that

we aee a great nruber of studies with animal subject -atter. In fact,

this lovely falcon was painted by the mater artist, 'ansur, wo i

knmwn to have executed several folios of Indian birds mad ari als, and

wa called "the wonder of the universe"3 by Jahangir for his paint.

ings of the flowers of Kashmir. (47) In tis painting, the elephant

is shown with great care, as are the birds, tree, and small flou'we

All this attention to detail shows how greatly the dogul artiste

were enraptured with nature. (48)

This painting again show s Jahangir, this time accompanied

by his court, visiting the tomb of AIbar (eeon in the upper left.

hand corner). Here we can truly see how well the 'bgul artist had

achieved a style of realie, and, especially noteworthy, is the

naturalness of the horse w-ieh, accept for the mmall head, which is

a Perian element, appeared qnte real. The perspective is interest.

ing in that it is bent into a system o several viewpoints which

was called, "the principal of greaetst vision* 4 at itprtant is

the portrait treatment of the heads; each is a perfect and complete

unit* In point of fact, all ware done by one artist, while the ant.

male and the landscape wre painted by other artist. (49)

In this unfinished painting, we see how the heads were finit

shed first while the remainder of the scene is only sketched in

line. In the upper leftJ d balcony we can faintly a JIhangir

bracing Shah Jeban, his who is about to depart firo court to

go into battle. (50)

S. Disaedok, of Hub araan Art,, (2nd ed.; ew
Torka Harteadle House, 1947), p 62.

J*. V. S. Wilkldn i, "Chal Painti~r. (New York: Pitnan
Publishing Corp., 1949), p. 10.

In this boartiful -/rtrait of Ieja ilrbal, one of Akbar's

dearest friends, wo see an exailei of perifcted portrait style.

The race of the pose, te cleFantly pure line a!d taste f\l olor-

irY, all blend into a co-ilete and dasling work whioh can stand

cspertson with any sch~1 l r -i.iature portrait painting in the

ast or West. lirbal, a 'idu nsician, became the inti-ate of

the 'bsle rnler, and was later in life rade a geiAral by him. But,

being a musician, he knew little of warfare, and as killed in

KastIhir on his first ctnarlin. This us one of the major eorrzw

borne by Akbar in his later years. his work wm completed after

both their deaths. (51)

?hia obsession with portraitur became the most important

feature of the Slah Jehan period (1628.- 58), and scbnea of aniaala

and nature which were so popular with Jahangir, will give way t

court portraits and battle scene. Here we see Shah Jehan, the

builder of the aJ "ahal, on his throne surrounded by his courtier.

Note how each figure is a careful portrait, and how the eBperor wear

a Christian halo, asinifytin- royalty. ,hat this Aicture not

empletely finished is evidenced by the lack of design *rotifs in the

upper drapee, and the throne's severity, except for its foant right

leg, which has been decorated. During Shah Jehan's time, painting

at court started to be curtailed, and many artists joined the courts

of petty iiindu rulers, ihse transplanted Aogul painters ewntuall
aided the formation of the Rajput style. (52)

It wa in the individual portraits that the painters of Shah


Johan am elld, and the richne of color and a subtle handling of

the ga se.M ke materials is evident in third beautitfl picture of a

young 'ogul girl holding a lotus. But, the collapse of Jogul rule

Is soon at hand, (53) and when Akbar'a grest..radson, Aurengmb

(1658.17) withdrew his support of painting because of his strong

foelea faith, the school died, and its rtiste scattered. XX
(wSICi UtP ANP ow~r)

Part 5 hdpet hPAintiL (54)

JL.SCs UP A iJ Luu. .'J W...$ i )

Hindu painting in stern India as we have seen, nad a

continuous history co~nencing with the wrics at Ajanta. It as

this old heritage that now sparked aneo in the 15th Century and

increased in intensity as the 'ogul empire died. rthi iLadiu style,

called Rajput, originated in central India, during the fourteenn

hundreds, and lated on into the 19th Century.

1he school is divided into two class fications. the first

being the central Indian or plain's style, called LajaUstani, and

the second, from the northern mountains or hills, called rahri.

Section As Rajsthan (55)

*Jur earliest xanples of Rajaathani painting c@o to as

fro& the plains of central ndia in the 16th Lentury, ard a-s~ a

natural likeness to tne jjarati school from which ttey spring.

Ibe overall design is flat and brightly colored. 1he conroaition

ridts on a single plane, and is not yet coafortabiy suited to the

upright or ersian formal, being a descendant of the pals las or

horisontal school of painting.

This particular painting is composed of three separate hori-

sontal picture bands, placed one upon the other, thu representing

spaoe and depth in a primitive manner reminiscent of trgyplan painting


and Aayrian reliefs. Wits work, which is identified se "Sarsan"s

or the month of August, is one of a roup of paintings which ill m..

trate the ses one of the yar. Here we so depleted the coming of

the on~eoon rains w':ic!. is a long raited event after a hot and

dusty saer. The two central figures are dancing with Joy in the

rainy court-yard, as are the birds above the in the tree. The

black raiu cloud occu:Aes the upper left hand corner and is bal.

anoed on tho right by the interior of a ;oet's roon, (56) At the

base of the painting we observe another room which is occupied by

three ladies who, .itt dance gestures, also express their delight

for the coming of the rains. (57)

This -agmala paintinU is entitled *"an-Godi :taginri, *the

lady Seeking to Withdraw Tf1 her lovr". This wirk datee ftna

dabut 1570 and parallels our previous example, the ionth or !.renam,

but commands nre real4ls thann it showed, plus a design treatment

wi4ch hint strnr.ly of "erslan influence. Not only is thi true,

but the color ae well as tFo Carden setting aeain point to Tranian

motifa, and we .lght c"nj< cture that these influences cmes not ona

fro'm Jo bhm dan artiste becoming -'ore nwuaerus in India at this etim,

but also fro the actual see contacts vith Persia which were now

being maintained.

It is interesting to note that this painting, too, is made

up of horizontal bands, but they are subtly disguised by too compo.

sitional devices. The firs. is the a.-;lar architectural design at

the top which tends to frame in the garden, while the second is the


oomaeting action of the trees on either aide of the picture which

join the base band with the central green area. (58) One sail

detail which is mwintng il tDe ^ro~ on the la n i front of the

lady, directly above the large jup. He re in this detail, we can

more readily see the vital and direct line quality, especially

clear on the tree trunk, which will eventually become mr refined

and controlled under Aogul influence* (59)


We are now listening to a R gs. The wrd RIga means color

or person, and is an improvisation on a musical pbrame r tone

which attempts to express an emotion such as loe, bate, loneliness

sadness, etc. These emotions can be classified as either male,

Rags, or female, Bgidn, and they are accordingly restricted la

performance to a definite ,nonth and tim of day.

In the Rajput school we find a further attept to clarify

these musceal moods by representing thm visually in paintings.

hese paintings are known Ragms alae, and they attempt to expires

a particular emuial sentiment through the depiction of a special

uman situation. The mood of these paintings i such that a

musician viewing a Ragiala would be able to ascertain the quality

of the emotion contained in the RPga he is about to perform, and

ths arrive at a more complete interpretation of the music. Here

in theee R&gnala we have a harmony of painting and music which is
unique in the history of world art.

Represented in this Eagual painting we bas a meaning


aeledy of the rainy saen, d nd it is one of the feetniae bim

called *Oujari PrginT" or e Lady Lmentlng the Abswat tover

hi@ work -w painted around 1625, and oame fLrm a southern court

In the Dcean. ~1i old Senacrit mamuorlpt, the N C in

describing the sub3jet of this RaaEla sa*s, *Bwr waist i sl ur

hwr hair fine and hew vwuio iatates the warble of a Caehmoo She

is fond of an abbnuance of drapry and i seated on a couch wel

arrt ged with set m=illn flowers, sing ng n an mgry aood,"

The lady bolds a Vina, or muaioal instrumnt, and flourishe a wpr~

of flowers. Somettlna she address her ad lament to a srppathetic
Peacock, which it not shmow in this patieular anple. (61)

This painting i typeal of uany Rajesthaud wrk in that

it uars the oeture bends to suggest tima lapse, and in format they
reind us of our present day carni strips 1e top frae shows the

lady dispatching a s meerr fo hr er hT Who, in the bottom 9sa ,

is semn arriving before her, as she eyly turns her head to
receive his.
Hre is the vividnae of 6olor whioh chrctariwses mot to

the early paj athent mtniatuore, oupled with the dramate hand

gesturesn Vtich plain and key the mood of the action. Notice how,
at the top, the lady's raised hand comsan the attednt to go

while the active fly wbihk above bar head accentuates the geetu

of the hand b also pointing in the ane direction. In contract to

n. J. Stooka, aed Karl Khndal. ala, Tha Id PI IIh
intlntures, (i'forda Bra n Cas irr, 1953), P*40

this, at the bottom, the hands are turned in, and the inactive fly

whisk conveys a mood of calmanes a sense of anticipation and sua.

pense. his painting dates from the beginnir, of the 17th Century,

and we can already -s the effect of 'gul painting in the style of

ooasta and setting. (62)

the logul influence on Rajput art boosaa widespred in the

17th Century as we se the subdued Rajput princes becoinC 'Vobul

retainwer. in center whero the wamed over iogul style seemed to

grow into a aore llvely forn was at the curt of Jai&cr on the edge

of the ralaptania desert. IMs 18th Century example here is not a

*eaplete or finished work, but a detail of a oartoon. These wer

used by the artists to transf their aural designs to the palace

Uls. his head of a dancing Krishas is delineated with a crisp,

definite line which displays forceful craftaanship and artistic

matarity. ihe color i faintly Auggeted in same areas to help

guide the artist in finishing the wll painting. The charming realO

ise found here will deteriorate in later Rajaethwni paintings as th

Vogul influence is absorbed and digested. IX

(!i.SIC ( bP AJT) OFF)

Section Bs Peahar (63)


Painting in the mPujab Ills aight best be soaarised as a

style which developed continuously into a mre hbrid form ams Mir..

ting artiste penetrated further into the mountainous Rajput states.

Thus, our first example of the early Pahar? style, comes to us in

the 17th century i~tr the less roote state of iahw ll, and s~we a

brilliance of color and a directness of treat-ent wthih we have al.

ready obeervod in PRajathani -niatures. Of equal In-Trt is the

strong. ';orul influence r'lich can be discerned in the figure drawLng,

as well as in the mode of the ooastume.

Ihis painting is a "Rasaasnjarl", or one of the "Flawre of

love. It is intreeting to note the realistic form in the draws ng

of the figures contrasted wi th e exceedinrly flat beeskrond. By

tsaiting the canopy into a delightfully flat pattern, to fill the

top of the picture, and by allowing the conuh to naively float anm

from the floor, the artist has orr anisd his objects and shapes into

a flat design whieh would war the hearts of many Westrn pantere

who mrship and strive for a flat picture plane. (64)

In 1739 the "orul bP,'re completely eollsased under the on.

slaught of the Peraitn Invader, Medir Shah, and with chae on the

plains the trade route s sw north and brought prosperity to the

hil states. Along with this inflt of wealth eae the unewploy7d

Mogul painters who found enthusiastic weloae at the courts of the

hill Rajs.

1his painting, dating from 1765, shows graphically how direct

Mogul influence brought maturity to OUlar art, 1his date of 1765 is

also important, for it mark the start of the reign and school of

Segnar Cbhnd, in the neighboring state of angra, which as a direct

cultural descendant of Ouler. (65)

Sanear Chand (1765.123) took the throne at the aWe of ten,

and by 1785 his hill court was the height of feudal spalndor. Thi

painting of Krishna and Tadha in the rrove ce s frox that period,

end in its rowntic and s,:-lic beauty is already an ex a ,n of the

nature Kangra style.

The symbol of the lvews for the re.anting of the gal with

God iS a constant device used by the hill painters, and was the iut.

rowth of a devotion for the cult of Krishna hitch the 'TaJd-ta

eagerly embraced. The Mastoral and erotic eseapedes of the Trd

rishna with the ov maids, or ople, as they were called, and his

illiect love affairs with the lady Radha, a married wan, wr in

direct oppeoation to the everyday priority of the strdght.laed

Rajpute. This subject, we can be sure, would have indeed been

frowned upon if it were not for its religious interpretation and

elaborate symbolisw (66)

The sipreme acco&aplasent of Kangra painting mw its per.

trayal of w and here in this painting of the sring festival,

SHol, w can observe the achievrennt of that ideal. To ladies with

their aids are celebrating in private, the occasion by tossing the

tra9ttonal dyes and praying one another with colored water. Ihi

painting affords us the opportunity to study the foerwl for the
achlevesent, and we an readily see the whole pse is t rested by a

single cured line, which results in a gliding feniniL e grace.
this painting s remarkable for its intense action, which

eems to be scoentuated by being displayed against the fbral and

wnrular caopy at the back. (67)

In this iidiata r of "Krishna and the 'Illciada", we can

see all man and all nature as symbolic. .1ien the i:anra artist

paints a fliV or a wra, c face and forn are idcr.tcal with

other fit-ures of wo-3eW in the picture, and they are all, in turn,

symbolic of all femininity. As the great Indian art ehcolar,

Coomaarasay, said "(Kan.ra) art creates a -iagic world where all

men are heroic and all w 'en are beautiful, passionate and asy.

. beast both wild and tea are friends of "an and the tree

and floors are ccincws of the footatepe of the .ri'-soT'a as he

passes by. This Tic wnrld is not unreal or fanci.l, but a world

of iagination and etrnity, visible to all who do not re.uIe to

ee with the transtfi5url-" eya of love.6

With the death of Sansar Chand in 1323, the school wainod,

and with the exoept.on of a brief revival of the style in the

neighboring state of Carhal, Kancra art was soon dead. (68)

We know that a oe-ptent style had ben established early

in Oarhal under oular influences, and this painting dated 1775

seems to how this. Tih scene is an episode from the Hindu epic

poae, the Iay P and show Ram with his wife and brother, a

the right, eneounterin, five heavenly enchantresse singing at a

pool. The shining is sueested by the hand gesture of the five

ladies on the left which seea to display the rhythmn of the singing.

6Anada K. Comsrasunm REalt Painting (2 Volas. Orford
QOford Press, 1916), I, P. 7.

Thi slight action to aooentuated by the calmness of the remaining

figures whose quiet dignity appears to be the product of their

vertical emphasis as well as the oalm and open background (69)

This aharmin, painting with its beautiful foliage treatment,

and with the sprays of blossoms in the tree, which i one of the

signatures of the Garhtel school, shows the hovel of the por man

Sud0ma. Sdana is being urged by his wife to seek out his former

friend, Krishna, who, if found, could turn their rage into riches.

This idealized image of a peasant'e hbt show all the attributes of

the true and less pLotureeqe reality. On the hut's right wall w

see the cow dung cake which, in India, are ueed for fuel Also

in the sa e are are broken parts of a spimning wheel, an atill,

and a ragment of a wove basket All of these objects see to

float in front of the picture as if they were glued to a window

glass. The painting is dated 1785. (70)

This is one of the outstanding materpieces of the Pahari

style. The aubjeot is a Nyika theme translated as "A lady Ooing

Through the Dark Night to her Lover*. It is a night of atorm and

danger as we see the liphtning across the top of the picture, and

the Cobra slithtrin to its mate at the bottom. *1th rain, atoa

and lightning all mymbolise the climax of desire.'7 Again we aee

the sprays of blossoms in the treaa, while here and there birds shell

ter thmselves from the star. The beauty of thi. composition is

7W. G. Archer, Oarlbal Painting (Londons raber and Fabr
Ltd., nd.), p. 12.

elf evident, and serves as a fitting climax for the Pahari school.

Soon these bil schools would wain and a culture gap would comeneo

which would lat on into the 20th Centumry (71)

After the deca of the Rajput art centers, and the complete

domination of India by the British, painting becanr a deed art.

Peasant paintings done in the baasar and sold on religious holiday

re the only works to retain an echo of the old vitality, but this

attribute was perhaps only the natural quality of folk art*

India is now a country free to determine its owi destiny,

and it can look back with pride to its contributions to world art,

and look fbrwad, with confidence, to its future achiae nts. (72)



The eduatronal prooee cannot fuzntion when there is a lask

of caimunication between the teacher and the student, and, a the de-

mnd to cover more material grows, the lines of ooomunioation are put

to greater strain. By the proper ue of audiorisual methods in the

classroom, it has been proven that coomnrication of ideas can be not

only maintained, but, in man cases, can be more clearly played.

With this in ad, I am more than ever convinced that an audio-

vtisal production center, s3,h as that surested in the introduction

of h tsthesias, co.d contribute treatly to ary university's proraae

Not only would the curriculum be enriched by the products of such a

program, but the teac~hinr nrethods night also be improved.

Tn regard to the roper use of the audio-visual unit in this

thesis, I feel that its greatest worth wo~ld not be gained merely by

showing the alidea and playing the tape The procedure should consist

of at least three olassreaa perita. The first would be the introdua-

tion to the material presented br the teacher, ho would have prepared

an outline or notes based on the Istorical section of the thesis, The

second period would be the time to present the actual audio-visual unit,

and, a the unit is only thirty minutes lonr, thre would deiet enoui

tia at the end of the loature to allow for was discussion of the

material. The third period would be occupied with a recapitulation of

the two preoedi days, and riiht be the time for students to present

*ry material which they had obtained in their reeearoh into the ubjeot.

It muet be stressed that the audtio-viual lecture ae not intended to

stand alone as an entity in itself It saaes its prper character

only hen it is seen an d ed a a pringboard for further et4y

ihen the audio-vieual lecture is referred to as an exper lntal

one, I an, of course, not referring to the format of the lecture it-

*elf, but to the idea of the course of atudy for which it ;e designed.

tntil the lecture, or a series of lectures, co Id be presented in the

clasoram, murder actual teactdin conditions, the validity and effective-

ness of the lecture would naeassartly have to remain in the realm of

xperimentation .


List of Sid. for te Audio*1ani. Lrtiu

1, Title Slide Indin Painting.

2. Soew The Ta3 Mahal.

3. South Indian Bronme Pciur N-tazm 13th Century, iusmn
Van AslatLshsb Kunt., Amterdsam

1. Irp of Indr,.

5$ S9oe Western 3sacoast of India.

6. qownw Gulmarg, Kasbir.

7. Soene The Dirl Temple, So Dlhi.

8. The Prince Dale hiah and son Rldine an Klephant Mbgul
School, o. 1646, Der Stantlichen MuMse Zu Berlin.

9. DTzsig PMephuirt with Hand Prints.

10. DravdJi Head of an Elerhapt.

11. DIorin The God IndM Riding an oElphLnt.

22, Intalilo Sell Indus Valley Givilistion, o, 2000 B.C., Th
hNtiroml Musim of Ilidia, H Delhi.

33. Vtp Ajant.
1 Sooen The Cavue at Ajanta.

15, Scene Vnaramne to Cave.

16. SCon.- acad of Cave :wrin "c- ulturo.

17. Bhuddhw HMed, Cae Ix, l Century B.C.

18. KnG aid queen in Pal e, Cave 1 5thi Century A.D.

19. tKings' Hed, dtail, Cave I, 5th Centwy A.D.

20. Royal Procession, Cave XVII, 5th Century A.D.

21. Kinc and Quen in Tent, Capve VII, ;th Century A.D.

22. A 'in, and Queen, Cave XVII, $th Century A.D.

23. ITephant, Cave I, 5th Century A.D.

21L. Bodhiaattva, Cave I, 5th Century A.D.

25. A Thousand Buddhas, Cave II, 5th Century A.D.

26. Map Gujarati.

27. The Dhazomopedemala, Book Cover detail, 12th Century, The
Jhana 1andar at Jaiaalm.er

26. fisputaton betmern Vadi Devaruri and Kuxudaohandra, Detail,
10th Century, The Jhana Tandar at Jaiaalmer.

29. Monk and Disacple, 1260 A.D., The '~uius of Pine Arts, Boston.

30. Spectators to the battle between rBhata and Iahubali, Detail,
12th Century, Collection of .arabhai iHavb.

31. Vishnu on T'ironn, iiddle of the 15th century, The u:.iueu of
Fine Arts, Boston.

32* Vishnu on Throne, Detail.

33. Kalaka and Sahi, I ate 1 Ch Century, The "eer Gallery of Art,
Washington, D. C.

3t. .ap inogul.

35. Soene F.lace in the ied Fort, Delhi.

36. .oene Palaoa in the led Fort, Delhi.

37. A Prince in a garden, iersian, 154L6, Dibliothdque Nationale,

38. Fnterrtaient of a Pri ne Persian, 1;th century, Bibliothuia*
National, Paris.

39, Well Sene, UDtail f rom the ..eening Giant, HIma-Las 16th
Century, Victoria and Albert tuaeuw, L ndon.

j40. Sleeping Giant.

11. A Sixteenth Century )utch Fhip, A Woodcut by Peter Bruegel.

42. Virgin and Child, (After D&rsr), 1590, Windsor Castle Library,

3. Jahan-ir, 1605, Metropolitan M'usem of Art, New Yores

W3. Tnlatration for the "Iar,-I-rdnish", 1606, Collection of '"r
Comasj Jdwhanir, Barte, amabayo

h5. Jahbngir with a Black Duks, Yarly 17th Century, Victoria and
Albert Uunems, London,

U6. A F1oon, ly 'anuur, 1625, Der Staatlichen uween Zu Uerlin.

17. An elephant, rSrly 17th Century, Der stmatlichen L'uuen Zu

48. Jaharvir with his Court Visiting the Tomb of Akbar, 1619(?)
Collection of Cheater fetty, London.

h19. C urt Seoon of Jahanrir, thfinihewd, 1620, India office
Tibrary, London

50. Faja Birbal, Early 17th ('ntury, for Staatlichen useen Zu

51. The Court of hiah Jehan, 1628-1(58, Private Colleetion, bern.

52. ogul Girl with Flwer, 17th Century, Bibliothique tationale,

53. Aurangab, 17th Century, Metropolitan 'ueum of Art, New Xark.

56. Map 1ajput schools.

55$ The Yonth of Sarwen, 1570, The central Uetes, LahoWre
56. Thre 'onth of "armn, Detail.

57. Kan-Godi gini, Deaoani, 1590, The Bikanr r Nlace Collection.

58. Kaon-odi Palni, Detail.
$9, Side Colored Dots.

60. oujarl z aini, nTcoani, 1625, The Bodleian Library, Qford.

61. Illutrtion for the aaikaprlya, Udaipu, 1650(?), The ikaner
Palace Colleotion.

62. lad of Krisehm, Cartoon, Jaipur, Early 18th Century,
Metropolitan 'meaum of Art, New York.

63, Raeemanjart, Baooli eo 1690, Victoria and Albert ;umeB,

61. A Lady with a Hak, Guler, c. 1765, Victoria and Albert
MuseuR, London.

65. Krishna and Riadha in the :rove, KaUya, 1785, Victoria and
Albert :'useu I onon

66. Tha Patival of prmng, Kangra, 1800, Victoria and Albert
tu~I, London.

67. Kriuhna and the opis, KanIgr, 1800, 1. O. Archer Collection,

68. The EnDOountr at the Pool, GaCrmal, 177$, The hritish '~ranm,

69. Sudma's Hut, irhmal, 17 Victoria and Albert sueam,
L ondon.

70. A rtght of "torw, Abhisarika Nayika, Garhl, 1780, The
nritish uaserm, London.

71. Chart Indian School- of Painting and their Indluene .

72. r)rwinc Haad of Indz End.


Lat of Hecordizgi Ued in the Audiae-Visal Lactar

1. IMaeM ao India PolymIuea Reoaord, PRP P 003, 5 SM A, Band 1.
2 .migLoo> tuIia of Indla recw nlo bl Fk= L"bmry d eearood,

3* mian of In&& Av1el Isoolto AM3, 35"3o Side 1 and 2.



Arober, W. (G The Vertidoe Man* Londnrn Oeor-e Alle and tkwin
Ltd., 19h?

Aroher, W. O. Indian aintig in the u b Hills. London i
Majesr8a Statio Ary OMfie, 1I52.

Archer, W. GE anze Painting. Londons Faber and Faber Ltd., n.d

Archer, W. G Gactmal Painting. London a Fber and Paber Ltd., nod.

Ashton, Sir Li,h (ed.). The Art of India nd itd1itana The
Cammorative Catalogu of WtO MibitMion Held at Ot
iya Acady ot Art, Londo. 1~7-8. ew TorC Comrd-
ioCaman, Inoa

BirWm, Sir lauwrce. Akbare Nw Yorke D. Appleton and Co., 1932.

Prvon, W. o n. The Stor, of Kalakna. Vahirtoni 'Yoer (allery
of Art, rie ntal udlc, io. 1, 1933.

Coomiarauan, A. K. Rajput Paintin;. 2 vodle. (Cford QBrd b
Prae, 1916.

Coo araswrwa, A. K, The Transformation of ;ia. i.n .rt. Can-
brid-e (Ulase ;a arrard University Psti, 1935.

Cooam~nrawy, A. K. ;ietoar of Indjan and Indornesiai Art. ITipsigs
Kea' W. Hi tsem nn, 1927

Oimand, S. A l!andbook of Muhammadan Art. 2 ed. NHw Yorkr
.artda.l 'o-Me, 197.0

Frgusonu, Jo The history of Indian and Far Eastern Armhitetuzu.
2 ol.- New Toics Dodd Mead and Co., 1899.

Gray, Bail. Rajput PFnti. liew Yor* Pitman Pubtllabin Corp.,

Gay7, ndil. Indian Minisata s in the i3ika r Palae Colleottoo.
2nd ed. London a briu Cas.irw, 1955.

Hearn, Sir Gordon. The Seven Cities of ellhi. 2nd ed. Caloutta u
Thacker, Spi and Co., 192M.

Khandalavala, Karl and Stoo~, H. J. 7?' laud 'aeal HViniastuea.
COford );runo Caasir aw 1953.

Kmsrisoh, tell. The Art of rndia. Tondone Tbaidon Presa, 199~

Ktial~ Er*as. Indxlsche i'niatumn. Darlin rL'rlag Gebr. tann., n.d,

Maltwu, AndA. LAs Voix du Sileanom Parisel La lGlerie da la
P1ade, I1951-.

Piggott, Start, Prehistoric India. 2nd ed. London Penruin Books,

Fowland, Denjamin. The Art and Architecture of India. :altimores
Palioan Bookls 153.

Sinh, Madan det. India rPaintin s from AJanta Cave. New Yo ki
Tnasao, 19&.e

Thoaws, P. LEpics, th and Lognds of India. 2nd ed. Boabqey
D. B Tarapo ala Soa and Co., n.d,

WIernr, Alfred. Indian PaintiUM. Benrms A. A. ?7ynni 1950.

WFlkinson, J. io 3. u.'2aA1 s:air.tir,. :ew Yorkt Pitman Publishing
Corp., 1949.

3msr, HF. '~tes and ymboale in .ndian Civilzation, NOw Tork
Pantheon Books, 19146.

Zitraer, H. The Art of Indian Asia. 2 vole. New York Pantheon
ookM, 1955.-


Hw dlry, surgeon Major. "Famooline and Other Industrial Arta of
tajptan" he T Jounml of Indian Art II, (October, s186)*

handalavlal, Karl. "Leaves from sajasthan," Urg (Dobay) IV,
No. 3 (1950).

Khandalavwala Karl. "Five MiniAtures in the Collection of Sir Cmwt,
Jehirncir, Bart., BoMAbay,*" a (Nrnby) IV, Ho. 2 (1951).

Roy Curtis Cawven, Jr. wa born on July 29, 1924, in

Cherokee Bluffe, Alaboam. Raiiod and eduaatad in Chattanooga,

enniseaae, he graduated from Central 1Hih schooll of that city in

1912. In June, 193, after on sea ter at the Univelsity of

Tennesse#, he wm Inducted into the United States lay Air Corps,

and, as a photoepher, spent eighteen months of his Bervioe in

Ie Delhi, India. Discharged in obrurmy, 1916, he entered the

Itiversity of Chattanooga that aam year. e married Lora

Flisabeth Andreae on September 19, 198. After reelvinr hie

Bachelor of Arts deer in painting in 1949, he continued his

painting studise at the Art Studenta' League of esw Tork. There

he studied under the painter Tasuo KuniyoahiS George srros, and

Byron Browne from Juma, 19149, throuZgh August, 19O0, From 190

through 1952 he searvd as ead of the apartmentt of Art at Strat-

ford College, Danville, Virginia. In the mlil of 1952, he Joined

the staff of the "urse Advertifing Company of Chattanooga as a

comeartial designer. Also at that time he taught night adult art

ol0 eea at the university of Chattanooga. In fbbrsary, 195, he

left the nurse CEompany to join the faculty of the Department of Art

of the University of Florida to teaoh etenrlon adult art classes in

Jboksonville, Florida. He is now head of the Cocseraial Art section

of the Department of Art at the university.


As a painter he has exhibited widely in museums throughout

the United States, including; The Metropolitan usema of Art The

Virginia aMusem of Five Arts, Jiohmond, Virginial The High )IJusi

of Art, Atlanta, Georgial The roCok Memorial GUaeWy, Mmbhip

Tennesseel The Ward Egleton f'allery, N IT. C,; The John caller

Gallemy, N. Y, C,; The Laurel (ally, N. YT C,; The !iorfblk

'usetu of Art, Norfolk, Virginia; The John and Mable Rinling

MuseuP, 3arasotal The Art Club of .~imid The Delgado use=n, NM

Orleans, and others.

In the Slsmer of 19t7 he as awarded a fellowamip to paint

in U xico by the Chattanooga Art Association. Among his awards

are a uMehase award from the Vir inia aemm of Fine Arts in 19O0,

slt Prise at the Dzooks UernorLal Gallery in 1952, and an award

fro the American Instltute of (;sphic Arts in 1950, for a cowe

desigad for Easo standard Oil Ccpa r y

In .y, 1956, he was one of the nine young Aomrican artiste

chosen by geem directors to be included in the Amrioan ederm-

tion of Arts exhibit, Fbrcast"

Ths thOws ni pr pW ad under the dirWetion of the
iarli-i of the oandLidates supervisory oaoo ttee and has boen
approved by all umber~ of the oa ntt.s It mis srtatted to
the Don of the College of Arohiteotur and Allied Art and to
te Oxmdate Couaoil and w~ approwd as partial ftflflment of
the requlrents for the degree of Master of fine Art.

Augmt, 1956

D-mn, College of AroMieotu
and A11lsd Arts

luIe, Ozdwuta Suhool


3: E
i`' I

A y of Indian pinang afa

3 1262 03060 9126

V Arch
ftne Arts

Date. D.ue.

One Week Loan

Architecture & Fine Arts Library
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611

14 1 I 1=, I ~es I ,,-c=, LI -I ~a~ L- -


T75 ,qf-


LFi.ers!, o'Firwa ALF
3II 0III6llI ll i