The meaning and self-significance of recreational shopping

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The meaning and self-significance of recreational shopping
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THE MEANING AND SELF-SIGNIFICANCE OF RECREATIONAL SHOPPING


By

MICHAEL GUIRY















A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1999































Copyright 1999

by

Michael Guiry














ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Special thanks to my dissertation chair, Rich Lutz, for his never-ending help,

support, encouragement, patience, and guidance throughout my dissertation journey.

Rich, I am eternally grateful. I also thank my committee members, Joe Alba, Bart Weitz,

and Rich Romano, for their helpful comments and advice. Finally, thanks for the music,

Jerry, Jimi, and Jim. Oh, what a long strange trip it's been.














TABLE OF CONTENTS



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS................... ................... ..................... ii

A B STR A C T .......................................................... ....................... vii

CHAPTERS

1 INTRODUCTION.................................................. ................. 1

Cultural Significance of Shopping............................................. 1
Personal Significance of Shopping............................................... 4
R research Purpose...................................................................... 5

2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE................................................... 8

Recreational Shopping............................................................... 8
Recreational Shopping Motives................................................... 12
Types of Recreational Shoppers............................................... 13
Other Types of Market Participants............................................... 20
Mall Inhabitants................................................................... 23
"Non-Traditional" Retail Market Participants............................... 25

3 A PRIORI THEMES, RESEARCH QUESTIONS, AND,
PROPOSITIONS................................................................ 27

Dimensions of Recreational Shopping............................................ 28
Importance of Leisure Dimensions in Recreational Shopping................ 32
Shopping Mall Activities and Leisure Dimensions.............................. 33
Social Dimension of Recreational Shopping ..................................... 33
Fantasy Dimension of Recreational Shopping .................................. 35
Enduring Involvement in Recreational Shopping............................... 35
Enduring Involvement and Shopping Activity Participation................... 36
Enduring Involvement and Meaning of Shopping............................... 40
Recreational Shopper Identity..................................................... 42









page

CHAPTERS

4 METHODOLOGY................................................................ ..... 46

Study 1............................... ............ ...... ........ .................... 46
Study 2 ..................................................... ..................... ....... 49

5 SURVEY RESULTS.............................................................. 56

Recreational Shopper Identity and Leisure Dimensions of Recreational
Shopping ......................... ............... ....... ... ........... ... 56
Profile of the Recreational Shopper.............................................. 76
Relationships Among Recreational Shopper Identity and
Leisure/Shopping Dimensions................................................ 91
Shopping Mall Activities and Dimensions of Recreational Shopping........ 94
Social Dimension of Recreational Shopping ...................... .... ...... 103
Fantasy Dimension of Recreational Shopping............................... 111
Enduring Involvement in Recreational Shopping.............................. 111
Enduring Involvement and the Meaning of Recreational Shopping......... 122
Sum m ary ................. ...... .... ...... ............ .............. ..... ...... 124

6 QUALITATIVE DATA RESULTS................................................... 135

Types of Shopping Trips.......................................................... 137
A Priori Themes and Research Questions....................................... 155
Em ergent Them es................................................................... 234
Sum m ary ....................................................... ........ ...... ........ 277

7 CON CLU SION ..................................................................... .... 289

Theoretical Implications............................................................ 295
Managerial Implications................................................... ....... 296
Lim stations ......... ............... ....... ... ............. .. ............ ..... ....... 297
Future R esearch...................................................................... 299

APPENDICES

1 INTERVIEW PROTOCOL......................................................... 302

2 SURVEY DATA COLLECTION INSTRUCTIONS.......................... 304

3 COVER LETTER AND SURVEY........................................... 306









page


APPENDICES

4 SHOPPING MALL ACTIVITIES SCALE.................................... 324

5 M ATERIALISM SCALE......................................................... 325

6 COMPULSIVE BUYING SCALE............................................... 326

7 SELF-ESTEEM SCALE........................................................... 327

8 SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC MEASURES......................................... 328

REFERENCES..................... ................................ .................... 330

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH........................................................ ..... 340














Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

THE MEANING AND SELF-SIGNIFICANCE OF RECREATIONAL SHOPPING

By

Michael Guiry

May 1999


Chairman: Richard J. Lutz
Major Department: Marketing


Although shopping is a very popular recreational activity in a consumer culture,

consumer research has given little attention to studying recreational shopping beyond

recognizing the existence of recreational shoppers and identifying some of their market

behaviors, personality traits, and demographics. Far less is known about the lived

experience of the activity, its personal meaning and self-significance, and the role it plays

in consumers' lives. Furthermore, although recreational shopping is considered a form of

leisure, consumer research has not sufficiently combed the activity to understand this

perspective and its influence on the nature of recreational shopping and its participants.

Thus, this dissertation was undertaken to provide a richer and deeper

understanding of the recreational shopper's experience in the marketplace, as well as in

the larger context of life. To reach this goal, recreational shopping was conceptualized








and measured as a leisure experience in the context of a multi-method study, combining

in-depth interviews and a survey.

Results indicate that recreational shoppers have a higher level of involvement in

and identification with the activity of shopping than nonrecreational shoppers do. In

addition, they are more social, product-focused, materialistic, have higher compulsive

buying tendencies, and lower self-esteem than nonrecreational shoppers.

Recreational shoppers' shopping experiences are comprised of four dimensions of

leisure. While shopping, recreational shoppers experience higher levels of intrinsic

satisfaction, mastery, spontaneity, and fantasy than nonrecreational shoppers do. The

extent to which recreational shoppers experience the different leisure dimensions seems

to be influenced by the type of shopping trip, i.e., mission shopping, window shopping, or

mood shopping, they engage in. Intrinsic satisfaction and mastery are present in all three

types of trips, while spontaneity and fantasy seem to be more closely associated with

window shopping and mood shopping.

The research also found that recreational shoppers exist on a continuum of

shopping involvement. Compared to low involvement recreational shoppers, high

involvement recreational shoppers, labeled recreational shopping enthusiasts, have

stronger recreational shopper identities and realize higher levels of enjoyment, as well as

stronger feelings of mastery and spontaneity from shopping. The differences in levels of

enjoyment, spontaneity, and mastery between the two groups suggest that there is a

progression of meaning and evolution of motives as recreational shoppers become more

involved in, committed to, and enthusiastic about shopping. For recreational shopping

enthusiasts, the shopping experience becomes more meaning laden and self fulfilling,








forging a recreational shopper identity that enables them to become one with the activity

of shopping. Low involvement recreational shoppers appear to participate in recreational

shopping primarily because of their interest in the activity and enjoyment realized from it,

whereas recreational shopping enthusiasts seem to participate in recreational shopping

primarily because the activity is a means of self-expression and central to their lifestyle.

For recreational shopping enthusiasts, shopping has symbolic value and mood-altering

properties, along with instrumental benefits--it is part of their extended selves.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION


Come on you miner (shopper) for truth and delusion, and shine (shop)! (Pink
Floyd 1975)

Cultural Significance of Shopping

Shopping is a way of life in contemporary consumer society. Its cultural

significance is evidenced by the considerable time and energy consumers devote to the

endeavor (Graham 1988; International Council of Shopping Centers 1990; Robinson

1989), not only to procure necessary or desired products, but also to participate in a wide

range of experiential activities in order to satisfy various personal and social motives

(Morris 1987; Tauber 1972). Thus, shopping may range from a utilitarian task to a form

of recreation and entertainment, as well as being an individual or group event.

The site of most shopping activity is the shopping mall, which stands as a

monument to shopping's prominent position in consumer culture by offering a multitude

of products and services to satisfy consumer needs and desires. Consumers of all ages

spend more time in shopping malls than anywhere else except home, work, and school

(Kowinski 1985; Stoffel 1988), leading some to suggest that malls have become modern

day community centers and society's new town squares (Glaberson 1992a; Zepp 1986),

where the shopping experience is ritualized within a community of consumption (Chaney

1990; Featherstone 1991; Zepp 1986).







2
Since the first malls were built, increasing attention has been given to fostering

the experiential aspects of consumers' shopping trips by extending mall offerings beyond

tangible goods, to include a vast array of services and other pursuits (Bloch, Ridgway,

and Nelson 1991; Stoffel 1988), such as fast-food courts, restaurants, video arcades,

movie theaters, hair salons, health clubs, medical offices, and specially orchestrated

holiday events. Mega-malls, like West Edmonton and Mall of America, have gone even

further by providing such extravagances as swimming pools, ice skating rinks, theme

parks, and miniature golf courses that have made these malls giant entertainment centers

and vacation destinations (Belsky 1992).

For teenagers, who make regular after school and weekend visits to the mall to

engage in a host of purchase and experiential consumption activities, the mall serves as

the ceremonial grounds for their rites of passage to become full-fledged members of

consumer culture. For some perpetual visitors, known as "Mall Rats," this social mecca

becomes the center of their existence (Glaberson 1992b; Kowinski 1985).

Despite the recent increase in shopping disenchantment (Hall 1990; Reitman

1992a) following the height of shopping popularity and consumption indulgence during

the 1980s (Shames 1989), most malls continue to teem with consumer activity

(Glaberson 1992a). Furthermore, outlet malls and flea markets have grown in popularity,

providing new shopping venues for those in search of bargains and adventure.

Consumers' participation in the shopping experience is not limited to the mall and

other brick and mortar retail markets, for consumers can shop twenty-four hours a day

from the endless array of catalogue "wish books" (Schroeder 1970) that arrive regularly

in the mail, filled with ever changing consumption dreams and desires. In addition, QVC








and Home Shopping Network fantasy channels display an endless stream of enticing

goods and pleasures (Underwood 1993). Both media urge consumers to dial SHOP ALL

DAY to satisfy their cravings, and transform consumption dreams and fantasies into

reality. More recently, an increasing number of consumers are riding the waves of online

shopping not only to search for information, but also to procure their goods from Web-

based stores (Beck 1998; Berman and Evans 1998; Green 1999).

Dreams really do come true for young shoppers in training, who can play with

Cool Shoppin' Barbie and her no-limit MasterCard and then turn to shopping games like

Mall Madness, to experience the thrill of spending a day at the mall on an unlimited

fantasy shopping spree. The fantasy may continue on regular trips to the mall, where

trying on clothes is often a game of dress-up and make believe (Teen 1988).

As further evidence of shopping's cultural impact, new airport terminals have

been built in Denver, New York, and Pittsburgh that include not only passenger gates, but

also full service shopping malls (Berman and Evans 1998; Reitman 1992b). Once

travelers arrive at their destinations, their vacations often include shopping sprees, and

may even be tailored as specially designed shopping tours (Del Rosso 1988; Erlick 1995;

Lincoln 1992). Shopping has even been sanctified under the cover of religious theme

parks, where the center of visitors' attention is not the church, but the community

shopping mall (O'Guinn and Belk 1989).

With regards to popular culture, shopping is a significant theme in the life of

Cathy, a well-known comic strip character. Similarly, a number of television show

personalities (e.g., Donna, Kelly, and Valerie of 90210 fame) are known for their

shopping prowess. In Needful Things, a novel by the horror writer Stephen King, the








residents of Castle Rock, Maine were drawn into Leland Gaunt's wonderful new store

that promised to fulfill their heart's secret desire only to find evil on a shopping spree.

Even our language is filled with aphorisms, such as "Born to shop," "Shop 'til you drop,"

"I shop, therefore I am," and "When the going gets tough, the tough go shopping" that

reflect the prominent position shopping plays in consumer culture, as well as its potential

self-significance.

Personal Significance of Shopping

Shopping's cultural pervasiveness touches consumers' lives in a variety of ways.

Certainly, for some consumers, shopping serves a strictly utilitarian purpose, being no

more than a means to product acquisition. It is viewed as an occupation that requires

mandatory time and thus, is considered a necessary evil (Fram 1991; Hopkins 1986; Stem

1989). Under this pretense, shopping may evolve into an unpleasant task filled with

frustration and anxiety (Tatzel 1982, 1991). These negative feelings may be magnified

when consumers are caught in a struggle between having a strong desire to acquire and

consume, together with their aversion to shop.

In contrast to those who dislike to shop, many consumers truly enjoy being in the

marketplace to make a product purchase and/or engage in experiential consumption

(Bloch et. al. 1991; Prus and Dawson 1991; Solomon 1996). For these consumers,

shopping is a form of recreation and entertainment that may even be one of their favorite

pastimes and a preferred activity of choice (Gonzales 1988; Hughes 1989). Moreover, it

has been suggested that for some consumers being a shopper is an authentic and vital

identity, with the shopping experience serving as the unifying principle by which they

structure their lives (Hopkins 1986). Thus, shopping may be a vital part of a consumer's








extended self(Belk 1988) when it contains significant symbolic meaning and serves as a

means of self-communication, enhancement, affirmation, and cultivation.

At times, however, shopping may evolve into a quest for consumers to find

themselves as they endlessly look for an identity to catch their eyes (Shames 1989). Such

experiences may represent a darker side of shopping, symptomatic of uncontrollable

impulses and compulsions, with potentially negative implications for the self (O'Guinn

and Faber 1989; Rook 1987).

Research Purpose

Despite shopping's popularity as a recreational activity and its apparent

significance in many consumers' lives, consumer research has given little attention to

studying recreational shopping beyond recognizing the existence of recreational shoppers

and identifying some of their market behaviors, personality traits, and demographics. Far

less is known about the lived experience of the activity, its personal meaning and self-

significance, and the role it plays in consumers' lives. In addition, although recreational

shopping is considered a form of leisure, consumer research has not sufficiently combed

the activity to understand this perspective and its influence on the nature of recreational

shopping and its participants.

Given that recreational shoppers represent a potentially important market segment

for retailers and mall managers to attract and maintain as customers, it seems prudent to

advance the knowledge of recreational shopping to enable these parties to design and

implement more effective atmospheric, merchandising, and service quality strategies to

manage the recreational shopping experience. Furthermore, research on recreational

shopping may enhance the understanding of consumer socialization into a highly








involved and enthusiastic shopping culture. But even more importantly, from the

standpoint of social welfare, the study of recreational shopping may offer insight into the

genesis of a darker side of recreational shopping, i.e., when consumers become obsessed

with shopping to the point that it becomes a compulsive and addictive behavior

(Hirschman 1992; O'Guinn and Faber 1989) and/or serves as a remedy for an empty self

(Cushman 1990).

Thus, the objective of this dissertation is to provide a richer and deeper

understanding of the recreational shopper's experience in the marketplace, as well as in

the larger context of life, through an iterative and emergent multi-method study,

including in-depth interviews and a survey. Of particular interest, is the in-depth

examination of recreational shopping enthusiasts', i.e., those consumers who are highly

involved in the experiential and product focused activities of shopping, and view

shopping as a central part of their lives. In essence, these consumers have a powerful

recreational shopper identity, and use shopping as a means of self-affirmation and self-

enhancement.

The research will compare the shopping experiences of two groups of consumers-

-1) recreational shoppers and 2) nonrecreational shoppers--with the group of recreational

shoppers being further divided into four subgroups: 1) those who prefer to shop alone, 2)

those who prefer to shop with a companionss, 3) high involvement recreational shoppers,

referred to as recreational shopping enthusiasts, and 4) low involvement recreational

shoppers, those consumers who consider shopping an enjoyable activity, but are less


'The labeling of highly involved recreational shoppers as recreational shopping
enthusiasts stems from Bloch (1986), who developed the concept of product enthusiasm to
reflect the highest end of product involvement.








involved in and committed to the activity. The first means of comparison will be the

different themes that emerge from the in-depth interviews with informants from four

recreational shopping subgroups. Subsequently, the survey data will be analyzed to

examine the relationship between a number of shopping related variables, including

product and experiential marketplace activities, leisure-based dimensions of shopping,

social aspects of shopping, recreational shopping identity, materialism, compulsive

buying, and self-esteem.

Before detailing the study's specific a priori themes, research questions,

propositions, and methodology, in the next section of the paper literature pertaining to

recreational shopping will be reviewed to ground the proposed research.














CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF LITERATURE


Recreational Shopping

Three studies have specifically investigated recreational shopping. In a survey

study of 261 females, examining consumers' shopping center patronage motives,

Bellenger, Robertson, and Greenberg (1977) developed a simple two shopper typology,

i.e., convenience and recreational shoppers, based on the relationship between the

importance of shopping center features, interest in leisure activities, including shopping,

and demographics. The difference in the level of interest in shopping was the most

discriminating personal characteristic between the two types of shoppers.2

Convenience shoppers desired convenient shopping center locations and low

prices. They had a very low interest in shopping as a leisure time activity, and tended to

be well-educated housewives, who preferred to engage in private pursuits.

In contrast, recreational shoppers wanted a high quality center with extensive

variety and a large number of related services. They had a very high interest in shopping

as a leisure activity, and tended to be single, less well educated, and have lower incomes.




2The percentage of respondents classified as convenience or recreational shoppers was not
reported in the study.








In subsequent research, Bellenger and Korgaonkar (1980) provided a more

detailed description of recreational and convenience shoppers by comparing their

shopping and information seeking behavior, demographics, enjoyment of leisure

activities, and store patronage factors. Three hundred twenty-four survey respondents

were classified as convenience or recreational shoppers on the basis of their reported

level of shopping enjoyment, measured on a single-item scale.

Convenience shoppers, comprising 31% of the sample, disliked shopping or were

neutral toward it. Their store visits were driven by a specific purchase need rather than a

desire to partake in the shopping process. They wanted to minimize the expenditure of

time and effort in shopping for goods. Thus, they considered store location to be an

important patronage factor.

In contrast, recreational shoppers enjoyed shopping as a leisure time activity.

They preferred to shop at department stores with a pleasant atmosphere and a large

variety of high quality merchandise. Compared with convenience shoppers, recreational

shoppers spent more time shopping per trip, were less likely to have an idea of what they

were going to buy when shopping, were more likely to shop with others, and were more

likely to continue to shop after making a purchase. Furthermore, they were more likely

to be socially active females, who were less traditional, more innovative, and more

actively engaged in information seeking behavior.

These two studies represent the crux of consumer research's knowledge of

recreational shopping. Although this work is important for recognizing the existence of

recreational shoppers and for profiling some of their personality characteristics,

demographics, and market behaviors, the end result is a very cursory view of recreational








shopping. Three major concerns with the research are: 1) the use of a single-item

measure to classify recreational shoppers, 2) defining recreational shopping solely in

terms of enjoyment, and 3) the analysis of recreational shoppers as a homogeneous

group, i.e., not accounting for differences in sources of shopping enjoyment, level of

recreational shopping involvement, and product versus experiential activity participation.

To more fully understand recreational shopping, additional research is needed to

provide a broader, multi-dimensional perspective of the experience, while accounting for

variations in recreational shoppers' market behaviors and preferences. In light of these

objectives, it would be both fruitful and enlightening to gain a first-person (i.e., emic)

perspective of the recreational shopping experience, rather than relying on the typical

researcher-driven (i.e., etic) approach, endemic to consumer research (see Sherry 1991).

Rather than classifying shoppers as recreational or nonrecreational to profile their

market behaviors and personal characteristics, Prus and Dawson (1991) took a more emic

approach by examining consumers' definitions of shopping situations and how they

involved themselves in the experience. Using open-ended interviews with 95 consumers,

they identified two definitions of shopping that reflected informants' views of the

activity: shopping as recreation and shopping as work.

Shopping as recreation portrayed the activity as an interesting, enjoyable,

entertaining, and leisurely pursuit. In contrast, shopping as work depicted the endeavor

as ambiguous, unavoidable, and boring. To provide further descriptive insight on

shopping situations, Prus and Dawson delineated three themes within each definition of

shopping.








When shopping was a recreational pursuit consumers: 1) fit themselves into

shopping settings by filling free time and/or socializing with shopping companions; 2)

incorporated products into the self (e.g., sensory stimulation from browsing, high

involvement in purchase process, and making gift purchases); and/or 3) found the process

of making buying decisions to be entertaining and exciting.

In contrast, shopping was viewed as work when consumers: 1) faced undesired

ambiguity (e.g., lack of product knowledge, salesperson assistance, and fitting problems);

2) experienced closure (e.g., time pressures, money constraints, and unavailable

products); and/or 3) became bored with making routine or uninteresting purchases and/or

shopping with a companion at a slower than desired pace.

Although Prus and Dawson's research added descriptive insight to the

understanding of recreational shopping by identifying three different situational themes,

it stopped short of delving deeply into informants' experiences to provide a "thick

description" and rich interpretation (Denzin 1989; Geertz 1973) of recreational shopping.

For example, it would have been beneficial to consider the three shopping themes as

different types of recreational shopping situations, and then examine similarities and

differences among them. In addition, a richer definition of shopping would have resulted

from delineating themes across different types of shoppers.

Beyond these three studies on recreational shopping, research on consumer

shopping motives and shopping typologies provides some insight on the possible

experiential characteristics of a recreational shopping trip. This research suggests that

recreational shopping may vary in its character.








Recreational Shopping Motives

Looking first at research on shopping motives, a study by the Chicago Tribune

(1955) investigated the basic motives and underlying feelings involved in shopping apart

from making a required product acquisition. Interviews with female department store

shoppers uncovered five shopping motives: 1) realizing an achievement by boosting

morale with a product purchase or completing the shopping task; 2) attaining importance

from shopping in high status stores or being catered to by salespeople; 3) doing

something very different by making shopping an outing or all day affair to socialize with

friends and go to a multitude of stores; 4) gaining freedom from everyday routine by

fantasizing in the marketplace; and 5) having an enjoyable adventure by wandering

around stores and looking at the merchandise.

Downs (1961) proposed that, in addition to the functional value consumers

received from purchasing products and gathering information to improve their ability to

make future purchases, consumers received a number of experiential benefits from

shopping that were similar to those found by the Chicago Tribune. These benefits

included the enjoyment received from looking at merchandise, making a trip away from

home, socializing with friends encountered at stores, and feelings of status derived from

shopping in quality stores.

In an exploratory study of why people shop, Tauber (1972) found that they do so

for many reasons other than the need for products or services. He identified a series of

personal and social motives for shopping, some of which bear similarity to those

described in the previous two studies, that go beyond those related to product acquisition.








The primary personal satisfactions obtained from shopping were: 1) the

opportunity to enact culturally prescribed roles; 2) diversion from the daily routine

through a form of recreation; 3) providing self-gratification; 4) learning about new trends;

5) engaging in physical exercise; and 6) receiving sensory stimulation from the retail

environment. The principal social satisfactions realized in the marketplace while

shopping were: 1) having social experiences outside the home; 2) communicating with

others having similar interests; 3) affiliating with peer groups or aspired reference groups;

4) obtaining an increase in social status and authority from being served by sales

personnel; and 5) receiving pleasure from bargaining, comparison shopping, or hunting

for sales to make the best buys.

The shopping motives proposed in the literature are listed in Table 1. Although

these motives are often presumed to be associated with recreational shopping (Bloch et

al. 1991; Solomon 1996; Westbrook and Black 1985), empirical research has not been

conducted to establish the relationship between shopping motives and recreational

shopping. Typically, the motives have been treated as separate entities, rather than

interrelated characteristics of a consumer's shopping experience. Examining the

interrelationship among these motives would yield a broader conceptualization of

recreational shopping, comprised of multiple dimensions, rather than a single measure of

enjoyment.

Types of Recreational Shoppers

In addition to recreational and convenience shoppers (Bellenger et al. 1977;

Bellenger and Korgaonkar 1980), a number of different types of shoppers have been

identified in the shopping typology literature. Some of these shopper types appear to








Table 1
Possible Dimensions of Recreational Shopping
(Based on Shopping Motives and Shopping Typologies)


Personal Social Product

Achievement Shopping Companions Involvement

Adventure Sales Personnel Knowledge/Information

Enjoyment/Pleasure Other Shoppers Sensory stimulation from
retail environment
Escape
Enjoyment/pleasure from
Fantasy browsing, bargaining,
comparison shopping, and
Freedom hunting for sales

Identity Construction

Physical Exercise

Role Enactment

Self-gratification

Status


have similar characteristics and market behaviors to recreational or nonrecreational, i.e.,

convenience shoppers.

In Table 2, extant shopper types are categorized as recreational, nonrecreational,

or other shoppers according to the following criteria. Shoppers who enjoyed shopping

and/or pursued experiential benefits from the market were classified as recreational

shoppers, while those shoppers who disliked shopping and/or participated in the

marketplace to satisfy purely functional needs were classified as nonrecreational

shoppers. Finally, a number of shopper types were not classified as either recreational or









Table 2
Types of Recreational and Nonrecreational Shoppers


Study Recreational Nonrecreational Other Shoppers

Stone (1954) Personalizing Economic Ethical
Apathetic
Chicago Tribune (1955) Dependent Compulsive (cleanliness/ Indecisive
Independent orderliness)
Individualistic

Stephenson and Willett (1969) Compulsive/Recreational Convenience Store-Loyal
Price Bargain

Darden and Reynolds (1971) Small Store Personalizing Economic Ethical
Chain Store Personalizing Apathetic
Darden and Ashton (1974) Apathetic Demanding
Convenient Location Quality
Fastidious
Stamp Preferrers
Stamp Haters

Moschis (1976) Special Brand-Loyal
Problem-solving Store-Loyal
Psychosocializing
Name-Conscious

Crask and Reynolds (1978) Frequent Non-frequent









Table 2--continued


Study Recreational Nonrecreational Other Shoppers

Williams, Painter, and Nichols Apathetic Involved
(1978) Convenience
Price
Tatzel (1982) Fashion Conscious Independent
Apathetic
Anxious
Westbrook and Black (1985) Shopping-Process Shopping-Process Shopping-Process
Involved Apathetic Economic
Choice Optimizing Average
Pure Economic








nonrecreational shoppers since it was difficult to discern the nature of their shopping

experience from the reported research results. In light of the present research interest in

recreational shopping, in the next section of the paper the discussion will focus

specifically on the types of shoppers who appear to be most similar to recreational

shoppers.

As suggested by the research on shopping motives and the research by Prus and

Dawson (1991), social interaction appears to be an important experiential characteristic

of recreational shopping. Similarly, specific shopper types have been identified who

value this aspect of the marketplace. Personalizing shoppers (Stone 1954; Darden and

Reynolds 1971) defined shopping as an essential and positive interpersonal experience.

They personalized and individualized the customer role in the store, forming strong

personal attachments with store personnel. Their in-store experience was a highly valued

part of life, perhaps filling a relationship void and the need for social interaction.

Recently, Forman and Sriram (1991) studied a group of consumers, labeled lonely

consumers, who also use the marketplace as a remedy for personal difficulties by

interacting and forming relationships with sales personnel. Lonely consumers' shopping

satisfaction and enjoyment were significantly influenced by the extent to which they

viewed shopping as a social experience and their perceptions of a retail environment's

depersonalization.

Another type of shopper who obtained social benefits from the marketplace is the

dependent shopper (Chicago Tribune 1955). Similar to personalizing shoppers,

dependent shoppers wanted to shop in stores where the salespeople were warm,

interested, courteous, and provided individual attention. In addition, these shoppers liked







18
to go shopping with their friends to have someone rationalize and reassure their product

choices and self-indulgence.

The study by the Chicago Tribune (1955) identified two additional types of

shoppers with characteristics of recreational shoppers: independent and individualistic

shoppers. Independent shoppers enjoyed shopping, even though they viewed it as a task.

They approached shopping with a great deal of confidence, being certain of their tastes

and what merchandise to buy, perhaps indicating that they had high product involvement

and knowledge.

Individualistic shoppers liked to express themselves in shopping by finding

unusual and individualistic merchandise. Shopping allowed them to be creative when

putting outfits together, accessorizing, or home decorating. In addition, they liked to

daydream and think about purchase possibilities, as well as imagining owning desired

merchandise.

Stephenson and Willett (1969) developed a shopping typology based on

consumers' actual purchase, search, and patronage behaviors for apparel and toy products.

They labeled consumers with low purchase activity, high store patronage concentration,

and a high number of stores searched as compulsive and recreational shoppers. The

market behavior of these consumers appears to be characteristic of browsing without an

intent to buy (Bloch and Richins 1983; Bloch, Ridgway, and Sherrell 1989).

According to the results of a study by Crask and Reynolds (1978), recreational

shoppers may be frequent shoppers. Using a measure of shopping frequency to classify

department store shoppers, Crask and Reynolds identified a group of frequent shoppers








who have some of the same personal characteristics and shopping behaviors as

recreational shoppers.

Compared to infrequent shoppers, frequent shoppers were more likely to plan

their shopping trips, were more deliberate when making major purchases, were not as

likely to feel that shopping was no longer fun, and were very price conscious. They

tended to be younger, better educated, and have higher incomes, as well as being more

active and sociable than nonfrequent shoppers. They had a strong interest in fashion, and

besides being frequent department store shoppers, were also frequent patrons of discount

stores.

Tatzel (1982) proposed a type of shopper, labeled fashion conscious, who viewed

shopping as an essential and highly enjoyable part of life. They were very interested in

fashion, had innovative and stylish tastes, and were socially active. She hypothesized

that fashion conscious shoppers were similar to recreational shoppers (Bellenger and

Korgaonkar 1980), but did not empirically examine their existence in the marketplace.

In the most recent research on shopping typologies, Westbrook and Black (1985)

developed a typology of shoppers based on consumers' shopping motivations. They

identified one group of shoppers, i.e., shopping-process involved, who were considered to

be similar to recreational shoppers. These shoppers appeared to be motivated by both

functional and instrumental concerns since they were highly involved in virtually all

aspects of the shopping process, i.e., role enactment, choice optimization, power and

authority, affiliation, sensory stimulation, and negotiation. In contrast to the other

shopper types identified in the study, this group of shoppers seemed to derive relatively







20
more satisfaction from the process of shopping than the anticipated utility of the product

acquisition.

Emerging from the research on shopping typologies is a vast array of

"recreational" shopper types. This diversity is not surprising given the wide variations in

empirical approaches and research contexts across studies. Similar to the research on

shopping motives, the shopping typology research has not been integrated into the study

of recreational shopping. The key behavioral and market characteristics of each shopper

type are suggestive of potential aspects of recreational shopping. Therefore, rather than

continuing to develop shopping typologies, it would be beneficial to compare shoppers'

marketplace experiences according to their level of involvement in the activity and the

meaning they ascribe to it.

Other Types of Market Participants

In addition to the shoppers identified in the shopping typology literature, four

other types of market participants--1) browsers, 2) market mavens, 3) materialists, and 4)

compulsive buyers--who could be considered recreational shoppers since they enjoy

being in the marketplace, have been examined in independent streams of research. These

consumers have unique personality characteristics and/or different retail market

relationships than the previously described shoppers. Hence, considering their market

experiences provides additional insight into the possible characteristics of recreational

shopping.

Browsers

Browsing for information and/or entertainment without an immediate intent to

buy, typifies one form of recreational shopping (Bloch and Richins 1983; Bloch et al.







21
1989). Research on browsing indicates that consumers who are more likely to engage in

browsing have a high level of product involvement and knowledge. In addition, they

view stores as comfortable, friendly, and exciting places to shop, with novel and

stimulating merchandise and environments.

Market Mavens

Another group of market participants who enjoy shopping and browsing are

market mavens. Market mavens are marketplace influencers whose influence is based

not on knowledge or expertise in particular product categories, but rather on more general

knowledge and experience with markets (Feick and Price 1987). The focus of their

shopping and market activity was the acquisition and dissemination of market

information rather than a product purchase or experiential motives.

Materialists

Given that high product involvement may be associated with recreational

shopping (Bloch and Richins 1983; Bloch et al. 1989; Crask and Reynolds 1978; Tatzel

1982), another group of consumers who may be avid recreational shoppers are

materialists. While extant research on materialism has been devoted to defining and

measuring the construct, as well as identifying materialistic traits (Belk 1985; Fournier

and Richins 1991; Richins and Dawson 1992), the centrality of the pursuit of possessions

among materialists suggests that the shopping and buying process may be an important

part of being a materialist.

Although consumer research has not directly explored the materialist's shopping

experience, Fournier and Richins (1991) proposed that materialists engaged regularly in

behaviors such as search and shopping in preparation for future acquisitions. Their








research on consumers' perceptions of materialists offered insight into the potential

significance of shopping and marketplace activity for materialists.

They found that materialists' purchase experiences were accompanied by hedonic

and emotional responses, described as being highly emotional, thrilling, and sensational.

The results also showed that the materialist experience entailed much more than simply

getting and buying goods, since materialists were perceived as continual information

gatherers, constantly scanning the environment for new material offerings. In

anticipation of future purchases, they frequently read catalogs and magazines, observed

what others had acquired, and looked through stores to see what merchandise was

available.

Compulsive Buyers

The final group of consumers for whom shopping appears to be an extremely

important, but harmful, recreational activity is compulsive buyers. Compulsive buyers

engage in "chronic, repetitive purchasing that becomes a primary response to negative

events or feelings" (O'Guinn and Faber 1989, p. 155). While the activity may provide

short-term benefits, it becomes very difficult to stop and ultimately results in harmful

consequences.

Research by O'Guinn and Faber (1989) which examined the personality

characteristics and market behaviors of compulsive buyers showed that compared to

normal consumers, compulsive buyers were more likely to have compulsivity as a

personality trait, had lower self-esteem, a higher propensity for fantasy, and received a

greater emotional lift from the buying process. In addition, their primary motivations for

shopping appeared to be the stimulation received from personal interactions with








salespeople and enhanced self-esteem, rather than a desire to own products. Thus, the

shopping experience served an important compensatory function for those consumers

needing to be liked, and who received little positive attention in their lives.

Although compulsive buying represents a type of abnormal consumer behavior, it

has the potential to further the understanding of recreational shopping in light of the

nature of compulsive buyers' market experiences. The enhancement of self-esteem,

social interaction, fantasy, and emotions have been described as possible dimensions of

recreational shopping. Hence, compulsive buying may represent an extreme form of

recreational shopping, i.e., when recreational shopping becomes the center of one's

existence and can not be controlled (Hirschman 1992).

Mall Inhabitants

While the research on shopping motives and shopper typologies has primarily

focused on the patrons of department stores, Bloch, Ridgway, and Dawson (1994) took a

broader view of consumers' shopping experiences by investigating the type of consumers

who inhabit shopping malls. Using a survey study, they identified four groups of mall

inhabitants, i.e., minimalists, mall enthusiasts, grazers, and traditionalists, according to

different patterns of mall behaviors (e.g., browsing, eating, going to a movie, walking for

exercise, shopping to buy, and socializing) and consumption benefits (e.g., aesthetics,

escape, exploration, flow, epistemic, and social).

Minimalists had a purely functional view of the mall as their mall visits were

largely driven by the need to make a specific product purchase. They spent the least

amount of time in the mall, and were less likely to engage in experiential activities than







24
the other three groups. Thus, they appear to be similar to nonrecreational or convenience

shoppers (Bellenger et al. 1977; Bellenger and Korgaonkar 1980).

In contrast, the other three groups of mall inhabitants seem to represent different

types of recreational shoppers as each group actively engaged in various experiential and

purchase driven mall activities. Mall Enthusiasts were the most active mall patrons,

participating in a wide range of behaviors, including product purchasing, usage of the

mall, and experiential consumption. In light of their high mall involvement, they

received the greatest benefits from the mall by satisfying escape, flow, epistemic, and

social motives.

Grazers, who viewed the mall as a place for escape, were distinguished by their

high participation in eating and browsing activities, while traditionalists primarily went to

the mall to socialize, engage in mall-focused activities, and make product purchases.

Traditionalists were considered purposive visitors since they realized much lower escape

benefits from a mall than mall enthusiasts and grazers.

This research is important for providing preliminary information on the types of

consumers who patronize shopping malls. In doing so, it takes a more encompassing

view of shopping, than previously observed in the literature, by measuring consumers'

motives and behaviors beyond product acquisition and outside a retail store setting.

Similar to research on shopping motives and typologies, however, this research did not

investigate the relationship between consumers' marketplace motives and

satisfaction/enjoyment from the experience. In addition, to provide a more complete

picture of mall inhabitants, research should be undertaken to examine similarities and

differences among mall inhabitant groups, regarding their level of marketplace








involvement, as well as the importance of different activities and motives to the overall

meaning of their mall experience.

"Non-Traditional" Retail Market Participants

Recent ethnographic studies of non-traditional retail settings, i.e., flea markets

(Belk, Sherry, and Wallendorf 1988; Sherry 1990) and gift stores (McGrath 1989; Sherry

and McGrath 1989), have yielded a "thick description" (Denzin 1989; Geertz 1973) of the

experiential aspects of consumers' shopping experiences. These markets were primarily

patronized by shoppers looking for fun and recreation through such activities as

browsing, searching, socializing, bargaining, sight-seeing, fantasizing, and experiencing

freedom. Engaging in these behaviors often transcended specific purchase needs and

desires, as exemplified by a number of gift store customers who derived great pleasure

from simply wanting merchandise rather than having it (Sherry and McGrath 1989).

The sentiment of this research seems to be that shopping in flea markets and gift

stores is a unique and special experience, markedly different from and transcending

shopping in traditional settings. While it is granted that certain aspects of these markets

may be particular to these settings, such as the active role of sellers and store owners in

customers' shopping experiences, eclectic array of merchandise, community spirit,

informal structure, and adventurous image, a number of important characteristics of the

flea market/gift store experience have been considered possible aspects of recreational

shopping in traditional venues. This suggests that the nature and tone of these

dimensions may vary according to the function and structure of the market. For example,

in contrast to the flea market, where sacred possessions were transformed into profane

commercial merchandise (Belk et al. 1988), traditional markets may be the grounds







26
where profane commercial merchandise begins to be transformed into sacred possessions

during search, trying-on, and companion approval rituals.

While traditional marketplaces may not be as alluring and adventurous as flea

markets, they do offer their own mystique and personality, nurtured by the growing

emphasis on making shopping a consumption experience. Furthermore, malls hold a

more profound position in consumer culture as evidenced by the vast number of

consumers who flock through their doors. Nevertheless, consumer research has given

little attention to the shopping mall (Bloch et al. 1994; Feinberg and Meoli 1991), leaving

open the door for a richer, deeper, and more complete investigation and understanding of

consumers' recreational shopping experiences.














CHAPTER 3
A PRIORI THEMES, RESEARCH QUESTIONS, AND PROPOSITIONS


The preceding literature review supports the central thesis of this paper that

consumer research has given little attention to studying recreational shopping beyond

profiling some of the personal characteristics, demographics, and market behaviors of

recreational shoppers. Separate streams of research on shopping motives, different types

of shoppers, and other market participants suggest a number of possible characteristics of

the recreational shopping experience, but these characteristics have not been empirically

examined within the context of recreational shopping. Hence, in the next section of the

paper, specific a priori themes will be identified and research questions and propositions

will be raised regarding recreational shoppers and the recreational shopping experience.

These three forms of inquiry were used in light of the limited past research on

recreational shoppers, the researcher's plan to study recreational shopping from a

new/different perspective, i.e., as a leisure activity, and the multi-method (survey and in-

depth interviews) approach used for data collection. The propositions and a priori themes

were generated from previous research on recreational shoppers, shopping motives and

typologies, shopping related consumer behavior, and leisure. The propositions, which

were tested through the survey data, were designed to examine the relationships among

pertinent shopping and leisure variables as well as differences between recreational

shoppers and nonrecreational shoppers and high involvement recreational shoppers and








low involvement recreational shoppers. In concert with the propositions, the a priori

themes were constructed to support and explain the results from testing the propositions,

while yielding a first-person perspective about recreational shoppers and their shopping

experiences. Support for the a priori themes came from the qualitative data. The

research questions were formulated to explore issues pertaining to recreational shoppers

that lacked theoretical underpinnings. These questions were answered by analyzing both

types of data.

Dimensions of Recreational Shopping

To more fully understand recreational shopping, it is necessary to broaden

consumer research's definition of the experience. Typically, recreational shopping has

been conceptualized as enjoyment from shopping (Bellenger and Korgaonkar 1980; Prus

and Dawson 1991; Solomon 1996). Given that shopping may be a form of leisure

(Bellenger et al. 1977; Jackson 1991; Shaw 1985), however, this is a narrow view, since

in addition to enjoyment, the leisure literature discusses a number of other dimensions

(e.g., intrinsic motivation, perceived freedom, escape, and adventure) that constitute a

leisure experience (Jackson 1991; Kelly 1987). A number of these dimensions appear to

be part of recreational shopping, capturing the experiential aspects of the trip, rather than

its tangible product acquisition features.3

Unger and Keman (1983) identified six major determinants of leisure discussed in

the literature: 1) intrinsic satisfaction (e.g., pleasure and enjoyment), 2) perceived

freedom, 3) involvement (e.g., absorption and escape), 4) arousal (e.g. novelty-seeking


3Similar to consumer research, leisure research has virtually ignored the study of
shopping as a leisure activity (Jackson 1991).








and exploration), 5) mastery, and 6) spontaneity. They found that three of these

dimensions--intrinsic satisfaction, perceived freedom, and involvement--were present

across a variety of situational contexts, while the remaining three determinants were more

activity specific. Although shopping was not specifically included as a situational

context in this research, other researchers (e.g., McKechnie 1974; Unger 1984) have

classified it under one of the situations, i.e., "easy/social" used by Unger and Kernan.

In a study of the meaning of leisure in everyday life, Shaw (1985) found that five

dimensions--freedom of choice, intrinsic motivation, enjoyment, relaxation, and lack of

evaluation--were strongly associated with everyday leisure experiences. These factors

were the best discriminators between the leisure and work activities reported by

respondents in a two-day time diary. Although shopping was one of the activities

reported in this study, Shaw did not detail activity-specific dimensions of leisure.

The results of this study are comparable to Unger and Kernan's work. Intrinsic

motivation and enjoyment are similar to the dimension of intrinsic satisfaction, while lack

of evaluation may reflect a facet of involvement and absorption in a leisure activity.

Relaxation, however, appears to be negatively related to arousal. Shaw did not measure

the other two dimensions, i.e., involvement and mastery, identified by Unger and Kernan.

In the most recent study examining the dimensions of leisure, Gunter (1987)

analyzed the self-report essays of two types of leisure experiences: 1) the single, most

memorable leisure experience respondents had ever had and 2) the most common and

meaningful type of leisure normally experienced in their daily lives. The analysis

revealed eight dimensions of leisure: 1) sense of separation, 2) pleasure and enjoyment,







30
3) freedom of choice, 4) spontaneity, 5) timelessness, 6) fantasy or creative imagination,

7) adventure and exploration, and 8) self-realization.

The results from this study are also similar to the findings by Unger and Kernan

(1983). Sense of separation, timelessness, and fantasy/creative imagination are most

closely related to their concept of involvement. The only dimension that does not seem

to directly correspond to any of their dimensions is self-realization. Its occurrence is not

surprising given that in addition to examining common leisure activities, which were the

focus of Unger and Keran's work, Gunter also investigated respondents' most

memorable or peak leisure experiences. Although he did recognize that the two types of

experiences were different, he did not examine the dimensional differences between

them. Instead, he indicated that the differences between these experiences were largely

due to intensity rather than dimension type.

In general, the research by Shaw (1985) and Gunter (1987) confirms the existence

of the six dimensions of leisure identified by Unger and Kernan (1983). Thus, for the

purposes of the present research, these dimensions--intrinsic satisfaction, perceived

freedom, involvement, arousal, mastery, and spontaneity--will be used as a starting point

for capturing the experience of recreational shopping.

In Table 3, each of the previously discussed possible characteristics of

recreational shopping is classified under the most closely related leisure dimension.4



4The social dimension of recreational shopping (e.g., shopping companions and sales
people) is not included in Table 3 since it is considered a situational variable rather than a
defining characteristic of leisure (Unger and Keran 1983). Instead, given its presumed
importance to many recreational shoppers' market experiences, it is expected to influence
the nature of the leisure dimensions experienced while shopping.









Table 3
Classification of Recreational Shopping Characteristics as Leisure Dimensions

Intrinsic Satisfaction Perceived Freedom Involvement


Achievement
(Chicago Tribun 1955)


Enjoyment/Pleasure
(Belk et al. 1989; Bloch
and Richins 1983; Bloch et
al. 1989; Chicago Tribune
1955; Downs 1961;
McGrath 1989; Prus and
Dawson 1991; Sherry
1990; Sherry and McGrath
1989)
Role Enactment
(Tauber 1972; Westbrook
and Black 1985)



Self-gratification
(O'Guinn and Faber 1989;
Tauber 1972)
Status
(Chicago Tribun 1955;
Downs 1961; Tauber 1972;
Westbrook and Black
1985)


Freedom
(Belk et al. 1989; Chicago
Tribune 1955; Sherry
1990)


Creativity
(Chicago Tribune 1955)



Escape
(Bloch et al. 1994;
Chicago Tribune 1955;
Downs 1961; Tauber
1972)


Fantasy
(Chicago Tribune 1955;
McGrath 1989; O'Guinn
and Faber 1989; Sherry
and McGrath 1989)
Flow
(Bloch et al. 1994)


Comparing these characteristics with the leisure dimensions, suggests that recreational

shopping may be comprised of similar dimensions.


A Priori Theme 1:


Recreational shopping is characterized by the same
dimensions as a leisure experience.


Research Question 1: Which dimensions of leisure discriminate recreational
shopping from nonrecreational shopping?








Table 3--continued


Arousal Mastery Spontaneity

Adventure Knowledge
(Belk et al. 1989; Chicago (Bloch and Richins 1983;
Tribune 1955; Sherry Bloch et al. 1989; Bloch et
1990) al. 1994; Chicago Tribune
1955; Feick and Price
1987; Tauber 1972)
Exploration Materialism
(Belk et al. 1989; Bloch et (Foumier and Richins
al. 1994; McGrath 1989; 1991)
Sherry 1990; Sherry and
McGrath 1989)
Sensory Stimulation Product Involvement
(Tauber 1972; Westbrook (Bloch and Richins 1983;
and Black 1985) Bloch et al. 1989; Crask
and Reynolds 1978; Tatzel
1982)


Importance of Leisure Dimensions in Recreational Shopping

In addition to identifying the dimensions of recreational shopping, it is necessary

to discern the relationship between the dimensions, i.e., which dimensions are most

important to recreational shoppers in defining their marketplace experiences. Of the

dimensions identified in the leisure literature, intrinsic satisfaction seems to most closely

represent the "essence" of leisure (Unger and Kernan 1983). While some empirical

research supports this notion, having shown that the other dimensions of leisure are

determinants of intrinsic satisfaction (Hawes 1978; London, Crandall, and Fitzgibbons

1977), other research proposes that perceived freedom is an equally or more prominent

leisure dimension (Kelly 1982; Neulinger 1974).








Hence, Unger and Kernan argued that the exact relationship between intrinsic

satisfaction and the other leisure dimensions was uncertain. Their research did not clarify

this issue, leading them to suggest that the relationship between the leisure dimensions

needed further investigation. Therefore, one of the objectives of this research is to

examine the relationships among the identified dimensions of recreational shopping.

Research Question 2: What is the relationship between the dimensions of
recreational shopping and intrinsic satisfaction?

Shopping Mall Activities and Leisure Dimensions

Up to this point, the discussion has centered on defining the recreational shopping

experience as a whole in terms of the major dimensions of leisure, without accounting for

the nature of consumers' shopping experiences, i.e., what activities are engaged in during

the course of a shopping trip. Although previously discussed research by Bloch et al.

(1992) and Westbrook and Black (1985) suggests that recreational shopping is comprised

of both product-focused and experiential activities, the structure and importance of these

activities in creating the meaning of the experience has not been ascertained, leading to

the following research question:

Research Question 3: What activities do recreational shoppers participate in to
experience the different dimensions of recreational
shopping?

Social Dimension of Recreational Shopping

For a number of recreational shoppers an especially important part of the

shopping experience is being in the marketplace with a special shopping companions)

(Guiry 1992; Teen 1988). Despite the popularity of group shopping (International

Council of Shopping Centers 1990), however, consumer research has virtually ignored








this aspect of the recreational shopping experience, beyond recognizing that socializing

with friends and family is an important shopping motive (Tauber 1972; Solomon 1996)

and describing some potential positive and negative influences of a shopping companion

(Prus 1991). Given that social interaction may be the most important benefit of leisure

participation (Iso-Ahola 1989), the social dimension of recreational shopping demands

attention.

Research by Guiry (1992) suggests that when favorite shopping companions shop

together, the shopping experience becomes a special affair, moving from a product-

focused activity to a full-fledged consumption event, replete with experiential activities

(e.g., browsing, socializing, eating, advising, and fantasizing). In support of this

proposition, Unger (1984) found that leisure situations that offered companionship

enhanced the experience compared to participating alone, while Unger and Kernan

(1983) found that the nature of a leisure activity's social situation affected the leisure

dimensions experienced.

Thus, two research questions of particular interest in the present study are:

Research Question 4: How does the meaning of recreational shopping differ
between those who prefer to shop alone and those who
prefer to shop with a favorite companion?

Research Question 5: How does the presence of a shopping companion influence
the nature and importance of leisure dimensions
experienced while recreational shopping?

For other consumers the satisfaction of social needs may be met through

interacting with the salespeople in a retail store (Forman and Sriram 1991; O'Guinn and

Faber 1989). Hence, the role of the salespeople in a recreational shopper's shopping

experience needs to be addressed.








Research Question 6: What role does a salesperson play in a recreational
shopper's shopping experience?

Fantasy Dimension of Recreational Shopping

Previous research by O'Guinn and Faber (1989) and Foumier and Guiry (1993)

suggests that recreational shoppers may engage in fantasy behaviors while shopping.

O'Guinn and Faber found that compulsive buyers had a higher propensity for fantasy

than normal consumers while Foumier and Guiry found that materialism was positively

related to the frequency of consumption dreaming, both in general and for specific

planful and entertainment-driven forms of dreaming as well. Given that compulsive

buyers and materialists are active marketplace participants and enjoy shopping,

recreational shoppers maybe prone to engaging in fantasy behaviors as well.

Proposition 1: Recreational shoppers are more likely to engage in fantasy
behavior than nonrecreational shoppers.

Enduring Involvement in Recreational Shopping

The dimensions of recreational shopping symbolize the essence of the experience

at a broad level of understanding. To more fully appreciate the nature of a consumer's

recreational shopping experience, it is necessary to delve into the personal meaning

attached to the event. In light of recreational shopping being a product-related leisure

experience, a fruitful avenue to pursue to meet this end, is to consider the level of

consumer enduring involvement with recreational shopping. In both consumer research

(Bloch 1982; Bloch and Bruce 1984a) and leisure research (Bryan 1977; Bloch and Bruce

1984b; Mclntyre 1989), involvement has been used to understand a person's attachment

and interest with products and recreational pursuits, thus deeming it an appropriate

construct to study within the context of recreational shopping. Furthermore, involvement








provides the basis for examining a consumer's recreational shopper identity, as well as

recreational shopping enthusiasts.

A consumer's level of product involvement is commonly believed to be a major

moderating variable in consumer behavior (Kapferer and Laurent 1985; Laurent and

Kapferer 1985; Zaichkowsky 1985). While a number of different definitions have been

proposed in the consumer literature, in this study product involvement is defined as the

amount of interest, arousal, or emotional attachment evoked by a product in a consumer

(Bloch 1982).

In general, two forms of product involvement have been advanced in the

literature, i.e., situational involvement and enduring involvement (Bloch 1982; Kapferer

and Laurent 1985; Laurent and Kapferer 1985). Situational involvement refers to the

temporary level of concern a consumer has with a product in a purchase situation when

there are important goals or high risks associated with the purchase outcome. In contrast,

enduring involvement reflects a consumer's ongoing relationship with a product as a

consequence of it being related to his/her needs, values, or self-concept (Bloch 1982;

Bloch and Bruce 1984a). At very high levels, enduring involvement is exhibited as

product enthusiasm (Bloch 1986; Bloch and Bruce 1984a). Since the interest of this

research is the nature of consumers' interest and attachment to recreational shopping as a

leisure activity and part of life, rather than a situational event, enduring involvement is

the more relevant concept to integrate with recreational shopping.

Enduring Involvement and Shopping Activity Participation

As noted in the literature review, although research on shopping motives and

typologies has recognized that shopping activity may be primarily product-oriented,








experientially focused, or a combination of the two types, recreational shoppers have

been studied as a homogeneous group, with variations among different types of shoppers

remaining largely unexplored. Previous research, on involvement with products (Bloch

and Bruce 1984a, 1984b) and leisure activities (Bryan 1977; McIntyre 1989), suggests

that the level of a consumer's recreational shopping involvement will influence the extent

and type of his/her activity participation and the personal meaning of the experience.

In a study of trout fishermen, Bryan (1977) investigated variations in the level of

involvement in the context of recreational specialization, defined as "a continuum of

behavior from the general to the particular, reflected by equipment and skills used in the

sport and activity setting preferences" (p. 175). On the basis of in-depth interviews and

participant observation, he found that fishermen could be arranged along a continuum of

experience and commitment to the sport, from the beginning recreationist to the

specialist. Each group was associated with distinctively different meanings, preferences,

and behaviors regarding the sport. With increasing specialization, the emphasis changed

from catching fish at the lower end of the continuum to concerns with the nature and

setting of the activity at the highest levels. In essence, "for the most specialized

fishermen the fish are not so much the object as the experience of fishing as an end in

itself' (Bryan 1977, p. 186).

Extending Bryan's research to recreational shopping leads to the following

proposition and a priori theme:

Proposition 2: Consumer involvement with recreational shopping varies
along a continuum from low involvement to high
involvement.








A Priori Theme 2: Recreational shopping involvement influences the nature
and personal meaning of consumers' shopping experiences.

Bloch and Bruce (1984a, 1984b) referred to Bryan's research when proposing that

enduring involvement with products is a leisure experience, entailing a number of

ancillary activities. They found that the level of recreational involvement with a product

was positively related to the degree of satisfaction realized from both product usage

activity and being involved with the product (Bloch and Bruce 1984b). This result, taken

together with Bryan's research, suggests that the nature and type of activities consumers

participate in that make shopping a satisfying experience will be related to their level of

recreational shopping involvement.

At lower levels of involvement, similar to beginning recreational fisherman,

recreational shoppers' enjoyment and satisfaction from being in the marketplace will

revolve around product acquisition. Hence, low involvement recreational shoppers will

consider product-related activities (e.g., browsing, buying, product usage), rather than

experiential activities to be of prime importance in their experience.

In contrast, at higher levels of involvement, consumers will be more involved in

the marketplace as a whole, engaging in both product and experiential activities. Product

acquisition may represent just one part of the recreational shopping experience, and may

not even be a necessary condition to realize enjoyment and satisfaction. Similar to

specialized fishermen, high involvement recreational shoppers will also place increased

emphasis on the nature and setting of their recreational activity, i.e., specific merchandise

and store preferences, store atmosphere, mall environment and activities, relationships

with shopping companions and store personnel, and the shopping process. Moreover, the







39
flavor of Bryan's work suggests that at a high level of involvement recreational shopping

will become a more meaningful and personalized event. In sum, the shopping experience

will become an end in itself.

Accordingly, Bryan's research suggests the following propositions regarding the

relationship between recreational shopping involvement and market activity participation.

Proposition 3: At low levels of recreational shopping involvement the
focus of consumers' shopping experiences is product
acquisition, while at high levels of recreational shopping
the focus of consumers' shopping experiences is the
experience in itself.

Proposition 4: Low involvement recreational shoppers realize higher
levels of enjoyment and satisfaction from product
acquisition than from experiential activities; in contrast
high involvement recreational shoppers realize higher
levels of enjoyment and satisfaction from the shopping
experience as a whole than from product acquisition.

Proposition 5: Low involvement recreational shoppers realize higher
levels of enjoyment and satisfaction from product
acquisition than high involvement recreational shoppers; in
contrast high involvement recreational shoppers realize
higher levels of enjoyment and satisfaction from
experiential activities than low involvement recreational
shoppers.

The proposed differences in the market experiences of high involvement and low

involvement recreational shoppers suggests that each group may define the experience in

terms of different leisure dimensions, as well as ascribe different levels of importance

with each dimension. Since this issue has not been addressed in the leisure literature, it

will be addressed as an additional research question.

Research Question 7: How does the level of recreational shopping involvement
influence the nature and importance of the leisure
dimensions experienced while shopping?







40
The movement of recreational shopping from a product focused activity to a full-

fledged consumption event implies that high involvement recreational shoppers will

exhibit a lower degree of attachment and possessiveness towards their purchased

products than low involvement recreational shoppers. This relationship is likely to be

tempered when a recreational shopper is a materialist, however, since by definition the

acquisition and possession of products is a central part of a materialist's life (Belk 1985).

Proposition 6: High involvement recreational shoppers exhibit lower
levels of attachment to and possessiveness of purchased
products than low involvement recreational shoppers.

Enduring Involvement and Meaning of Shopping

In addition to influencing consumers' activity participation in the marketplace,

research by McIntyre (1989), on the role of enduring involvement in beach camping,

suggests that the level of enduring involvement in recreational shopping may affect the

personal meaning of the experience. Drawing on the research of Kapferer and Laurent

(1985), on the multi-dimensional nature of enduring involvement, McIntyre proposed that

enduring involvement encompassed four elements: 1) importance of the activity; 2)

enjoyment or pleasure derived from it; 3) perception of self-expression through the

activity; and 4) centrality to lifestyle. He argued that as an individual became more

involved in a recreational activity, the meaning of participation would move from interest

and enjoyment to self-expression and centrality. Thus, higher levels of involvement

would be associated with higher levels of self-expression and centrality, with interest and

enjoyment increasing to a lesser extent.

In McIntyre's empirical work at three different types of camp areas, believed to

attract campers with different levels of enduring involvement, three dimensions of







41
involvement were isolated: 1) attraction (e.g., interest and enjoyment), 2) self-expression,

and 3) centrality. A comparison of the camp areas showed that higher levels of camping

involvement were associated with increasing levels of all three components of

involvement. Furthermore, as expected, self-expression and centrality increased to a

greater degree than attraction.

McIntyre's finding of a positive relationship between enduring involvement and

self-expression parallels the results of a study by Bloch (1982) on enduring involvement

with automobiles and clothing, in which he found that highly involved consumers used

these products as a means of self-expression. In addition, the progression of meaning

associated with higher levels of camping involvement is similar to the evolution of

motives described by Celsi, Rose, and Leigh (1993) that explained initial and continuing

participation in skydiving. They found that skydivers' motives evolved from experiment

and thrill, through mastery and identity, to community and self-fulfillment.

Taken together, the research by McIntyre, Bloch, and Celsi et al. suggests that as

recreational shoppers become more involved with shopping other dimensions of leisure

(e.g., fantasy, mastery, perceived freedom, and spontaneity), in addition to enjoyment,

will be become part of the recreational shopper's shopping experience. Thus, as

recreational shoppers become more involved in the marketplace the experience will

become more complex and meaning laden, as indicated in the following a priori themes

and propositions.

A Priori Theme 3: High involvement recreational shoppers participate in
recreational shopping primarily because the activity is a
means of self-expression and central to their lifestyle.








A Priori Theme 4: Low involvement recreational shoppers participate in
recreational shopping primarily because of their interest in
the activity and enjoyment realized from it.

Proposition 7: High involvement recreational shoppers realize higher
levels of enjoyment from shopping than low involvement
recreational shoppers.

Proposition 8: High involvement recreational shoppers have higher mean
scores on the measures of the other dimensions of leisure
than low involvement recreational shoppers.

Recreational Shopper Identity

For some consumers, high involvement with a beloved product or activity reaches

a heightened state of total commitment and attachment in which the product/activity is

incorporated into their self-concept and becomes a (the) central part of their lives (Belk

1988; Bloch 1986; Buchanan 1985). At this highest level of involvement, referred to in

the consumer behavior literature as the extended self (Belk 1988) or product enthusiasm

(Bloch 1986), and in leisure research as a leisure identity (Haggard and Williams 1992;

Shamir 1992), a consumer defines him/herself in terms of a singular product or activity,

recognizing the product/activity's function as the primary means self-enhancement and

self-definition.

In the context of recreational shopping, this type of special consumer-object bond

appears to be exhibited when consumers explicitly define themselves as being

recreational shoppers, reflected in such statements as "I shop, therefore I am" or "Born to

shop" that affirm a unique recreational shopper identity. Although the idea of consumers

having a recreational shopper identity has not previously been explored in consumer

research, its viability and potential role in life appears to be demonstrated in research on








consumer-object relations (Belk 1988; Bloch 1986) and leisure activity participation

(Shamir 1992).

Bloch (1986) proposed that the high end of the product involvement continuum

was anchored by a group of consumers, referred to as product enthusiasts, for whom the

consumption and possession of highly involving products play an important role in life.

Although Bloch did not empirically examine the characteristics of product enthusiasts, he

speculated that a highly involved state satisfied enthusiasts' needs for uniqueness,

mastery, and/or affiliation. If so, enthusiastic product involvement may serve a self-

enhancing and self-defining role.

Research that more fully captures the notion of consumers being totally involved

with recreational shopping to the point of having a recreational shopper identity is Belk's

(1988) conceptualization of the extended self, in which consumers incorporate their most

meaningful and treasured possessions, including experiences (e.g., shopping) and places

(e.g., retail marketplace), into the self. These possessions, being most central to the self,

function to create, enhance, and maintain a sense of self-identification, while providing

meaning in life.

In the leisure literature, the degree to which an individual defines him/her self in

terms of a leisure pursuit, is referred to as leisure identity salience (Shamir 1992).

Shamir (1992) suggested that a leisure identity may become salient and incorporated into

the self-concept for three reasons: "1) it expresses and affirms the individual's talents or

capabilities, 2) it endows the person with social recognition, and/or 3) it affirms the

individual's central values" (p. 302). This proposition is consistent with research by

Haggard and Williams (1992), who found that individuals affirmed the nature of their








identities through participation in leisure activities that symbolized desirable character

traits and identity images, supporting the idea that a highly salient leisure identity will act

in the service of self-enhancement and self-identification.

Extending these three different streams of research to the recreational shopping

domain suggests that some highly involved recreational shoppers will define themselves

as recreational shoppers, leading to the incorporation of a recreational shopper identity

into their self-concept. Borrowing Bloch's (1986) terminology, these shoppers are

designated recreational shopping enthusiasts, for whom the marketplace and shopping

activity are central facets of life. In this regard, the meaning of their recreational

shopping experiences transcends enjoyment and other possible dimensions of leisure, as

self-enhancement and self-identification become paramount.

Thus, two a priori themes regarding recreational shopping enthusiasts are:

A Priori Theme 5: At the highest level of involvement, recreational shopping
may be incorporated into consumers' self-concept as a
recreational shopper identity.

A Priori Theme 6: Recreational shopping enthusiasts engage in recreational
shopping as a means of self-enhancement and self-
identification.

Turning to the self-enhancement motive of recreational shopping, research on the

self-concept (see Gecas 1982; Markus and Wurf 1987) suggests that having a prominent

recreational shopper identity will inspire recreational shopping enthusiasts to participate

in the marketplace to maintain/nourish positive feelings about the self, as well as alleviate

negative self-feeling. This dual self-enhancement role ascribed to recreational shopping

differentiates recreational shopping enthusiasts from compulsive buyers, who venture

into the marketplace primarily in response to low self-esteem (O'Guinn and Faber 1989).








At the same time, it suggests that the nature and importance of a recreational shopping

enthusiast's shopping activities may differ depending on the type of emotional nutrition

he/she is seeking. Given that compulsive buyers derive more satisfaction from the

shopping process than product acquisition and possession, it is expected that a product

purchase will hold only short-term meaning when recreational shopping enthusiasts are

seeking emotional uplift. In contrast, in response to a need for positive self-regard, both

experiential activities and product acquisition will be significant to the shopping

experience, however, the purchased product is likely to be paramount, serving as a

tangible reminder of the positive experience.

The final two propositions and a priori themes with respect to the self-enhancing

role of recreational shopping are:

Proposition 9: Recreational shoppers have lower self-esteem than
nonrecreational shoppers.

Proposition 10: High involvement recreational shoppers have lower self-
esteem than low involvement recreational shoppers.

A Priori Theme 7: Recreational shopping enthusiasts engage in shopping as a
means of bolstering positive self-feelings and reducing
negative self-regard.

A Priori Theme 8: The shopping experience as a whole becomes more
meaningful when recreational shopping enthusiasts'
marketplace presence is inspired by positive self-feelings.

In the following chapter, the methods used to investigate the preceding research

questions, a priori themes, and propositions will be described.














CHAPTER 4
METHODOLOGY


In light of the discovery-oriented spirit of this research, an emergent two-phase

multi-method study was conducted, consisting of in-depth interviews and a survey.

Following the sentiment of previous multi-method consumer research (Amould and Price

1993; O'Guinn and Faber 1989), qualitative and quantitative methods were blended in the

present study as complementary partners, rather than opposing forces, to advance the

knowledge and understanding of recreational shopping. Through the survey data,

relationships among pertinent shopping and leisure variables were examined to build a

structure for defining the recreational shopping experience. In complement, the interview

data provided substance and personal meaning to the survey-based structure by yielding a

phenomenological account of recreational shopping that enriched the content of the

survey questions, as well as illustrating, contextualizing, and interpreting survey results

(Arnould and Price 1993; O'Guinn and Faber 1989).

Study 1

In the first phase of the research, in-depth interviews were conducted with 15

female consumers, who enjoy shopping for clothing. The number of informants is based

on the recommendations of McCracken (1988) and Spradley (1979), while the reason for

limiting the group of informants to females is Bellenger and Korgaonkar's (1980) finding

that recreational shoppers were more likely to be female than male. In addition, research







47
by Guiry (1992), suggests that females are more likely to consider shopping an important

social event.

The informants were recruited through a university newspaper advertisement and

each informant received $25 for participating in the study. Each interview was conducted

by the author and lasted between 60 and 90 minutes. The interviews were tape recorded

and transcribed verbatim by the author.

Characteristics of Informants

The informants ranged in age from 19 to 42. Eleven of the informants were

students while the other four were working full-time. Eight of the students were working

part-time while attending school. Finally, with regards to their ethnic/racial background,

five of the informants were African-American, two were Hispanic American, and the

remaining eight were white.

Interview Format

The interviews were conducted in a loose format to develop rapport, enable

informants to describe their shopping experiences in detail, and allow them the freedom

to introduce topics on their own. At the beginning of the interview, informants were

asked to discuss a recent experience shopping for clothing at a shopping mall, framed

within the context of a "grand tour" question (McCracken 1988; Spradley 1979). From

this initial question, the interview moved towards discussing informants' clothes

shopping experience in more detail, other shopping experiences, informants' definition of

shopping, the meaning they ascribe to the experience, and the role of shopping in the

larger context of their lives. Specific interview questions were raised when necessary to

investigate such issues as how is shopping used as a recreational activity, types of







48
activities engaged in while shopping, types of products that informants enjoyed shopping

for and those that they did not like shopping for, role of shopping companions and sales

personnel in their shopping experiences, meaning of the experience, identification with

shopping, which aspects of shopping are most important, when informants went clothes

shopping, gift shopping, catalog shopping, positive and negative consequences of

shopping, etc.

The protocol used to guide, but not drive, the interviews is provided in Appendix

1. Each informant was not asked every question from the protocol since more often than

not key issues would arise without prompting during the course of the informant's

discussion of her clothes shopping experiences. The goal was to have an in-depth

conversation about shopping for clothing from a first-person perspective, rather than a

question and answer session, that would yield a "thick description" (Denzin 1989; Geertz

1973) of informants' shopping experiences.

The interviews were used to examine a priori themes and identify and analyze

emergent themes to gain a first-person understanding of consumers' lived shopping

experiences (McCracken 1988; Spradley 1979; Thompson, Locander, and Pollio 1989).

To meet this end, the research uses the constant comparative method of analysis (Glaser

and Strauss 1967; Strauss and Corbin 1990) to examine the similarities and differences in

the shopping experiences of the informants.

The verbatim interview transcripts were the data from which the thematic

descriptions of informants' shopping experiences unfolded through an interpretive

process. Thematic descriptions required careful readings of each transcript to understand

the individual informant's shopping experiences from a first-person perspective. After








the interviews were analyzed individually, the separate interviews were related to each

other and common patterns or themes were identified emerging from informants'

discussions of their shopping experiences. An emic approach to interpretation was

followed that attempted to describe the recorded experiences from within the informant

by using her own terms rather than the researcher's.

Study 2

In the second phase of the research, survey questionnaires were distributed to a

quota-convenience sample of consumers by undergraduate and MBA students in the

author's marketing classes at Fairleigh Dickinson University. In return for extra course

credit and the opportunity to participate in a cash raffle, each student was asked to secure

up to ten respondents. Student participation was voluntary and each student was

permitted to complete a survey him/herself. Firm guidelines on respondent eligibility

were established to try to ensure a reasonable diversity of individuals and backgrounds.

The instructions and guidelines provided to the students are shown in Appendix 2.

Respondents drawn from family, friends, neighbors, co-workers were encouraged to

increase participation and conscientiousness in completing the survey. As a trade-off,

however, it was recognized that such encouragement would likely restrict the range of

socioeconomic classes represented in the final survey.

Before being administered, the survey was pre-tested by ten adult consumers, in

addition to being reviewed by the author's dissertation chairman. Based on their

feedback, the original questionnaire was revised.

Each questionnaire was accompanied by a blank envelope and cover letter

describing the project as a study of consumer clothes shopping behavior. Anonymity was








guaranteed by instructing the respondent to seal the completed questionnaire in the

envelope before returning it to the student and by assuring the respondent that the

professor directing the project would be responsible for opening the envelope. To

encourage respondent participation, respondents were eligible to participate in a raffle

with cash prizes. A copy of the cover letter and questionnaire is included in Appendix 3.

The final sample consisted of 561 respondents. A detailed profile of the

respondents is given in Table 4. Ages ranged from less than 19 to over 60 and 54.8%

were between the ages of 20 and 29. Regarding gender, 56.7% were female and 61.2%

of the sample had never been married. Caucasians made up 46.1% of the respondents

and 72.8% of the sample were U. S. citizens. Educationally, 53.2% of the sample were

currently attending high school or college, 26.9% had a college degree and 11.4% had a

graduate degree. Regarding annual household income, 15.6% were below $20,000,

25.2% between $20,000 and $39,999, 26.0% between $40,00 and $59,999, 16.2%

between $60,000 and $79,999, and 17.1% were at or above $80,000.

Survey Measures

The questionnaire consisted of a series of scales and questions that were used to

answer the study's specific research questions, investigate the propositions, and explore

relationships among shopping and leisure variables.

Recreational shopper identity and leisure-based dimensions of recreational
shopping

The survey consisted of 84 items designed to measure recreational shopper

identity (level of involvement) and leisure-based dimensions of the recreational shopping

experience. The items designed to measure recreational shopping identity (level of








Table 4
Sociodemographic Variables
Descriptive Statistics

Gender Percent
Male 43.3
Female 56.7

Ag=
19 or younger 8.8
20 29 54.8
30-39 15.4
40-49 10.2
50-59 3.8
60 or older 7.2

Race/Ethnic Group
African-American 15.2
Asian 26.3
Caucasian 46.1
Hispanic 5.7
Other 6.8

Marital Status
Never Married 61.2
Married 29.5
Living Together 3.6
Separated 1.1
Divorced 3.0
Widowed 1.6

Number of Children
None 63.6
One 15.7
Two 10.9
Three 6.7
Four or More 3.1

Education
High School 2.7
High School Graduate 15.2
College 34.9
College Degree 26.9
Graduate School 8.9
Graduate Degree 11.4








Table 4--continued

Student Percent
Yes 53.2
No 46.8

U.S. Citizen
Yes 72.8
No 27.2

Annual Household Income
Less than $20,000 15.6
$20,000 $39,999 25.2
$40,000 $59,999 26.0
$60,000 $79,999 16.2
$80,000 $99,999 7.4
$100,000 or more 9.7



involvement) were drawn from Shamir's (1992) 12-item leisure identity scale and

Bloch's (1981) research on product involvement, while the leisure-based dimensions

were based on the 26-item scale developed by Unger and Kernan (1983) to measure the

six dimensions of a leisure experience. Additional items were added to these scales

based on the shopping and consumer behavior literature, interview data, and the author's

imagination. In addition, items were included to measure the following dimensions:

social, including the role of shopping companions and salespeople, fantasy, and the

importance of clothing. All 84 items were worded to fit a retail store clothes shopping

context. Using 5-point scales anchored by "Strongly Agree" and "Strongly Disagree,"

respondents indicated their level of agreement with each item as it pertained to shopping

for clothing for themselves in a retail store.

A principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in eight

interpretable factors, accounting for 72 of the original 84 items, labeled: recreational








shopper identity (a = .9593), intrinsic satisfaction (a = .9073), spontaneity (a = .8641),

mastery (a = .8416), fantasy (a = .8494), social (a = .8056), salesperson (a = .7164), and

clothing-focused (a = .5733). The eight scales are presented in detail in the Survey

Results chapter immediately following this one.

Shopping mall activities

The measures of the frequency of consumer participation in mall activities were

primarily drawn from Bloch et al.'s (1994) research on mall inhabitants. The 13 items

from their research were modified and augmented by the author to capture a range of

product and service purchase activities, experiential activities, and consumption of the

mall itself. The final inventory containing 20 items (a = .8479) is included in Appendix

4. Using 5-point scales anchored by "Very Often" and "Never," respondents indicated

how often they participated in 20 different mall activities when at a shopping mall

shopping for clothing.

Shopping behavior

Respondents were asked to indicate their frequency of shopping for clothing for

themselves in a retail store (whether a purchase was made or not), how much time they

spent shopping for clothing on a shopping trip for themselves (whether a purchase was

made or not), their frequency of shopping for clothing for themselves from a catalog, TV

home shopping channel, and the Internet (whether a purchase was made or not). The

frequency of shopping for clothing in a retail store was measured using a 9-point scale (1

= More than once a week, 2 = Once a week, 3 = Three times a month, 4 = Twice a month,

5 = Once a month, 6 = Every other month, 7 = 4 5 times a year, 8 = 2 3 times a year,

9 = Once a year). The time spent shopping for clothing was assessed using an 8-point







54
scale (1 = Less than 1 hour, 2 = 1 hour, 3 = 2 hours, 4 = 3 hour, 5 = 4 hours, 6 = 5 hours,

7 = 6 hours, 8 = More than 6 hours). Respondents' frequency of shopping for clothing

from a catalog, TV home shopping channel, and the Internet were each measured using

10-point scales (1 = More than once a week, 2 = Once a week, 3 = Three times a month,

4 = Twice a month, 5 = Once a month, 6 = Every other month, 7 = 4 5 times a year, 8 =

2 3 times a year, 9 = Once a year, 10 = Never).

Materialism, compulsive buying, and self-esteem

Materialism was measured by the summation of Richins and Dawson's (1992) 18-

item Likert scale (a = .8164). Compulsive buying was assessed by Faber and O'Guinn's

(1992) Likert scale (a = .7958) and scoring equation. Self-esteem was measured by the

summation of Rosenberg's (1965) 10-item Likert scale (a = .8740). These scales are

shown in Appendices 5, 6, and 7 respectively.

Opened-ended questions

The survey included two opened-ended questions for respondents to answer. The

questions were: What does shopping for clothing mean to you? and Compared to other

forms of shopping (i.e., catalogs, TV home shopping channels, or Internet), what do you

like best about shopping for clothing for yourself in retail store?

Sociodemographic variables

Respondents were asked to indicate their age, gender, race/ethnic group, marital

status, number of children living in their household, highest level of education completed,

student status, U. S. citizenship status, how long they have lived in the U. S., if not a U.

S. citizen, annual household income before taxes, and the percentage of income spent on







55
buying clothing for themselves. The scales used to measure respondents'

sociodemographic characteristics are presented in Appendix 8.

Since a quantitative and qualitative methods were used to conduct this research,

the dissertation results will be presented in two chapters. First, the survey results will be

discussed in Chapter 5 and then, in Chapter 6, the qualitative results will be described.

The order used to present the results is consistent with the complementary role of the

interview data that was described earlier in this chapter.














CHAPTER 5
SURVEY RESULTS


In this chapter, the research questions and propositions that were investigated by

analyzing the survey data will be discussed. For reference, these research questions and

propositions are summarized in Table 5. During the discussion of the results, additional

insights from the data will be brought to light when these findings are pertinent to the

specific research questions and propositions being addressed.

Recreational Shopper Identity and Leisure Dimensions of Recreational Shopping

Research Question 1

Exploratory factor analysis of the 84 survey items, discussed in Chapter 4, was

used to examine which dimensions of leisure are present in recreational shopping. The

survey items were designed to measure recreational shopper identity and leisure-based

dimensions of the recreational shopping experience.

A principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation of the 84 items

resulted in a sixteen-factor solution explaining 64.3% of the variance in the measures.

The sixteen factors each had eigenvalues greater than one. After rotation, an examination

of each factor's item loadings resulted in eight interpretable factors, explaining 52.9% of

the variance in the full set of 84 items, being retained for further analysis. The factor

matrix of these eight factors, selected from the original 16-factor rotated solution, is

shown in Table 6.








Table 5
Research Questions and Propositions Investigated by the Survey Data


Research Questiol


Research Questiol


Research Questiol


Research Questiol



Research Questior


Proposition 1:


Proposition 2:


Proposition 3:




Proposition 4:





Proposition 5:


n l:


n 2:


n3:


n 5:



n6:


Which dimensions of leisure discriminate recreational
shopping from nonrecreational shopping?

What is the relationship between the dimensions of recreational
shopping and intrinsic satisfaction?

What activities do recreational shoppers participate in to
experience the different dimensions of recreational shopping?

How does the presence of a shopping companion influence the
nature and importance of leisure dimensions experienced while
recreational shopping?

What role does a salesperson play in a recreational shopper's
shopping experience?


Recreational shoppers are more likely to engage in fantasy behavior
than nonrecreational shoppers.

Consumer involvement with recreational shopping varies along a
continuum from low involvement to high involvement.

At low levels of recreational shopping involvement the focus of
consumers' shopping experiences is product acquisition, while at high
levels of recreational shopping the focus of consumers' shopping
experiences is the experience in itself.

Low involvement recreational shoppers realize higher levels of
enjoyment and satisfaction from product acquisition than from
experiential activities; in contrast high involvement recreational
shoppers realize higher levels of enjoyment and satisfaction from the
shopping experience as a whole than from product acquisition.

Low involvement recreational shoppers realize higher levels of
enjoyment and satisfaction from product acquisition than high
involvement recreational shoppers; in contrast high involvement
recreational shoppers realize higher levels of enjoyment and
satisfaction from experiential activities than low involvement
recreational shoppers.








Table 5--continued


Proposition 6:



Proposition 7:


Proposition 8:



Proposition 9:


Proposition 10:


High involvement recreational shoppers exhibit lower levels of
attachment to and possessiveness of purchased products than low
involvement recreational shoppers.

High involvement recreational shoppers realize higher levels of
enjoyment from shopping than low involvement recreational shoppers.

High involvement recreational shoppers have higher mean scores on
the measures of the other dimensions of leisure than low involvement
recreational shoppers.

Recreational shoppers have lower self-esteem than nonrecreational
shoppers.

High involvement recreational shoppers have lower self-esteem than
low involvement recreational shoppers.


The boldfaced factor scores in the matrix indicate the items used to define each

factor. Items denoted with a minus sign [-] were reversed scored in subsequent data

analysis. To be retained for factor definition, an item had to have its highest loading on

the factor, have a minimum factor score of .30 (Bernstein, Garbin, and Teng 1988), and

be conceptually related to the other items being used to define the factor. These criteria

resulted in 72 of the original 84 items being included in the 8-factor structure. Each item

not included in the eight-factor solution had its highest loading on one of the eliminated

factors, i.e., Factors 9 16. These factors had been eliminated since they were not

interpretable or had at most a two-item loading.

With regards to the stability of the two leisure scales that were incorporated into

this research, for the most part, Shamir's (1992) leisure identity scale maintained its

original structure in the factor analysis, while Unger and Keman's (1983) dimensions of










Table 6
Factor Loadings of Recreational Shopper Identity and Leisure-Based Dimensions of Recreational Shopping

Factor 1
Recreational Factor 2 Factor 8
Shopper Intrinsic Factor 3 Factor 4 Factor 5 Factor 6 Factor 7 Clothing-
Item Identity Satisfaction Spontaneity Mastery Fantasy Social Salesperson Focused

Shopping for clothing is
central to who I am. .76 .09 .15 .12 .11 .06 .07 .10

Shopping for clothing is what
makes life truly enjoyable. .75 .19 .15 .13 .23 .12 .05 .08

I find that a lot of my life is
organized around shopping
for clothing. .74 .15 .04 .13 .06 .05 .13 -.07

If I was not able to go
shopping for clothing, I
would feel that a part of me is
missing. .74 .29 .09 .07 .11 .05 .05 .05

Shopping for clothing is one
of the most fulfilling things I
do. .73 .26 .16 .06 .17 .12 .04 .16

Shopping for clothing
occupies a special place in
my life .73 .27 .06 .11 .12 .05 .14 .11

Shopping for clothing affirms
my values. .72 -.01 .15 .15 .05 .11 .07 .17

Shopping for clothing enables
me to realize my aspirations. .66 .17 .19 .16 .20 .09 .09 .12

Shopping for clothing is an
extension of myself. .65 .28 .11 .15 .02 .03 .07 .22










Table 6--continued


Factor 1
Recreational Factor 2 Factor 8
Shopper Intrinsic Factor 3 Factor 4 Factor 5 Factor 6 Factor 7 Clothing-
Item Identity Satisfaction Spontaneity Mastery Fantasy Social Salesperson Focused

Shopping for clothing is often
on my mind. .64 .35 .09 .07 .13 .11 .09 .02

Shopping for clothing totally
absorbs me. .64 .20 .03 .17 .14 .03 .03 .05

Shopping for clothing is one
of the most enjoyable things I
do. .62 .48 .14 .05 .17 .14 .08 .17

A central part of my
friendship or relationship
with another person is going
shopping for clothing
together. .60 .01 .10 .13 .08 .28 .09 -.11

Shopping for clothing
contributes to my self-esteem. .56 .22 .17 .20 .09 .06 .05 .28

When I'm with a friend or
family member we often end
up talking about shopping for
clothing. .54 .20 .11 .10 .01 .16 .20 -.02

I get a real high from
shopping for clothing. .53 .43 .10 .27 .29 .13 -.02 .05

I get so involved shopping for
clothing that I forget
everything else. .52 .25 .13 .27 .21 .05 .01 -.04










Table 6--continued


Factor 1
Recreational Factor 2 Factor 8
Shopper Intrinsic Factor 3 Factor 4 Factor 5 Factor 6 Factor 7 Clothing-
Item Identity Satisfaction Spontaneity Mastery Fantasy Social Salesperson Focused

Other people think that
shopping for clothing is
important to me. .51 .31 .07 .11 -.01 .09 .14 .01

Shopping for clothing is its
own reward. .48 .43 .18 .11 .18 .10 .06 .19

Shopping for clothing is
important for my self-
definition. .45 .26 .27 .15 .10 .01 .06 .31

I feel like a real champion
when shopping for clothing. .44 .27 .13 .37 .22 .03 .12 .18

Shopping for clothing is a
social event. .43 .21 -.01 .16 .09 .32 -.09 .15

I find myself going shopping
for clothing often because I
quickly lose interest in the
clothing that I buy. .42 .12 .23 .20 .14 .05 -.04 -.09

Shopping for clothing offers
new experiences. .40 .21 .21 .14 .22 .08 .10 .33

Shopping for clothing is
much more than simply
buying something it is a
whole experience. .38 .37 .06 .30 .10 .11 .10 .25

I love to go shopping for
clothing. .42 .68 .10 .03 .14 .09 -.01 .22










Table 6--continued


Factor 1
Recreational Factor 2 Factor 8
Shopper Intrinsic Factor 3 Factor 4 Factor 5 Factor 6 Factor 7 Clothing-
Item Identity Satisfaction Spontaneity Mastery Fantasy Social Salesperson Focused

To me, shopping for clothing
is pure enjoyment. .39 .66 .21 .06 .18 .07 -.03 .15

I enjoy the process of
shopping for clothing for its
own sake. .24 .64 .15 -.08 .22 .04 .06 .10

Shopping for clothing is a
way to "get away from it all." .31 .62 .22 .32 .06 .00 .10 .02

Shopping for clothing helps
me forget about the day's
problems. .32 .62 .23 .29 .10 .02 .11 .03

I go shopping for clothing
because buying clothing
makes me happy. .38 .62 .23 .17 .14 .03 .03 .15

I was born to shop for
clothing. .33 .59 .18 .18 .06 .06 .10 .00

I need to be looking for a
specific item to go shopping
for clothing. [-] -.13 -.57 -.14 .15 .08 .02 .03 .23

"Not because I have to but
because I want to" would
characterize my shopping for
clothing. .39 .49 .10 .01 .14 .11 -.09 .19

Others do not have to talk me
into shopping for clothing. .11 .45 .09 .02 -.17 -.17 -.05 .16










Table 6--continued


Factor 1
Recreational Factor 2 Factor 8
Shopper Intrinsic Factor 3 Factor 4 Factor 5 Factor 6 Factor 7 Clothing-
Item Identity Satisfaction Spontaneity Mastery Fantasy Social Salesperson Focused

I enjoy walking around the
mall when I am shopping for
clothing. .21 .43 .08 .02 .15 .18 .06 .20

I enjoy discussing shopping
for clothing with my family
and/or friends. .29 .41 .04 .14 .08 .30 .16 .18

For me, shopping for clothing
is a "spur-of-the-moment"
thing. .18 .11 .82 .05 .02 .01 -.02 .11

For me, shopping for clothing
happens "out of the blue." .19 .16 .82 .06 .08 .01 .04 .09

For me, shopping for clothing
happens without warning or
pre-thought. .19 .27 .73 .03 .03 .09 .06 -.02

For me, shopping for clothing
is a spontaneous occurrence. .22 .25 .72 .11 .04 .08 .01 .15

I don't know the day before
that I am going to go
shopping for clothing. .08 .08 .69 .06 .04 -.01 -.02 -.10

I feel like I'm being
thoroughly tested when
shopping for clothing. .20 .02 .01 .73 .03 .12 .10 .09










Table 6--continued


Factor 1
Recreational Factor 2 Factor 8
Shopper Intrinsic Factor 3 Factor 4 Factor 5 Factor 6 Factor 7 Clothing-
Item Identity Satisfaction Spontaneity Mastery Fantasy Social Salesperson Focused

When I am shopping for
clothing I feel like I am in
another world. .28 .13 .07 .70 .18 .01 .12 .08

I feel like I'm exploring new
worlds when shopping for
clothing. .34 .24 .13 .61 .21 .02 .12 .16

I feel like I'm at risk when
shopping for clothing. .30 -.11 .09 .52 .02 .11 .04 -.07

I get a sense of adventure
when shopping for clothing. .30 .42 .14 .44 .14 -.00 .07 .16

In a sense, I feel like I'm
conquering the world when
shopping for clothing. .33 .37 .09 .41 .06 .12 -.06 -.09

Shopping for clothing
satisfies my sense of
curiosity. .36 .31 .22 .39 .21 .07 .06 .08

I enjoy trying on clothes just
for fun when I go shopping
for clothing. .19 .20 .08 .16 .74 .01 .11 -.01

When I go shopping for
clothing I like to try on
clothes that I can not afford to
buy. .22 .12 .02 .05 .73 .06 .11 .05










Table 6--continued


Factor 1
Recreational Factor 2 Factor 8
Shopper Intrinsic Factor 3 Factor 4 Factor 5 Factor 6 Factor 7 Clothing-
Item Identity Satisfaction Spontaneity Mastery Fantasy Social Salesperson Focused

When I go shopping for
clothing I like to try on
clothes that I wish I could
wear. .39 .06 .05 .09 .63 .15 .08 .05

When I am shopping for
clothing I often imagine
myself living another life. .39 .07 .11 .40 .51 .02 .13 -.02

Trying on clothes is part of
the fun of shopping for
clothing. .35 .25 .03 .06 .43 .26 .05 .13

When I go shopping for
clothing trying on clothes
makes me feel good. .38 .22 .04 .14 .41 .18 .10 .15

I like to look through stores
and just imagine owning
some of the clothing. .27 .19 .11 .34 .40 .18 -.01 .12

Shopping for clothing is most
enjoyable when I go with
another person. .15 .11 .05 .11 .07 .80 .06 .10

Shopping for clothing is most
enjoyable when I go by
myself. [-] .07 .10 .12 .14 .09 -.72 .04 .12










Table 6--continued


Factor 1
Recreational Factor 2 Factor 8
Shopper Intrinsic Factor 3 Factor 4 Factor 5 Factor 6 Factor 7 Clothing-
Item Identity Satisfaction Spontaneity Mastery Fantasy Social Salesperson Focused

The best part of going
shopping for clothing is being
with my family and /or
friends. .19 .00 .09 .03 .13 .67 .08 .11

I have a favorite shopping
companion when I go
shopping for clothing. .35 .03 .08 .18 .10 .59 .13 .05

I enjoy going shopping for
clothing with other people
even if I do not plan to buy
something. .13 .22 .13 .10 .21 .53 .05 .06

I enjoy helping a shopping
companion while he/she is
shopping for clothing. .23 .32 .07 .07 .02 .47 .04 .18

I enjoy being complimented
by a shopping companion
when I am shopping for
clothing. .09 .19 .08 .17 .12 .38 .30 .29

When shopping for clothing I
enjoy talking to salespeople. .07 .09 .09 .06 .13 .08 .75 .01

I like to be waited on by a
helpful salesperson when I
am shopping for clothing. .13 -.10 -.12 .12 -.04 -.03 .72 .11











Table 6--continued


Factor I
Recreational Factor 2 Factor 8
Shopper Intrinsic Factor 3 Factor 4 Factor 5 Factor 6 Factor 7 Clothing-
Item Identity Satisfaction Spontaneity Mastery Fantasy Social Salesperson Focused

I like when salespeople know
my name when I am shopping
for clothing. .34 .01 -.03 .10 .11 .07 .61 .05

I enjoy being complimented
by a salesperson when I am
shopping for clothing. .10 .11 .16 .08 .15 .13 .56 .12

I am friendly and talkative to
others when I am shopping
for clothing. .00 .34 .06 .03 .17 .13 .49 .07

I feel very strongly about the
clothing that I buy. .27 .09 .12 .08 .08 .09 .07 .72

The clothing that I buy is
special to me. .27 .14 .06 .11 .02 .10 .23 .61

I have strong feelings about
shopping for clothing. .28 .23 -.00 .27 .08 .06 .09 .42

When I go shopping for
clothing I don't really care
what I buy. [-] .35 -.17 .13 .22 .10 -.07 .17 -.41

Shopping for clothing is fun
when I am just looking
around in a store with no
intention to buy. .15 .24 .12 .17 .26 .13 .09 .04










Table 6--continued


Factor 1
Recreational Factor 2 Factor 8
Shopper Intrinsic Factor 3 Factor 4 Factor 5 Factor 6 Factor 7 Clothing-
Item Identity Satisfaction Spontaneity Mastery Fantasy Social Salesperson Focused

When I go shopping for
clothing I'm often not sure
why I buy the things that I do. .30 .07 .22 .14 .15 .03 .01 -.14

Shopping for clothing is not
fun ifI don't buy something. .26 .08 .07 .12 -.04 .13 .11 .04

When I go shopping for
clothing I have to buy
something. .36 .23 .19 .02 .08 .04 .11 -.00

I do not feel forced to shop
for clothing. [-] .09 -.01 -.09 -.03 .04 .12 -.09 .05

I do not feel obligated to shop
for clothing. [-] .08 -.08 -.08 .07 .00 -.01 .04 .02

Many people know how I feel
about shopping for clothing. .16 -.01 .05 .06 -.00 .05 .08 .07

Shopping for clothing is
unique. .29 .24 .09 .16 .11 -.00 .04 .16

I like to stop and get
something to eat or drink
when I am shopping for
clothing. .01 .11 .11 -.02 .15 .12 .04 .07

Shopping for clothing is not
completely voluntary for me.
[-] -.07 -.12 .08 .19 .00 .00 .08 .08










Table 6--continued


Factor I
Recreational Factor 2 Factor 8
Shopper Intrinsic Factor 3 Factor 4 Factor 5 Factor 6 Factor 7 Clothing-
Item Identity Satisfaction Spontaneity Mastery Fantasy Social Salesperson Focused

Shopping for clothing allows
me to express myself. .33 .36 .25 .26 .10 .09 .11 .21

I never get as much out of
owning the clothing I buy as I
thought I would. .26 -.09 .04 .19 .11 .04 -.00 -.11

Eigenvalues 26.49 3.87 3.16 2.62 2.46 2.23 1.87 1.72

Percentage of Variance
Explained 31.50 4.60 3.80 3.10 2.90 2.70 2.20 2.00








leisure scale was not stable. A number of items from their scale exhibited different

loading patterns than the ones reported in their research.

The first factor, shown in Table 6, was labeled recreational shopper identity.

This factor encompassed 25 items pertaining to how one defines or identifies him/herself

in terms of shopping for clothing and the incorporation of the activity into the self. Nine

of the eleven items from Shamir's leisure identity scale loaded on Factor 1, while Unger

and Kernan's scale contributed five items, i.e., one item each from the intrinsic

satisfaction, arousal, and mastery dimensions, and two items from the involvement

dimension, to this factor. This factor was used to differentiate recreational shoppers from

nonrecreational shoppers in this research.

The second factor was labeled intrinsic satisfaction. The 12 items loading on this

factor, shown in Table 6, captured the personal enjoyment realized from shopping for

clothing. This dimension tapped not only the joy received from product acquisition and

participating in the activity, but also the mood enhancing benefits of shopping. Intrinsic

satisfaction and enjoyment have been identified as a dimension of leisure (Gunter 1987;

Shaw 1985; Unger and Kernan 1983). Six items from Unger and Kemran's scale loaded

on this factor: two items each from the intrinsic satisfaction, perceived freedom, and

involvement dimensions.

The third factor, labeled spontaneity, captured the spontaneous or unplanned

nature of shopping for clothing. Spontaneity has been identified as a dimension of leisure

(Gunter 1987; Unger and Kernan 1983). All five items from Unger and Kernan's

spontaneity dimension loaded on this factor. The loadings for these five items are shown

in Table 6.








In Factor 4, feelings of mastering the activity of shopping for clothing were

represented. The twelve items, exhibited in Table 6, loading on this factor referred to the

opportunity one has to test one's self or conquer the clothing shopping environment in

some way (e.g., find a unique item or get a very good deal on a purchase). Mastery has

been identified as a leisure dimension (Unger and Kernan 1983). All the items that loaded

on this dimension were from Unger and Kernan's scale: four items from the mastery

dimension, two items from the arousal dimension, and one item from the involvement

dimension. The loading of the arousal items on this factor is not surprising given that

mastery appears to be closely linked to arousal seeking in leisure (Unger and Kernan

1983).

The fifth factor, shown in Table 6, focused on Fantasy behaviors engaged in

while shopping for clothing. The seven items tapped playful daydreaming and fanciful

activities that may provide enjoyment to participants, as well as serving positive adaptive

functions such as motivation, exploration, compensation, delay of gratification, and

escape (Foumier and Guiry 1993). Although Unger and Keman did not include a

measure of fantasy in their scale, fantasy has been identified as a dimension of leisure in

the leisure literature (Gunter 1987), in addition to being an aspect of consumer culture

(Fournier and Guiry 1993; O'Guinn and Faber 1989).

The sixth factor reflected the social aspects of shopping for clothing. The seven

items loading on this dimension centered on the benefits provided by the presence of a

shopping companion while a consumer shops for clothing. (See Table 6.) Although not

considered a dimension of leisure, as previously discussed in Chapter 3, companionship

may enhance the leisure experience compared to participating alone.








Rather than representing dimensions of leisure, the last two factors presented in

Table 6 focused on other aspects of shopping for clothing, i.e., interacting with

salespeople and the importance of the clothing purchased while shopping. In Factor 7,

five items addressed the social benefits provided by a salesperson in a consumer's

shopping experience. Factor 8 was labeled clothing-focused as the four items loading on

this dimension encompassed feelings of importance or attachment to the clothing

purchased while shopping.

In addition to delineating a measure of recreational shopper identity salience, the

factor analysis confirmed the existence of four dimensions of leisure in recreational

shopping, i.e., intrinsic satisfaction, spontaneity, mastery, and fantasy. Three of the six

leisure dimensions (perceived freedom, arousal, and involvement) measured by Unger

and Kernan's scale and theorized to be present in all leisure did not emerge as

independent factors. As discussed earlier, Unger and Kernan's scale was found to be

unstable in this research. Two of their five perceived freedom items loaded on the

intrinsic satisfaction factor; the other three items did not have a loading of at least .30 on

any of the eight factors. Two of the four arousal items loaded on the mastery factor. As

previously indicated, mastery and arousal are theorized to be closely related dimensions.

One arousal item loaded on the recreational shopper identity factor, while the final item

did not load on any of the eight factors. With regards to the involvement subscale, two

items each loaded on the recreational shopper identity and intrinsic satisfaction factors;

the last item loaded on the mastery factor.

To further investigate the stability of Unger and Kernan's leisure scale, the 26

items in their scale were subjected to a principal components factor analysis with varimax








rotation. In contrast to the 6-component matrix reported by Unger and Keman, four

factors, with eigenvalues greater than one, were extracted from the present principal

components analysis. The rotated factor structure is shown in Table 7. The boldfaced

factor scores indicate the highest loading for each item across the four factors. In column

one, the items from Unger and Keman's scale are grouped together according to their

original subscale leisure dimension label.

As can be seen in Table 7, the only subscale that held its original structure was the

spontaneity factor (Factor 2). As discussed earlier in this chapter, the same result

occurred when the 84 survey items, from the present research, were factor analyzed. All

the arousal and mastery items from Unger and Kernan's scale loaded together, along with

three involvement items, on Factor 1. The three intrinsic satisfaction items did load

together on Factor 1, but they were joined by three perceived freedom items and two

involvement items. Finally, two perceived freedom items loaded on Factor 4. In sum,

Unger and Kernan's scale appears to be unstable when applied to the leisure activity of

shopping for clothing. The scale's instability seems to have accounted for the lack of

evidence that perceived freedom, arousal, and involvement are separate dimensions of the

shopping for clothing experience.

Returning to the factor analysis results in Table 6, in addition to the four leisure

dimensions that were uncovered, three other dimensions of recreational shopping were

also identified: social, salesperson, and clothing-focused. These dimensions which

pertain to the experiential and product acquisition aspects of shopping in a retail store

setting have been identified as shopping motives as well as defining characteristics of







74
Table 7
Factor Loadings of Unger and Keman (1983) Leisure Scale


Item Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4

Intrinsic Satisfaction
I enjoy the process of shopping for
clothing for its own sake. .25 .22 .67 -.02

To me, shopping for clothing is
pure enjoyment. .39 .27 .69 -.06

Shopping for clothing is its own
reward. .50 .22 .52 .02

Perceived Freedom
I do not feel forced to shop for
clothing. [-] -.01 .08 .10 .81

Shopping for clothing is not
completely voluntary for me. [-] .26 .13 -.45 -.12

I do not feel obligated to shop for
clothing. [-] -.04 .08 .09 .77

Others do not have to talk me into
shopping for clothing. .06 .12 .54 .23

"Not because I have to but because
I want to" would characterize my
shopping for clothing. .29 .18 .66 .11

Arousal
Shopping for clothing is unique. .45 .07 .34 .19

Shopping for clothing satisfies my
sense of curiosity. .62 .24 .27 -.02

Shopping for clothing offers new
experiences. .52 .23 .32 .12

I feel like I'm exploring new
worlds when shopping for .81 .16 .12 .09
clothing.








Table 7--continued


Item Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4

Master
In a sense, I feel like I'm
conquering the world when
shopping for clothing. .57 .10 .29 -.13

I get a sense of adventure when
shopping for clothing. .66 .17 .36 .08

I feel like a real champion when
shopping for clothing. .68 .15 .26 -.02

I feel like I'm being thoroughly
tested when shopping for clothing. .75 .05 -.20 -.04

Involvement
Shopping for clothing helps me
forget about the day's problems. .44 .28 .51 -.12

Shopping for clothing totally
absorbs me. .53 .09 .32 -.26

Shopping for clothing is a way to
"get away from it all." .45 .28 .51 -.06

When I am shopping for clothing I
feel like I am in another world. .80 .10 -.06 -.04

I get so involved shopping for
clothing that I forget everything
else. .55 .18 .30 -.19

Spontaneity
For me, shopping for clothing
happens without warning or pre-
thought. .22 .74 .17 .06

For me, shopping for clothing is a
spontaneous occurrence. .24 .76 .21 .04

For me, shopping for clothing
happens "out of the blue." .20 .84 .11 07


.








Table 7--continued


Item Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4

For me, shopping for clothing is a
"spur-of-the-moment" thing. .13 .85 .09 .02

I don't know the day before that I
am going to go shopping for .03 .70 .12 .08
clothing.

Eigenvalues 8.99 2.42 1.79 1.31

Percentage of Variance Explained 34.60 9.30 6.90 5.10



certain types of shoppers. (See Chapter 2's discussion of shopping motives and shopper

typologies.)

Before discussing the rest of the study's research questions and propositions, in

the next section of this chapter, a profile of the recreational shopper will be provided by

comparing recreational shoppers with nonrecreational shoppers along sociodemographic

and shopping behavior variables, compulsive buying, materialism, self-esteem, and the

leisure and shopping dimensions extracted from the factor analysis.

Profile of the Recreational Shopper

The recreational shopper identity scale was used to classify survey respondents as

recreational shoppers or nonrecreational shoppers. Respondents' scores on the 25 items,

comprising the scale, were summed and those respondents whose total score was at least

76 were classified as recreational shoppers. This method of classification was used since

the neutral point on the recreational shopper identity scale was a score of 75. Classifying

respondents in this manner resulted in 119 recreational shoppers being identified, while







77
the total number of nonrecreational shoppers was 404. Thirty-eight respondents were not

classified one way or the other because of missing values in their responses on the

recreational shopper identity scale. The percentage of recreational shoppers (22.8%) and

nonrecreational shoppers (77.2%) in this research stands in sharp contrast to Bellenger

and Korgaonkar's (1980) results. Using a single-item measure of the level of shopping

enjoyment to classify survey respondents, they reported that 69% of their sample were

recreational shoppers, while 31% were convenience (i.e., nonrecreational shoppers).

Descriptive Statistics

Table 8 shows the means and standard deviations for the main variables in the

dissertation according to the recreational shopper and nonrecreational shopper subgroups.

The items and scales used to measure the main variables, i.e., recreational shopper

identity, leisure and shopping dimensions, shopping mall activities, shopping behavior,

and materialism, compulsive buying, and self-esteem, were described in Chapter 4. The

scales used to assess recreational shopper identity, as well as the leisure and shopping

dimensions will be discussed in detail in the next section of this chapter. For each multi-

item scale, the number of items in the scale and the scale's reliability, measured by

coefficient alpha across all survey respondents, is also provided.

Independent-samples t-tests were used to compare the mean scores of recreational

shoppers and nonrecreational shoppers on each main variable. The t-test results will be

reported in this chapter following the discussion of the descriptive statistics.

Higher scores on the recreational shopper identity scale mean a stronger

recreational shopper identity, while higher numbers on the leisure and shopping

dimension scales mean greater perceived benefits from each dimension. The 20 shopping








Table 8
Descriptive Statistics for the Main Variables by
Recreational Shopper and Nonrecreational Shopper Subgroups


Recreational Shoppers Nonrecreational Shoppers
Variable Mean SD -Range Mean SD Range


Recreational Shopper
Identity
(25 items, a = .9593)
Leisure/Shopping
Dimensions
Intrinsic Satisfaction (12
items, a = .9073)
Spontaneity (5 items, a =
.8641)
Mastery (7 items, a =
.8416)
Fantasy (7 items, a =
.8494)
Social (7 items, a = .8056)
Salesperson (5 items, a =
.7164)
Clothing-Focused (4
items, a = .5733)
Shopping Mall Activities
(20 items, a =.8479)
Play a video game
Have something to drink
Make an unplanned
clothing purchase
Walk for exercise
Browse without planning
to buy
Talk with other shoppers
See a movie
Have a snack
Buy nonclothing product
Walk around for fun
Browse to buy something
in future
Socialize with friends or
family


87.34 8.80 76 -117 53.79 13.77 25 75



45.77 5.96 33 59 33.24 9.11 12 56


17.30


3.31 10 -25 13.87 4.44 5 25


22.43 3.72 12 32 15.96 4.50 7 28


22.39
24.26


4.79
4.45


9-33
13-34


15.71
19.89


5.01
5.20


16.48 3.40 7 25 13.58 3.66 5 23

15.54 2.14 11 20 13.68 2.47 5 20


1.66
3.61

3.71
2.41

3.22
2.35
2.00
3.20
3.28
2.91

3.30


1.02
1.06

1.01
1.32

1.03
.99
1.00
1.11
.95
1.12


1-5
1-5

1-5
1-5


1.46
3.49

3.06
1.82

2.95
2.13
1.92
3.25
3.23
2.42


.99 1-5 2.87


.86
1.00

.96
1.01

1.10
.91
1.05
.98
.86
1.15

1.01


1-5
1-5

1-5
1-5

1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5

1-5


3.14 1.07 1-5 2.45


1.15 1 -5








Table 8--continued

Recreational Shoppers Nonrecreational Shoppers
Variable Mean SD Range Mean SD Range
Go on carousel ride 1.67 .96 1 5 1.36 .75 1 5
Have lunch 3.28 .95 1-5 2.99 1.07 1-5
Get a haircut 1.38 .75 1 4 1.35 .73 1- 5
Try on clothing for fun 2.68 1.24 1 5 1.75 .94 1 5
Have conversation with
sales clerk 2.52 1.03 1 5 2.15 .95 1- 5
Look at mall exhibits 2.72 1.05 1 5 2.48 1.02 1- 5
Have dinner 2.48 1.08 1 -5 2.20 1.10 1- 5
Watch other people 2.71 1.28 1 5 2.58 1.20 1 -5
Shopping Behaviors
Freuency of shopping for
clothing in retail stores 6.22 1.84 2-9 4.96 2.03 1- 9
Time spent shopping for
clothing per trip 3.58 1.49 1 -8 2.88 1.27 1-8
Frequency of shopping for
clothing from catalogs 2.85 2.28 1 10 3.01 2.32 1 10
Frequency of shopping for
clothing from TV home
shopping channels 1.47 1.64 1 -10 1.25 .99 1 10
Frequency of shopping for
clothing from Internet 1.22 .95 1 7 1.11 .72 1 8
Materialism (18 items, a =
.8164) 57.05 7.47 39 -77 49.77 8.76 21 -81
Compulsive Buying (7 -3.61 -3.61-
items, a = .7958) .24 2.12 6.27 -1.50 1.43 5.20
Self-Esteem (10 items, a
=.8740) 38.88 6.67 25 -50 41.57 5.75 23 50


mall activity variables were single-item measures, assessed using 5-point scales. Higher

scores on these items indicate more frequent participation in the mall activity.

For the single-item shopping behavior variables, in the order the measures are

listed, a higher score means more frequent shopping activity in retail stores, more time

spent shopping per trip, or more frequent shopping from the three different nonstore sites.







80
The items used to measure the frequency of shopping for clothing for one's self (whether

a purchase was made or not) in a retail store, from a catalog, TV home shopping channel,

and the Internet were reversed scored prior to data analysis.

The reliability of Richins and Dawson's (1992) materialism scale (a = .8164) falls

within the range of .80 to .88 reported in their research, while the reliability of

Rosenberg's (1965) self-esteem scale (a = .8740) is comparable to other studies (e.g.,

Richins and Dawson (1992)). Higher numbers on the materialism scale mean a stronger

materialistic tendency, while lower scores on the self-esteem scale mean lower self-

esteem. Using the midpoint of the 18-item materialism scale and the 10-item self-esteem

scale as cutoff points respectively, 39.2% of the survey respondents were considered

materialistic and 6.0% had low self-esteem.

For Faber and O'Guinn's (1992) compulsive buying scale, the calculated alpha

coefficient of.7958 was lower than their reported Cronbach's alpha of.95. A principal

components factor analysis with varimax rotation of the seven items did extract one

factor, matching the factor analysis results of Faber and O'Guinn. The eigenvalue of

3.23 and proportion of variance of .46, however, were lower than their results (eigenvalue

= 4.45 and proportion of variance of .64). Using Faber and O'Guinn's (1992)

recommended cutoff point of-1.34 in the use of their clinical assessment equation, 10.8%

of the survey sample would be classified as compulsive buyers or at risk of becoming

compulsive buyers. For data analysis purposes, including the means shown in Table 8,

compulsive buying was computed according to Faber and O'Guinn's scoring equation

and then multiplied by -1 so that higher numbers mean a greater compulsive buying

tendency.







81
In Table 9, the frequency distributions for the sociodemographic variables by the

recreational shopper and nonrecreational shopper subgroups are provided. The use of a

quota-convenience sample to collect the survey data resulted in each subgroup being

skewed toward younger consumers, i.e., between the ages of 20 and 29, who have never

been married. This method of data collection, however, did result in a fairly balanced

distribution of males and females, different racial and ethnic groups, education levels,

and income brackets.

Independent-Samples T-Tests for Sociodemographic Variables

Recreational shoppers and nonrecreational shoppers were first compared across

the four continuous sociodemographic variables (i.e., age, education, income, and number

of children). The results of the t-test analysis are shown in Table 10. The age and

income levels of recreational shoppers differed significantly from nonrecreational

shoppers. Compared to nonrecreational shoppers, recreational shoppers were more likely

to be younger (M= 20 24) and have lower incomes (M= $30,000 $39,999). In

comparison, the average age and income of nonrecreational shoppers was 30 34 and

$40,000 $49,999 respectively. The significant difference in income levels between the

two groups is consistent with Bellenger et al.'s (1977) research on recreational shoppers.

In contrast to Bellenger et al.'s (1977) finding that recreational shoppers were less well

educated than nonrecreational shoppers, in the present study no significant differences

were found in the education levels of recreational shoppers and nonrecreational shoppers.

For the binary and categorical sociodemographic variables, independent-samples

t-tests were conducted to compare the mean recreational shopper identity scores of the

different groups within each variable. The t-test results indicated that females, students,








Table 9
Frequency Statistics for Sociodemographic Variables by
Recreational Shopper and Nonrecreational Shopper Subgroups

Recreational Nonrecreational
Shoppers Shoppers
Variable Percent Percent

Gender
Male 37.0 44.6
Female 63.0 55.4

Age
19 or younger 8.4 9.2
20 29 72.3 48.5
30-39 15.2 15.9
40-49 1.6 13.2
50 59 0.8 5.0
60 or older 1.6 8.2

Race/Ethnic Group
African-American 19.0 14.4
Asian 50.8 19.1
Caucasian 18.1 54.7
Hispanic 7.8 4.7
Other 4.3 7.1

Marital taatus
Never Married 79.0 55.7
Married 15.1 33.8
Living Together 4.2 3.5
Separated 0.8 1.0
Divorced 0.0 4.2
Widowed 0.8 1.7

Number of Children
None 68.1 62.9
One 16.4 14.9
Two 6.0 11.3
Three 7.8 7.1
Four 0.9 2.5
Five or More 0.9 1.3








Table 9--continued

Recreational Nonrecreational
Shoppers Shoppers
Variable Percent Percent

Education
High School 2.5 2.7
High School Graduate 16.8 14.9
College 34.5 34.4
College Degree 28.6 27.0
Graduate School 6.7 9.4
Graduate Degree 10.9 11.6

Student
Yes 70.6 47.6
No 29.4 52.4

U.S. Citizen
Yes 51.3 79.4
No 48.7 20.6

Annual Household Income
Less than $10,000 11.1 6.4
$10,000- $19,999 9.3 7.8
$20,000 $29,999 13.9 11.5
$30,000 $39,999 14.8 12.6
$40,000 $49,999 17.6 11.2
$50,000 $59,999 4.6 16.2
$60,000 $69,999 8.3 9.8
$70,000 $79,999 10.2 5.3
$80,000 $89,999 3.7 4.2
$90,000 $99,999 0.0 4.7
$100,000 or more 6.5 10.3



those who had never been married, non-U. S. citizens, and Asians had a significantly

stronger recreational shopper identity tendency than the counterpart groups they were

compared with.

Females had a stronger recreational shopper identity (M = 63.37) than males (M=

58.82; t = -2.72,p < .01). This result is compatible with Bellenger and Korgaonkar's








Table 10
Comparison of Recreational Shoppers and Nonrecreational Shoppers
(Continuous Sociodemographic Variables)

Mean Mean
Recreational Nonrecreational
Variable Shoppers Shoppers t-value p (<)

Age 2.77 4.15 -6.92 .0001

Education 3.53 3.60 -.57 n.s.

Income 4.91 5.70 -2.50 .05

Number of
Children 1.59 1.75 -1.29 n.s.



(1980) finding that recreational shoppers were more likely to be female than male.

Students had significantly higher recreational shopper identity scores (M= 65.07) than

nonstudents (M= 57.31; t = 4.74, p < .0001). Respondents who had never been married

had a stronger recreational shopper identity (M = 65.54) than married respondents (M=

54.77; t = 5.99, p < .0001). Bellenger et al. (1977) reported a similar result, i.e.,

recreational shoppers were more likely to be single than married. Non-U. S. citizens had

significantly higher recreational shopper identity scores (M = 71.87) than U. S. citizens

(M= 57.53; t = -8.08,p < .0001).

Interestingly, the t-test comparisons showed significant differences in the mean

recreational shopper identity scores among the different race and ethnic groups. Asians

had a stronger recreational shopper identity (M = 72.12) than whites (M= 53.42; t =

10.26,p < .0001), African-Americans (M= 64.76; t = -3.10,p < .01), and Hispanics (M=

64.39; t = 2.18, p < .05), while, similar to Asians, both African-Americans (M = 64.76; t








= 5.02,p < .0001) and Hispanics (M= 64.39; t = 3.10,p < .01) also had higher

recreational shopper identity scores than whites (M = 53.42).

Independent-Samples T-Tests for Shopping Behavior, Compulsive Buying,
Materialism, and Self-Esteem

The next basis for comparison was to analyze differences in clothing shopping

behavior, compulsive buying, materialism, and self-esteem. The results of the t-test

analysis are shown in Table 11. Recreational shoppers went shopping for clothing for

themselves in a retail store more often than nonrecreational shoppers and spent more time

shopping on a shopping trip. The latter result is consistent with Bellenger and

Korgaonkar's (1980) work. On average, recreational shoppers went shopping for

clothing in a retail store between two and three times a month and spent between two and

three hours per trip. In contrast, on average, nonrecreational shoppers shopped for

clothing in a retail store between one and two times a month and spent between one and

two hours shopping each trip.

Significant differences between recreational shoppers and nonrecreational

shoppers also existed on the measures of compulsive buying, materialism, and self-

esteem. Recreational shoppers were more likely to be compulsive buyers and

materialists, and had lower self-esteem than nonrecreational shoppers. These results are

not surprising given that compulsive buyers and materialists are active shopping

participants. Furthermore, research has shown that compulsive buyers are more

materialistic and have lower self-esteem than the general population (O'Guinn and Faber

1989) and materialism is negatively correlated with self-esteem (Richins and Dawson

1992).








Table 11
Comparison of Recreational Shoppers and Nonrecreational Shoppers

Mean Mean
Recreational Nonrecreational
Measure Shoppers Shoppers t-value p (<)


Shopping
Frequency

Time Spent
Shopping

Frequency of
Catalog Shopping

Frequency of TV
Home Shopping

Frequency of
Internet Shopping

Compulsive
Buying

Materialism

Self-Esteem


6.22


3.58


2.85


1.47


1.22


.24

57.05

38.88


4.96


2.88


3.01


1.25


1.11


-1.50

48.77

41.56


-6.06


4.70


.67


-1.40


-1.13


-8.30

8.09

-3.92


.0001


.0001


n.s.


n.s.


n.s.


.0001

.0001

.001


Relationships Among Recreational Shopper Identity, Compulsive Buying,
Materialism, and Self-Esteem

The correlations among recreational shopper identity, compulsive buying,

materialism, and self-esteem in this study were all significant atp < .0001 and in light of

past research, were in the direction that would be expected. (See Table 12.) Recreational

shopper identity, compulsive buying, and materialism are strongly positively interrelated,

while self-esteem is negatively related to the other three measures. The number of

materialists (n = 212), recreational shoppers (n = 119), and compulsive buyers (n = 59),















Compulsive Buyii

Materialism

Self-Esteem


Table 12
Correlations Between Recreational Shopper Identity,
Compulsive Buying, Materialism, and Self-Esteem

Recreational Compulsive
Shopper Identity Buying Mat4

ig .49 (p<.0001)

.44 (p < .0001) .40 (p <.0001)

-.24 (p <.0001) -.43 (p < .0001) -.24


erialism





(p <.0001)


identified among the survey respondents suggests that recreational shoppers may be a

subgroup of materialists and compulsive buyers may be a subgroup of recreational

shoppers.1

To further examine the relationship among these four measures, a multiple

regression model was estimated with recreational shopper identity as the dependent

variable regressed on compulsive buying, materialism, and self-esteem. (See Table 13.)

The results showed that compulsive buying (3 = .36, p < .0001) and materialism (P = .30,

p < .0001) were strong predictors of recreational shopper identity, while the influence of

self-esteem on recreational shopper identity was non-significant.

In a follow-up regression model shown in Table 13, an interaction term between

compulsive buying and materialism was added to the above model. The analysis of this

model yielded only one significant independent variable, namely materialism (p = .35, p

< .0001), suggesting that materialism is a stronger predictor of recreational shopper

identity than compulsive buying.


S68.3% of recreational shoppers were materialists, while 26.3% of recreational shoppers
were compulsive buyers.








Table 13
Regression Models for Recreational Shopper Identity and Compulsive Buying
(Beta Coefficients)

Dependent Variables

Recreational Recreational
Shopper Shopper Compulsive Compulsive Compulsive
Independent Variables Identity Identity Buying Buying Buying


Recreational Shopper
Identity

Compulsive Buying

Materialism

Self-Esteem

Compulsive Buying x
Materialism

Recreational Shopper
Identity x Materialism

Recreational Shopper
Identity x Self-Esteem

Materialism x Self-
Esteem

Recreational Shopper
Identity x Materialism x
Self-Esteem


.34**** .38*


.36**** .02


.17**** .20*

-.29**** -.26**


R .31**** .32**** .35**** .35**** .38****

*p <.05
**p <.01
***p <.001
****p < .0001


.80*


-.46

-.04








In light of the previous results, additional regression models were analyzed to

provide further insight about the relationship among recreational shopper identity,

compulsive buying, materialism and self-esteem. (See Table 13.) First, a multiple

regression model was estimated with compulsive buying as the dependent variable

regressed on recreational shopper identity, materialism, and self-esteem. The results

showed that all three independent variables were strong predictors of compulsive buying,

with recreational shopper identity having the strongest influence: recreational shopper

identity (p = .34, p < .0001), materialism (p = .17,p < .0001), and self-esteem (p =-.29, p

< .0001).

In a subsequent regression analysis, when an interaction term among the three

independent variables was added to the previous model, the three original variables

remained significant, while the interaction term was non-significant. Recreational

shopper identity (p = .38, p < .05) and materialism (p = .20, p < .05) were positively

related to compulsive buying, while self-esteem (p = -.26, p < .01) had a negative

influence on the dependent variable.

In the final regression model, compulsive buying was regressed on recreational

shopper identity, materialism, self-esteem, and three interaction variables: identity and

materialism, identity and self-esteem, and materialism and self-esteem. This model

yielded three significant variables. Recreational shopper identity (p = .80, p < .05) and

the interaction term between recreational shopper identity and materialism (p = .80, p <

.01) were positive predictors of compulsive buying, while the interaction term between

recreational shopper identity and self-esteem (P = -1.09, p < .001) was negatively related

to the dependent variable. These results indicate that recreational shopper identity had a








moderating effect on materialism and self-esteem in predicting compulsive buying

behavior.

In summary, the multiple regression results in Table 13 support the notion that

recreational shoppers are a subgroup of materialists and compulsive buyers are a

subgroup of recreational shoppers. Materialism positively affects the strength of a

consumer's recreational shopper identity which in turn has a direct positive influence on

compulsive buying behavior, while at the same time moderates the effects of materialism

and self-esteem on the tendency to be a compulsive buyer.

Independent-Samples T-Tests for Leisure and Shopping Dimensions

The last set of comparisons between recreational shoppers and nonrecreational

shoppers was to compare each group's mean scores on the leisure and shopping

dimensions discussed earlier in this chapter. The results of the t-test analysis are shown

in Table 14. Recreational shoppers differed significantly from nonrecreational shoppers

on all seven dimensions. Compared to nonrecreational shoppers, they realized higher

intrinsic satisfaction from shopping for clothing and were more likely to view shopping

for clothing as a spontaneous activity, have feelings of mastery while participating in the

activity, engage in fantasy behaviors while shopping, go shopping with someone else

(Bellenger and Korgaonkar 1980) and value the presence of the shopping companion

while shopping (Guiry 1992), realize positive benefits from interacting with salespeople,

and have greater attachment to the clothing they purchased.

The significant differences between the mean scores of recreational shoppers and

nonrecreational shoppers on the four dimensions of leisure (intrinsic satisfaction,

spontaneity, mastery, and fantasy) provides stronger support for previous findings that








Table 14
Comparison of Recreational Shoppers and Nonrecreational Shoppers

Mean Mean
Recreational Nonrecreational
Measure Shoppers Shoppers t-value p (<)


Intrinsic
Satisfaction

Spontaneity

Mastery

Fantasy

Social

Salesperson

Clothing-Focused


45.77

17.30

22.43

22.39

24.26

16.48

15.54


33.24

13.87

15.96

15.71

19.89

13.58

13.37


17.36

9.01

15.67

12.84

8.98

7.69

8.66


.0001

.0001

.0001

.0001

.0001

.0001

.0001


recreational shoppers view shopping as a leisure activity (Bellenger and Korgaonkar

1980; Bellenger et al. 1977). Furthermore, the higher levels of mastery and social

interaction, together with the stronger product attachment perceived by recreational

shoppers support Bloch's (1986) speculation that higher levels of product involvement

satisfy consumer needs for mastery and affiliation.

Relationships Among Recreational Shopper Identity and
Leisure/Shopping Dimensions

Research Question 2

To explore Research Question 2, correlations between recreational shopper

identity and the leisure and shopping dimensions were calculated. The results are shown

in Table 15. The highly significant positive correlations among the eight dimensions

suggests a possible halo effect in the survey responses. Among the leisure and shopping




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