Government crop reports

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Government crop reports
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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.

BUREAU OF STATISTICS-CIRCULAR 17.
CHAS. C. CLARK, Acting Chief.





GOVERNMENT CROP REPORTS:

THEIR VALUE, SCOPE, AND PREPARATION.






COMPILED AND PREPARED BY

CHAS. C. CLARK. Associate Statistician.


WASHINGTON ; GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1*0


55581-Cir. 17-08


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ORGANIZATION OF BUREAU OF STATISTICS.



Statistician and Chief: VICTOR H. OLMSTED.
Associate Statistician: CHARLES C. CLARK.
Assistant Statistician: NAT. C. MURRAY.
Chief Clerk: SAMUEL A. JONES.

Division of Domestic Crop Reports: FRE-n. J. BLAIR, Chief.
Division of Foreign Markets: GEORGE K. HOLMES, Chief.
Editorial Division and Library: CHARLES M. DAUGHERTY, Chief.
Crop Reporting Board:
Chairman, VICTOR H. OLMSTED, Statistician and Chief of Bureau.
Four other members chosen each month from the following:
CHARLES C. CLARK, Associate Statistician.
NAT. C. MuI'i'RAY, A.ssitlant Stislieiaftn.
GEOI(;: K. HOLMES, Chief of Division of Foreign Markets.
One or more persons called in from the corps of special field agents
and State statistical agents.
[Cir. 17]
(2)


'..




















LETTER OF TRAN.'SMII"I'AL.


U. 8. D)i:i'r.\ r. I .[ T OF t ,A(IiCULTUI'ii.
BiREA I' OF STATi l' ",.
JVash;,,h tonf b. (. S,'/,,'ft,' 1' 1. 1, ,',
SIn: I have thle honor to rt rnsiiiit he'rewilt a p;iper entitled (' ,v-
er'nenit (Crop Repolrts," and to recommend its publiciation as CiVii-
lair 17, of tlis I- Bureaiu. This material hal; been plreiimied at different
times luring the mA-t two year. by Vietor II. Olmisted. c.lief stati--
ticia,; (Ci'hae-.s C. Clarkl. a::ciate stati-tician; miad Nat C. Murray.
assistant statiiticia, of this Bureau; and I have aTnraniigrd it in t h
present convenlient form so as to meet numerous inquiric-l as- to the
value, methods-, and ,cope of the crop-reportilg' -" rv ce of this
Department.
Very respectfully, C. C. (C..\PR.
Acting C oif ot 1h, /0/.
Hon. JAMES WILSON,
vv ,,', 1,11, of Aqr eii/,1,hre.
[C'ir. 17]
(3)
































CONTENTS.

Ppag,.
Value of Government crop reports........................................ 7----------------------------------
Origin of the crop-reporting service........................................ -------------------------------------10
Methods of crop reporting................................................. -------------------------11
Scope of crop reports ..................................................... 12
Transmission of reports to Bureau by correspondents........................ -----------------------14
Preparation of reports..................................................... 15
Method of issuing rtports---------------------------------------------................................................. 16
[Cir. 17]
(5)











































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GOVERNMENT CROP REPORTS: THEIR VALUE, SCOPE, AND
PREPARATION.

VALUE OF GOVERNMENT CROP REPORTS.
Prices of agricultural products are priniarily governed by the law
of supply and detilland; tlherefore early inform'liation c('cerning the
.Ipply is of value to all. Tlho.-. who product' and th,-c, who coil-
sume are vitally intlre:'ted1 as wo'll as the dealer whi ,tantds bltw 1)(ni
them. The mutual relation- and intere-sts- of agricultini', indii-try,
commerce, awnd labor demand that there should be publislied at brief
intervals during the crop season reliable information on the condition
acreage, production, and value of the principal crops, by States and
agriculltural areas.
Foreign countries depend to a large and increasing extent upon the
United States for agricultural products. To meet the market de-s
mands at home and abroad is the iKis-ion of Amnerican agriculture.
The manufacturer, tle li erchalint, the mechanic, the -killedl operative
in the factory, in fact, all who consume the products of Americani
agriculture, whether at home or abroad, are interested in the monthly
Government reports of conditions on the farms of tlie United States.
As commerce consists largely in an exchange of the products of
agriculture and manu fact tire among their respective producers, com-
merce thrives as tlhe farmer and the factory operator prosper. S(n)ie
individuals, however, do) not always regard the comm()Il welfare, and
injurious commercial speculations occur( when ign4rance prevails
concerning the condition of outr crops and the true relations of -1pply
and demand. At such times the farmer often does not obtain just
prices, while the consumer derives no )benefit and business is injuri-
ously affected. The consequences of false report., concerning the ,'on-
dlition and prospective yield of the cotton crop alone may be very
damaging. If there were no adequate Government crop-reporting
service, and by misleading reports .speculators shoiould d(lepress the
price a single cent per p) oi ld, growers would lose $0.000,000 or
more; if prices were improperly increased, manufacturers and allied
interests would be affected to a proportionate degree.
The Governnienit crop reports are especially valuiable to farminers,
who are benefited by them both directly and indirectly. Those farm-
ers who read the reports and thus keep informnied as to condition a mind
prospects of crops profit in a direct way, while all are indirectly
benefited through this knowledge being imparted to thie great (body
[Cir. 17]
(7)







of progressive and intelligent farmers and dealers instead of remain-
ing the exclusive possession of a few persons.
It is well known that speculators and large dealers in farm prod-
ucts do not depend entirely upon Government reports for informa-
tion concerning crop conditions. They have traveling agents and
correspondents (usually local buyers) throughout the United States,
who keep them posted upon local conditions, and the large buyer or
speculator in return gives to these local buyers or correspondents in-
formnation in regard to general conditions. Local buyers know the
conditions of crops in their vicinity better, as a rule, than tihe average
farmer, because it is their business to keep well informed. The
farmer can not, by refusing to report for his locality the condition
of crops, prevent buyers or speculators from knowing the condition
of the crop. But without the Government crop reports, which are
made up largely by and for him, the farmer could not be sure of
receiving any equivalent information from a disinterested source.
He may know very well the condition of crops in his own locality,
but must depend upon reports of others, in the newspapers or else-
where, for the conditions of the entire crop. Prices in his home
market are influenced, as a rule, more by the condition of the whole
crop than by local conditions. The entire wheat crop of his county
may be destroyed and prices be low, if the entire crop is large, or
his county may have a bumper" crop and prices be very high, if
the entire crop is short.
Some private crop reports published in newspapers are honestly
prepared and more or less reliable; on the other hand, misleading
crop reports are frequently sent throughout, the country to affect
prices in the interest of speculators. The average farmer does not
know which reports are reliable and which are sent out to mislead.
The Governmnent reports enable farmers to keep themselves informed
;'.s to the general conditions, while the wide publicity given them
checks and limits the evils of false reports sent out by persons in-
tere-ted in forcing the prices of products to figures not justified by
actual conditions.
The more certainty there is as to the supply of and demand( foe
a crop the le-- hazard or specirlation there is in the business of dis-
tributing the crop, to the benefit, in the long run, of both producer
and consumer.
Large manufacturing firms and agricultural implement or hard-
ware companies, who neither buy nor sell farm products, are much
interested in the prospects and conditions of crops. This knowledge
enable-, them to distribute their wares more economically by sending
large consiginents to sections where crops are good and farmers
have the power to buy, and less to sections of crop shortage where
[Cir. 17]







there is obviously les. demand. Few farmers realize how much1 ik
saved bv the even distril)lbutionl of ware. wNhich they lNu froi ; kiiowl-
edge of crop prospects. By this saving, farilllcrs in the long run arc
benefited.
It is important to railroad companies to know tlho probable size of
crops in the country in order to provide ,lifficiellt car, Teil more
nearly they can learn thle size of the crops the better aide are they to
move them economically and promptly. IHlere. again, ill tlie lonr rmun,
farmers are indirectly benefited by the cheaper distribution of tlhe
crop, due to better information of crop conilitiont.
Under modern trade reguilatio,.s ; il coid itions. prompt and re-
liable information regarding agricultural a rea-. pro,.pects, and yields
is also an important factor in the proper conduct of coiiierci;il.
industrial, and transportation enterprises. The earlier the inf orma-
tion regarding the probable production of tlhe great acriculti'ral
commodities can be made public, the more safely can the busine- of
the country be managed from year to year.
Retail dealers in all lines of goods, whether in city or country,
order from wholesale merchants. jobb ers, or mianufacturers the good,-
they expect to sell many week-, frequently monthly, before actual
purchase and shipment. Jobbers follow the same course, and manu-
facturers produce the goods and wares handled by mercluiant: of
every class far ahead of their actual distribution and con-sumption.
For example, retail shoe dealers place their orderly in simnmer for
shoes to be sold during the fall. winter, or following spring monthl..
Wholesale -shoe dealers and jobbers, similarly, order from mtnu-
facturers the particular qualities and styles of shoes indicated by
the orders of the retail dealers in such quantitie- as the order- -hlow
to be necessary. The manufacturers. constantly receiving tlhe-.e
orders. adjust, as closely as. they can. their purchlase- of material.
employment of operatives, and quantity of output so ;i. to enable
them to supply the quantity of shoes which have been or are likely
to be ordered, their aim being, on the one hand, to meet fully and
promptly the re(qlirements of trade (in other word:-. the demiiand of
the purchasing public) and. on the other hand. to avoid such over-
production a-, will result in a large surplus unsalable except at a 1,,-.
The same ideas and rules prevail throughout eve J- branch of
trade, commerce, and transportation, tlhe shoe Ni -i i,: 1ing .-imply
an example of other lines of business in the matter of doing things
in advance."
Now, it is universally conceded that farming-agriculture-is the
basic industry upon which all other industries greatly depend. The
measure of the country's crops is to a large extent the measure of
the country's prosperity, and the purchasing power of thIe people is
[Cir. 171]






10


increased or diminished as the crops are bountiful or meager. There-
fore the commercial interests of the country are vitally affected by
the quantity and quality of the crops; and it becomes a matter of
vast importance to them to know in advance what the crop pros-
pects are during the growing season and what the output is at harvest.
With such information carefully and scientifically gathered and
compiled, and honestly disseminated, so that it can be depended upon
as being as reliable as any forecast or estimate can possibly be, and
relied upon as emanating from an impartial and disinterested source,
the merchants and manufacturers of the country can certainly act
with a degree of prudence and intelligence not possible were the in-
formation lacking.
If reports show, during the growing season, that the condition of
wheat is such as to indicate a full crop on a large area, the mer-
chants of the wheat-producing sections of the country know that they
can give liberal orders for goods to be handled by them several weeks
or months later; the manufacturers, located far from the wheat
fields, know where there will be a large demand for such of their
products as are used by all dependent upon the wheat industry; the
railroad companies know they will have heavy freights to transport;
and so the advance knowledge regarding the probable future out-
come of the crop serves as a guide to every branch of commerce and
trade connected with the wheat-growing areas of the country. The
same is true as to the other crops-corn, cotton, oats, rye, tobacco, etc.
If, on the other hand, the condition of growing crops is unfavor-
able, reliable information to that effect is equally, in fact more, im-
portant to trade and commerce than when the promise is good. For,
when conditions are unfavorable, the merchants, manufacturers, and
transporters must move with a degree of caution not necessary when
the prospects are highly encouraging.
It was to remedy the evils and to subserve and protect the interests
of all, as above noted, that Congress provided for issuing monthly
crop reports, and the crop-reporting service of the Department of Ag-
riculture ainis to supply the public at large with impartial, unbiased
information regarding crop areas, conditions, and yields which, it must
be apparent, is highly essential and beneficial not only to farmers, but
also, equally, to our commercial interests of every kind and class.

ORIGIN OF THE CROP-REPORTING SERVICE.
The first enactment authorizing the collection of agricultural sta-
tistics by the Department of Agriculture was the act, passed May 15,
1862, establishing the Department, "the general design and duties
of which shall be to acquire and to diffuse among the people of
the United States information on subjects connected with agricul-
[Cir. 171






11


ture, in the most general and comprehensive sel_.e of thai worl."
The (Comnimissio.,r \vas required 1 v this act to p,'cure a;IId '-'
all information < io ''r ing agriciulturlie which lihe (,III (oIlt.'iil Ivy l ';in-
of hooks. corrte-pond-l iice.' and y prlacticl nndl scie.,titic exlpri-
ments, accunirate re.otrds )f wlhic 1 xcphrin' t -h itill I1v kE pt illn lii
office, by tlie v collection of ,-tatistics. aid by aniyv t lher apprpri;ite
means within hi- po\ver."
The first al)l)pprpqriation for collectingi alrricuiltiilial :taisticii- by5 tVo
Department was pr1)vide'l for bv tle a,'t of Fr briarv 27. 1 l<'i> which
was made in bulk for the work of the D)epaiirtiniit. aunounting in all
to $90.000. Tlw theln Coin.i,-iioner of A rricuilture allotted a li it of
this amount, for 'lle'tin e.r a'Ticiuiltial l -t ati.tie.z. a nil iipoiited a
statistician for tlait p1nrpo.-.. For the fis.:1l year ended June 3,
185, the first (I-tinct ;zind -,'pa rite provision waIs Ni;il1 for collecting ,
agricultural stati:-tics for information and report-, and the animunt
of $20.000 was a ppr ipriated.
From an allotmnent of a few thousand dollars each year at fir.-t hie
crop-rep)ortilg.' service has been evolved, perfcted, ;mId enla'eled into
the Bureau of Statistics of this Department.
The appropriation act for the Department of Agrieultuire for tille
fiscal vear ended Jine 30, 190,s. carried appropriationl- of alout
$220.000 for the Bnl'eau of stati.,tic.-. and for thle current, year the
appropriation has been increa-cd to about .,.-u(i_ As tlie ap-
propriations for the -tatistical and crop-reportiing -crvice l;iv v 'ec
gradually increased during the past .-everal yvear-, the field .service
and organization of tlihe Bureau have been corrlc-pondingly enlarged.

METHODS OF CROP REPORTING.
The Bureau of Statiltics issues each month detailed reports re-
lating to agricultural conditions throughout the United States. the
data upon which they are b1 ( se(, beinir obtained through a special
field service, a corps of State statistical agent., and a lr-'re bodlv of
voluntary co''T,,)po(I)(lIdeIts composed of tlhe following 'la.se-: County
correspon(lents. towns\ihip corre..pondent.-. individual farmers, and
special cotton corre-po n deIt.
The special field service consists of seventeen traveling 'ifntz. e.chc
assigned to report for a separate group of States. These agents are
especially qualifiedl by statistical traiini.gr and practical knowledge
of crops. They sy-temnatically travel over the district as-igiied1 to
them, carefully note the development of each crop. keep in touch
with best informed opinion, and render written and telegraphic
reports monthly and at such other times as required.
There are forty-five State statistical agents, each located in a dif-
ferent State. Each reports. for his State as a whole, and maintaiis
[Cir. 17]






12


a corps of correspondents entirely independent of those reporting
directly to the Department at Washington. These State statistical
correspondents report each month directly to the State agent onl
schedules furnished him. The reports are then tabulated and
weighted according to the relative product or area of the given crop in
each county represented, and are summarized by the State agent, who
coordinates and analyzes them in the light of his personal knowledge
of conditions, and from them prepares his reports to the Department.
There are approximately 2,800 counties of agricultural importance
in the United States. In each the Department has a principal county
correspondent who maintains an organization of several assistants.
These county correspondents are selected with special reference to
their qualifications and constitute an efficient branch of the crop-
reporting service. They make the county the geographical unit of
their reports, and, after obtaining data each month from their assist-
ants and supplementing these with information obtained from their
own observation and knowledge, report directly to the Department
at Washington.
In the townships and voting precincts of the United States in
which farming operations are extensively carried on the Department
has township correspondents who make the township or l)recinct the
geographical basis of reports, which they also send directly to the
Department each month.
Finally, at the end of the growing season a large number of indi-
vidual farmers and planters report on the results of their own indi-
vidual farming operations during the year; valuable data are also
secured from 30,000 mills and elevators.
With regard to cotton, all the information from the foregoing
sources is sul)plemented by that furnished by special cotton corre-
spondents, embracing a large number of persons intimately concerned
in the cotton industry; and, in addition, inquiries in relation to
acreage and yield per acre of cotton are addressed to the Bureau of the
Census's list of cotton ginners through the courtesy of that Bureau.
SCOPE OF CROP REPORTS.
Beginning with the planting, data are gathered and reports made
as to the condition and acreage of each of the principal agricultural
products, such as corn, wheat, oats, rye, barley, potatoes, hay, cotton,
tobacco, rice, etc. As the crops progress the prospects are reflected
in monthly condition reports upon eachl growing crop;: such reports
being expressed in perceiitages, 100 representing a normal condition.
A nioriual condition of 100 would be the condition of thlie l)lant where
it gives promise of suchli a crop as might be expected if the plant were
not subjected to daimnagig influences, but grew bountifully and under
[Cir. 17]








favorable conditions, illeluding favorable weather, free' loil fro,)Il
daimaging' insects, etc. A ii Jo'mal Tcrop i, Iot ;i clop wIich Ii i,,iiht
bie raised byv exceptional kill] or 1)- b in excepti,,al iw faeIlle, lbit -i'lh
a crop that. planted and cultivated, will Le rn oiced if not -,i iij...-ted
to danmaging infteIIIICets. kt laire-t tillle tl ie ild per' ;ir'' ai, :,--
certained, which, 1eiiig inlltij)lieI by thle acreage figure- already
ascertained, give the jrodutiot j or quantitative figi.Ire-. foIl thjt e yVe:i.
Eleven montlil y repo)rt-, on tlit J)rincipal l crops are rte,.ived ye:.i'ly
from each of the special field agtent-,. co lnty corre-po)i1deit-. State
statistical agent-,. and township corresplondent.s, an(] one relpirt rel;at-
ing to the acreage and production of -.ieril crlpl-1 aiiiially from
individual farmers.
Six special cotton reports are received during tl(e growing ;eason
from the special field agents. from the county cOr'e-lndent-. fr,,i
the State stati ttical agents. and from townsllip Col'',-i(,,de'itt. and
the first and last of these reports are sul))pplemented b1y returns, from
individual farmer-., special corresp)ondents, and cotton ginner..
The general reports for January and February are combined on. one
schedule and relate to the number and value of farm animal.
The general report for March relates to tlhe stock of rain in farm-
ers' hands, the distribution and consumption of corn, wheat. and oat-,
and the average natural weight per bushel of the wheat and oat:' crop
of the previous year.
Reports on the condition of tlhe crops each year begin with tlhe
April report, when the condition of winter wheat and rye. prevailing
diseases of farm animall, and losses from disease and exposure are
dealt with.
The report, for May comes at, a time when few of the crops are
sufficiently advanced for their condition to be reported upon; conse-
quently the inquiries relative to condition apply only to winter wheat,
rye, meadow lands, and spring pasture. This schedule also deals.
with the portion, if any, of the original acreage sown to winter w\litIt
that for any reason has been or will b)e abandoned, and contains in-
quiries with regard to farm labor and tenants.
The schedule for June deals with the acreage of six crop,. the most
important. of which is spring wheat. It also covers, the condition of
wheat, oats, barley, rye. clover, spring pastures, apples, peaches, and
rice.
The July schedule deals with the acreage of corn, potatoes, tobacco,
and sugar cane; the stocks of wheat in farmers' hands; tlhe aver:ae
condition of all the principal crops, fruits, and spring pastures, and
the average weight of wool per fleece.
The August schedule deals with the average yield of winter wheat
per acre, acreage of buckwheat and hay, the condition of tlhe prin-
[Cir. 17]





14


cipal crops, the quality of clover hay, and the stocks of oats in
farmers' hands.
The September schedule deals with the condition, when harvested,
of wheat, oats. barley, and rye; the acreage of clover seed; the pro-
duction of peaches, and the number and condition of stock hogs on
hand for fattening.
The October schedule deals with the average yield per acre and the
quality of spring wheat, barley, oats, rye, and hops, and the condi-
tion of corn, potatoes, sugar cane, tobacco, rice, and apples.
The November schedule deals with the average yield per acre of
corn, buckwheat, potatoes, hay, tobacco, and rice.
The Decemnber schedule deals with the production and farm prices
of all the principal crops, the acreage of winter wheat and rye sown
for the crop of the following year, and with the condition of winter
wheat and rye.
In addition to the foregoing the reports during the past two years
have been extended to include condition figures of many small fruits,
vegetables, and minor products. Information in regard to such
products has been urgently requested, and as a basis for comparison
has now been satisfactorily established the reports are received with
interest and favorable comment.
TRANSMISSION OF REPORTS TO BUREAU BY CORRESPONDENTS.
Previous to the preparation and issuance of the Bureau's reports
each month, the correspondents of the several classes send their reports
separately and independently to the Department at Washington.
In order to prevent any possible access to reports which relate to
speculative crops, and to render it absolutely impossible for prema-
ture information to be derived from them. all of the reports from the
State statistical agents, as well as those of the special field agents,
are sent to the Secretary of Agriculture in specially prepared en-
velopes- addressed in red ink with the letter "A" plainly marked on
them. By an arrangement with the postal authorities these envel-
opes are delivered to the Secretary of Agriculture in sealed mail
pouches. The-e pouches are opened only by the Secretary or Assist-
alit, Secretary, and the reports. with -eals unbroken, are immediately
placed in the safe in the Secretary's office, where they remain sealed
until the morning of the day on which the Bureau report is issued,
wljen they are delivered to the Statistician by the Secretary or the
As-ist;ijt Secretary. The combination for opening the safe in which
such documents are kept is known only to the Secretary and the
A --i-tant Secretary of Agriculture. Reports from special field agents
-md State stati-tial agents, residing at points more than 500 miles
frtomj Washington are sent by telegraph, iii cipher. Those in regard
to w'ulatfive crop-, are addres-ed to the Secretary of Agriculture.
[Cir. 171





15

Reports from the State stiatistical agent and (- :-pecial fil -'vi,
in relation to nonspecu'lative crops are s'iit in -inlilair envelpe.-'
marked B to the Biri ra ii of Stat i tic : a 111 ar e kept -I''cu rly in
a safe until the data are requlIired by the Stati-ticiali in coiplitilig
estimates regardiing the crops to which thliy rla'te. The rep)ot-,
from the county co)rrepondents. townviship corre-ponde ,nt-. ai d mother
voluntary agents are -sent to the Chief of tlhe Bureau of Stati-tiv.,
by mail in sealed envelopes.

PREPARATION OF REPORTS.
The reports from the different, class of individual correspondent-
received by the Departmeint. are tabulated and compiled and tle fitiure
for each separate State arrived at. After the reports from t(he
different counties are tabulated a true weighted figure for the State
is secured by taking into consideration the relative value which the
total acreage or production of each county in the State be;irs to the
total acreage or production of the State. The weighted figure show-
ing the value of the county is applied to the acreage, yield per acre,
or condition, whichever it might be. and from the totals of the we.oiglit
and the extensions a weighted average for the State is a.'certained.
The work of making the final crop estimates each month culmninate-
at sessions of the Crop-Reporting Board, composed of five lmemblers,
presided over by the Statistician and Chief of Bureau as chairman,
whose services are brought into requisition each crop-reportilg day
from among the statisticians and officials of the Bureau, and speciall
field and State statistical agents who are called to Washington for
the purpose.
The personnel of the Board is changed each month. The meetings
are held in the office of the Statistician, which is kept locked during
sessions, no one being allowed to enter or leave the room or the
Bureau, and all telephones being disconnected.
When the Board has assembled, reports and telegrams regarding
speculative crops from State and field agents, which have been placed
unopened in a safe in the office of the Secretary of Agriculture, are
delivered by the Secretary, opened, and tabulated; and the figures, by
States, from the several classes of correspondents. and agents relati;ig
to all crops dealt with are tabulated in convenient parallel columllins;
the Board is thus provided with several separate estimates covering
each State and each separate crop, made independently by the re-
spective classes of correspondents and agents of the Bureau, each
reporting for a territory or geographical unit with which hlie is
thoroughly familiar.
Abstracts of the weather condition reports in relation to the dif-
ferent crops, by States, are also prepared from the weekly bulletin.-
[Cir. 17]




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

3 1262 09216 8870
of the Weather iBnureau. With all these data before the Board, each
individual membe computes independently, on a separate sheet or
final computation 'lip, his own estimate of the acreage, condition,
or yield of each crop, or of the number, condition, etc., of farm ani-
mals for each State separately. These results are then compared and
disc-4ssed by the Board under the supervision of the chairman, and
the final figures for each State are decided upon.
.The estimates by States as finally determined by the board are
weighted by the acreage figures for the respective States, the result
for the United States being a true weighted average for each subject.
Thus, the figures for the United States are not straight averages,
which would be secured by dividing the sum of the State averages by
the number of States; but each State is given its due weight in pro-
portion to its productive area for each crop.
METHOD OF ISSUING REPORTS.
Reports in relation to cotton, after being prepared by the Crop-
Reporting Board, and personally approved by the Secretary of Agri-
culture, are issued on the first or second day of each month during
the growing season, and reports relating to the principal farm crops
and live stock on the seventh or eighth day of each month. In order
t at the information contained in these reports may be made avail-
able simultaneously throughout the entire United States, they are
handed, at an announced hour on report days, to all applicants and
to the Western Union Telegraph Company and the Postal Telegraph
Cable Cormpany, who have branch offices in the Department of Agri-
culture, for transini-sion to the Exchanges; and to the press. These
companies have reserved their lines at the designated time, and for-
ward immediately the figures of most interest. A mimeograph or
multigraph statement, also containing such estimates of condition or
actual, production, together with the corresponding estimates of
forncer years for comparative urpo).ses, is prepared and sent imme-
diately to Exchange-,, newspaper publications, and individuals. The
.,a w. day printed cards containing the essential facts concerning the
mo,, important crops of the report are mailed to the 77.000 post-
oflic.s, throughout the United States for public display, thus placing
most vXlalable information within tlhe farmer's immediate reach.
Promptly after the issuing of the report, it, together with other
statistical information of value to the farmer and the country at
large, is published in the Crop Reporter, an eight-page publication
of the Bir1eau of Statistics, under the authority of the Secretary of
Airricultiire. An editionn of over 120,000 copies is distributed to the
(co.,,.spondentc and other interested parties throughout the United
States a,, el month.
[Cir. 17]




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