Dates of sowing and harvesting

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Dates of sowing and harvesting
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Olmsted, Victor H ( Victor Hugo ), 1853-1925
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7 *
4hZ 7. 4M 1 A




of TI.ued Novernm1 r 13. 1'',
U. S. DEPARTM CULTURE,
BUREAU OF STATISTICS-CIRCULAR LETTER.
VICTOR Ii. OLMSTED, CIIIEI or Bi-RFAU.


DATES OF SOWING AND HARVESTING.
Prepared by JAMES PL. COVIRr. 1)irixi'm of Prolc 'tion0 and Distribution.


The object of this circular letter is to acquaint the public with t1i-
partial results of a recent investigation by this bureau as to tb1 (lut *-
of sowing and harvesting the principal crops of all countrie-. TiJe
work has been in progress for the last two years, that portion of it
which relates to the cereal and forage crops of the United States 13;1-
been completed, and that relative to truck crops is !in proce s :f
execution. The results will be published in a serie-s of bulletin-, tlie
first of which is now in press.
While this study of cereal and forage crops has revealed in:imy
interesting phenomena and has resulted in the collection of valuable
data, it. is believed that the study of vegetable crops will discl,-.
facts of still' greater interest and will advance and coordinate our
knowledge of the trucking industry.
In the investigation of dates of sowing and harvesting the cereal
and forage crops information was liberally supplied by tho-e corre-
spondents of this department who are engaged in growing tlle-c
crops, and it is reasonable to expect that those engaged in ma-rket
gardening will manifest a like interest in the subject of vegetable
growing and respond with equal generosity.
A few graphic illustrations and summary tables, reprinted frn;ni
Bulletin 85 of this bureau-entitled Seedtime and Hlarvest ; Cercal-.
Flax, Cotton, and Tobacco: Dates of Plantini, and T7arve"tinr in tli
United States east. of meridians 102-104. by JTames R. Covert "--re
presented here to show the scope and th ro ...f tle
tion. Corn and winter wheat are selected:';1- rt
they are widely cultivated, are of great economic inll u a;n
readily lend themselves to the plrpo.. .
Figure 1 shows those sections ofahe i e rein. ac-
cording to this investigation, corn nl1anti g neon ly.
14582-11 -t" Ir T "i





SOWING AND HARVESTING.


Corn planting is first observed on the chart about February 15 of
normal years, the. first )planting taking place in southern Florida
and Texas. Fifteen clays later corn planting is observed in northern
Florida. southern Louisiana, and central Texas, and by May 15 the
movement has progressed as far north as southern Maine, New Hamp-
shire, anlld Vermont, central New York, northern Wisconsin, Minne-
sota, and North Dakota.
The curves in the lines of the chart are a significant feature. They
indicate the result of influences exerted upon planting by topography,


FIGUiLE 1.-Lines of average dates of the beginning of field-corn planting east of meridians
102-104.

soil conditions, rainfall, and latitude. Sometimes one set. of influ-
ences prevails, sometimes another. Again, several combined influ-
ences may b)e counterbalanced, as it were, by one controlling influence.
For instance, the lines in western Kansas and Nebraska bend slightly
northward, instead of abruptly southlward, as would be expected in
view of their greater altitiide. "Fl, couinterl1alancing( influence in this
case, is believed to be the character of the soil whichli, in the western
portion of these States, is sandy and therefore readily dries out and





SHOWING AND lHAIVEST'1NU.


(quickly wNrimI.Is i1p in .11sprilir. ''lTe i11lt'11nce of tlin' Grcat L:l,.- is
shownN ifn t(i -irnious lilth 1,(arinlg. th date Ma;i 15.
Ai intt'i' sjlirg c'alc'latioin if tll' rate of pl, of tli. ,e -
plaltit iig nivellielf Ivaws m ade frill data collected in llv ',reIil rIo'fl
investigation, ani i illlHistrated il the following cl(-1Irt :

18192 2 Z2 23 24 25 2G2 7 2B 31
A r 1 5 !


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x
18 18 20 21 2Z 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
FIGUEB 2.-Rate of progress in miles per dnyv of the mean date of ti, 1,,.. iJiritiL of of n
Ilantiinl. ''ex.n, to Nirth l ankol; .
In working out tlhe details of thij inve-tiga tio,. the entire Unilitc'l
States was divided into approximately equal uinits. each liboiit 70
miles square, and by selecting units which extend in a dtue north and
south line it was comparatively ea.y to calculate the rate of progre-s
in miles per day of the corn-planting movement.






SOWING AND HARVESTING.


The following explanation of figure 2 is taken from Bulletin 85,
Bureau of Statistics:
A.t tie stalrtini point, near Brownsville, Tex. (fig. 2), planting begins on the
average (late of Febru-iry 10. The movement reaches the Texas-Oklahoma line
ciion the imein date of March 12, there being an apparent six-day interval between
il1iiiting in northern Texas and in southern Oklahoma. The movement, there-
fore, crosses Texas in 30 days. The actua;il distance. less the theoretical dis-
tance lost by reason of using mean d;ites, is about 540 miles, and the rate of
prgre.ss is 18 miles per daiy.
From the mean date at the Texas-Oklalionma line (March 12) to the mean date
at the Okl bhom;-Kans;is line (April 6) 25." days elaipse. The distance from one
State line to the othei is about 220 miles. Planting. therefore, moves north-
ward through Oklahoma at the rate of 9 miles per day. The rate through
Kansas, computed in a similar manner, is 10 miles; through Nebraska. 19
miles; through South Dakota, 50 miles; and through North Dakota, 44 miles
per day.
It is a well-known fact that the rate of northward movement of isotherms
in.re;.ises with the distance from the Equator; hence the change from one
season to another is more abrupt in the North than in the South and the season
of growth progressively shorter.

SOW/MG HIRVENSTNG
E' 0R 1 FNOIN6 GfN PR1 e? ,IV

~i_/c 26/- __ __ __ __ __~___ _-_


-274 Oays
264 OAYS
FIGURE 3.-Length of sowiug and harvesting seasons of winter wheat. [Mean of 28
States.]

It is also well known that plant growth proceeds more rapidly in northern
than in southern latitudes in consequence of the greater nunlber of dayligh!
hours, or hours of possible daily plant growth, in the North.
Now, although the length of both growing period and of growing season de-
c-re;ises as the distance from the Equitor increases, yet. because the rate of
decrease in length of growing season is greater than the decrease in length of
growing period, the latter tends to and eventually does overtake the former in
noil'hern latitudes. *
By referring to figure 2 it will be seen that the rate of northwvard movement
in South Dakota is not fully mitintaiined in North Dakota. The reason i that
before the .priing isotlier'ns associatedl with corn planting have reached southern
North D;ikota the length of the growim!_ period is already in excess of the
gr-iwming sewwnn, and only a sligMt setting 1)b.ck of the corn-pl-nting date is
po.s-siblh; farmers are already pl;hiinig corn nearly as early as possible in that
region. Hence the rate of norlhw;ihrd progress of the average date of planting
though North Dakota decreases as comijpared with the ri:te in South Dakota.

The vertical lines on the foregoing chart represent the time when
winter wheat sowing and harvesing begin, wlen they are general,
and when they end. The spaces between these vertical lines represent
the number of days elapsing from one period to the other. Thle mean




SOWING A.NI H.\VVi:STIING.


length of the sowing season for wit.r wheat. ,accodilng to tli:
chart, is 34 days; of thc liarve,.t ii -,.;-,, 17 ,l1v-.
The horizontal Ilies repre.-Clt, the uuinl'r of day-I elp,-ing frnl111
the time wlNhen winter wheat .-mowing 1bgiis until harve-tig l.im-;
the days elapsilng flroIl thle ti.e whleI -owig i -...i, l until I;ir-
vesting is ge-nieral anld lie day-t clapliiug from the time when --o1wi1g
ends until hlIarvesting elnds. The-e C'-iit- 11, VrC made p1,( --il 1t' by
returns from .e\eral ll I, .-;iid cor,.1-ponlf1nt:, r'.Jlt'.-'ntin r e'!vey
agricultunral tcont ilVil cacti of tili 28 Stat-, rel(rtii yr ii<- Lrrowi II
of winter wlIeat.
An increase in length of showing" ena-on over length of har\e-tiung
season i.s, al-o noted in the .ase of Oit,. rye. 1,;clarl, 1,i -ckwheat. a;id
flax; but in tlhe case of corn, cotton, and tIOicco, the Ilrve..ti.n" -ea-
son is longer than tle. sowing season. as shown by chart 4.

s O WlN / H v r//w(
SOWING 6RVSTN
MUMIN- 64W-
N/NO CRAL ENDI/Ne 8GI/NNIN-G 6ENERAL ND/NG

4 2
a4W 4 s 0AYS DAYS
/53 aWYs

......./64 AY -5-
.......,/6"6 DAY S
Fir;u'R 4.-LT.ngth of sowing and harv' stin..g seasons of field corn. [Mean if :.7 States.]

So far as relates to wheat, oats. rye. barley, buckwheat, and flax.
figure 3 is merely an arithmetical illu.tration of the struggle of a
late-sown plant or crop to reach maturity ere it is overtakenI by frost.
In the case of cotton, artificial .election and cultural methods have.
in the lapse of many generation.,, brought about a prolongation of the
fruiting season.
The soil temperature at which corn germinates has been ascertained
in numerous test-. The air temperature at which corn planting
begins in actual practice, however, has not heretofore been ctzab-
lished, but from data a.senmbled in the study of cereal crops it is
believed to be approximately 5. F. Omitting certain localiti'."
(central Florida, southern Louisiana, an(d -oltheri ii Texas) where
the mean daily normal temperature does not fall so low ;a R5^ F.. the
variation from F. for any city is slight. ThIe method by which
this result has been obtained is tcribed i Bulletin 85 and Table 28
of that bulletin is reproduced as Table 1 on page 6.







SOWVING AND HARVESTING.


TABLE 1.-Relationshlip of


arcragc (late of theIic
i.,otflcIrm' 55.


beginning of CORN planting to


State and city


I.. ~
C. *- -


_I <_ _

Maine:
l-.tpijrt..... May 17
I'ornLiml ...... May 19
N c \ 1t am p- I
shire:
Concord ...... May 16
Vermont:
lmrlinmton... May 17
Northfil 'l...... .>o.....
Ma.&.sach useIt s:
Boston....... M.ay 11
Nantuck(t... May 6
Rhode Island:
Block Island May 10
Providence..... do-.....
Connecticut:
Hartford....... do-.....
New Haven ....do.....
New York:
Albany...... ------May 12
Binghamton May 10
Buffalo....... May 16
Canton....... Mjy 12
Ithaca.......... do.....
New York... May 8
Oswego...... May 12
Rochester... May 11
Syracuse --.... May 12
New Jersey:
Atlantic City May 2
Cape May........do.....
Pr-nnsvl\ ania:
Erie'......... May 11
Harrisburg... Ma. v 2
Philad tilphia. Apr. 26
Pittsburgh.. May 7
Scranton.... May 14
Maryland:
Baltimore... Apr. 29
Virginia:
('ape Henry. Apr. 10
Lynchbunrg... Apr. 20
Mt. Weather. Apr. 27
Norfolk....... Apr. 10
Richmond.... Apr. 14
Wytheville... Apr. 21
West Virginia:
Elkins........ May 1
P'arkersburg.. Apr. 27
North Carolina:
Asheville.... Apr. 12
Charlotte.... Apr. 4
Hatteras..... Mar. 23
Raleigh...... Mar. 29
Wilmington.. Mar. 20


".N
*F.
47
54

56

55
54

55
50

51
56

55
56

58
55
55
55
56
57
53
55
56

53
54

56
57
55
60
58

58

53
57
53
54
57
54

54
57

53
56
53
54
55


C.2

I- -


South Carolina:
Charle'lon.... Mar. 15
Columbia..... Mar. 11
Georgia:
Atlanta ...... Mar. 18
Aug.sla ...... .. do....
Macon....... Mar. 14
Savannah.... Mar. 7
Thomasville.. Mar. 3
Floridlu:
Jacksonville.. Feb. 27
Jupiter....... Feb. 15
Key West.... ..do....
Pensacola.... Mar. 13
Tampa ....... Feb. 13
Ohio:
Cininnati.... Apr. 26
Cleveland.... May 9
Columbus.... May 5
Sandii 4kv.... Mav 2
Toledo....... Ma y 6
Indiana:
Evansville.... Apr. 28
Indianapolis.. Apr. 29
Illinois:
Cairo......... Apr. 25
Chicago....... I May 5
La Salle.........do.....
Peoria........ May 2
Springfield... Apr. 30
Michigan:
Alpena....... Ma% 16
Detroit....... May 11
Grand Haven May 8
Grand Rapids May 15
Houighton.... May 28
Marquette.... May 15
Port Huron. May 11
Wisconsin:
Green Bay... May 18
LaCrosse.... May 9
Madison...... May 7
Milw\aukee... May 13
Minnesota:
Moorhead...... do.....
St. Paul...... May 11
Iowa:
Charles City.. May 6
Davenport.. May 1
Dubtiuque.... May 4
Keokuk...... May 1
Sioux City.... May 4
Missouri:
Columbia..... Apr. 17
Hannibal..... ... do....


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0F.
57
52

5:3
56
54
58

59
66
71
60
61

58
56
59
54
56

61
57

61
53
57
57
58

50
56
52
59
54
49
52

55
57
54
52

54
56

56
57
57
58
57

55
54


State and city.


Missouri-Con.
Kansas City..
St. Louis.....
Springfield...
North Dakota:
Bismarck.....
Devils Lake..
Williston.....
South Dakota:
Huron........
Pierre........
Rapid City...
Yankton.....
Nehraska:
Lincoln......
North Platte.
Omaha.......
Valentine.....
Kansas:
Concordia....
Dodge City...
Topeka .......
Wichita......
Kentucky:
Lexington....
Louisville....
Tennessee:
Chattanooga..
Knoxville....
Memphis...
Nashville.....
Alabama:
Anniston.....
Birmingham.
Mob ile.......
Montgomery .
Mississippi:
Meridian.....
Vickslburg....
Louisiana:
New Orleans.
Shreveport...
Texas:
Abilene......
Corpus Christi
Fort Worth..
Galveston....
Palestine.....
San Antonio..
Taylor.......
Oklahoma:
Oklahoma....
Arkansas:
Fort Smith...
Little Rock..


Mean temperature for the 127 cities, 550.


State andi city.


- C

I-

. -!
S- "
L.E -
--^ &p


10
0
2'6

a,.--





Apr. 18
Apr. 16
Apr. 3

May 13
May 20
May 15

May 8
May 6
May 5
May 7

Apr. 29
May 1
May 5
...do.....


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OF.
55

56
51

54
54
54
a







54







51
57

57
55
59
53
56
51
56
55

54
57
56
52
56
54

52
56
57
57

55
55

59
54

50
57
52
56
553
56
53


52
52


21
5
21
10

17
18

31
29
27
1


Apr.
Apr.
Apr.
Apr.

Apr.
Apr.

Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Apr.

Mar.
...do.
Mar.
Mar.

Mar.
Mar.

Mar.
Feb.

Mar.
Feb.
Feb.
Feb.
Feb.
Feb.
...do.

Apr.

Mar.
Mar.






SOVWING AND) HARVESTIN;.


The following table is onei of e.verlil ii-efill col"ilatiIll- rvr.-iiltinh
from the -stuidy of dates of .-owing atd lalr'vetinlg the c'rcil cro. of
tis country:

TABLF 2.-.lchIn dat'.c of -vio-in ,and hiirr'-,titi I INTER WH"EAT in thf
L'niItd Sltft's. by St(ft s. inl rolreinri,, ,il.t rdr'r.


Sowing.


Slate.


Giineral. Fy ling
lng.


Vermont ......... \Lig. 7
South Dakota ....... Aug. .31
Pennsylvania...... Spt. 2
Minnesota.......... Sept. 3
Michigan........... ... o .....
Iowa.............. Sept. 4
New York.......... ... No .....
Wisconsin .......... Spt. 5
Nebraska ........... .. so .....
Indiana ............. Sept. 8
Missouri........... Sept. 9
Ohio.............. Sept. 11
Kansas................ do.....
Illinois............. SeN Pt. 12
New Jersey........... o.....
Oklahoma .......... Sept. 13
West Virginia....... Sept. 15
Maryland........... Sept. 18
Kentucky.......... Sept. 19
Virginia ............ Sept. 20
Tennessee.......... Sept. 22
Arkansas.......... ...do.....
Texas .............. Sept. 311
Delaware.......... Oct. 3
Alabama........... Oct. 4
South Carolina...... Oct. 13
North Carolina...... Oct. 14
Georgia.............. do....


Aug. 27
Sepl. li,
Sept. 15
Sept. 13
Sept. 14
Sept. 1.5
Sept. I q
Sept. 14
Sept. 17
Sept. 21
Sept. 23
Sept. 24
Sept. 2';
Sept 24
...do.....
sopt. 30
Sept. 2-.
<) t. 1
Oct. 5
Oct. 3
Oct. 10
Oct. 11
Oct. 20
Oct. 10
Oct. 27
Nov. 5
Oct. 2t6
Nov. 5


Se-pr. S
t Ict. ID
(e)ct. 4
S.pt. 21
Sept. 2f;
Svpl)T. 27
Oct. 2
Sept. 25
Oct. 6
Oct. 7
Oct. 10)
. .dolt_.... .
Oct. 21
Oct. 8
. .0 do...
Oct. 29
Oct. 15
Oct. 20
Oct. 25 '
O)t. 21
Nov. 14
Nov. 6
Nov. 18
Oct. 26
Nov. 22
Dec. 8
Nov. 15
Nuv. 28


St

.r t- T" -' .


"''rxas ....... ...... I e e.j Jun '.*i
1 ;.vorgia ............. Jimi, 1 .,lI...
Soi lli ('arlin- ... 1 J1ii,, 3, JiIn'' I !
A .l:l u ll.1 m ........... J11no 4 .,lu.....
A. rk n. i- s ........... Jun> I J111ir 1 I
Tennessee .......... June 11) June i 2,
N,,rth 'aruln.r..... June 11 June 1J
Oklahoma......... Jimi, 12 June 23
Knitu, kv. ......... iJune 17 June 24
Vir,.ini: ............ June 20 June 2i;
.N isouri ........... ...do...-. June 27
Dt.i.w..r............. .June 22 June 24
M:ur\ l'Lnd .......... June 23 June 2'N
1llnois ............. June 21 June :1i
West Virginia...... June 2"- Tl\y 2
Indiana............ June 2'. Jilk- 3
K. '-.-............ ...do ..... July 4
Ohio.............. June 2-9 July 6
New Jnrsi, v ........ July 3 July 7
Iowa.................do .... July 11
I'r.nn-vl\vania ...... July 4 July- III
N,,hra;ka.......... July 6 July 13
New York......... July 11 July lH
South DI)kota...... July 14 July 22
Minnesota.......... July 15 Jul- 23
M irthiran ......... d... .do....... do.
W\i;ovnin.......... July 1; July 22
Vermont........... July 22 Au'. 2


Mean length of sowing season, 34 days.


.Mean lon.nh of harve'-lin: 'iaqon. 17 ialvs.


Turning now from the cereal crops, the study of which has been
completed, to the vegetable crops, the study of which is about to 1)be
undertaken, a few results may be mentioned. Centers of production
will be mapped, the times of sowing and harvesting and regions which
compete with one another will be determined, and the range of crops
and length of growing season will be ascertained.
Distribution is a serious problem not yet fully solved by market

gardeners. It is desired to make thiis compilation of practical value
in the economic distribution of truck crops and to bring producer and
consumer into closer touch with one another.
VICTOR H. OLMSTED,
St,,ti'fti,. ((W1 C/ief of Bureau.
Approved:
JAMES WILSON,
Secretary of Agricltue.

WASHINGTON, D. C., Novemb)er 1. 1911.


Ein'liii


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June
July
Jul v
I)o.
Jul\

Jill%-
I >u)
Jill v"
Do.
July
Jul v
July
Jul 'v
Julv
Julv
July
JlAlv
Jltlv
Jill'
Aug.


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