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GOVERNMENT


CROP


REP'


APR 1963


Washington. D. C. Cizcular 17. Revised Januar.. 1913
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
BUREAU OF CROP ESTIMATES
LEON M. ESTABROOK ..... Chief


GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICtE ISI


Sources of Informa a
Methods of Preparation and Checking
Demonstrated Accuracy


/..\rlri. k "I' I -I,





























ORGANIZATION AND OFFICIALS OF THE BUREAU OF CROP
ESTIMATES.


Statistician and Chief: Leon M. Estabrook.
Assistant Statistician and Assistant Chief: Nat C. Murray.
Chief Clerk: Charles E. Gagc-.
Division of Crop Reports: Edward Cranc. Chief.
Division of Crop Records: Frank Andrews, Chief.
Field Service: S. A. Jones, Chief.
Statistical Scientists: George K. Holmes, Charles MNI. Daugherty, and
Fred J. Blair.
Crop Reporting Board: Leon M. E.tabrook, Chairman; Nat C.
Murray, S. A. Jorus Frank Andrews, George K. Holmes, and one
or more ficid agents called in from the field force.
2










GOVERNMENT CROP REPORTS.


C ROP ESTIMATES iihkh arc reliable and un-
biased are important nut only to agricl.,Iire but
also to all those indlust rics which depend upon a,.ri-
cultural products. Public appreciation (f accurateC
crop reports is increasing, ow\in' lar-ely to improcd
methods of marketing and disarihui.n, and to a Xwider
public interest in food and fe,'d which llias de'elopcd
since the beginnings ,f the European War. The follow-
ing statement gives the essential facts regarding the
organization of the PBLI Ual of Crop Esti:iates, its sources
of information, !;,l the atcLiracy of its crop estimates.

THE MEN \WHO SUPPLY INFORN.MA-TION
ABOUT CROPS.
Systematic care and sclenlifi thorutughness charac-
terize the preparation of the GC' Iv'CIIII- -, crop report,
but these would be useless without an t. lficient organiza-
tion and dependable sources of iniornnation.
The Washingtonr forc.-To begin with, the central
office of the Bureau of Crop Estinmat,-s, at Washington,
has approximately 135 ernploeyees, most of them statis-
tical clerks, computers, and trained statisticians expe-
rienced in handlingr and iiit,:-rpreting agricultural facts,
from whatever source thev may be gathered.
Field agents.-Distribuled o\' r the country are 42
salaried field agents, one in t.,.J, State or group of small
States. These field agents are in the classified civil
service and are appointed only after passing a rigid ci\il-
service examination to test their educational and statis-
tical qualifications. Before they are permitted to take
the civil-service examination liLy. must show that they
have had at least five year prdc'tical experience in
farming, an education equivalent to a four-year course in
an agricultural colleOge or a t least three years' responsible
practical experience in work involving statistical methods
or statistical inquiry. Thev must also be legal residents
of the States to which they are assigned. These agents
are all men ot Iih character, qualified by training and
experience for their work, competent judges of crop
a






4 Government Crop Reports.

production, and familiar with local conditions in their
States. Each is required to travel over his State sys-
tematically during the crop season and personally to
inspect crops, interview farmers, representatives of com-
mercial houses, mills, elevators, buying and selling
associations of all kinds, transportation companies, State
and local authorities, and associations of every descrip-
tion; in fact, each is expected to be better informed on
crop production than any other man in the State. Each
agent enlists the voluntary services of from 250 to 1,500
selected crop correspondents in his State, who report to
him every month regarding the crops grown in the State.
At the close of each month the agent makes up a detailed
estimate on the crops in his territory and forwards it to
the Washington office, with full explanatory notes show-
ing the causes which have resulted in changes from the
estimates for the previous month. The field agent,
because of his constant travel and observation, his
thorough study and analysis, and his interviews with and
continuous reports from many of the most competent
judges of crops, has a thorough knowledge of the crop
situation in his State.
Crop specialists.-In addition to the regular field
agents, the bureau employs 10 crop specialists, 1 each
for cotton, rice, and tobacco, 4 for truck crops, and 3
for fruit crops. These crop specialists are of the same
high character, experience, and educational qualifica-
tions as the field agents, and each devotes his entire
time to investigating the single crop for which he is
responsible. They travel throughout the regions in
which their special crops are grown, maintain large lists
of growers, and each is regarded as an authority on the
statistics of his special crop. Lists are kept of growers
of special crops, who report at the close of each month
to the respective crop specialists, each of whom, in turn,
makes up a report and forwards it to the central office in
Washington.
County crop reporters.-A third class of reporters are
the voluntary county) crop reporters, approximately 2,800
in number, each of whom reports for his county each
month on printed schedules directly to the bureau.
The county reporters base their estimates upon personal
observation and inquiry and upon written and telephonic
reports to them from aids in different portions of the county.






Government Crop Reports.

Township crop reporters.-A fourth source of informa-
tion is the voluntary township reporters, one for each
agricuhtural township in the United States, approximately
30,220 in number. These township reporters are nearly
all practical farmers and each reports on the crops grown
in his immediate neighborhood directly to the central
office in Washington monthly throughout the year.
Special lists of groi'ers, luycrs, and others.-Addi-
tional sources of information exist in the bureau's special
lists of growers of potatoes, apples, cotton, beans, cran-
berries, peanuts, broom corn, maple sirup, honey, speciall
truck crops, and live stock, and in other lists of buyers,
dealers, mills and elevators, producers and shipping
associations, and other agencies engaged in the handling,
transporting, storing, and distribution of crops.
The total number of voluntary crop reporters is approxi-
mately 150,000.

HOW THE CROP INFORMATION IS TABU-
LATED IN WASHINGTON AND THE CROP
REPORTS MADE UP.

The returns from each class of reporters are tabulated
and averaged separately as a check one against the
other. The county totals are weighted; that is, a county)
which produces five times as much of a particular crop as
another receives five times the importance or ,weight"
of the other county), in determining the average for that
crop.
Every possible precaution is taken to prevent the
totals for any of the so-called speculative crops, such as
corn, wheat, oats, barley, rye, and cotton, from becoming
known to any individual prior to the date fixed in advance
by the Secretary of Agriculture for the issuance of the
crop report. Even the tabulators and computers who
make up the totals do not know the States to which they
pertain, and the final telegraphic reports and comments
of the field agents relating to the speculative crops are
kept locked in the office of the Secretary until crop-
reporting day, when they are turned over to a Crop
Reporting Board, and the entire board is immediately
locked in until the minute that the report is issued, guards
being stationed at the doors, and all telephones discon-
nected.






6 Government Crop Reports.

The data supplied by the field agents, crop specialists,
and various classes of voluntary crop reporters are con-
sidered by the Crop Reporting Board, composed of the
chief of bureau, the assistant chief of bureau, the chief of
the division of crop reportL- two statistical scientists, and
one or more field agents called in from different States
each month, all of whom are expert judges of crops and
have hlad many years' experience in analyzing, inter-
preting, and summarizing crop data. In addition to the
special data sent in each month by the field force, the
Crop Reporting Board has all other data which are
available, such as the Weather Bureau reports, and such
crop reports as are issued by State authorities, private
crop-estimating agencies, associations, and others. From
all these data each member of the board prepares his
own individual and independent estimate for each crop
and State. These are compared, discrepancies are dis-
cussed and explained, and a final figure is adopted by
the board. It is quite certain, therefore, that the Crop
Reporting Board has before it more complete, detailed,
and accurate data upon which to base its report than
any other crop-estimating agency in the world. The
members of the Crop Reporting Board are unbiased,
because they, as well as all other employees of the depart-
ment who have anything to do with the crop estimates,
are prohibited by law, under very severe penalties, from
speculating in any product of the soil, from giving out
any information in advance of the official crop report,
and from knowingly compiling or issuing any false
statistics.

HOW REPORTS OF OTHER AUTHORITIES
PROVE THE ACCURACY OF THE CROP
REPORTS.
Wherever it is has been possible to secure an absolute
check, the crop reports of the Department of Agricul-
ture have usually been found to be surprisingly accurate.
Unfortunately, absolute checks are afforded at only long
intervals or for only a few crops, or for only a few States.
The principal checks which are available are as follows:
The census reports every 10 years.-The census reports
afford the most complete and authoritative crop statistics
available. They) are especially valuable because they
cover acreage and production of all crops and different






Government Crop Rporlts. 7

classes of live stock. Thc,,reticallv tIe)y are actual
enumerations and are presumed to be accurate. Actually,
so far as t(ey relate to aLriculture, they are cstimate-s,
though based upon a larger number ot retlurs than the
crop reports ol the Bureau of Crop Estimates. TIheir
value is impaired somewhat by the lng pe-riid of time
between censuses, the delay in printin' the reports after
a census is taken, the ditiT-rent dales 4f reporting num-
bers of different classes of ]ive sto(k, and the fact that
different methods of eldilin, (correctin- "r snmittinr
imperfect returns) aerc adopted at dlitfren tl :ensu1es.
Because of the imperfect returns and methods of dealing
with them, the agricultural totals of th census of 1900)
were generally too high or those- of the census of 1910
were generally too low. The deficiencies of hie Li.si
census arc recognized and discuss by the I)irector ,,
the Census in his annual report for 1912. .A\ comparison ,
of the estimates of the Bureau of Crop Estimates with
the past census shows that theY are in clohcr agreement
than are the crop reports or tax assessors' returns in most
of the States, and certainly far more nearly in agreement
than the estimates made by private agct-n( is.
The annual census reports of cotton ginned.-The
Bureau of the Census is required by lawx to report ever.,'
bale of cotton that is ginned. These reports, therefore.
afford an absolute check on the estimat-s (if the Depart-
ment of Agriculture for cotton.
Reports of State boards of agriculture and returns of
tax assessors.-- Many of the States have boards ot acri-
culture or commissioners of a.ricullu re who issue cr,,p
reports at v.'nrious intervals, and some of the St-iAtes have
tax assessors' returns of crops and live sto,,ck. These
reports and returns would be extremely valuable das
checks upon the crop estimates of the Department of
Agriculture if they covered all crops and classes of live
i stock, if they were based upon complete and accurate
data, if they were systematically prepared by competent.
well-trained, and experienced statisticians, if they were
issued every year and promptly, and if th- returns were
made as of the same day in all the States. lnftortu-
nately this is not the case. Though in a few ot the States
an attempt is made to meet the standard indicated, in
most of the States the tax assessors returns are incom-
plete, arc rendered after long delays. and relate only to(
certain crops and omit certain classes of live stock. The






8 Government Crop Reports.
returns in different States are made on different dates,
and in some States the returns are not published at all
or not until long after the close of the crop year to which
they pertain. In most of the States the officials in charge
of the crop statistics are not selected because of any special
fitness for the work, and in practically all of the States
the personnel is subject to frequent changes. The fact
that the State reports can not be used as a satisfactory
check upon the crop estimates of the Department of
Agriculture is readily apparent by comparing them with
the decennial census. However, while the crop totals
reported in some States can not be accepted as numerically
accurate, they are of value in showing the trend of crop
acreages and production from )'ear to year; i. e., they
show in a general way whether the acreages planted to
different crops and the numbers of different classes of
live stock on farms are increasing or decreasing from )'ear
to year, and to what extent they can be used as a check
upon the estimates of the Department of Agriculture.
All crop reports and statistics issued by State authorities
are obtained as soon as published by the Bureau of Crop
Estimates, and the totals of the tax assessors' returns are
taken off from the State records by the field agents of
the bureau annually. These reports and tax data are
carefully analyzed and checked against the Government
reports by the Crop Reporting Board.
Privalc estimating agencies.-A number of private
crop-reporting bureaus make a business of preparing
estimates of the acreage and production of the so-called
speculative crops, corn, wheat, oats, r)e, barley, and
cotton, and a few other crops, and many cf the larger
firms which deal in these products employ crop experts
at high salaries to keep them supplied with timely crop
information. Many producing associations which are
interested in special crops, such as apples, peaches,
potatoes, and the like, also prepare estimates from time
to time based on reports of their members. A number of
farm journals and trade papers also publish crop esti-
mates of their owr, based upon various sources of infor-
mation, principally trom their subscribers. Though
many of these agencies employ mcn who are experienced
in judging crops and their estimates frequently are very
accurate, it is nevertheless true that few, if any, of them
have the facilities for collecting reliable data of crop
production at all comparable with those of the Bureau





Government Crop Reports. 9

of Crop Estimates, and their estimates often show the
effect of bias. Practically all of these estimates are
available to the bureau, either directly or through its
field agents, frequently before publication. They are
deemed of value as representing the consensus of opinion
of the "trade" and in most cases tend to confirm the
accuracy of the Bureau of Crop Estimates.
Returns from mills, elicalors, andsloru.e u'urchouses.-
If complete returns were available for quantities of
grain, apples, potatoes, etc., stored in all the mills, ele-
vators, and warehouses of the country during the season,
they would afford an excellent check upon estimates of
crop production, but such returns as are available are
very incomplete. Some State laws require that products
held in storage shall be reported periodically to the State
authorities, and where such reports are available they
are utilized by the Bureau of Crop Estimates. Unfor-
tunately many States do not require the reporting ot
products in storage, and there is no way of ascertaining
the quantities held in those States. The Bureau of
Markets in the Department of Agriculture is rapidly
developing a system of ascertaining and reporting quan-
tities of perishable products, such as apples, potalces,
meats, butter, and eggs held in storage warehouses.
The reports issued by the Bureau of Markets will becornme
increasingly valuable as checks on estimates of production.
In the case of rice, the mills which handle all of this
product that is not retained by growers for seed are com-
paratively few in number, and it is possible to make a
complete canvass of them. Their total receipts in any
year plus a conservative estimate of the quantity retained
by growers for seed make an excellent check on the
estimate of production.
Beet-sugar factories, likewise, are comparatively few
in number, handle practically all the sugar beets produced
in the country, and keep accurate records of sugar-beet
acreage and production. The bureau obtains reports
from practically every beet-sugar factory in the United
States. Its estimates of acreage and production are
almost equivalent to an actual census, and are accepted
by the trade as highly accurate.
Crop movemenf.-Reports of the various transportation
companies to State and national authorities of the move-
ment of grain and other farm products are of value as
indexes only, not of total actual crop production but of
21623 :-- ,.---2












TOWNSHIP CROP REPORTERS,
BUREAU OF CROP ESTIMATES.
NUMBER AND DISTRIBUTION.

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12 Government Crop Reports.
surpluses available for distribution through commercial
channels. Though a large percentage of the wheat
crop (60 per cent) moves out of counties where grown, it
is estimated that only about 20 per cent of the corn crop,
30 per cent of the oat crop, and 40 to 50 per cent of the
apple crop, and similarly for other crops, is handled
commercially, the remainder being consumed on the
farms or in the counties where grown. It is manifestly
impracticable to use such reports of crop movement as
are available as a satisfactory check on crop production,
but in the manner indicated such reports are of value as
indexes of crop surplus from year to year.
Exports.-Fairly accurate statistics of exports of farm
products, especially of grain, cotton, and animal products,
are furnished by the Department of Commerce. As in
the case of transportation statistics, exports are of value
as indexes of crop surplus, but are of little value in deter-
mining total crop production.
Prices.-Average monthly farm prices, which are easily
ascertained and which are of record in the Bureau of
Crop Estimates for a long series of years, afford one of the
best indirect checks on crop production. The law of
supply and demand, like the law of gravity, operates
universally. Fluctuations in prices are usually propor-
tional to variations in supply, except in cases where the
normal operation of the law of supply and demand is
interfered with by special causes, which can usually be
ascertained. A study of average farm prices in the differ-
ent States in relation to the estimated crop production
will nearly always confirm the approximate accuracy of
the estimates.
HOW REPORTS ON PARTICULAR CROPS
ARE CHECKED UP.
Cotton is the only crop for which a complete and
absolute check is afforded annually, namely, by the
census report on innings. Comparison with these for
the past two years shows that the cotton estimates of the
Bureau of Crop Estimates were accurate to within less
than 1 per cent. In the case of rice and sugar beets,
which can be checked by a canvass of all the rice and
beet-sugar mills, the estimates were accurate to within
less than I per cent. Tobacco estimates are checked
annually against the records of the Bureau of Internal
Revenue and are accurate to within a few per cent.






Government Crop Reports. 13

In the case of no other crops do satlisa, tory che-cks
exist. Statistics which appear in the press, in State
reports, reports of commercial bodies, and other publica-
tions, on crops other than those mentioned, so far as they
are not based on the census, or on the reports of the
Bureau of Crop Estimates, are frequently more or less
incomplete, and often inaccurate or otherwise defective.
In fact, the estimates of the bureau are the foundation
for many of the crop reports and statistics of commercial
bodies and private estimating agencies. The Govern-
ment reports generally are accepted as accurate by those
who are well informed or who have occasion to collect
or study crop statistics.
Existing means of checking reports onl particular crops
are set forth under separate headings.

CORN.
No satisfactory annual check for the corn crop is
available. The only complete check is the estimated
acreage and production reported every 10 years by the
Census Bureau. Only a few States estimate the corn
production, and even these reports are not based on as
complete returns or on as thorough study and scientific
methods as the estimates of the bureau. incomplete
reports of the movement of the 20 per cent of this crop
which leaves the county where grown, and statistics of
the very small percentage of the crop which is manu-
factured or exported, serve only as indexes of surpluses
available for commercial purposes. The average farm
price of corn is probably the best check available, but
this is necessarily imperfect.
WHEAT.
No complete annual check for the wneat ':rop is avail-
able, although, as the bulk of the crop enters commercial
channels, a partial means of confirmation of the accuracy
of the bureau's estimates is afforded by such statistics as
are available with respect to crop movement, receipts
at primary markets, and exports. The only complete
check is the estimated acreage and production every 10
years by the Census Bureau. State reports cover only
a portion of the wheat-producing region and are often
unsatisfactory. Estimates of private agencies are im-
perfect and not authentic.






Government Crop Reports.


OATS, RYE, BARLEY, BUCKWHEAT, AND HAY.
Oats, rye, barley, buckwheat, and hay are in the same
position as corn with respect to means by which the
crop estimates may be checked.
RICE.
The acreage and production of rice can beverified every
10 years by the census. As all rice which is not retained
on farms for seed passes through rice mills and as the mills
are comparatively few in number, it is possible to check
rice receipts at mills and to estimate the amount required
for seed against the estimated production. The bureau's
estimate of the rice crop in December, 1915, was
28,947,000 bushels. Because this estimate was severely
criticized as being from 6 to 10 per cent too large, a
thorough canvass of all the rice mills was made in 1916,
requests being sent to them to report their receipts of
rough rice from the crop of 1915. Returns were received
from every) rice mill of importance in the United States.
The amount of the 1915 rice crop reported by mills as
having been received by them, plus a conservative esti-
mate of the amount of rough rice for seeding the 1916
crop, was 28,995,000 bushels, indicating that the
bureau's estimate was accurate to within less than 1
per cent. The items are shown in the following state-
ment:
The 1915 rice estimate compared with receipts of rice mills.
Total mill receipts of rough rice in bushels of 45 pounds Bushels.
each ........................................ 27,396,991
Seeding requirements for year 1916, approx- Bushels.
imately......................... .. 1,765,800
Mills reporting (estimate for one) show sales
for seed of............. ...... ........ 223,578
Leaving to be furnished by local elevators or
retail -d by farmers, for seed .................. I. 1,342,222
Local consumption, east of Mississippi River' ... 56,000
Thus accounting definitely for a total of.............. 28,995,213
Total production as estimated by Bureau of Crop Esti-
mates in December, 1915, was .. ................. 28,947,000
Showing an excess over the bureau's estimates of....... 48,213
Or about two-tenths of 1 per cent.
Ea.st o' the Mississippi River. production was estimated at about 160.000
bushels; of this. 104.000 bushels were received by mills or used for seed, and
5'.000 bushels were consumed locally.








governmentt Crop Rcport,;. 1

CO lTON.

Cotton is the only crop for which a complete and
satisfactory annual check is furnished, namely, by the
census report of cotton ginning. For two y ears in
succession, in 1914 for the largest crop ever produced,
and in 1915 tor the smallest crop produced in many )years,
the estimates of the Bureau of Crop Estimates in Decem-
ber came within less than I per cent of the total final
innings reported bv the census in the following March.
This is brought out in the following table, which gives
the number of pounds of lint cotton (net weight) as esti-
mated in December, amually, bv the Department of
Agriculture, and the number subsequently reported by
the Bureau of the Census, for ei(h ,.f the seasons 1900-1
to 1916-17, inclusive, together with the percentage
overestimated or underestimated by the Department ot
Agriculture each season.

bureauu of Crop Estimates' figures on the cotton crop compared with
the ginning figures of the Bureau of the Census.

Pounds of cotton (U00
um ;lk-d).
O.r- Under-
Cropyea.. 11 e ti- e-li-
Etimated by Fnal re-, mared, ma,,d.
lD)-uartnientoI ported by
Sih CBureau.
.-\;h-utUI. rBureau.


1900-1 .. ...... ...... .
1901-2..... .. .
1902-3.... ....... ..
190 3-4 ......................
1904-5.......................
1905-6. ....
1906-7... ..............
1907-8 ..
1908-9 ......... .......... .
1909- 10 ............... .....
1911-121 ............ ... ..
1912-13.................
191 3-14 ................ .
1914-15. ...........
1915- 16................ ..
1916-17 ............ .
17 years. 1900-1916 .. ..
5 years. 1912-1916...... ..
3 years. 1914-1916.............


4.AM6.738 4.846.471
4.529.454 4.55U.950
5.111.870 5.u91,641
4.,899.796 4.716.501
6.157.004 6.426,698
4.860.217 5.060.200
6.001.72 6.3534.110
5.58 I.O,, 5312950
6.,192.9;1 6.336.070
4.826.344 4,7b3.220
5.464.597 5,551.7911
7.121,713 7,506.430
6.612.335 6.53o.500
0.542.830 6.772350
7.637.113 7.718.980
5.338.58t8 5.15-..406
5.506.896 5.480.012


Pur
.ce t.
0.2
' 4 .
3.7


5A .


.9 .


Per
cent.

05

4.2
4.0
5.5
2.4
1.6
5.1
3.4
1.3
.3


POTATOES.

No complete and satisfactory check exists, except the
census every 10 years. A few of the principal potato-
growing States publish reports on this crop based upon
data which are less complete than those possessed by the
Bureau of Crop Estimates. In a few important pro-


.4 .......


97.222.739 9'.419.o9 .. ...... 1.2
31.637.782 31.882.248 ...... .8
18.482.397 18,553.398 .. ..... .6






16 Government Crop Reports.

during sections, such as Aroostook County, in Maine.
and the trucking regions of the Eastern Shore of Maryland
and Virginia, the commercial movement of potatoes is
sufficiently large to form a fairly good check on the pro-
duction in those sections. The private estimates of some
of the producers' associations are also of value in con-
firming the accuracy of the bureau's estimates. However,
no complete annual check on potato production is avail-
able, the most satisfactory one being the annual variation
in prices, which indicate larger or smaller production in
each State, and to that extent verify the estimates of the
bureau.
TOBACCO.
Aside from the decennial census, the best annual
check is afforded by the records of the Bureau of Internal
Revenue. Private estimates of the "trade" and average
farm prices, taken in connection with the records of the
Internal Revenue Bureau, are also considered in verifica-
tion of the estimates. These estimates are exceedingly
accurate, usually within a few per cent of the figures of
the Bureau of Internal Revenue.

SUGAR BEETS.
In addition to the check afforded every 10 years by
the census, the bureau is able to check its estimates
annually with data obtained from all the beet-sugar
factories, which are few in number and handle the entire
crop, so that the inquiry practically amounts to a census.
The estimates are regarded as highly accurate.
APPLES AND PEACHES.
The census affords a check every 10 years on produc-
tion and reports the number of trees of bearing and non-
bearing age. The reports of transportation and storage
companies and warehouses, and various growers and
shipping associations, offer fairly reliable data as to the
commercial crop. There is no reliable check on the
large percentage of these crops which is consumed in
counties where grown. The present organization of
the Bureau of Crop Estimates includes three fruit-crop
specialists who devote their entire time to estimating
apples and peaches. At present, fluctuations in the
average price afford the best verification of the bureau's
estimates.






Government Crop Reportk. I
TRUCK CROPS.

There is no annual check on the accuracy of the bureau's
estimate of production of truck crops. The best annual
checks on the size of the various truck crops are prices
and data supplied by the transportation, storage, and
canning companies. Tlhe data collected by the Bureau
of Markets will become of increasing value as its work
is developed and its methods are perfected.

LIVE STOCK.
The only checks upon the accuracy of the bureau's
annual estimates of numbers of different classes of live
stockare the decennial census, tax assessors' returns in
some States, commercial movement, and receipts of meat
animals at stockyards, and average prices.









SCOPE OF INFORMATION CONTAINED
[Key: (A) Acreage; (%a) acreage in per cent of last year; (b) number of breeding
exposure; (F) final estimates (acreage, production, value); (f) per cent of crops
(1) cut for silos: (m) per cent of crop of merchantable quality; (n) number; (P) pro
after abandonment: (s) supplies on arms; (v) values-prices of products marked
per acre-or colony.1
-... .. .. ...... .- .. _. ... .


Crop.


Jan. Mar. Apr


Cereals:
Barley ............... v+ sf
Buckwheat ............ v+ .........
Corn.................. v + sfm
Oats .................. v+ sf
Rice................. ... ............
R ye ............. .. v+ .......,
Wheat(all)............. v+ | s
Wheat (spring).
W heat (winelcr)......... ...... ...........
Forage (grasses):
A llal'a. ha ......... v+ ........
AUalla, seed ........ v+ .........
Clover, hay............ v+ ........ .
Clover seed............ v .........
Field peas. ... .... .. .... .........
Hay (all).............. v+ .........
Hay (tame) ............................
Hay (wild). ....... ..............
Kafirs, etc............. v + ......... .
Meadows..... ........... .. .........
M illet................ ......... ...... ...
Pastures........................ c
Timothy, hay ......... v+ ......
Fruits:
Apples. .............. v+ .........
Apricots, Caldlornia ............ ........
Black and rasp berries.................... .
Cantaloupes...................... ........
Cranberries ................ .... ..........
Grapefruit. Florida...... v+ c
Grapes...... .. ........ ......... ........
Lemons. California ..... v+ c
Limes, Florida... v.+ c
Olives. California. .. ...........
Oranges .. ........... v+ c
Peaches .. .. ..... ........
Pears ............. v....
Pineapples. Florida. .... ........ c
Prunes, California........................
Watermelons............ ...............
Vegetables:
Beans (dry)............ v+ ........
Beans (lima). California ..............
Cabbages ............ v+ c
Cauliflower. California .. ........ C
Celery, California .... ............ c
Field beans. .......... ......... .........
Onions ... ......... v+ ........
Potatoes............... sv+ c
Sweet potatoes ......... v+ + ........
Tomatoes............ .......... c
Miscellaneous: I
Almonds. California... ..................
Broom cornm .......... ..v+ ........
Cotton .............. v+.
Flaxseed. .... ..... .. v+ ... .....
H em p ..... .......... ............... .
Honey. .. .... ....... v+ .......
Hops................. v+ ........
Peanuts ........ v + ........
Planting ...................... .........
Plowing ............. ............. ....
Sorghum (for irup) ..................
Sugar beets............ ..... .........
Suijar cane..... ......................
T obarcc .............. ......... .........
Walnuts ( nli'h). Cal........... ......
W N, ...... ........... .. .......
Lie itdock:
Hores ............. .. nv- ........
M ules .... .. ...... nv
Milch cow ....... nv + ......
Other cattle.......... ..nv +
All cattle ... ... .. .
Shrep .,, .. .. .... nv+ .........
Lamb ....... .. + .v...
S nw e ...... ... .. ........
Honey bees, colonies .... ......


c


C












c I







c

i c
C



C

c
C
c I
I c i


May. June.



Ac


'. .. .. '. A c "

......... Ac
Ire e

rc c
....... ,ac




s c





c c


A c
c
c c

c c


. .. ... c .
c c
C e









c c
c c
C C

c c
Cc
c


......... ...... c
c ......... c
cp p ........

C
c . .
c c
.........CC..... ... .........


I.. .. ..


c


C

C

C


... .... .... .. ........




..I

. . ...1


} dc
!. .. .. .0.. ..


de-
dec
de
dcb


Note. Rtpjri of price are also obtained monthly tor bultrr. ieqs. chickens, milk.
ary. FrhruarN,, October. Nov.inibr. and December: I( black walnuts, hickoyv nults.
corn inJ anuary.Februar y.Nuoeinbr, and December. for maple sugar and sirup in March.


I



I


.I '. .


c . .


I1










IN THE SEVERAL CROP REPORTS.
mows compared with Ilst )ear: (c) condlii-n; (d) loses flom di-ea; (W) l tIe m
shipped out of county wber e grwi: (h) nwmbel ctock hot, c>mpairdp wilh ,.Aar a.-o.
ductrm: (r'p) pe centl o full rrop pruluc.d: (q0 qualily. () a, rtear remainin'.
(v4) in January are asked meachnunlth: (%%) ,%eight per bushel. or fl-e., (Y) ;.cll


N, I Dec


''i,,


I:
c

c I


IN'
C


c Y' p .....


..... ....... I )


' ... d
C
c

pq
Pq
Pq
C

C
C
c
Y :p


c
c


c I


At'
c
Ac
c



c
C
C







c
C
1 C

a c

c
c



c



c
c

c



c
c



c
', ac







C
c
cv




c
c
c
C


c
c
c


c
C










cv
c
C
C
C


C
e












Ac
e

Ac
c

c
Ac
Ac

C

C
c
Ac




Ac

c
e

Ae
c


i .. .+ ..
c c
c c
cv cv
c 1 cv
c c
C C
c c
t c
c:pqV v
cv cv
v v
C I'p
Q.p .......


y, i+
c
Ac
A
A
c

c
c
c

c
p

C

-C

cv
c
CT
C
c
C
cv
cv
pv
c
c

c
c
c


c
C
c
C
cv

c
c
c
c
c
y
c
c


c
c
c
c
c
c+ + .
e




Y

c



c
c



c
cv


w 1....... p


Yp



Y p
c
c




c




Yq
C


C '
c





c
c
c
cv


i.

c


vealcalves. timothy seed. cotton seed, cotton need meal, and bran; for su bean in Jani-
pecans, and turkeys m January. October. No% ember, and December: for turnips and pop-
April. May. and June; and jo chestnuts in October. November. and Decemxbr.


+


c e


c


c
c

c
c
cv
C


c
C
c
c
cv




c
c


July. ,\,jt. p 0. ,


Cereal+-
w F RB 'll.
Pq F lu k,' ..
,i',ll F Corn.
w F Oat+
qF I, 1r.
AcF R:,'.
SF \ h-'-'(,1)
w F Wheat (-,ih'.
S. AcF Wheat (winter).
Fora." ( ra,'--.)


.-\! .l .n r h%,.
Y' p Cto.-r seed.
p I:.l i pea.
.... H (al!).
....... F i \ (i.'m .'
. .. .. .. F' r, (6,,A1i)
Y, p F K3firs. etc.
.Meadu,',
Millet.


..pq F Fruiti:
SIF Appl.t,'.

... .c. Blck and r-,i i yrrie.
. .........a. C nhloup s.
' pq F Cranberrie.
c Y',pq i CrIpe(uii Florid,.
pq v v Grapes.
c Yi pq Lemons. Calilornia.
c Lr. pc L Florida.
c ,p 01:e.. Calformia.
c Y' pq Orin.zre.
....... F Pe iche,.
pqv Fv P.
.. P il-'.., ,1,-, Florida.
..Prun' ( ih llorl


........ .... C ,,',r ,-a-' .,
F ,t""' la.l..((,~',

S.. 1 d il i 'i.
. Cabbages.
.~~~~~~ ~ ~ uIIifl.iiACT ( .'t.IiJ'lon
............. Celery. (Cali''rn.a.
..... .. Field beans.
.Onions.
Pq F Pt-.a'>t .
Pq F Sweet potatoes.
. ......... Tomatoes.
rt,,:'r_ llinei,'u'
cP ....... Almonds. Caliormia.
...... F B .-,m corn.
rP Cotto.
Pq F Flauw-..
.. t nip
.. .. .. .. H rinrc '.
'. F Hop.
Yt, pq ....... Pe&aauts.
. ..... .. ... Planlin.
.. ..... Plh ., i i.
Y ...... Sorghum (for sirui).
C ........ SuIr heets.
c p Sugar Crine.
Pq F -Tohacro.
pv v I'V,il"u:, (En .lish). Cal



...... .... .. W ool.r ca le.
} Lh'e +tok:
1 j f,,> ...

.. .. .. .. M il,:h cow.

............. Al!Other ca title.
.. .. .. .. .. A lI cattY.
....S. ..... heep.
Lambs.
....... ... Swine.
....... ... Honey bee. coloni-s.


I


%


++ + .1 .+. ... .......
.2:. .... .. ... .I .. .. ..




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1 N1111 11 1W 1 111 111lI II 1111111 11
3 1262 09216 9175




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