Technical results from the Gipsy moth parasite laboratory

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Technical results from the Gipsy moth parasite laboratory
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TECHNIC 'SE E s N o. 19. ITT LK OR
S. DEPART ENT OF' AGRICULTURE,
BU3TT.?,P.AIJ 014' E~Plj',T M ()X OLOAG.
L. 0. HOWARD. Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.


TECHNICAL RESULTS FROM* THlE GIPSY MO0TH
PARASITE E LABORATORY,






CONTNTS ND NDEX0






ISSUED OCTOBER 18, 1916.

















WASHING',TON:
ss GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.









TECHNICAL SERIES No. 19.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
B TREATFTT OF ElT OL 0T_0LOG-Y.
L. O. HOWARD. Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.



TECHNICAL RESULTS FROM THE GIPSY

MOTH PARASITE LABORATORY.



I. THE PARASITES REARED OR SUPPOSED TO HAVE BEEN REARED
FROM THE EGGS OF THE GIPSY MOTH.
By L. O. HOWARD, Ph. D.
II. DESCRIPTIONS OF CERTAIN CHALCIDOID PARASITES.
By J. C. CRAWFORD, Assistant Curator, Division of Insects, United States National Iuseum.
III. INVESTIGATIONS INTO THE HABITS OF CERTAIN SARCOPHAGID.E.
By T. L. PATTERSON, Assistant in Biology, Sheffield Scientific Sch'ool, Yale University WITH AN INTRODUCTION
By W. F. FISKE, In Charge of Gipsy Moth Parasite Laboratory, Bureau of Entomology.
IV. THE CIALCIDOID GENUS P'ERILAMIPUS AND ITS RELATIONS TO
THE PROBLEM OF PA RASITE INTRODUCTION.
By HARRY S. SMITH, Expert.
V. EXPERIMENTAL PARASITISM1: A STUDY OF TIlE BIOLOGY OF
LDINERIUM VALIDUM (CRESSON).
By P. H. TIMBERLAKE, A. M., Agent and Expert, Gipsy Moth Parasite Laboratory.


















WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1916.






















BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY.
L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.
C. L. MARLATT, Entomolo gist and Assistant Chief of Bureau.
E. B. O'LEARY, Chief Clerk and Executive Assistant.

F. H. CHITTENDEN, in charge of truck crop and stored product insect investigate ions. A. D. HOPKINS, in charge of forest insect investigations. W. D. HUNTER, in charge of southern field crop insect invest nations.
in charge of cereal and forage insect investigations.
A. L. QUAINTANCE, in charge of deciduous fruit insect investigations. E. F. PHILLIPS, in charge of bee culture. A. F. BURGESS, in charge of gipsy moth and brown-tail moth investigations. ROLLA P. CURRIE, in charge of editorial work. MABEL COLCORD, librarian.
Gipsy MOTH AND BROWN-TAIL MOTH INVESTIGATIONS.
A. F. BURGESS, in charge.

D. M. ROGERS, assistant in charge of gipsy-moth quarantine. L. H. WORTHLEY, agent.
C. H. T. TOWNSEND, S. S. GROSSMAN, C. W. COLLINS, F. H. MOSHER, R. W. GLASER,
REGINALD WOOLDRIDGE, J. J. CULVER, and C.W. STOCKWELL, entomological assistants. J. N. SUMMERS, J. W. CHAPMAN, J. B. SCHAFFNER, Jr., H. A. PRESTON, W. B. TURNER,
C. E. HOOD, J. 1. PILLSBURY, H. W. ALLEN, R. T. WEBBER, D. W. JONES, and JOHN W. BRADLEY, scientific assistants. G. E. CLEMENT, WILLIS MUNRO, and D. 0. INGALL, assistants in forest management.
III






















PREFACE.


In the course of more than three ears' work with the. parasites an d natural enemiies of the gipsv moth and, brown-tail mnoth nearly aI1 imported from Europe or Japan, it has been necessary to work with a number of species new to science and to make the most careful lifehistory ob)servations upon all the species concerned in order to ascertain points of possible importance in the practical handling of the material. It is proposed in this Technical Series No. 19 to include a series of short papers giving some of the systematic and biological results of this work, the practical deductions for the most part being reserved for consideration i the bulletins of the general series.
Technical Series No. 12, Part VI, entitled "A Record of Results from Rearings and Dissections of Tachinidae," by Charles 1I. T. Townsend, published September 18, 1908, really should have started this Technical Series No. 19, since it direc-tly concerns itself with. results of work at the gipsy-moth parasite laboratory.
The laboratory- in question, it should be stated, is now stationed at Melrose Highlands, Mass. *(No. 17 East Higyhland Avenue). It is conducted with the cooperation of the State of Massachusetts and the United States Department of Agriculture.
L. 0. HOWARD.
J A NU ARY 28, 1910.























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CONTENTS.'


The parasites reared or supposed to have been reared fromi the e,,, of the
gipsy m oth ............................................... L. 0. Ilovard.. I
Introductory ........................................................... t
Family Encyrtidv .....................................................2
Subfamily Encyrtixe ............................................... 2
Tribe Mirii .............................................. 2
Genus Schedius ............................................ '
Genus Tyndarichus ........................................ 5
Subfamily Eupelminae ............................................. 7
Tribe Eupelm ini ...............................................
Genus Anastatus .......................................... 7
Family Pteromalid e .................................................... 8
Subfamily Sphegigasterina ......................................... 8
Tribe Pachyneurini ........................................... 8
Genus Pachyneuron ......................................... 8
Family Eulophide .................................................... 9
Subfamily Elachertina .................. ..................... 9
Tribe Elachertini .............................................. 9
Genus Atoposomoidea ....................................... 9
Subfamily Aphelinine .............................................. 11
Tribe Aphelinini .............................................. 11
Genus Perissopterus .......................................... 11
Family Proctotrypide .................................................. 12
Subfamily Scelionina ............................................. 12
Tribe Telenomini ......................................... 12
Genus Telctomus .......................................... 1
Descriptions of certain chalcidoid parasites. J. C. Craw ford.. 13
Introduction ........................................................ 13
Family Chalcidid ..................................................... 13
Subfamily ChalcidinT ............................................. 13
Tribe Chalcidini .............................................. 13
Genus Chalcis .............................................. 13
Family Perilampidge ................................................... 20
Genus Perilampus .......................................... 20
Family PteromalidT .................................................... 21
Subfamily Pteromalin........................................ 21
Tribe Pteromalini........................................ 21
Genus Ilypopteromalus .................................... 21
Fam ily Eulophide .................................................... 22
Subfarily Entedoninae ........................................... 22
Tribe Entedonini .............................................. 22
Genus Pleurotropis ......................................... 22
Subfamily Eulophine ............................................. 24
Tribe Eulophini .............................................. 24
Genus Dimmockia .......................................... 24
I The five papers constituting this bulletin were issued in separate form on Jan. 28 and Apr. 30, 1910, Mar. 22, 11, and Apr. 22 and May 29, 1912, respectively.
VII






VIII ESULS FRO 1GIPY M-\OTH PARASITE LABORATORY.

page.
Iesia isinto the habits of certa,-in Sarcophagidx .... T. L. Patterson.. 5 lintroduc-tion (by NV. F. Fiske) ..................... 25
General cond1(itionS................................................. 27
Collect tion of gi'psy-moth pUPAI for miaggot-()s of Sarcophaid ........... 27
Exper-iients with adult Sar ophagide.................................2
Experiments with first-stage maggots oni li ving and dead material.........30 Relation of decomposition to oviposition ................. .............. 30
Conc..u.ion.....................................................3
The chaltioi g-enus Peri-lawnpus and its relations to the problem of parasite
in1trodluction ........................Harry S. Smith 13

Biology' Of Perillamnp us htyalin s Say ................................. 4
Oviposit-ionl....................................................37
Reprodutctive capac it-%.......................................... 39
I1)escription of piaiiumiii ........................................ 39
Habits of plaidium............................................ 41
Life as a para~ite of I-anch, ta ................................. 42
As a parasite of Liin m'riurn vlidum Cresson ..................... 43
As a paras ite of s ummuer-issuing ilymenioptera ............. ...... 44
As a parasite ofi other hosts...................................45
Later larval stages .............................................. 45,Pupation ...................................................... 47
Food habits of the adult .....................................48
Logvt ( and* ogeneSIS .........................................4-9
L~engzth of life cycle and( influence of temperature....................4 9
Effect of parastuim upon host....................................1
Percentage e of parasitismu........................................ 52
Sulp erp~aras4iti.;is.............................................. 5
Ietla ~m pu $ versus I'erdampttg ..................................53
Perila~ onp s ve rsus Dib')-rchys .................... ......... 155
Perilampuis, "s9pecies A"...............................................- 5 5
Development of OraIseoa ...............................................57,
Plan(iium of Oraserna v'iridis Ashmnead ............................ .591
Rtelationiship) of EuchIaridL- anil Perilaidit)............................ 59
Rhtipiphorus anid other coleopterous parasites ............... ............60)
H~ost relations of the gentus PIr)rIam pus.................................6 1
Rearing recormls of Perdain puois h yalius at the laboratory......... .. ..61
Other Ameiricani rearing"! 1(rrs of Pr"I'lam pus ..................... )
Europeani rearnng, records:- o)f Perilarnlm pu........................... 64
Eu'iropean) specieNs of Pen/am pums rearedl at the labaoratory........ 65
R ~ (a o host relati'ons of the geus........................... 66
The "I.floldiC .s~(t................................................ 67
'Exl)e-rimental pa\iim A tudy\ of the biolo),-v of Li.mneriurn validum (CresIn1troducio................................................. 71
Fx pern ntsoII(......................................................7
(jncalmuthod,, of exeimnato .............................. 72
Beha.:vio)r of Ljm*w oeriui 7 volbduin (Cressonl) inl conlfinlemnot ........... 73
Lbiuin-M Ial;dhim as a 1)aras-itec of E'iprw-tis clirqsorrha'a (,innawus).. 73
FirstI expewriment .................................,............ 7-4
Sec nd xp rilmentf . . 74
Anrhevo~~a'; a pr)otcti\e reaction of thec 110t............... 7 5
Adapt 't i(' of pa hst to host Il 76 ......*.....
Firther experiirwnts. withi Lurei chr!orrhwa~ ................. 77







C ON 1',1NTS.-. '1X

Experimental parasitism-Continu ed.
Experiments-Continued. I' igw
Limneri un validiumn as a parasite of ,luitouuj americana ['Furiein-.. 1
Results of experiments as deternI n by diss o(i[ ....s....-- 78 Emergence of adults of Limnnernce irom reproduct 79
Length of the stages in the life history of Lnnerim. .. ........o
A possibly normal parasite of .ValC0 orna.................... 80
Lirnnerium validum, as a parasite of SAoidoplms antquuN Linen ... 81 Limneriium validium as a parasite of Paribetri dispair ILinnous,..........2 Experiments with other hosts.......... .........................:3
Notes on development an( anatomy of t11 larva. .......................<
The egg............................................... .
The first-stage larva....................................... ... 84
Description of the newly hated larva....................... 84
Function of the tail appenda...........................
Appearance of older larve............................ .. .
Notes on the anatomy of tie larva....................... .....
The second-stage larva................................ ....... 87
The third-stage larva.............................. ..... ....-.-s
Description of the full-grown larva............................ 8
Feeding habits of 'the imprisoned larva..................... ... 88
Respiration of the larva in the third stage. ...........---.....The cocoon..............-----------------------------------...... 90
Results of the dissections of Hupiantria during the fall of 1910-.......... 90
General summary..................----------------------............. 91
Bibliography.............................---------------.............. 92
Index................................. ... ... ... -----93



ILLUSTRATIONS.



Fi. 1. Schediuskuvanr: Female..........-4-------------------- 4
2. Schedius kuvanw: Antenna of male and female. ..........--......... 5
3. Schedius kuran:: Fore and hind wings of female. ........... ........ 5
4. Tyndarichus navr: Antenna of male and female..................... 6
5. Tyndarichus nara': Fore and hind wings of female. ....... ........... 6
6. Anastatus b'fasciatus: Female.................... ..........
7. Atoposonoirea oiour: Female and details..................... .... 9
8. Chalcis ovata, female: Head, showing carina at front of malar space 15 9. Chalcis orata. female: Yentral view of hind coxa, showing tubercle... 15 10. Chalcis ovata, female: Hind femur and tibia, showing markings...... 15 11. Chalcis robusta, female: H ind femur and tibia. showing mat king- ..s 15 12. Chalcis incerta, female: Hind femur and tibia, showing markings... 16 13. Chalcis fiskei. female: Hind femur and tibia, showing markings........16 14. Chalcis fiskei, female: Head. showing carina at front of malar space.... 16 15. Chalcis obscurala, female: Hind femur and tibia, showing markings ---. 17 16. Chalcis obscurata, female: Head, showing carina at front of malar space 17 17. Chalcis flaripes, female: Ilind femur and tibia, showing markings 18 18. Chalcis flavipes, female: Head, showing carina at front of malar space. 18 19. Chalcis minuta, female: Hind femur and tibia, showing markings .... 18
20. Chalcis minuta, female: flind femur, inner side, showing tubercle near
base..................................................... g







x !EU~h]'ROM IPYMOalH PARASITE LABORATORY,


21 i/c- uuiml:Ied shIowijng caiIna at front of malar space. is1
22. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1)j ('uK uule-.fml: idfmran iisowingc markings 19
23 C2~~ pujsa female Tead hwig caIrin a111t frIont of malar space 19
24.1 r MVn pishybas: laidum vetrlv .. ............ 40
2,. Perd~u vus -------:-P-anii----d------ie 40
2~.Pup o I ~ir/u Lualrici~,paasiizd h J~rium ushyalinus; pupa of ameunprastizd;plioidium11 Of P lql e ushalinus. before and

after.............. ------ 4
27. 'criuenpus eynl.....Maure..r................. ... 47

29 ed u yl' :PupIa tlbt prv-,Iill- k'01 to loson ....... 48
30 eiu u.seisA ": Plidiurn11, ventra1"l view ........... 56
31.1%ilw us,"sece~A 'Planid"im. (ralview5
:3. oumeiu 'aldu:Aduilt fem ale, abdomen of male, metascutuma,
1Ccoon -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 72
33. Limnerirn-----d--n-Eg-......................................83
34.Lhnerur /vuidm: ELosio)-n of larva.............................. 83
3 5. Lehnneriurn raIlidumw: irttaelvnwyhtcd 84
36.Lmarw~ vaidun:First-t-age larva of large size, showing silk glands
andnevusstm....................8
3.o i,riuw valiumI: MIoiit!harrs oif lIi~-stage larva ................... 86
3S t LVnur/u tzlu: Scn-tg larva.............................8
39. j"ttLnriunm validull?: Muha of second-stage larva................. 87
4.Linueriuui vliduin:Thd-tg larva a.............................. 88
41. LI'nonerium validuin: AntIerior view of lead of thaird-stage larva, showing mou thparts.....................----........................ 88



ERRATA.



Pag 1, line 3, for Ott solte read The.
Pagei- 1 ,, line 4i, after Gecrmn insert period.
Pagre 68, lne 1,omitt comma after paurasite(s.
Page 68 lineC 19, om1it comma after encountered.
rage 72, li ne 9, for Ilypuntrila read fly phantria.
Page 716, Ilne 23, for inwaps uted read ca-ps ulated.
P'age Il ie 24, after always omlit commia.
Pae 6,lne 2 5, after fte,(?/ently ins,-ert comma.













INDEX.

IPage
Ablerus clisioc(m pi?, not parasite of Clisiocamipa but of Chionaspisfurfura ..... 10 Achillea millefolium, adults of Perilampus hyalinus and IP. cyaneus on leaves... 48 Acrobasis cargX, secondary host of Perilampus sp ........................... 62
Ambrosia, adults of Perilampus on leaves.................................... 48
A nAmbocytosisas a protective reaction against Limnerium talidum in caterpillars of
Euproctis chrysorrhoea................................................. 75-76
why does it not occur in hosts infested by their normal parasites?......... 76-77 .A nastatuslarve in eggs of Porthetria dispar not attacked by Perissopterus jaurcesis.... 12 parasites of lepidopterous eggs .......................................1 I
possible host of Tyndaricihus na.................................... 7
Anastatus bifasciatwus-important introduced parasite of gipsy-moth eggs...................... 1-2, 7-8
probable host of Pachyneuron gifuensis.................................. 8
parasite, synonyms...........................,......................... 7-8
Angelica atropurpurea, adults of Perilampus cyaneus taken on leaves........... 48
Anobium molle, host of Perilampus angustatus............................... 64
Anomalon ambiguumparasite of Hyphantria textor......................................... 45
probable host of Perilampus hyalinus................................... 45
Anthonomus grandis, recorded as host of Perilampus, record open to question.. 63 Anthrenus verbasci, enemy of Hemnerocampa leucostigma ...................... 2
Apantelesfulripes var. japonica, host of Perilampus inimicus ..................... 66
host of Perilampus hyalinus...... ....................................... 53
hyphantrix, host of Perilampus hyalinus................................... 44, 62
hyphantrix, parasite of Hyphantria textor................................ 36, 62
oviposition far from head of caterpillar host, reasons therefor ............ 73
parasite of Hyphantria cunea.......................................... 72
parasite of Hyphantria textor............................................ 34
sp., host of Perilampus sp.............................................. 66
sp., parasite of brown-tail moth........................................ 66
sp., parasite of Euchatias egle, host of Perilampus hyalinus................ 62
rimennetorum, host of Mesochorus...................................... 67
rimenetorum, parasite of brown-tail moth .............................. 67
Apalela haustulifera, secondary host of Perilampus sp ........................ 62
Aphelinin e ............................................................... 11-12
Aphelinini .............................................................. 11-12
Aphis, Pachyneuron gifuensis reared therefrom, probably as hyperparasite...... 8 Athalia colibri; host of Perilampus italicus ................................. 65
AtoposomaAtoposomoidea compared therewith in description....................... 9
A. cariegatum the type............................................. 11
comparison with Zagrammosoma........................................ 9
variegatumn, type of Atoposoma, parasite of (Ecophyllembius neglectus....... 11
60364-16- 2 93







94 RESUI.TS FROM GIPSY MOTH PARASITE LABORATORY.

Page.
Atoposomoidea, new genus, description...................................... ---------------------------------9-11
Atoposomoidca ogimx, new species, description, host, probably not a parasite
of Porthetria dispar ..................................................... 9-11
Bees, parasitic, role as carriers of triungulins ............................... 38
Blepharipa scutellatahost of Perilampus cuprinus ......................................... 65, 66, 69
parasite of gipsy moth.................................................. ---------------------------------------------65
Brown-tail mothSee also Euproctis chrysorrhea.)
host of Apanteles sp ...................................---------................ --66
host of Apanteles cimenetorum .......................................... 67
host of Compsilura concinnata .......................................... 28
host of lieteorus and Zygobothria nidicola ................................ 77
tachinid parasites ..................................................... 65
Cam poplexcocoons erroneously thought to be those of Perilampus riolaceus........... -64-65
parasite of tortricid...................................----------------- 4-65
Carpocapsa pomonella, host of Perilampus levifrous ............................ 64
ChalcididMe ............................................................... 13-20
Chalcidin-............................................................... 13-20
Chalcidini ................................................................ 13-20
Chalcidoid parasites, descriptions of certain species, paper ................... 13-24
Chalis
belfragei in table of species of genus .................................... 14
callipus in table of species of genus ...................................... 15
callipus, reference to original description, systematic notes, host ........... 20
coloradceasis in table of species of genus ................................... 14-15
coloradensis, reference to original description, systematic notes ............ 16
columabiana in table of species of genus ................................... 15
fiskei in table of species of genus ....................................... 14
fiskei, new species, description, hosts................................... ------------------------------16-17
flacvipes in table of species of genus ..................................... 14
flavipes, reference to original description, systematic notes, parasite of
Porthletria dispar ..................................................... 18
fonscolombei in table of species of genus ................................ 15
fonscolombei, reference to original description, hosts, systematic notes .... 20 incerta in table of species of genus ...................................... 14
incerta, reference to original description, systematic notes, habitat ......... 16
eminulta, C. paraplesia compared therewith .............................. 19
minute in table of species of genus ..................................... 14
minuta, reference to original description, systematic notes, hosts ......... 18 obscurata in table of species of genus ................................... 14
obscurata, reference to original d(lescription, systematic notes, parasite of
Porthetria dispa ................................................... 17
ovata, (. miniuta compared therewith .................................... 18
ovata, C'. obsec rata compared therewith .................................. 17
orata in table of species of genus ....................................... 14
ovata, reference to original description, systematic notes .................. 15
paraplesia in table of species of genus................................... 14
paraplesia, new species, description, hosts .............................. 19
peddais in table of species of genus ...................................... 14
robusta in table of species of genus ..................................... 14
roJ sta, reference to original description................................. 15







INDEX. 95

Chalcis-Continued. Pa tge.
slossonx in table of species of genus ..................................... 15
table of species....................................................... 14-15
tachinx indistinguishable from C. coloradensis ........................... 16
tarsata in table of species of genus..................................... 14
tegularis in table of species of genus.................................... 14
Chionaspis furfura, host of Ablerus clisiocampx .............................. 10
Chrysopa, host of Isodromus iceryx .......................................... 10-11
Chrysopa spp., hosts of Perilampus spp..................................... 62-63
Clisiocampa, not host of Ablerus clisiocampx .................................. 10
Coccyx buoliana, host of Perilampus levifrons................................ 64
Codling moth. (See Carpocapsa pomonella.) Compsilura concinnata-host of Perilamrpus cuprinus........................................... 65-66
host of Perilampus hyalinus............................................ 62
parasite of gipsy moth ............................................... 65
parasite of gipsy moth and brown-tail moth .......................... 28-29
parasite of Hlyphantria textor............................................ 62
Crawford, J. C., paper, "Descriptions of Certain Chalcidoid Parasites"........ 13-24
Cynips bifasciata=Anastatus bifasciatus ..................................... 7
Dasypyga alternosquamella, secondary host of Perilampus sp.................. 62
Dermestid enemy of Porthetria dispar....................................... 2
Derostenus, Japanese species of Ashmead belong in Pleurotropis .............. 22
Dibrachys boucheanushost of Perilamnpus hyalinus............................................ 62
parasite of Limnerium validum ......................................... 55
parasite of Varichata.................................................. 56, 62
Dibrachys reared from gipsy-moth pupm ...................................... 28
Dimmockiaincongrua, parasite of Varichxta aldrichi ................................ 35
secundus, new species, description, host................................. 24
Dryophilus pusillus, host of Perilampus angustatus............................ 64
Elachertina ............................................................ -9-11
Elachertine parasite of Lithocolletis fitchella.................................. 11
Elachertine parasites of lepidopterous leaf-miners .......................... 11
Elachertini............................................................... 9-11
Encyrtide ............................................................... 2-8
Encyrtin ................................................................ 2-7
Entedoninm ...................................................................... 22-23
Entedonini............................................................... 22-23
Erigeron canadensis, adults of Perilampus hyalinus and P. cyaneus on leaves.... 48 Euchxtias egle, secondary host of Perilampus hyalinus, parasite................ 61-62
Eucharide and Perilampide, relationship.................................. 59-60
Eucosma desertana, secondary host of Perilampus sp ......................... 62
Eucosma scudderiana, secondary host of Perilampus sp ....................... 62
Eulophide ......................................................... 9-12, 22-24
Eulophina ............................................................. 24
Eulophini............................................................... 24
Eupatorium perfoliatum, adults of Perilampus hyalinus and P. cyaneus on leaves.. 48 Eupelmina ................................................................ 7-8
Eupelmini................................................................ 7-8
Eupelmus bifasciatus= Anastatus bifasciat us.................................. 7







96RESULTS YRO-M GIPSY MOT1:H PARASITE LABORATORY,


See aloBrown-ta*il moth.) Page.
as osibe oA f ~nri~nvallu'L epeiments ............. 7.-7
ovpsinof Linru cali~duin on small caterpillars ........... 71
Eu~te, s iotp a sibehs of Lionneriin validu. experiments ...... 83
Erjcc/i P-ncIS lpn ihost ofI Perilamlpus lecifronS ............. 6
ExchIihost of Perilar pus ..........................~.... 45
Eusabanareared from gips-y-niot'l pup~i................ 28
Fm~afcrc~.parasite, of Sam ltfa cecropia, host of Perilwn pus hiyalinus .62..
Guo,-ix (nch)ora (, found ini gipSy-mowth p~upe .............................. 28S

Sealso P'ortheirla ispa anid Ocneri-a dis par.)
liu-t of Aallsutie var. Japonica.................................. 66
ho(st of Gr slr concininala ....................................--2S-29
lparaites retired or supposed to have been reared from eggs. paper-........ 1-12
tacinid parasites................................................---- 65

host of Atoposooidea ogiin~x......................................... 10
host of Dimmtockia securndus ........................................ .24
host of Ilypjoplero'rnaius apantelophtagus ................................ 21
lost of J'erilala pus intimlicus ......................................... 20
host of Pleurotropis howardi ......................................... 23
host of Ple urolropis orien tali's........................................ 23
ap, host of Ilypopicrom alus po-cilo pus............................... 22Grasshoppers, hosts of Sarcophag(idai ...................................... 25
Ilalias quvercania, host of Perilam pus ruJicorrtis .............................. 64
Horr sin a amecrica'narecordled as host of Perilam pus platygaster ..............................6 2
secondary host of Perilam pus sp...................................... 62
Ilelianthuis, adults of Perilam pus on leaves................................. 48I
I1lrnerocamtpa ic-ucosigowflas host of Llmiiw riuma vcoidum, experiments............................-- 3
eggs eaten by Anhthrenuvs verbasci ......................................29
host of Linerium ralidumn.......................................... 72
Ippocephialus; mull ilintca ts= Zogrammosoma vmultilicatum...................................... 11
parasite of Lithocolhl's ornatella.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 11
Jus3ter picipes, host of Per1iamqpus niicans ................................... 64
Hornet, host of Rhipiphorus ............................................ 60
HoNNard, L. 0., paper, '"The Parasites Reared or Supposed to, have been Reared
from the Eg-.s of the Gipsy Moth"...................................... 1-12
Ilylophitla' btcolorana, host of Per-ihautpus ru 'ficor-nis........................... 64
1-lypermetamorphism in IPe7'lawflUS, Or-asein, and Riipiphorus............... 6
JIpar~ti(a culfcahiost of -Apanteles ................. ........ .........................72
host of Lineriui? pil1osuum........................................7
host of Linmrwmum vilidumn ..........................................7
host of Mfet earus................................................... 72
no0 ainuwhocyto.is Mn caterpillars parasitized by Limuneriumt 'vlidumi.......75-76
results of disseetion4 of larvtv with regard to parasitism by Linincriumii validuin and perhaps L. pilos'tum?.................................... 90-91
JJ!/)Ipli~jtri, primary host of fLnnriumi fugqitvum and secondary host of PrrilaIMM pu ylns.........................63~







INDEX. 97

Hyphantria textor- Pro.
host of Anomalon amtbiguum .......................................... 45
host of Ichneumon cinctilarsis .......................................... 45
host of Melanichneumon sp........................................... 45
parasites ............................................................ 34
secondary host of Perilampus hyalinus, parasites ....................... 61-62
Hypopteromalusapantelophagus in table of species of genus ............................ 21
apantelophagus, new species, description, host ......................... 21
pecilopus in table of species of genus .................................. 21
pwcilopus, new species, description, host............................ 21-22
tabacum in table of species of genus .................................. 21
table of species .................................................... 21
Icerya purchasi not host of Isodromus iceryx. ....................... ...... 10-1.1
Ichneumoncinctitarsis, parasite of Hyphantria textor............................... 45
cinctitarsis, probable host of Perilampus hyalinus ...................... 45
host of Perilampus hyalinus............................................ 45
isodromus iceryx, not parasite of Icerya purchasi but of Chrysopa .......... 10-11, 63
Larch sawfly. (See Nematus erichsonii.)
Leaf-miners, lepidopterous, elachertine parasites ........................... I I
Lepidopterous eggs, hymenopterous parasites in America......................
Limneriumfugitivum, parasite of Hyphantria and host of Perilarmpus hyalinus......... 6 3 parasite of Hyphantria textor........................................... 34
pilosulum, habits, possible occurrence in larvae of Hyphantria cunea dissected.............................................................. 90-91
pilosulum, parasite of Hyphantria cunea, habits compared with those of
L validum ....... ................................................... 72
two species, hosts of Perilampus hyalinus ............................... 44
Limnerium validumanatomy of first-stage larva, notes...................................... 86
as possible parasite of Euproctis chrysorrhea, experiments ................. 73-78
as possible parasite of Malacosoma amnericana, experiments ............... 78-81
as possible parasite of Notolophus antiquus............................. 81-82
as possible parasite of Porthetria dispar................................. 82-83
behavior in confinement............................................... 73
bibliography......................................................... 92
biology, paper........................................................ 71-92
cocoon.............................................................. 90
development and anatomy of larva, notes............................. 83-90
egg................................................................... 83-84
experiments with possible hosts........................................ 72-83
feeding habits of imprisoned third-stage larva........................... 88-89
host of Dibrachys boucheanus........................................... 55
host of Perilampus hyalinus................................... 43-44, 49-55, 62
hosts........................................................... 72-83, 90-92
is it a host of Perilampus "species A"?................................. 55-57
larva, older, of first-stage, appearance.................................. 85-86
larva, first-stage....................................................... 84-86
larva, full-grown,-description.......................................... 87-88
larva, newly hatched, description..................................... 84- 85
larva, second-stage................................................... 87







986 RESU-LTS FROM GIPSY MOTH PARASITE LABORATORY,

Lunwriumi ralidun-Continued. Page,
larva, tird-stag-1e..............................................--- 87-90,
leng-,th of Mtg~i life i-tory .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ........ .. ..... .. .. .. ..8so
parasite? of Hypliaittria cuinea......................................... 91-92
patrasite of Ijyphantri~a textor ........................................ 36-62
para-ite of Melalopha iiiclusa ........................................ 62
rrngapparatus and mnethods.............................-----......7-2-73
respiration1 of larva in third-stage.................................8--- 9-90
re -Ult of dseiosof host larvae, fly phantria cunea..................--90-91
,-funmar%"tf bogyanidhos4t relations.............................----91-92
1,1il appenldag e of larva, function ..................................... 85
Litoclltisjichllhost of elachertine...................................-- 11
L ithocolW is ornaltel/u, host of Hippocepha 1 us ina tilt-alas (Zagr~mosom~a
mul.......am.................................................... IL
Lyctuls cawiliculatus, host of Pen/lampus ?nicanis.............................. 64
Malmcosowa americana as a possible host, of Llimneriurn validwin, experimients--. 78-81L Malacosoma, amcwbocytosis in caterpillars as a protective reactiLon against
Limnn(eriain validumi ..................................................75
Melalopha~ inoclusa, secondary host of Perilam pus hiyalinus. parasite ...........6 1- 62

parasite of Hy!plurnria text or .........................................4
probable hiot of Perilam pus Ityalinus .................................. 45
Meznio plus birvitat us, host of sarcophiagid.................................. 63
Meijnob'i, parasite of Varichaxta, probably too small for host of JPerilam ipus ... 55 AMeloe................................... ............................. 60
Mesochorus, parasite of Apanteles virnenetorumn............................... 67
Mieieoruscowl II ItI? s, parasite of ly phantria textor, host of Perilanpus htyali11S....... 62 cm011unis?), host of Pen/lam pus hyalinus ............................... 44
fatal influences of larva over that of Zygobothbria ytidicola when occurringt
together in brown-tail moth caterpillars .............................. 77
ovip~osition far from hie-ad of caterpillar host, reasons therefor............. 73
parasite of brown-tail moth..........................................7
paras-ite of Ilyphana cunea......................................... 72
Micro pidis nigripeun wis, parasite of Ilelothis obsoleta and host of Perilam ~pus
hyabls ............................................................ 63

Mr)iiodo ntIomn er us r ea r ed f rom gips-m oth pupT ...............................2
Mounin-clak uttrfl. See Euvanessa antio pa.)
Myodies. vipoitio ................................................. 60
Netna/aus erichisoni*i, planiidium (Peri/am pus?) found onf hibernating larva .. 59 .Votolophus. amawhocytosis in caterpillars as a protective reaction -against Lintf1Cr'LefU1111 vadua& ...................................................... 75
Notolophus antiquus at. a possible hiost of Lirneriim vali'dum, experiment.....81s-82 Olcurria dis par
( See also Porthetnial (h8Jpr anid Gipsy M~oth,)
lost of Anaslatuls bifasrciatus ............................................ 7
OccophyllembtIus neq~lec s, host of Atoposomoa ra veaiegat ............ 1
Ooefecyrtus, paras-ites of lepidopterous eggs .................................. I
(.irsellia
dvelo4(pmen ..................................................... 57-59

palra-ite oif J'u i'deI itllAM]an otlier mnts ............................. 57-58
relaionsip t PE'ilamp ........................................ 59






I"\ DtE X. 9

Orasimna riridis-- .
comparison of pupa of Perilanpu.s h/halius therewith ................... 17-I
larva ............................................................... 5 ;
oviposition, habits of planidium ...................................... 57-58
planidium, description .............................................. 5 ,
Pachyneurini ......................................................... 8
Pachyneuron gifuensis, bibliography, hosts reared( from. gg of t'orthfriu dipr..
Pachyneuron, host otf Tqndarichus nuaae................................... 7
Pales pavidarhost of Perilampus caprinus.......................................... .s v i
parasite of brown-tail m oth............................................ 5
Parasite introductionrelations of Perilampus to problem, paper............................. 33-69
adaptation to hosts................................................... 76 77
Parasites reared orsupposed to have been reared from eggs of gipsy nwth, paper. 1-12
Parexorista chelo tniaec
host of Perilampus cuprinus........................................ (15. t66
parasite of brown-tail moth .......................................... (5
Pastinaca satira, adults of Perilampus hyalinus taken on leaves ............... 48
Patterson, T. L., paper, "Investigations into the Habits of (Certain Sarcophagide" ........................................................25-32
Pentatomide, hosts of Telenomus cultratus ................................ 12
Perilampide.............................................. 2..........20
Perilampide and Eucharide, relationship ............................... 59-60o
Perilampusand its relations to problem of parasite introduction, paper .............. 33-69
economic aspects.................................................. 67-69
(?) emergence from parasitized Hyphantria textor........................ 34
host relations of genus.............................................. 61-67
parasite of Tachinide .............................................. 63
planidium found on hibernating larva of Nematus erichsoni .............. 59
relationship to Orasema........................... ............... 59-60
r6sumb of host relations of genus.................................... 66:167
Perilanmpus angustatus, recorded hosts .................................... 64
Perilampus auratus, recorded hosts ....................................... f64
Perilampus cuprinuseconomic status................................................... 68-69
hosts, probable life history......................................... 65- --6
parasite of Blepharipa scutellata ..................................... 9
Perilampus cyaneus, food habits of adult .................................. 48
Perilampus hyalinusbiology........................................................... 34-55
development as influenced ,y temperature .......................... 49--51
economic status................................................... 8
effect of parasitism on host ......................................... 51- 52
food habits of adult ........-......................................... 48
habits in comparison with those of P). cupri s......................... 6 (i
hosts.......................... .............. 45 61-63
later larval stages. .................................................... 45-47
life cycle, length ................................................... 49-51
longevity of adults ................................................ 49
oogenesis.......................................................- 49
oviposition........................................................ 37-38
parasite of Limnneriumfugitivum ..................................... 63
al







100RESLTSFROM-1 GIPSY MOTH PARASITE LABORATORY.

Peilhnpu /kalinus -Continued. aPage.

paraszite of sacpai... ......................................6()3
parasz-ite of T'-rich~ta................................................ 68
percentage of parasitism ........................................... 52- 53k
planidiumn, description............................................ .39-41
planidium, habits ................................................ 41-45
pupation ........................................................ 47-48
relation with1 Dibrachyts boucheanus as parasites of Limneriumn validumn..... 55
reproductive capacity%...............................................309
secondary parasite of lifeliot his obsoleta................................631
superparasitism ................................................. )
PerilamrPt; pus intcirncshost .............................................................. 66
new species, description, host ....................................... 20
Peiunpsitulicus, recorded host...................................... G)
IPrilarnpus lerifron s, recorded hosts ......................................64A
Per?*7l)m S ?nwtians, recorded hosts .......................................614
Perilam pus plot ytlaster, recorded as parasite of 171'rrisina americana ...........6 2
IPerilam pus riiflcor'n s, recorded hosts..................................... 64-653
Perilai~ps, spe)(cies A," planidium, des cription and habits, Comparison with
that of Jci-rdamnims h?,ahiis .............................................. 5
Perilalipus sp..arasite of Apan(teles sp................................... 66
Perdla Uf Jls violWCU s P. rulficormis.......................................6 4
P~ris .............................................................. 11-12
Per~~ ~~ isohrs orrs, parasite of Tackardia but probably not of Porthetria dispar.
1)11ilgra Id i:-------------...........................................I1 -12
Phagzoctoi. so called. (SeAmibocyto.sis.)
Phioeislhls1ost o)f ()rusein11a vt~idl*,h...............................)
Phiyct:ern ircab, econdary- host ofPelmps sp ........................6(2
Planlidiurn11, llse atnd derivation of termi.....................................36
PiE urotmopt.
fl iI14 ps'S 1rol~aIhly belong-ing to anllndc'-uribed genius................ 1 -22
1fa1 1huo Wntbe o f species of genus ................................ 22
11001 1 d1 in table of species of genus ................................... 22
kowrardi, new" :1)ecies1, des4criptionI, 11l .~................................ 2:3
w suuIin table of jwech- of g enu .................................. 2
nWila'it, in table of ()~is f ger(nus ------------ ---- --- --- --- --- --- 22
orienhdlis iin table of spwcies1- of grs.......................................22
orientalIis nw p :1 e, (ez-('rTptI IMI.I( T .ho. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 3
table- of spwcies....... .... .. ...........................
IPortheiria dis par
(Se also Gipsy.\ Mow ami Oclei1 dspr.
as a pos4sible- host of Limiteriurnt iwlidiim .................................82 s3
hos of Arwostutus b'ifiswI'S ............. ...............................8
host of (Thmlcs f~ p .. .. .. 18S
host of 'hlttis*, obsctirata .................... ........................1
hiost of Schredeus 1k-a alt', .. .. . .

probably iiot ho():- of I toPoSomoideu-( DoiwflX ........... .. 10
probably no thos.-t of PeriSSOptrrus I0 Ii fu~ .. ......... ...... 1 1 -12
relat ions-, f Saco lm u e t reto .... .. .. .. .. .
repo)rtsd hosti of C7halvis eullipiB .. ... .. 20
re-ported hosti of Telen linus, nwv sp ct4................. 12
Ti ndar-ic I7s na v re Ared fro m i gs 7







I NI:x. 101


P IroctIw rrYPid(I ..................................................... ....... 12
PterIom alId(he............................................................. .21 e
Pterom ali a .................................. ............................ 21 22
Pterornalini........................................................2 2
Rearing apparatus and methods for Limnmerium rulidum.................. 72 73
Retinia sp. (?), secondary host of Perilampus sp ............................. f2
Rh ip iphorus paradox s, life history in comparison with that of I'eribmpl l. otill
Orasema........................................................ ....... W) G Il
Samia recropia, secondary host of Perilam pus hyaliIus, parasi ................ l) 1<
Sarcophagid
host of Perilam pus hyal i s.............................................
reared from Mfelonoplus biritatus....................................... as
Sarcophagidehabits with relation to gipsy moth, paper............................. 2.
hosts of Chalcisfonscoloabe-..........................................2
hosts of (halcis ininuta.-............................................ 1,
hosts of Chaldcs paraplesia..-.......................................... 19
Sarcophagids, probable hosts of Perilampus cuprinus-....................... 65
Scelionina-................................................................ 12
Schedius -.
host of Tyndarichus nary ..-.......................................
kuana-, host of Pachyneuron gifrensis...-.............................
kurane, new species, description, parasite of Porthetria dispar ............
new genus, description................................................ 2-3
Tyndarichus compared thereto in description...-....................... :
Sitaris........-.......................................................... o
-Sium cicatxfolium, adults of Perilampus cyaneus taken on leaves............... 4x
Smith, Harry S., paper, "The Chalcidoid Genus Perilampus, and its Relations
to the Problem of Parasite Introduction"................................ 33-69
Solenius rubicola, host of Perilam pus auratus................................ (A
Solenius vagus, host of Perilampus auratus.................................. 64
Solidago canadensis, adults of Perilam pus hyalinus and P. cyaneus on leaves .. 4 Solidago juncea, adults of Perilampuis hyalinus and P. cyaneus on leaves ..---. 48 Sphegigasterina........................................................ .. S
. Strepsiptera, reproductive capacity--..................................... 39
Stylops, reproductive capacity.......................................... 39
Tachardia, host of Perissopterus juaresis.................................... 11
Tachinide, hosts of Chalcis fise. -........................................ 17
Tachinid hosts of Perilampus cuprinus.-.................................. 65, 6ill
Tachinids, parasites of flyphantiria tertor.................................. 34
Tanacetum vulgare, adults of Perilampus hyalinus and P. cyaneus on leaves.-.. 48 Telenomini. ...-.-..................................................... 12
Telenomuscultratus, parasite of Pentatomide.-.....-............................. 12
new species allied to T. cultratus: reported rearing from eggs of Porthetria
dispar. .-.-.-.-................................................... 12
parasites of lepidopterous eggs --.-.................................. I
Temperature as influencing development of Perilampus hyalinus............. 49-51
Theronia reared from gipsy-moth pup..-...-..............................28
Timberlake, P. H., paper, "Experimental Parasitism: A study of the biology
of Limnerium validum (Cresson)" ....................................... 71-92
Tortricid host of Campoplex -......................................... 64, 65







102 RES:-ULT's FROM i;PYMOTH PARASITE LABO-RATORY,

Trleii ogrum 1wtiPag
apparently un1able to pierce gipvy-moth eggs-hell for oviposition ........
paras-ites of lepidlopterous .gg ..............


paa.o g'ciaps moth....a........................................65

Triguisof parasiti(c beetles,. carriage by parasitic bees .....................38
Troodra tarsuile, e nemy of Lepidoptera.................................. 2
Tiisso (Ck-iothi, white-marked. See flemerocampa leuitcost ignia.)

habi1 Af Pachyneuron gifuenisis ;ul comparison therewith..................8
hotof Pachqffeuron? gjufenis.......................................... 1)
ne Wspecies, des-cription, hlosts, reared from eggs. of Portketria dispa .. 6, 7 T1-yndorich as, nlew geus escripti'lol .....................................n6
VaprerMoth, rt.See- Notolophuls aonhiqaus.

coinparrison of life hiastorY with that of other tacinuids in relation to parasitimhy Prdlm pus.............................................--- 66
hiost of Dibraclujs boascIeanus..................................... *. 55-62

h1o-t of Mel ittlobia ....--. .... .. 55

host of Pcdm~shueu.......................................... 8

fiot of Pcerduwpuls hyavlinuls.................................412, 4:3, 49-55), 62
p~asteof ..pnnr lxo........................................ 36-62
Wewrrfall. see Iypha n tri caunca and 1I. text.or.)
Zaqainiooia,.1 toposoma compared therewith, parasite of Lepidlbptera 9 Zwlra nilosw )a1wmuit ilinenfinn, lippocepha (sm t ihC us a sy-nonym ... 1.1

fatal influence of Meteorus larva upon it, when larvav of both species, occur
togvether in brown-tail mothi caterpillars .............................77
parasite of browni-tail mothl ............................................ 77










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