Classification of the Aleyrodidae


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Classification of the Aleyrodidae
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Quaintance, A. L ( Altus Lacy ), 1870-1958
Baker, A. C
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
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    Letter of transmittal
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    Table of Contents
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    List of Illustrations
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    Morphology of the Aleyrodidae
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    Literature referred to in this text
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    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
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Full Text

Com~liment8 of Dr.%& Mrs Newell E. Good


L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.


4; ,PART 1./

In Charge of Deciduous Fruit Insect Investigations.



ISSUED) MARCH 67 1913.




L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.



In Charge of Deciduous Fruit Insect Investigations.

A. C. BAKER, Expert.




L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.
C. L. MARLATT, Entomologist and Acting Chief in Absence of Chief.
R. S. CLIFTON, Executive Assistant.
W. F. TASTET, Chief Clerk.

F. H. CHrrINDEN,.1n charge of truck crop and stored product insect investigations. A. D. HOPKINS, in charge of forest insect investigations. W. D. HUNTER, in charge of southern field crop insect investiga tions. F. M. WEBSTER, in charge of cereal and forage insect investigations. A. L. QUAINTANCE, in charge of deciduous fruit insect investigations. E. F. PHILLIPS, in charge of bee culture. D. M. ROGERS, in charge of preventing spread of moths, field work. ROLLA P. CURRIE, in charge of editorial work. MABEL COLCORD, in charge of library.


Washington, P. C., August 14,1912.
Sni: I have the honor to transmit herewith for publication as Technical Series No. 27, Part I, of this bureau a manuscript dealing with the insects of the family Aleyrodidae, or white flies. This family includes several species of insects of the greatest economic importance, and.other species are attracting attention by reason of their increasing abundance and injuries. The bureau is therefore frequently called upon to determine these insects, not only from this country but from many parts of the world. This family has been much neglected by entomologists and there has thus not been established a system of classification for the various forms. It is the aim of the present paper to furnish this needed system of classification, which, it is believed, will be found most useful to those interested in the family. Part II will contain an account of the species of the large and important genus Aleyrodes and will complete the monograph of the family.
Respectfully, L. 0. HowAmw,
Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.
Secretary of Agriculture.

Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2013


Introduction........................................................... 1
Morphology of the Aleyrodidm .............................................. 2
Classification........................................................... 16
Family Aleyrodidae. ................................................... ...... 19
I. Subfamily Udamoselina ........................................ 20
Genus Udamoselis............................................. 20
Udamoselis pigmentaria................................... 21
II. Subfamily Aleurodicina ...................................... 25
Genus Dialeurodicus.......................................... 26
Dialeurodicus cockerellii.................................... 26
Dialeurodicus silvestrii..................................... 28
Dialeurodicus tessellatus................................... 30
Dialeurodicus pulcherrimus................................ 31
Genus Leonardius............................................. 33
Leonardius lahillei........................................ 33
Genus Aleurodicus......................................... .... 41
Subgenus Aleurodicus..................................... 42
A leurodicus anon ...................................... 44
(Aleurodicus) Aleyrodes asarumis....................... 45
Aleurodicus coccolobs ................................... 46
Aleurodicus cocois.................................... 47
Aleurodicus conspurcatus.............................. 54
Aleurodicus destructor................................. 56
Aleurodicus dugesii.................................... 57
Aleurodicus guppyii.................................... 59
Aleurodicus jamaicensis ............................... 60
Aleurodicus holmesii ...................................- 61
Aleurodicus neglectus ................................... 63
Aleurodicus ornatus................................... 65
Aleurodicus pulvinatus................................ 66
Aleurodicus trinidadensis .............................. 69
Subgenus Lecanoideus .................................... 70
Aleurodicus (Lecanoideus) giganteus ...................... 70
Aleurodicus (Lecanoideus) mirabilis .................... 72
Subgenus Metaleurodicus.................................. 73
Aleurodicus (Metateurodicus) altissimus ................. 73
Aleurodicus (Metaleurodicus) cardini..................... 75
Aleurodicus (Metaleurodicus) minimus ................... 77
Aleurodicus lacerdx .................................... 78
Aleurodicus phalanoides............................... 79
Genus Paraleyrodes............................................ 81
Paraleyrodes perse ........................................ 82
Paraleyrodes urichii........................................ 83
III. Subfamily Aleyrodine ........................................ 84
Genus Aleurochiton.......................................... 85
Aleurochiton aceris......................................... 85
Aleurochitonforbesii....................................... 88
Genus Aleyrodes.............................................. 91
Genus Neomaskellia......................................... 91
Neomaskellia comata....................................... 92
Literature referred to in the text.......................................... 93



PLATz 1. Figs. 1-12.-Wing venation in the Aleyrodidae----------------- 8
11. Pigs 1-7.-Anatomical details in the Aleyrodidie ----------------8
Ill. Figs. 1-6.-Diagrams of aleyrodid structures ------------------ 12
IV. Figs. 1-14.-Dialeurodicus cockerellffi---------------------#.-. 28
V. Figs. 1-6.-Dialeurodicus silvestrii---------------------------- 28
VI. Figs. 1--8.-Dialcurodicus tessellatus----------------------- 32
VII. Fig. 1.-Pupm and waxy secretion of Dialeurodicus coclcerellii
on leaf. Fig. 2.-Pupoe of Dialeurodicits tessellatus on leaf--. 32
VIII. Figs. 1-8.-Dialeurodicus pulcherrimus----------------------- 32
IX. Figs. 1-14.-Lexnardius iahillei ------------------------------ 40
X. Figs. 1-12.-Aleurodicu anor ----------------------------- 44
XI. Figs. 1-9.-A leurodicus coccolobw --------------------------- 44
XII. Figs. 1-15.-A leurodicus cocois--------------- ---------------- 52
XIII. Figs. 1-7.-Aleurodicus destructor--------------------------- 56
XIV. Fig. 1.-Pupoe of Aleuroelicus cocois on leaf, showing waxy
secretion. Fig. 2.-Pupse of Aleurodicus destructor on leaf,
showing waxy secretion---------------------------------- 56
XT. Figs. 1-1.-Aleurodicus dugesii------------------------------ 56
XVI. Figs. 1-1.-Aleurodicus guppyti---------------------------- 5
XVII. Fig. 1.-PuM~ of Aleurodicus dugesii on leaf, showing waxy secretion., Fig. 2.-Pupae of Aleurodicus guppyii on leaf, showing waxy secretion---------------------------------------- 56
XVIII. Leaf infested with Ale'wrodicus guppyii, showing waxy secretion of pupoe ------------------------------------------------- 56
XIX Figs. 1-5.-A leurodicus jamaiccnsis. Figs. G-11.-Aleurodicus
holmesii ------------------------------------------------- 60
XX. Figs. 1-11.-Aleurocticus neglect u---------------------------- 60
XXI. Fig. 1.-A leurodicus holmesii: Pupoe on leaf, showing waxy secretion. Fig. 2.-A leurodicus neglectus: Pupxe on leaf, showing wtaxy secretion---------------------------------------- 60
XXII. Figs. I -5.-A lcurodicu s orna tus. Figs. 6-9.-A leurodicus pulvinatus ---------------- ---------------------------------- 64
XXIII. Pigs. 1-8.-.A lurodicus trinidadensis-------------------------- 68
XXIV. Figs. 1-12.-A leurodicus (Lecamoidcuts) giganteus ---------------68
XXV. Aleuroditus (Lecanoideus) giganteu.s: Leaf, showing waxy secretion of pupee and trails of secretion left by ad-tlts -----------68
XXVI. Figs. 1-5.-A leurodicus (ILccanoidcus) irabilis. Figs. 6-11.Alcu rodicus (Metaleurodicus?) altissimus-------------------- 72
XXVII. Figs. l-10.-Aleurodiceus (Mectaleurodicus8) cardini --------------72
XXVIII. Figs. 1-10.-A icurodlicus (Mectale urodicuis) minimus -------------72
XXIX. Fig. 1.-A lrurodicu.s (Lecanioideus) mnira bills: Pupxe on leaf, showing wax. Fig. 2.-A leurodicus (Mectaleurodicus) altliss,mus: 11pU~n on leaf, showing wvaxy- secretion. Pig. 3.-Aleurodircus (Metlaleurodicus ) mlipnus: P1upae onl leaf, showing, waxy
se cretion ------------------------------------------------- 72
XXX. Figs.1--arlrdc pcrsw(( ------------------------------ 84
XXXI. Fiigs. 1-'.-Paralcyrodes urichi----------------------------- 84
XXXII. Figs. 1-7.-A lcutrochtitont aceris ------------------------------ 84
XXXIlI. Figs. 1-10.-A lcurociti forbes-i----------------------------- 90
XXXIV. Figs. 1-8.-Nevmaskcllia comata -----------------------------90O
IF (. 1. Genlealogicldaga of the Aleyrodidtv------------------------- 19
2. WIngs, o)f IT(JaM oscli ifigmwntaria ------------------------------ 20
3. Hlead of DiaIlcutrodicus coclcercllii ------------------------------- 27
4. Leontardius Mlalci; Pupa c-'se'14details-------------------------- 36
5. Lconar-dius lahilici, sh~owing wax rods --------------------------- 37
6. Alcurrodicus co(i,: Insects in -situ, pupa case, adult, abdom-en -------48 7. Alcuxodicuis cocois: Adult. male and female, details--------------- 49
8. Alcurodicus mtcols: Egg, larvie, and details---------------------- 50'
9. Alcurodicu., cocois: Skin of full-growvn larva--------------------- 51
10. Wings of Alcurodicim eosuct8--------------55
11. Aleurodicus plialamoide8: Adult and details-------------------- 8so


Few groups of insects have been more neglected by entomologists and collectors than the Aleyrodidee. It is believed that comparalively few of all the species which undoubtedly exist have as yet lound their way into collections. The family is widely distributed in the temperate and tropical regions of the world, and it will perhaps, when thoroughly worked, prove to be about as rich in species as the Coccide or Aphididve.
Beginning with Maskell's paper, which appeared in 1895, there have followed a number of publications dealing with the Aleyrodide, most of them systematic in character, but some dealing with the biology and habits of certain species of considerable economic importance. These papers have come from widely separated parts of the world, as New Zealand, the United States, India, Europe, Japan, etc., and indicate an increasing and widespread interest in these insects.
Until 1907 only two genera for the family were recognized, Aleyrodes and Aleurodicus. Since this date, however, three additional genera have been established, namely, A leurochiton, Paraleyrodes, and Udanwselis, the discovery of which has thrown much light on the probable position of the Aleyrodide in relation to other families of insects, and on the lines of descent of the several subgroups within the family itself.
The insect collections of the United States National Museum and of the Bureau of Entomology contain a large amount of material of this family received from correspondents from many parts of the country, and have been recently considerably augmented by the large series of specimens attained by Mr. R. S. Woglum, of the Bureau of Entomology, in connection with his search for natural enemies of the citrus white fly (Aleyrodes citri R. & H.) in the Orient. The bureau also has, as stated in an earlier publication, through the kindness of the New Zealand Institute, the temporary custody of the Maskell collection of Aleyrodidao, including nearly' all of his types. It has therefore seemed appropriate to undertake, at this time, a revision of the group as a whole, and to determine as


accurately as possible a system of classification based upon the natural relationship of the various forms.
The present paper deals with certain features of the anatomy and external structure of the Aleyrodidee, and attempts to show th position of the family among homopterous insects. All species of the family at present known are treated, save those belonging Aleyrodes, and this genus will be made the subject of a thter pullication.
It is hoped by the writers that this paper will facilitate the clas~ication of these insects and further stimulate the interest already evidenced in them.
The eggs of insects belonging to this family are elongate-oval it shape and are smooth on the surface or variously sculptured. This egg marking is often one of the simplest means of distinguishing between two closely allied species. The eggs are provided at or near their larger end with a stalk which, in such species as Aleurodicus holmesii, is extremely long. (P1. XIX, fig. 6.) It serves as an attachment for the egg, but it also seems to direct the spermatozoa at the time of fertilization. At this time the stalk is filled with protoplasm and the mycropylar structure is plainly visible within the egg just at its entrance. After fertilization this protoplasm dries up and the stalk becomes a hollow tube. Cary, in his work on embryology,' arrives at a similar conclusion, for he says:
The spermatozoan moves up through the protoplasm contained in the stalk of the egg, while the female pronucleus moves down and comes to lie at the entrance of the stalk. Immediately after the act of fertilization the protoplasmic contents of the stalk shrivel and dry up.
If, however, the primary function of this stalk is for the direction of the spermatozoa, it is strange that there should be such great variation in its length. It is certainly, however, not comparable to the protective stalk in eggs of such forms as Chrysopa, for it is not a waxy secretion but an extension of the chorion. The eggs of some psyllids, which are closely related to the aleyrodids, possess stalks, but their exact function is unknown to us.
The arrangement of the eggs upon the leaf varies greatly with different species. The females of some insert the setae into the tissues and, using the rostrum as center and the body as radius, place the eggs in regular circles. This habit was first noticed by Reaumur in 1736, whose interesting observation we here quote.2
Pour y parvenir, & pour avoir 'hlstolre de notre petit papillon, le 25. Juln j6 cholsis une feulile sur laquelle 11 y en avoit un seul tr~s-tranqulle, & que Je
WThe small figures refer to the "Literature," page 97.


Jugeal y vouloir faire ses oeufs; Je marquai l'endroit de la feuile of i11 toit. Je trouval, le lendemain 26. le papillon dans la mtme place; le 27. 11 n'en avoit pas change, mais tout auprss de lui il y avoit un petit espace i peu pros circulaire, ais6 A distinguer du reste de la feuille; il 6toit poudr6 d'une poudre blanche, de celle qui blanchit toutes les parties de ce papillon; 1A elle Gteignoit la vivacity du verd. Cet espace avoit environ une ligne de diam6tre. Sur sa circonf6rence j'observai trois petits corps que je crus Ctre des oeufs, & qui en 4toient r~eflement. Enfin le 28. le papillon s'4toit 6loign@ d'un demi pouce au plus de Ia place of je l'avois toftjours trouv6 pendant les jours pricdens. 11 me fut plus ais, alors d'observer sans crainte de l'inquieter, les petits corps qui 6toient. arranges autour de la circonf~rence du petit espace qu'il avoit blanchi. Avec le secours d'une forte loupe, je reconnus que leur figure 6toit ass*s semblable L celle des oeufs ordinaires, elle tenoit pourtant plus de la cylindrique. Ces oeufs sont oblongs, ce sont de petits cylindres dont les deux bouts sont amends en pointes arrondies; leur plus grand diamstre 6toit A peu pros dirig6 vers le centre de l'espace circulaire.
In American literature Dr. Britton appears to have given the first account in 1902, though Davis mentions it in Insect Life, Volume VII, 1894. In describing the habits of a species on lettuce, Dr. Britton says: 3
The female first thrust her beak into the leaf and depositing an egg swung about with her beak still inserted and serving as a pivot, continuing to deposit eggs in a circle of about one millimeter in diameter. One of these circles contained six, while another had nine eggs.
The same habit was described and figured by Dr. Back4 for Aleyrodes howardi Quaintance, and it has been described in connection with the description of species by the senior author and other writers. Some species, however, use no definite arrangement but scatter the eggs irregularly over the leaf almost exclusively upon the underside. The number of eggs deposited seems to be fairly large if the proper food conditions are found. Dr. Zehntner 5 gives 150 to 200 eggs for Aleyrodes bergi Signoret, and Morrill and Back 6 have secured 211 from a female of Aleyrodes citri Riley & Howard.
Dr. Morrill was the first to note parthenogenesis in this family and we give therefore his original observations on the subject 7b.
Adult females have been isolated on plants previously free from Aleyrodes in any stage, for the purpose of determining the duration of adult .life, the number of eggs laid by each female, whether or not parthenogenesis occurs, and, if so, its character. The females isolated for the purpose of these observations were seen to emerge from their pupa cases, and consequently there was no possibility of their having been fertilized. The plants upon which these females were kept .were growing in small pots covered with lantern chimneys, which were closed at the top with cheesecloth. Four trials were made:
1. April 3, 1902, an unfertilized female began egg laying, and on April 17, three eggs were observed to have hatched.
2. April 17, 1902, an unfertilized female began egg laying, and on April 29 several eggs had hatched.
3. Dec. 8, 1902, a female emerged, was isolated on a tomato plant, and began egg laying Dec. 12 (females usually begin egg laying on the second or third


day after emergence), and continued, averaging four per day for eleven days. Personal observations were here discontinued,, but E. A. Back, an undergraduate student at the Entomological Laboratory, noted that the adult died Jan. 1., 1903. On Jan. 7 I found the plant dead, apparently from cold, and on examination of the leaves I found that about three-fourths of the eggs had hatched, and that some of the larvae were in the second Instar at the time the plant died. Quite a number of eggs were found that had certainly been laid during my absence, but they were not counted.
4. March 17, 1903, a female emerged from its pupa case, and was isolated on tomato and chickweed growing in the same pot. Egg laying began March 1S. Eggs were deposited on the stems and upper and lower surface of the leaves of both plants, making it impossible to count from day to day all the eggs that had been laid. On April 2, forty-nine eggs were counted, and on April 22 eighty more were known to have been added to this number. There were about eight days altogether when the female wa's in such a position on the plant that no attempt was made to count the eggs for fear of disturbing her. At a very low estimate, twenty-five eggs were laid during these days. Tbe offspring of this female began to emerge as adults on April 22, and the original female was transferred to a chickweed plant growing in another pot. By an accident I lost on the same day the positive identity of this insect, but I ami quite sure that she produced the forty-nine eggs which I counted on April 29, after which observations on this insect were discontinued. So far as observed, all the eggs laid by this female hatched and the young reached maturity, the adults being males without exception.
To summarize these observations, unfertilized eggs hatch and the larvae develop into adults of the male sex. Two females were known to lay fortyfour and one hundred and twenty-nine eggs respectively, and in both cases many more were undoubtedly laid. These same insects lived in the adult condition for twenty-three and more than thirty-six days respectively.
I have tried several times to isolate a female which had certainly been impregnated, but was unsuccessful. It Is not impossible to do this, however, and I suspect that when this is done the young produced from fertilized eggs will all develop into females, giving us a condition similar to that which is generally believed to occur in the honey bees, and known as arrhenotoky.
In regardl to the length of adult life, I might further add that in greenhouses where there are millions of live adults on the plants, it is difficult to find a single dead specimen on the benches, providing they have not been killed by artificial means. This Is a further indication that natural deaths among adults are rare, and that the adult life of each Individual may extend over many weeks.
ShiouLld it prove true that unfertilized eggs of this insect produce only males and fertilized eggs only females, then the number of adult males and females will be in d1irec4_t proportion to the number of unfertilized and fertilized eggs. In Psychie (Apr-il, 1903) 1 gave an estimate of the p~roportionl of the two sexes of A lcymrdc. in natur-e, based on actual count of eighty-five specimens of adult .4lcyrodcs taken at random, representing four different species. The figures given were twenty males to sixty-five females. For the purpose of obtaining a mnore ex.-,ct idiea of the proportion of the sexes in the present series I counted one hundred adults taken at random, and found twenty-three males to seventyseven) fenia les.

Morrill aind Back8 have further established the phenomenon, in Aleyrodea itr and it is not improbable that it will be found to occur in many species.


The duration of the egg stage is about 12 days for the commoner forms. Temperature, however, seems to have a considerable influence upon the length of the stage, for in uniformly warm weather a much shorter time is necessary and under unfavorable circumstances the time may be greatly extended. The larva emerges from the egg by means of a longitudinal fissure in the anterior part of the egg and the time required for escaping from the shell varies considerably. In connection with her studies of Aleyrodidoe in California, Miss Bemis observed the hatching of numerous eggs and says:8
In the eggs under observation, there elapsed from forty-two minutes to three hours and eight minutes from the time that the shell began to open until the larva was free. The egg that took the greater time was upon dry material and was dark brown in color, the shell when empty keeping its upright position and shape, so that the slow hatching was probably due to the toughness of the chorion.
In our experience the drying of the material upon which the eggs are placed greatly retards or even prevents hatching.

The head is somewhat triangular in shape and is carried in such a way that its anterior surface is slanting ventro-caudad. The compound eyes are of the agglomerate type. They are usually constricted in the middle (reniforra), or in some species are entirely divided by a tongue-shaped portion of the integument. It sometimes happens also that. the facets of these two sections are different in size. The ocelli are two in number and situated close to the anterior margin of the compound eyes. The position of these ocelli relative to the compound eyes varies in the different species.
The antennoe are placed below the eyes in shallow antennal sockets. They bear a striking resemblance to those of the Aphidide. As a rule, they are composed of seven segments, of which the third is the longest. The first and second are always short and thick, while the others are elongate, subcylindrical, and covered with numerous imbrications. Circular fringed sensoria occur usually on segments III, V, and VII (see Aleurodicus giganteus, P1. XXIV, fig. 10), and spike sensoria are sometimes also found. Fine hairs are scattered here and there or are found encircling the segments, and segment VII always terminates in a bristle-like armature. There is great variation in the length of the segments among different species in the genus Aleyrodes as at present understood. As a rule, segment VII is short, often the shortest of all. In species like grcminicola, however, it is as long as all the other segments together and in longicornis very much longer. This variation may prove to be of importance in dividing the genus when the forms have been carefully studied. In Paraleyrodes segments III to VII have become united so as to form two.


The vertex is rounded in most forms and often possesses a median longitudinal ridge or marking. In some forms, however, as in the genera Udamoselis and Dialeurodious, it is produced into a large cone-shaped structure. This prominence between the insertions of the antennae in both of these genera seems to point to their close relation.
The frons is rounded when viewed from the side and when viewed from the front it is somewhat U-shaped, the bottom of the U forming the suture between it and the clypeus. Its upper edges extend backward. Below the clypeus is the labium, which is trapezium-shaped. The edges of this, as well as those of the clypeus, are slightly turned back so that as the structure lies on the labium there will be a better situation for the setaw. Below the labrum is a triangular sclerite, the epipharynx. All of these sclerites are somewhat united into an elongate triangular structure which, together with the sets, remains attached to the head and is easily separable from the labium.
The labium is inserted in the base of the head on what is apparently a projection of the thorax. It is of considerable length and is composed of three segments. The relative length of these segments seems to vary in the different forms. Near its proximal end the labium is bent strongly caudad and appears to be grooved for its entire length. At the base this groove is wide, but more centrally it becomes narrower. The first (proximal) segment is much the longest and is narrow. It is in many forms, armed with a few scattered hairs. The second segment is thicker and shorter and the sutures separating it from the first are not well defined. This has no doubt given rise to Marlatt's statement that the labium is two-segmented.9 The third segment is short in Aleyrodes, while in Alenrodicus it is considerably longer. It is more heavily chitinized than the others and tapers distad. It is covered with numerous hairs and its tip is bilobed. Each of these lateral lobes is armed with three pegged-spiked taste sensoria situated close together (P1. II, fig. 4). It is noteworthy that very similar lobes and the same number of similar pegged sensoria occur on the labium of the Psyllide. The labium in that family is also bent on its proximal part.
The maxillary and mandibular. sclerites are present below the frons, the lower extremity of the former becoming projections. The seta', four in number, constitute two pairs. Those of the inner or maxillary pair are closely pressed against each other and sometimes for this reason appear as only one. The outer or mandibular sete to a certain extent inclose the maxillary ones.
In his excellent paper on the hackberry Psylla, Stough has pointed out the very great similarity between the mouthparts in this family and those of the Psyllida~. He says: 1o
The mouthparts, exclusive of the labium, are almost identical with, though larger than, those of the Aleurodidie which I have examined. The same


selerites are present, arranged similarly, though somewhat differently shaped. Tie labrum Is much shorter and smaller proportionately than in this family, and the sets seem to be relatively shorter. The end of the lablum has the same lateral processes, but these are relatively smaller. The Aleurodid lablum has a bend similar to that of Pachypsylla.


(Pl. II, fig. 2.)

Our observations on the digestive system of the adult are as follows: Leaving the mouthparts the pharynx is met with as a narrow tube which passes gradually into the esophagus. In the metathorax there is a distinct enlargement, the midintestine, and from this are given off two large saclike structures. From Cary's work 1 we consider these gastric coecae, for he says, "After the dorsal wall of the entero'n has closed a pair of diverticula are given off from near its anterior end." The midintestine is looped, as shown in the illustration, and joins the hind intestine in the anterior part of the body. This latter is narrow but is more dilated caudad of the vasiform orifice,' where the anal opening occurs.
The nature of this orifice in the immature stages and the function of the lingula seem to have been imperfectly understood by some recent writers. The older writers, however, apparently had, in genera1, the correct idea of it. Westwood, for example, in his description of Aleyrodes vaporaiorum,'1 speaking of this structure, says, "With the anal apparatus placed at some distance from the hinder end of the body."
Peal, in 1903, discussed this structure at some length. We quote the following from his paper:12
Some time back, while I was examining an aleurodid which in its earlier stages is remarkably flat and transparent, I was fortunate enough to observe the lingula in motion. This organ was shot out beyond the vasiform orifice with extreme rapidity, it being protruded some four or five times a second.
When the lingula was shot out, the vasiform orifice moved in unison, the upper edge being bent inwards while the whole organ moved caudad. The internal opening of the lingula lies directly in the path of the rudimentary circulatory system, and when the organ is in motion it throws the circulatory fluid into a pulsating motion for some distance within the body cavity. I have been unable, so far, to detect the actual formation of the globules of honeydew, but as soon as the lingula comes to rest after a series of protusions a small globule may be seen just within the lower end of the lingula. This globule advances slowly, being apparently forced forward by the movement of the lingula, and after awhile reaches the tip of that organ I have never observed these globules within the lingula of an adult Insect, but once on examining an adult male of Aleurodes simula, I perceived a globule of honeydew emerging from the lingula.
There Is no doubt that the function of the organ bsthe seretion of honeydew aai th opsrcuim na be regarded as a protective co eft to this organ.


It would apom th 1 P s e
orifice as a special secreting strucueadhnywtobcnetd in some way with the circulation.MisBmsemsthaaso
what similar idea about the liugula, for she says, T- oe pce there are seen minute, blunt tubes on the apex of the t which the fluid may be secreted." 1
In: the introduction to a paper on Aleyrodid13d cusses the vasiform orifice. His idea of its nature seems correct one, but he does not go into detail, and we in calling the vasiform orifice the anal opening, for seems to open within it.
In the forms examined by us the anus appears too lingula (P1. II, fig. 5) which functions as the supr are unable to find a definite opening at the tip of the any case, whether the anus is always at the base or apex, as in the Psyllidee, this in no way alters the stan lingula, which would in either case be the supraanap operculum is a little more difficult to place. It would strange if it were believed to correspond to ry abdominal segment in the Aphididae, as suggested its position in regard to the anal plate is very similar. It does not, however, often appear as a distinct segment, but looks like the rolled-back edge of the lingula.
The substance known as honeydew is, as implied above; th excrement of the insects. It is deposited in large quantities by larvae, pupae, and adults and forms a nediumn for the growth of several fungi. The early pupae excrete much more than the pupae, while the larvae, in the earlier instars, excrete the most of the substance being ejected once or twice for every minute, altho not always at regular intervals. The salivary glands are two ro bodies situated one on either side of the head and united by ducts.
The exact nature of the wound of the puncturing setoe of Aleyrodidoe we have not ascertained, but in all probability it is similar that made by the Aphididw and the Coccidae, where the seta around the outer cells and finally puncture the soft bast cells which the proteid content is taken. These proteid substances the bulk of the insects' food, while much of the sugars taken in same time are passed out as honeydew.

The wings are first noticed in the late embryo as
produced as ingrowths of the hypodermic. ,
nection with the outer layer, soon take on the

Tech Series 27, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. PLATE 1.

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WING VENATION IN THE ALEYRODIDq. Fig. I.-Theoretical origin of the veins of the psyllid genus Trioza, showing trachea-. Fig.
2.-Forewing of Trioza sp. Fig. 3.-Theoretical origin of the veins of Aleyrodida-, show ing trachea,. Fig. 4.-Forewing of Udamosclis pigmentaria. Fig. 5.-Forewing of Dia1(urodicus cockertl1i. Fig. 6.-Forewing of Alcurodl *cus conspurcatus. Fig. 7.-Forewing of Alturodicus destructor. Fig. 8.-Forewing of Alcurodicus (Metalcurodicus) minimum. Fig. 9.-ForewingofParalcyrodespersex. Fig. 10.-Forewing of Alcurochiton ac(ris. Fig. 11.-Forewing of A hyrodcs sp. Fig. 12.-Forewing of Neomaskellia comata.

Tech. Se, es 2 Bureau c4' Entornolocy, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. PLATE


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sacs. During the pupal stage the wing disks come to lie outside the body, the pads are developed, and in the late pupw the wings themselves are folded up within the case. They are four in number, membranous, and are composed of two thin, superimposed lamellve. In the preparation of mounts with potassium hydroxid, these plates
often become separated and the wings become opaque and sac-like in form. The border of the wings all around in most species is covered with a series of knob-like or bead-like projections on which occur a number of fine hairs. These hairs vary in number. In some species there is a large central hair on each knob with two or three small ones on each side. In others the hairs are subequal in length and very minute. In Aleurodicus the proximal half of the costal margin of the forewing is armed with a number of large spine-like hairs situated on small receptacles. These hairs are placed a short distance in from the costal margin and are arranged along what apparently represents the subcosta. The hairs are directed distad. The hind wing of all species is armed on the proximal portion of its costal margin with a row of strong curved hairs which aid in keeping the wings together during flight. The number of these hairs varies, but from seven to nine hairs are most usually met with. In the Psyllide a similar row of hairs is situated in the same region, but there is usually a larger number. In the Aphidide, on the other hand, this structure is usually replaced by three hook-like hairs situated, not at the base, but on the distal half of the wing.
To illustrate the venation in this family we will use as a basis of comparison the wing of a species of the psyllid genus Trioza (P1. I, fig. 2), following the nomenclature as worked out for that genus by Miss Patch.14 Comparing with this the wings of Udarnoselis pigmentaria Enderlein (P1. I, fig. 4), we see that the veins of the costal region are separate, although very close. These undoubtedly represent the costafnd subcosta. We find that radius, and the radial sector are represented in exactly the same manner as in Trioza. The media and cubitus have a position very similar to these veins in the psyllid, but are not branched, while the first anal, the only one present, is in identically the same position in both forms. For species possessing these veins the subfamily Udamoselinae has been erected and at present includes only the one known form.
In the genus Aleurodicus (P1. I, fig. 7) the costal vein is made up of costa and subcosta. These are as a rule united, but in some species they are separated at the base and can be distinctly traced. The veins radius ,, radial sector, and media, are represented as they are in Udamwselis. The cubitus and anal, however, have disappeared. This disappearance of the cubitus and the retention of the media form one of the main lines of descent in the family and for the forms showing it the subfamily Aleurodicinve may be erected. It is

worthy of mention that in mininwu Quaintance (PI. I, fig. 8) the cubitus is represented by a faint line or fold and in conspureate (P1. I, fig. 6) it is retained, this latter species possibly being a connecting form.
In the genus Aleurochiton (P1. I, fig. 10) this state of affairs does not hold, but an opposite line of descent is indicated and the forms showing this may be grouped in the subfamily Aleyrodin. Here the costa and subcosta are united to form one vein. Radius 1 and the radial sector are present as in Aleurodicus. The media, however, is absent or only faintly indicated in freshly emerged specimens. The cubitus, on the contrary, is well retained and forms a distinct vein. It may be noticed here that the pupa of Aleurochiton has not the large compound pores of Aleurodiwcus.
In examining a wing of the genus Aleyrodes (P1. I, fig. 11) we see that the costa and subcosta are again united, the radial sector is retained, but the radius,1 has disappeared. In some material a faint rudiment of this vein is noticeable. The media, as in Aleurochiton, has entirely disappeared and is made out plainly only in the fresh wing. In some species, however, the rudiment of this vein is noticeable and has been observed as early as the time of Signoret, for he says, speaking of fragarice6 "Dans cette espece, entre la nervure mediane et la nervure oblique de la base, j'en ai observe le commencement d'une seconde." The cubitus is here retained and forms the second vein of the wing. It is evident, then, that Aleyrodes is an offshoot from Aleurochiton by the reduction of radius ,. This is borne out also by the pupa, which has no large compound pores. The careful work of Miss Patch 14 on tracheation in this genus corresponds exactly with our observations. She figures and describes the venation in Aleyrodes sp. and shows clearly that the second vein of the wing is the cubitus. Her words are, "The second vein of the wing of Aleurodes is cubitus, as will be seen by comparingigures 44 and 45, where the second vein is shown to follow the courses of the cubital trachea." In this family Miss Patch, however, treated only the genus Aleyrodes.
The venation in the genus Paraleyrodes (Pl. I, fig. 9) appears at first glance like that of Aleyrodes, but more careful study shows it to be very different. The costa and subcosta are here united and the radial sector is retained. The second vein of the wing, however, is not the cubitus, but the remnant of the media, and can be found as a branch of the main vein. Moreover, in some specimens of persew the cubitus can be seen faintly indicated in its usual position. This venation shows, then, that Paraleyrodes is not closely related to Aleyrodes, but is a branch from Aleurodious by the reduction of the media and radius This view is also borne out by the structure of the pupa, which has the compound pores of Aleurodica, and of the


foot, which has the paronychium represented by a spine as in that
In Neomaskellia comata Maskell (P1. I, fig. 12, and P1. XXXIV) we find the greatest reduction in the family. Here the costa and subcosta are united, and in the body of the wing only one vein, the radial sector, remains. (It should be noted here that Maskell's figure of this species is wrong. Our drawings were made from his type and the small vein he figures does not exist.) It is evident, then. from the venation that comata forms the type of a new genus. This is also indicated by the hairy psyllid-like claspers.
The species Dialeurodicus cockerellii (Quaintance) (PI. I, fig. 5; P1. IV, fig. 3) shows the same wing venhtion as Aleurodicus, but the type of vertex and the absence of compound pores immediately place it elsewhere.
In this connection should be mentioned an article by Sophie Rostrup 16 which, since it is apparently followed by Dr. Max Wolff, deserves some notice. As the communication is short we quote it entire:
Aleurodider er en lille med Skjoldlus og Bladlopper naerbeslaegtet Familie af smaa, mllignende Dyr. Ved et Besog af mig i Ringsted i August 1908 indsanlede Landbrugskandidat, Gaardejer Pallesen, Kaerehave, Blade af Gulerodder, angrebue af Krusesyge, paa hvis Underside der fandtes en Del smaa Dyr, om hvilke Hr. Pallesen meddelte mig, at han ofte havde set dem paa saadanne Blade. Ved naermere Undersygelse viste de sig at here til ovennaevnte Familie. Imidlertid fandtes der ingen udviklede Insekter, kam Larver og Nymfer; saa vidt det kan afg res efter dette Udviklingsstadium, synes de at here til Slaegten Aleurodicus, der hidtil ikke har vaeret kendt fra Evropa. Larver og Nymfer er forsynede med et fint Voksovertraek og sidder ubevaegeligt med deres lange, tynde Snabel indboret i Plantevaevet og suger af dette. Sporgsmaalet, om disse Dyrs Sugning staar i Forbindelse med Krusesygen og i saa Tilfaelde, hvilken Del de har i denne, kan paa naervaerende Tidspunki ikke afggres. *ofessor KOlpin Ravn mener oftere at have bemaerket disse Dyr paa Gulerod.
It is evident by examining the figures that the specimens referred to do not represent a species of Aleurodicus, but belong to the Psyllide and are very likely near Trioza. The pulvillus of the foot, the general form, the marginal wax fringe, the wing venation, the lack of vasiform orifice, in fact, all the characters noticeable in these figures are those of the Psyllide and not of the Aleyrodide. Any ideas, therefore, based on the venation in these figures must be discarded.

In male Aleyrodide the abdomen ends in a heavily chitinized collar on the dorsal surface of which is found the vasiform orifice and from the extremity of which protrude the claspers and the copulatory organ. It does not seem impossible that this last segment represents

the subgenital plate and has been produced by the fusion of the upper marguis of that plate, while the lingula, as explained elsewhere, represents the supraanal plate. This would seem suggested from the state of affairs found in the Psyllidve, for in comparing Psylla sp. (P1. II, fig. 6) and Aleurodicus sp. (P1. II, fig. 7) it will be seen that the genital segments are very similar. If in the psyllid the upper margins of the subgenital plate were united above the claspers and the supraanal plate reduced, they would be almost identical. In any case, however, the close relation of the two families seems indicated by this structure. The shape and armature of the claspers vary considerably in different species, but as a rule these organs are curved at the distal end and armed with a number of spines. Those of comata are very hairy and psyllidlike. Each clasper generally has on the outer margin of its distal part a rounded shoulder and its distal end is formed into two processes for the attachment of the muscles. The copulating organ is found between the claspers. It is usually single, but in Paraleyrodes persece it appears bifurcate. It is an elongate, subcylindric rod, tapering on its distal part and swollen at the base. In some forms it appears grooved on its upper surface for the reception of the penis, but in others we are not able to make this out, but the two seem fused into one structure. The penis is carried recurved toward the vasiform orifice in a manner very similar to that found in the Psyllidw. The ejaculatory duct extends cephalad some distance from the base of the penis, where it has its origin in the union of the two vasa deferentia.
The testes (P1. II, fig. 1) are globose or elongate bodies situated one on each side of the median line of the abdomen. The as deferens, in leaving the testis, is coiled upon itself and then swollen considerably to form the seminal vesicle. Again contracting, it is united with its fellow and forms the ejaculatory ducto At this place of union are found the openings of the ducts leading from the two large sac-shaped structures, in all probability the glanduh mucosT. The external genital organs of the male are definitely formed in the pupal stage and fairly early in this stage the claspers can be seen fully shaped. They are developed, according to Cary, from the two pairs of posterior abdominal imaginal disks. The reproductive organs can be seen in all the larval stages as a pair of gland-like masses, one on either side of the abdomen.

The supragenital segment in female Aleyrodidx shows some variation in form. In Aleyrodes it is broad and crescent-shaped and is armed with regularly placed hairs. It is often differently pigmented from the'surrounding portions of the body and is situated some 'dis-

Tech. Series 27, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. PLATE II




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Fig. 1.-Pupa case. Fig. 2.-Compound wax pore. Fig. 3 .-Foot of subfamily Alevrodiina,. Fig. 4.Foot of subfamily Aleurodicinoe. Fig. 5.-hlead. Fig. 6.-Vasiforin orifice.- (OrigiuD.L)


stance cephalad from the tip of the ovipositor. In Dialeurodiw8 it appears to be very similar in shape, but in Aleurodicus it is narrower and more elongate, while in Paraleyrodes it is rounded. What apparently corresponds to the subgenital plate here is a large structure covering the caudal ventral portion and extending some distance dorsad on each side. The structure of the ovipositor is considerably like that found in the Psyllidue, while it differs quite markedly from the structure present in the Aphididae. It is composed of six parts, the outer covering of which usually bears a definite number of hairs. These parts are grouped into pairs. The inner and upper pair of these is usually distinct for some distance, at least, and the parts are easily separable. The outer pairs, however, have grown together almost entirely and appear as one pair. Occasionally, though, they can be seen split at their tips, as is the middle pair, and they are sometimes sculptured or serrate. Extending throughout the ovipositor there are a number of chitinized rods. These appear to be composed of parts jointed together and working one against another. There are present toward the tip flattened structures which apparently correspond to the "sting palpi" of the Psyllid. The ovaries are two in number and very large. They are composed of five-chambered ovarian tubes and in some cases almost entirely fill the abdomen. The receptaculum seminalis is ventral and the oviduct, coiling upon itself considerably, opens between the valves of the ovipositor.

The rudiments of the legs appear very early in the embryonic state, at about the same time as those of the mouthparts. A study of the legs of the adults is interesting, as it tends to throw some light on the position of the family. The three pairs are considerably alike, varying only in the relative lengths of the different segments. The femora and tibiae are elongate and armed with spines and hairs. The tibiae especially possess several longitudinal rows composed of prominent spines placed close together. On the distal third these become fewer in number, excepting for a comblike structure, which is found in at least several species. The distal end of the tibia is surrounded by a number of short spines which, though much weaker, suggest the jumping spines of the Psyllide. The tarsus is composed of two segments almost equal in length, and in this regard it is much closer to the Psyllido than to the Aphididw, in which one segment is very much reduced, or to the Coccidae and some Aphididae, in which it is altogether lost. Attaching the claws and paronychiuin to the tarsus proper are a number of irregular pieces difficult to make out and which may be part of the tarsus. The foot itself seems much nearer to that of the Psyllidve than to that of the Aphidida,, for the


Psyllide have a prominent bilobed pulvillus, while the Aphididae have practically none. In some forms in the Aleyrodinm the paronychium is very prominent, and in all forms it is represented either by a pad or a spinelike structure. The paronychium in the Aleyrodide, however, is never bilobed as in the Psyllidee, though in some species there is a slight indication of this.

The secretion of wax is very common in many of the Homoptera and is particularly noticeable in the families related to the Aleyrodidw, namely, Psyllide, Aphididae, and Coccidw. In the Psyllidae besides the anal wax glands there are in the larve of many species abdominal and marginal wax glands, the marginal ones of which secrete long, fine, hollow, brittle, waxen hairs, which form a fringe about the insect. In the Aphidide the glands are usually groriped. In Schizoneura and some species of Pemphigus the secreting cells are arranged in rings, while in Chiermes, Alindarius, etc., they are agglomerate in nature, and in some forms these agglomerate pores are surrounded by a chitinized ring.
In the larvae of the Aleyrodide we have three types of pores. namely, simple, agglomerate, and compound. In the Aleyrodino the dorsal pores present are all simple, though many of them may be larger than others and arranged in definite rows, producing a fringe comparable to that in the larve of the Psyllide. It is in the Aleurodicinae that the development of special wax secreting structures is found and this development seems to throw some light on the relation of the forms. In Dialeurodicus the dorsal pores are simple and usually scattered, though in silvestrii the greater number of them are collected into a subdorsal band. In the species lahillei these simple pores have taken on a definite and restricted arrangement, forming agglomerate pores as in some Aphididx. In the center of some of these, however, is found a large, chitinous process which points to these as near the forerunners of the true compound pores in Aleurodicus. This fact, together with the shape of the lingula, wing, etc., seems to indicate that lahillei is the type of a new genus older than Aeiturodicus, but not so old as Dialeurodicus. In Aleurodicus the compound pores have a constant structure in all the species, indicated in Plate III, figure 2. The chitinous ring surrounding the agglomerate pores in some other forms is here a definite elevated cup-like structure. Within this cup the spinnerets are arranged in a ring similar to the ring in Schizoneura, but, unlike these cells, are produced into more or less elevated rods or tubes. Within this ring of spinneret rods is a chitinous process, apparently hollow, which may be very long, as in holmesii, or as short as the outer cup. In Paraleyrodes, while the pore is of the same compound type, it is different in


appearance, for here the ring of spinnerets is not extended into rodshaped structures, but is seen only at the base. The outer cup is very shallow and the central chitinous process is split into a number of sections. It would appear that in Parcdayrode8 the spinnerets and outer cup have become shortened at the same time with the media and radius. The compound pores of the forms belonging to the subgenus Jletaleurodicus are of an intermediate nature. The spinnerets are reduced in minima and cardini in a manner comparable to those of Paraleyrodes, but the central process is entire. In altissi8nts besides the reduction of the spinnerets, the central process is split into thre e divisions. In these forms, however, the lingula is short and generally included, unlike the typical forms of Aleurodicus or Paraeyrodes. Unfortunately the adult of altissimus has never been secured as, from the pupa, it appears to be a very interesting form; but whether it is nearer Paraleyrodes-or Aleurodicus cun be decided only by an examination of all the stages.

The respiratory system in Aleyrodid? seems to be more fully developed in the larval stages than in the adults. In some forms, as in those belonging to the citri group, there are in the immature stages special breathing folds developed which are often indicated on the dorsal surface by sculpturing and the outer extremity of each is guarded by stellate or other serrations on the margin of the case. The folds are three in number, there being a latero-thoracic pair and a caudal fold, this latter extending from the vasiform orifice caudad to the margin and forming a Y-shaped structure which extends to the posterior thoracic pair of spiracles. In some species, even when the thoracic folds are not noticeable, the caudal fold will be long and deep. The courses of the various tracheae have been worked out. by Woodworth for Aleyrodes citri I and the observations of more recent writers on the subject, as well as those made by ourselves, only substantiate his findings.
In the adult the system follows the same plan as in the larva. There are the same number (four pairs) of spiracles present, one pair of which is abdominal and situated near the vasiform orifice. The trunks and girdle are, however, much more reduced in the mature insect.

The metamorphosis in this family has always been an interesting and problematical subject of study. During the later larval stages the antenna, mouthparts, and legs become, to a certain extent, atrophied. In the pupal stage, however, they appear to be, in some cases at least, functional. In Dialeurodis cockerelii, for example, there

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V"Or T.If- fa,-ri'1v A1evr(x1ida_-. Within the pw.;t three or I--, A the additional genera fo r b1 hc I

Aleurochiton, Paraleyrodes, and damsels. These genera include species showing a considerable variation in important characters and, with other material available, furnish a basis for the consideration of their relationships and probable lines of descent. Information on these questions is essential for a correct understanding of the position of the family among the Homoptera and for the assignment within the family of the various species into natural groups.
Until the recent paper by Dr. Enderlein" no attempt has been made to divide the family into subfamilies. and to date there has been no attempt to show the natural relations of the genera. Enderlein erted the subfamily Udamoseline, in which he included also Aleurodicus, and the subfamily Aleyrodin, in which were placed all other known forms.
In the following classification we restrict Udamoselino to the forms in which both media and cubitus are present. Our reasons for thi, our ideas on the relation of the genera and the systematic position of the family, and a discussion of the subfamilies follow. It appears to us, from a careful study of the different forms, that the Aleyrodide are not intermediate in position between the Aphidid and Coccid but that they form an offshoot from the psyllid stem. This is indicated by the wing venation and by the structure of the mouthparts, legs, and genitalia.
The venation of the wings of this family has been compared with that of a psyllid wing under a separate heading (p. 9) and it is clear that the ancestor of the Aleyrodide had a wing form and venation very similar to the psyllid type. Under another heading (pp. 12-13) the genitalia of this family and those of thle Psyllide have been compared. The resemblance here is very striking. In the males only a slight modification of the structure found in the Psyllidae is necessary to produce the type found in Aturodicus, while the Aphidide have a widely different structure. In the females. too. the same condition is found to be true. The oipositors in the two families are remarkably alike, while in the Aphidid this structure shows almost no resemblance. In this second character. then, the two families are thus seen to be closely related.
The mouthparts show the most remarkable resemblance. In fact, with a variation in form of some parts and a difference in size, the two are identical. Even the same number of similarly formed taste sensoria are present on the labium.
In the legs, agnin, this similarity is to be noticed. In the presence of the pulvillus and the segmentation of the tarsus, the Aleyrodid are much closer to the Psyllid than to the Aphididae.
The family itself shows two distinct lines of descent. In the one the media is retained, the cubitus is lost, and large compound wax pores are often developed in the pup. In the other the media is


lost, the cubitus is retained, and no pupal compound wax pores are present. This divides the family at once into two distinct subfamilies to which the names Aleurodicinve and Aleyrodin may be applied. Outside of these two subfamilies we have the form Udamoselis pigmentaria, which is much more generalized than any other. It retains both media and cubitus and we place it, at present, alone in the Udamoselinoe. We have included in the Alevrodinme three genera, Aleurochiton, Aleyrodes, and Neomaskellia. The first is the most primitive, and from it Aleyrodes has arisen by the reduction of radius Neomaskellia, however, seems to have separated earlier than Aleyrodes, for it retains very hairy psyllid-like claspers and the wing venation is more reduced. The genus Aleyrodes at present includes many diversified forms and a careful study of these will no doubt necessitate the breaking up of the genus.
In the subfamily Aleurodicine the most primitive form seems to be Dialeurodicus cockerellii. This species, while it has developed the wing venation of Aleurodicus, still retains head characters which ally it to Udamoselis. The pupa, too, has no compound wax pores as in the genus Aleurodicus. With this species as type, Cockerell erected Dialeurodicus and placed it as a subgenus of Aleurodicus. It is evident, however, that this does not represent its true position, but that it is considerably older than Aleurodicus. We therefore make it the type of a genus rather than a subgenus. The species described as Aleurodicus lahillei, as discussed under wax pores (p. 14), shows characters intermediate between Dialeurodicus and Aleurodicus. These characters are so marked and evidently intermediate that we make it the type of a new genus, Leonardius, allied to Dialeurodicus in wing form, vertex, and vasiform orifice, and showing a development toward Aleurodicus in wax-secreting strctures. The genus Aleurodicus is separated at once by the wing venation, the definite wax-pore structures, and the long exserted lingula. There are, however, forms of this type in general structure which have an included lingula and wax pores tending toward those of Paraleyrodes. For these forms we erect a subgenus, letaleurodicus. This subgenus does not seem to be directly on the line toward Paraleyrodes. It is, as far as wax pores are concerned, but the lingula seems to place the group by itself.
The genus Paraleyrodes is plainly derived from near Aleurodicus by the reduction of the radius and part of the media, and by the shortening of the spinnerets and the cup of the wax pore. At the same time some of the segments of the antennT have united. It is the most specialized genus of the Aleurodicinae as Neonuskellia is the most specialized in the Aleyrodina. The position of the family and the relations of the genera, as we understand them, are shown in figure 1.



Small or minute insects; oviparous, eggs stalked; metamorphosis intermediate; larval stages (except first) quiescent upon leaves of plants; most species surrounded or covered with a waxy secretion.
Mature sexes with four wings which are transparent, white, clouded or mottled with spots or bands. Antennae in most genera of seven segments; compound eyes single or divided (reniform); ocelli two. Tarsi of two segments, terminating in two claws and a median process or paronychium; mouthparts suctorial, labium long, 3-segmented,

Ltonicab\ILERD ALEUROcHrro




FIG. 1.-Genealogical diagram of the Aleyrodidw. (Original.)

sets four; male genitalia a pair of prominent claspers; female genitalia an acute ovipositor. Anus opening dorsally at the so-called "vasiform orifice."

A. Forewing with radius,, radial sector, media, cubitus, and anal veins present.
Vertex produced --------------------------------I. Udamoseline.
B. Forewing with radial sector and media present; radius, absent or present;
paronychium spine-like -------------------II. Aleurodicince n. subfam.
C. Forewing with radial sector and cubitus present; radius absent or present;
paronychium blade-like-------------- III. Aleyrodina.



The members of this subfamily have the forewing with the costa ajid subcosta distinct. The radius,, radial sector, media, cubitus, and anal vein are present.
One genus only, Udamoselis, iis linown.

Genus UDAMOSELIS Enderlein.

Udamosclis Diderlein, Zool. Anz., Dd. 34, N. 7/8, p. 231 (1%.9).

This genus was erected by Enderlein, who characterized it as follows:
UDAMOSELIS nov. gen.
(Fig. 2.)
Radialrainus, und Media bilden im Vorder- und Hinterflilgel zusammen eine, Gabel. im Vorderthigel ist der Radialramus verktirzt. Cubitus im Vorder- uud


ax r


Pi(,,,. 2.-Wing,; of Udamoselis pigmentaria. (Redrawn from Enderle1n.)

11interflilgel vorhaii(lon, hn Vor(lerffllgel atis der Media nahe der Basis, im j1int(,,rtflig(,1 dicht noben der Wurzel der 'NIledift entspringend. Analis (an) bil Vonl( rffllgel "lls feille, iber s( br sehtrfe lielle, Linle (silho-a clavi), iin 11intotfflig(d Nvoniger detitlich. Axilhiris (ax) iiii Vorderffligel als deiftliche .%(Ier oitwickelt' "'ie felilt Wi 11intvi-thige]. Abdoinen selir lang, und dunn
In der M tte dor Sdru ein ziendich gr6sser kegelVirmiger 116eker. Jede der belden grossed Ocellen liegen diclit Lleui Innenraild der Augen Uane UM Hinterrand des Scheitels an.
Type, pigmentai-ia Eiiderleln.



UDAMOSELIS nov. gen.

(Fig. 2.)

The radial ramus and the media both in the fore and hind wings form a branched fork; in the forewing the radial ramus is shortened. The cubitus is present both in the fore and the hind wing; in the forewing it has its origin in the media near its base, in the hind wing it starts close to the root of the media. Analis visible in the forewing as a fine but very distinct bright line suturaa clavi), in the hind wing it is less distinct. The axillary (ax) is developed as a distinct vein in the forewing; in the hind wing it is wanting. The abdomen of the male insect is very long and attenuated.
In the middle of the front of the head there is a rather large coneshaped protuberance. Each one of the two large ocelli lies close to the internal margin of the compound eyes near the posterior margin of the occiput.
The terminology of wing-veins used by Dr. Enderlein in the preceding diagnosis does not correspond with our ideas on the subject. As discussed under "The wings," we consider the costa as represented by the margin, and the "fork" as formed by radius, and the radial sector. Below we tabulate, therefore, Dr. Enderlein's terms, giving in each case what we consider the correct term:

Enderlein r 1-=Subcosta. Enderlein cu=Media.
r =Radius ,. an= Cubitus.
m =Radial sector. ax=Anal.

Udamoselis pigmentaria Enderlein.

(Fig. 2.)

Udamoselis pigmentaria Enderlein, Zoologischen Anzeiger, Bd. 31, No. 7/8,
p. 231 (1909).

3. Kopf sehr klein, breiter als lang, kaum so breit wie die Ililfte der Thoracalbreite. Augen sehr gross, blassgelblich, jedes Auge nimmt 1/3 der Kopflreite ein und ist von Kopfliinge. Scheitel blassgelblich, itusserster Hinterrand in der Mitte schwarz, Scheitelnaht sehr tief, der Hinterrand ziemlich tief stumpfwinkelig ausgeschnitten; die beiden Scheitelhilften klein, etwas linger als breit. Die beiden Basalglieder der Fiibler ziemlich dick und braun, Fiiblerinsertion zur Hiilfte in den Augenrand eingeriickt, der Augeninnenrand an dieser Stelle schmal und tief eingebuchtet, Einbuchtung viel tiefer als breit. (Fiihlergeissel abgebrochen). Den Zwischenraum zwischen den Fiihlerinsertionen fiillt ein grosser ziemlich hoher kegelfiirmiger schwarzer Stirnaufsatz. Clypeus relativ gross, in Gestalt eines gleichseitigen Dreiecks, dessen eine Ecke nach vorn gerichtet ist, rostgelb, mit ziemlich langen und ziemlich dichtstehenden, senkrecht abstehenden


braunen Haaren, besetzt. Riissel etwas Ringer als die Kopfh6he, die beiden Glider etwa gleichiaug, I Glied gelblich, am Ende briiunlich; 2. Glied gelblich, EndhRIfte, schwarz, nach der Spitze zu allmUhlich zugespitzt. Wangen sehr kurz, nur vor den Augen, Schliffen fehlen.
Tborax rostbrauu, Scutellum und Postseutellum brHunlichgelb. Pronotum kurz, Hinterrand in der Alitte etwas flach eingedrilckt. Mesonotum sehr kriiftig und dick, hoch __,eNv61bt; Antedorsum schmal, nach hinted lang und spitz ausgezogen und gew6lbt, und durch tiefe Parapsidenfurchen abgesetzt; die beiden SeitenflUgel der Dorsa in der 'Nlitte kurz vereini-t und durch kleine Furche getreilut; Scutellum als Querwulst, die etwa 21 mal so breit wie lang ist. Ahnlich ist das Postseutellum, nur etwas kleiner. Der Hinterrand des Scutellum und Postscutelluws setzt, sich jederseits in eine scharfe Querleiste fort. Das Andorsum. des .\IetaDotum ist fast so gross wie chis des Mesonotum, und ist durch chie sehr seliarfe 'TIedianfurche in 2 RdIften zerlegt. Auch die Dorsa des Metanotum sind in der Mitte nicht voneinander ab-,,esetzt. Hinter dem. Postscutellum fUllt es, hinted steil ab.
.Abdonien sehr lang und schmal; die sieben ersten Glieder kurz, etwas flach, f ist I rim. breit und neben den Selten oben mit Langsfurche; S. und 9. Segment schmUler, r6hrenfUrmig, 8. so lang wie breit, 9. etwa 4 mal so lang wie br6it. 1. Tergit kurz, in der Mitte mit drel ziemlich dichstehenden feiiien, aber scharfen Ungskielen; 2. Tergit mit einem ebensolchen Medianklel. 8. Tergit nach hinted
-ii etwas steil ansteigend. Am Ende des 1. DrIttels der Oberseite des 9. Ter-Ites eiii Weiner Hijeker, der hinted eingedrflekt. ist. 1. Sternit sehr kurz, mit feinem, -Mediankiel; 2. Sternit mit zwei dicht gedr,.Ingten INIediankielen; 3. Sternit vorn wit einem kleinem, flach dreieckigen, etwas ein,-esenkten Feld, von dew. jederselts ein finer, aber scharfer Kiel ausgeht, beide divergieren nach hinted zu und stehen senkrecht zueinaiider; beide Kiele setzen sich ger,,,idlinig an deill 4. Sternit bis zu den Hinterecken fort. Zangen (des S ) sebr schlank oval und sehr ]an,-,-, etwas mehr als J des 9. Segments. Penis.kurz. Abdomen oben brdun]Ichgelb. Mitten der Ter,,ithillften des 2. Tergits mit schwitrzlichem Wiseh, S. Ter-It schwarz 'lusserster Hinterrand fein brilunlieb,"elb gesdumt; unten brUtin'ticligelb mit gravibrdunlichem. Hauch.
Beiiie ziemlich klein und zart, sehr splirlich und k-urz pubesziert; blass briiunlichgelb. Scheukel wit kleinen braunen Punkten besprenkelt. S'ehienen und Tarsen diii-in, Russerste Spitze der f;chienen und des 1. Tarsengliedes blassbraun, Endhillfte des 2. Tarsengliedes, schwarz; die beiden Klaueli klein und zlemlich zart, rostgelb. Ein Empodialanhang (Paronychiuni) ist wit der Lupe nicht erkennbar. Hinterselliene etwas Ringer als die iibrigen, die Tarseti,-,,lieder bei allen Beinen fast gleich, und zwar das zweite ungefdhr i des er-teii. Die beiden Tarsenglieder sind zusammen ungefUhr die HdIfte der
-hiene. 1 1,,iuenliinge uii(,,eft:ihr der Liinge des 2. Tarsengliedes.
Flfigelspitzeil bender Flfigel ziemlich eckig, aber abgerundet. Die Gabel fast reolitNvIlikelig ini Vorderfiiirel spitzwhikelig im Hinterfitigel. Clavus iiii Vorder?Iross' his ill die -%Ijtte des ffintornindes relchend; lill Hinterflilgel klein, et va bis zum Elide des ersten Viertels des Ifinterrandes reichend. 11"orderflUgel relntiv breit, Ilinterfl0gel zienilich schm,il, besouders Im Basaltell. Cubitus lui 11hiterffilgel gebogen.
viogelflirbimg und Zeichnung auf der Ober- und Unterselte gleichindssig. ("I'I'lildfill-be des Vorderflfigrels ockergelb, Illit feluer verwasellener brainer 'Spreiikelung. die nur an fol-viiden Stellen febit: ein ziemlich grosser, lialbkreisff*)rwjger, uiit der Basis dew Ausseurande autliegender Fleck ail der MiJudung

von m, ein ebensolcher am Vorderrand dicht vor des Spitze, ein ebensolcher etwas grosser an der Miiflndung von an, der den Cubitus nahezu tangiert, ein weiterer, etwas kleinerer und verwaschener dicht neben diesem in der Mitte des Hinterrandes und ein nahezu kreisrunder in der Mitte zwischen der Radialgabelungsstelle und dem Cubitus. Zwischen den beiden hellen Flecken am Flfigelhinterrand ein ziemlich dunkelbrauner Fleck. Hinterfligel ziemlich dicht und dunkelbraun besprenkelt, Spitze etwas lichter; am V~rderrande am Ende des 1. und am Ende des 2. Drittels je ein griisserer ockergelber Fleck. FlUigel v6Ilig matt, ohne jeden Glanz, ohne Pubescenz und ohne Bestiubung. Vorderfifigellinge 5.5 mm. Thoracalbreite, 11 nun.
Hinterfltigelliinge 31 mm. LInge des 9. Segments 1 mm.
Kirperliinge 7 mm. Zangenliinge 1 mm.
Abdominallhinge 41 mm.
Vaterland: wahrscheinlich Stidamerika. 1 8.
Male.-Head very small, wider than long, hardly as wide as onehalf of the thoracic width. Compound eyes very large, pale yellow; each compound eye occupies one-third of the width of the head and equals the head in length. Vertex pale yellow, its extreme posterior margin black in the center. Epicranial suture very deep, the posterior margin deeply cut. The two halves of the vertex small, somewhat longer than wide. The two basal joints of the antenna rather thick, and brown; the insertion partly in the margin of the compound eyes. The interior margin of 'the compound eyes deeply sinuate at this place, the sinus being much deeper than wide. (Remainder of
the antenna broken off.)* The interval between the insertions of the antenna is occupied by a large, rather high, cone-shaped, black frontal protuberance. Clypeus relatively large, in the form of an equilateral triangle; one angle being turned to the front, rusty yellow, provided with brown hairs that are rather long and more or less close together, standing off at right angles. Proboscis somewhat longer than the height of the head, the two joints nearly equal in length. First joint yellowish, brownish at the end; second joint yellowish, black at the end, and gradually coming to an acuminate point. Cheeks very short, only in front of the eyes, temples not present.
Thorax reddish brown, scutellum and postscutellum brownish yellow. Pronotum short, its posterior margin having slight flat depression in the center. Mesonotum very robust and thick, highly arched. Antedorsum narrow, attenuated toward the rear end and arched and set off by deep parapsidal furrows; the two lateral wings of the dorsa united in the middle for a short distance and separated by a small groove. Scutellum in the form of a cross welt which is


about two and one-half times as wide as it is long. Postscatellum very similar in shape, but somewhat smaller in size. The posterior margin of the scutellum and the postscutellum is continued on eah side by an acute crosswise welt. The andorsum of the metanotum is almost as large as that of the mesonotum and is divided by a very sharp median furrow into two halves. The dorsa of the metanotum are likewise not set off from each other in the center. Behind the postscutellum there is an abrupt declivity.
Abdomen very long and narrow; the first seven segments are short, somewhat flat, almost 1 mm. in width, and having along their sides a superior longitudinal furrow; eighth and ninth segments narrower, tubuliform; the eighth as long as it is wide; the ninth about 4 times longer than wide. First tergite short, provided in its center with three quite distinct, fine, but plainly visible, longitudinal keels. Second tergite with one similar median keel. Eighth tergite somewhat steeply acclivous toward the rear. At the end of the first third of the upper side of the ninth tergite is a small protuberance which is indented in the rear part. First sternite very short, provided with a fine median keel; second sternite furnished with two median keels that are closely crowded together; third sternite provided at the front with a small, flatly triangular, somewhat indented field, from which issues on each side a very fine but distinct keel. These two keels diverge toward the rear and become perpendicular to each other. Both of these keels are continued in a straight line in their fourth sternite as far as the posterior.covers. Forceps (of the male) narrowly oval and very long, at times exceeding two-thirds the length of the ninth segment. Penis short. Upper side of the abdomen brownish yellow. In the center of the second tergite there is a blackish stripe. Eighth tergite black, its extreme posterior margin bordered by a fine brownish-yellow seam. The ventral side of the abdomen brownish yellow, with a brownish-gray cast.
Legs very small and slender, very sparsely and briefly pubescent, pale brownish yellow. Femur sprinkled with small brown dots. TibiaR and the tarsi thin; distal ends of both the tibia and the first tarsal joint pale brown; distal half of the second tarsal joint black. The two claws small and quite slender, rusty yellow. An empodial appendage (paronychium) is not visible under the magnifying glass. Posterior tibia somewhat longer than the others; the tarsal joints in all the legs almost equal in length, the second being about two-thirds as long as the first. The two tarsal joints are together about onehalf the length of the tibia. Length of the claws about one-third the length of the second tarsal joint.
Ends of both wings somewhat angular, but rounded off. The bifurcation almost rectangular in the forewing, but acute-angled in the'


hind wing. Club in the forewing large, extending as far as the middle of the posterior margin. Forewings relatively broad, the hind wings rather narrow, particularly in the proximal part. Cubitus in the hind wing curved.
Color of the wings and markings on the upper and lower sides uniform. Basal.color of the forewing ochraceous yellow, with a rather finely increscent brown sprinkling, which is wanting only in the following locations: A pretty large semicircular spot, its base resting on the exterior margin at the mouth of an; another spot at the anterior margin close before the point; a still larger spot near the embouchure of an, which almost touches the -cubitus, and furthermore a smaller spot close beside the cubitus in the middle of the posterior margin; finally, an almost circular spot in the middle between the cubitus and the point of bifurcation of the radial vein. Between the two light-colored spots on the posterior margin of the wings there is a spot of rather dark-brown color. Hind wings sprinkled densely with dark-brown spots. Their apices somewhat lighter in color. There is a large ochraceous spot along the anterior margin at the end of the first third and another at the end of the second third of its length. Wings quite colorless, without any luster, without pubescence, and without any powdering.
Length of forewings 5.5 mm.; length of hind wings 3.75 mm.; length of body 7 mm.; length of abdomen 4.75 mm.; width of thorax 1.5 mm.; length of the ninth segment 1.75 mm.; length of forceps
1.25 mm.
Habitat.-In all probability South America. One male.

The members of this subfamily are characterized by the presence in the forewing of the radial sector and media. Radius, may or may not be present, and the cubitus is rarely faintly indicated.
The type genus is Aleurodicus.
Four genera are at present included in the subfamily, which may be separated as follows:
A. Pupa case without large compound pores. Forewing with radius and
media well developed; vertex produced-; lingula included; antennae of seven segments --------------------------------Dialeurodicus.
B. Pupa case with no compound pores, but with agglomerate pores; radius 1
and media well developed; antenna of seven segments--- -Leonardius. C. Pupa case with large compound pores; radius1 and media well developed;
antenna of seven segments ----------------------------- Aleurodicus.
D. Pupa case with compound pores; radius, absent; media considerably reduced; antennae of four segments ------------------ Paraleyrodes.


Genus DIALEURODICUS (Cockerell) n. gen.

Forewing with radius,, radial sector," and media retained. Vertex produced into a prominent cone-shaped process. Antenna of seven segments, of which the third is the longest. Paronychium of the foot represented by a stout spine. Pupa case flat; no compound pores present but simple pores, either scattered over the surface or somewhat collected into areas; vasiform orifice small, lingula setose, short conical, included and armed with four spines.
Type, cockerellii Quaintance.


I. Dorsum of pupa case with scattered simple pores; large, oval, flat, size
about 1.63 by 1.23 mm., yellowish brown; surface without reticulations; wax tubes forming the marginal rim, separated by rather shallow incisions. Adults with large spotted wings ----....cockerellii. II. Dorsum of pupa case without scattered simple pores; large, oval, flat, size about 1.7 by 1.40 mm. Dark brown to blackish (shiny jet-black on leaf); surface with some reticulations; wax tubes forming margin of rim, separated by deep incisions ----------- tessellatus.
III. Dorsum of pupa case with scattered simple pores and a broad subdorsal
band all around of closely set simple pores divided by body sutures into six more or less distinct patches. Subovate in shape, size 1.5 by 1.12 mm., marginal wax tubes separated by shallow incisions ....--------------------------------------- sivestrii.
IV. Dorsum of pupa case with four pairs of wax-secreting pores on abdominal
segments 4 to 7 and a submarginal rim all around of simple pores.
Dorsal disk dark brown, with four radiating patches of same color on each side. Shape elongate, elliptical, narrowed cephalad, size 2.36 by 1.28 mm. Margin of case entire ---------- pulcherrimus.

Dialeurodicus cockerellii (Quaintance).

(Pl. IV, figs. 1-14; P1. VII, fig. 1; text fig. 3.)

Aleurodicus cockerellii Quaintance, Tech. Series 8, Div. Ent., U. S. Dept.
Agr., p. 45, (1900).

Pupa case.-Size about 1.63 by 1.23 mm.; subovate in shape, smaller end cephalad. Color uniformly yellowish. There is but slight waxy exudation from dorsum, which is more or less mealy. No wax rods have been observed. Dried specimens separate easily from leaf, leaving usually a ring of white mealy wax of the size and shape of case; extending from the periphery inward are light lines of this mealy wax, more or less distinctly marking the position of the abdominal sutures of the case. Dorsum of pupa case almost flat, but as seen under a hand lens is much wrinkled transversely in dried material. These folds or ridges occur mainly along the body segments and posteriorly become much curved around the vasiform orifice. Under the microscope the abdominal segments are indistinct and scarcely elevated, except in the medlo-dorsal line, where a slight rounded keel may be observed. Margin of case practically en-


tire. Very slight furrows or thickenings extend iesad a short distance from margin of case, rather marking the margin into more or less distinct rectangular figures. Just within the margin all around is a series of very small disc-like pores, usually one to each of these marginal rectangles. Dorsum void of well developed setm, except a pair just within the caudal margin; but there is a pair of small setoe at vasiform orifice, and very minute setp occur here and there on the dorsum. The five or more pairs of large compound pores, so usual on dorsum of pupa case of Aleurodicus, seem to be absent in this species, but very many minute transparent pores may be detected on dorsum under high power of microscope.
Vasiform orifice subcordate, somewhat longer than wide; cephalic margin straight; at caudal end there is a short, stout, spine-like protrusion. Operculum subrectangular, about half length of orifice; cephalic and caudal margins practically straight, lateral margins rounded; lateral and caudal margins thick; minutely setose. Lingula quite as long as orifice, very broad, and bearing distally two pairs of setoe,
the smaller pair proximad; minutely setose.
Rudimentary 1 e g s
and antenne on ventral
surface quite distinct.
Distal joint of legs
with a straight and >
truncate spine. Anten, I I '
naM usual, minutely
A d u I t 9 .-Length,
about 1.96 mm.; forewing, about 2.4 by 1.6
mm.; length of hind
tibia, 0.8 mim.; length
of hind tarsus, 0.56
mm.; length of front
tarsus, 0.32 mm.; color, FIG. 3.-Head of Dialeurodicus cockerellii. (Original.) bright yellow, legs and
antennae paler; wings very broad, and rounded distally. Wings marked with more or less circular spots of brownish black. In forewings, along cephalic margin, are three spots about equidistant, and farther distad, on curve of wing, is a spot somewhat farther from the third spot than are two and three from each other. There is a spot on the margin of outer caudal curve of wing and three spots on the caudal margin, which, however, are not equidistant, as in the spots on cephalic margin. Within the area bounded by the distal fork of the vein are two spots, and within the area bounded caudad by the proximal branch are from three to five spots. In hind wings there is a spot on outer cephalic margin, and on the outer caudal margin are two spots. There are two spots in the area bounded by the distal fork of vein, and likewise two spots in the area bounded caudad by the proximal branch of vein. Head as seen from above acute cephalad, and margined with deep reddish or brownish black, continuous with eyes which are of same color. Joint 1 of antennae short, subcylindrical, distal and irregularly notched or toothed. Joint 2 thick, clubshaped, about three times longer than basal and bearing two or three set on outer lateral surface. Joint 3 quite long---quite twice the length of fourth. Distal joint short, terminating in a single seta.
61201 -13--3

Received by the Division of Entomology at Washington from DrW. F. thank, Instituto Agronomico, Campinas, Estado de S. Paulo, Brazil, on leaves ofa myrtaceous plant, March 30, 1898, and again from Dr. Noack, on same plant, June 14, 1898. The writer has also received specimens of this insect from Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell, to whom they had been sent by Dr. Noack. The adults are unique, in the genus Aleurodius, from the more or less cirlar spots on the wings. Div. Ent., Nos. 8010 and 8115. Type pupa-case, 8010, described from nine specimens, and specimens on leaf from Prof. Cocker. Type, adult, 8115, described from two specimens.
Mr. Adolph Hempel" has been able to observe this specie
nature, and has added the following interesting descriptive remarks:
Grown larva and pupa yellowish, about 1.87 millim. long and 1.3 mili wide; very fiat; lateral edge thin. Dorsum covered with a dense thick mass of white secretion, arranged in a marginal fringe, and a submarginal oval ring. Adult male light yellow in color; head, eyes, wings, and antenna as in the female Body narrow, 2.21 millim. long. Extent of wings 4.93 millim. Genitalia large, .430 millim. long, forcipate, tips strongly curved. Penis fine, tip curved upward, .190 millim. long.
Eggs small, elongate, slightly curved, light yellowish, with a short pednle; usually laid in an irregular mass and covered with a fine white powder. The eggs hatch in from 11 to 13 days. The larva stage lasts from 44-4 days and the pupa stage from 15-16 days.
Hab. Campinas, State of S. Paulo, on the underside of leaves of a cultivated guava (Psidium cattleianum). The entire under surface of the leaves becomes coated with a fine white powder, while the upper surface is usually covered with a black fungus.
Type.-No. 14761, U. S. National Museum.
Dialeurodicus silvestrii (Leonardi).

(P1. V. figs. 1-6.)
Aleurodicus silvestrii Leonardi, Bollettino del Lab. di Zool. general e
agraria della R. Scuola superlore d'Agricoltura in Portici, vol. 4, pp.
320-322 (1910).

Larva (ultimo stadio).-Corpo ovale, platto, un poco pit acuminato all'innanzi che di dietro, provvisto, lungo 11 margine libero, di una stretta frangia ininterrotta di cera biance nivea.
Al dorso si osservano 6 nastri cerosi bianchissimi, molto vistosi, I quall sono contigul colle loro basi delimitando in tal modo un'area centrale di form esagonale allungata nel senso diametro longitudinale. Quest'area, coperta da pochi glomeruli dl cera, viene a costituire, direl quasi, 11 fondo di u'elegante cestella I di cui lati sarebbero costituiti dal summentovati nastri cerosi qual, da prima, si dirigono in alto per pol ripiegarsi, contorti pI o meno, lateralmente.
Denudato l'insetto esso appare dl un bel colore vitellno uniform. I egmenti del corpo sono ben ristinti tra loro specie quelli che costituono I'addome. Al dorso, lungo 11 margine, a breve distanza da esso, osserva una sere di ghlandgle ciri pare che corre parallela al margine stesso.
Nell'area mediana dorsale, tutt'all'ingiro, vi sono un gran number di a hi di ghiandole ciripare raccolti In 6 distinti aggruppamenti, de quall tre on diposti a destra e tre a sinistra del diameter lonitudinale del coro dell'insetto.

Tech. Series 27, Bureau of Entorno ogy, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. PLATE IV.


1 1 :-.. =



2 9 5

S-- --0 --0 z 0

.: .- ...........

-'. :: e e e



DIALEURODICUS COCKERELLII. Fig. 1.-Egg. Fig. 2.-Pupa case. Fig. 3.-Rostrum. Fig. 4.-Trophic tubercle. Fig. 5.Leg of pupa. Fig. 6.-Antenna of pupa. Fig. 7.-Tip of same. Fig. 8.-Vasiform orifice
of pupa. Fig. 9.-Margin of pupa case. Fig. 10.-Dorsal spine of pupa case. Fig. 11.Forewing of adult. Fig. 12.-Costal margin of forewing. Fig. 13.-Antenna of adult. Fig.
14.-Foot of adult. (Original.)

Tecn Ser es 27 Bureau of Entomology U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. PLATE V.

5 (


DIALEURODICUS SILVESTRI[. i.1 I 'up~ aeIis viewv. Fig -. 2 k,letrnil v iew. Fig. :I-aiomorifice
u,[~~~~ F'- I~ I Iig f.- Ie If Iua 1ig .:1 1a1i oC pupa Cae i.6 u A
C(:ux I-wa e ion F ,t ~I I IT II e % Itda 1011 1ro Leoni' 1.)


L'aggruppamento medlano destro, come il corrispondente di sinistrit, soiio bexie distinti dagli aggruppametil contigul, di cul i due anterior!, come pure I due posteriori finiscono col confluire tra loro, rispettivamente all'apice anteriore ed a quello posteriore del corpo, degl'insetto, ove d'altronde I detti aggruppainenti presentano 11 maggiore ristringimento loro. La cera segregata da si fatte ghiandole ciripare quella die va a formare i nastri cerosi prima ricordati. Altre ghlandole di simile fabbrica, con disposizione simmetrica, trovansl diffuse sul tegumento compreso tra gli aggruppamenti di cul 81 c% ora tenuto parola, mentre ne c% privo, fatta, eccezione per la serie di ghlandole circummarginall gin. descritte, la porzione posta al di IA di essi.
L'apertura anale, in confronto, di quella della specie precedente, 6 molto pi ridotta nelle dimensioul e l'opercolo che la ricopre, in paragone, 6% nolto pi largo che lungo, la lunghezza, riuscendo, a malo pena piPL lunga della meta della larghezza. La linguetta per forma, per numero e per disposizione del pell vistosi, di cul ? ornata rassomiglia a quella della specie precedente salvo die le dimension! sono, proporzionate a quelle del rispettivo opercolo.
Dal lato del ventre 'insetto non presente nulla di speciale, eccetto, le zampe die come nell' Aleurodicus Lahillet portano'a1 loro, apice anzich6 una ventosa un robusto uncino.
Lungliezza del corpo 1500 ~
Larghezza del corpo, 1120 A.
Lungliezza del nastri cerosi circa I ceatimetro., Larghezza del nastri cerosl circa j millimetro.
Habitat.-Raccolto a Jalapa (Mexico) su foglle di una pianta rimasta indeterminata.
Gl'insetti per lo, phi riuniti in numerose colonie, si fissano d'ordinarlo al lati della nervatura mediana della foglia disponendosl alternativamente uno di qua e l'altro, al di I&, di detta nervatura formando nel loro, complesso un'elegante disegno die spicca sul verde della foglia grazie alla bianchezza perfetta del itastri cerosi die si innalzano dal dorso, dell'insetto.


Larva (last stage) .-Body oval, flat, a little more acuminate at the anterior end than at the posterior end, provided along its free margin with a narrow uninterrupted fringe of snowy white wax. At the dorsum, there are seen six very white waxy slender tentacles, very conspicuous, which are contiguous at their base, delimiting in this manner a central area of hexagonal shape elongated in the direction of the longitudinal diameter. This area, covered with little globules of wax, constitutes, so to say, the bottom of an elegant cestu~s ("C cestella ") the sides of which are formed by the base of the abovenamed waxy tentacles, which at first are directed upward, and then bend down, contorted, more or less, laterally.
When denuded, this insect appears of a beautiful uniform vitelline color. The segments of the body are quite distinct, particularly those that constitute the abdomen. At the back, along the margin, and a short distance from the same, there can be seen a row of wax-producing glands which runs parallel to this margin.


In the median dorsal area, all around, there are a large number of mouths of wax-producing glands, collected in six distinct groups, of which three are arranged at the right and three at the left of the longitudinal diameter of the body of the insect. The middle group on the right, as well as that oni the left, is quite distinct from the contiguous groups, of which the two anterior ones, as well as the two posterior ones, unite respectively at the anterior apex and at the posterior apex of the body of the insect, at which points these groups are of their smallest width. The wax secreted by these wax-producing glands is that which goes to form the above-recorded six waxy tentacles. Other glands of similar nature, symmetrically disposed, are found spread out upon the tegument comprised between the groups of which we have just spoken, but such glands are wanting, with the exception of the row of circummarginal glands already described, on the part of the tegument outside of tile principal groups.
The anal aperture, as compared with that of the preceding species, is much smaller in size, and the operculum which covers it is, in comparison, much wider than long, the length being scarcely more than one-half of the width. The lingula, by its shape and by the number and disposition of the sightly hairs with which it is ornamented, resembles that of the preceding species except that the dimensions are proportionate to those of the respective operculum.
As regards the venter the insect presents no special features except the legs which, like those of Aleurodijus laillei, carry at their apex a robust claw rather than a pulvillus.
Length of body 1.500 mm.; width of body 1.120 mm.; length of the waxy tentacles about 5 mm.; width of the waxy tentacles about
0.5 mm.
Adults.-Not known.
Habitat.-Colected at Jalapa, in Mexico, upon the leaves of a plant the species of which is undetermined.
The insects, for the most part collected in numerous colonies, are ordinarily attached to the sides of the middle vein of the leaf, disposed alternately on the one and the other side of this vein, forming in their totality an elegant design which shines upon the verdure of the leaf, thanks to the perfect whiteness of the waxy tentacles which arise from the back of the insect.

DIaleurodicus tessellatus n. sp.
(P1. VI, fig. 1; P1. VII, fig. 2.)
From Ceara, Brazil, on Eugenia initcelelU. Received January, 1906, from Mr. F. Richa. This species in the pupal stage closely reseimbles I). (ockre7ii, but differs in the character of margin of case, in the vasiform orifice, absence of wax pores on dorsum, and darker color of eggs and pupa case.


Egg.-Length about 0.32 mm; color shiny brown or blackish, without markings; stalk short (P1. VI, fig. 1).
Pupa case.-Size about 1.7 mm. long by 1.40 mm. wide; case flat, applied closely to leaf, the body segments distinct as transverse ridges; color, under hand lens, shiny dark brown or blackish (P1. VI, fig. 2).
The specimens in hand show no waxy secretions from dorsum of case nor from the marginal wax tubes. The larvve have a narrow fringe all around the white wax from the marginal wax tubes. Under microscope, pupa casetbrown, the more central portion darker; lighter bands, more evident on the sides, extending transversely across dorsum, marking the segments.
Case without the compound wax pores present in Aleurodicus, and the simple wax pores, scattered over dorsum in cockereli ii, are, in the present species, absent. There are, however, numerous minute clear points over entire dorsal surface, some occurring singly and others in pairs, one of which is smaller (P1. VI, fig. 7). The marginal wax tubes are quite distinct; the incisions deep and acute, notably more so than in cockerellii. Just within the margin all around is a series of simple wax pores on the marginal wax tubes. (P1. VI, fig. 8.)
Case very flat, the lighter specimens showing a coarse network of darker lines on dorsal surface (P1. VI, fig. 2) ; margin without spines or setae. Vasiform orifice cordate, about as broad as long; caudal end terminating in a subcircular orifice or pore; operculum subrectangular, the sides rounded and margins straight-about twice as wide as long. Lingula not exserted, stout, subspatulate, bearing two pairs of spines. (P1. VI, fig. 6.) On ventral surface, legs, antenna, and rostrum quite distinct; antennae rather short, ending in a fingerlike process; rostrum unusually well developed, being alcout 0.18 mm. long; legs short, stout, ending in single hook. (Figs. 3-5.)
A dults.-Unknown.
Type.-No. 14762, U. S. National Museum. Described from several pupo in balsam mounts and specimens on foliage.

Dialeurodicus pulcherrimus n. sp.
(P1. VIII, figs. 1-8.)
This species differs from the typical form in the genus by having the frons produced acutely and extending beyond the cone of the vertex. The shape of the pupa case is also somewhat different from that of cockerellii. The general characters, however, seem to approach most nearly to those of Dideurodicuw.



Pupa case (P1. VIII, fig. 1).-Shape el e t "nie
ably narrower cephalad than cauded; dorsum w the abdominal segments distinct, the sutures very pla the subdorsal area. Vasiform orifice (Pl. Vill, fig. 2) wide as long, with the anterior margin strait; o verse, considerably wider than long, the caudal margin indented at each side, as shown in the figure; on each margin, just at base of this indentation, a small is Lingula short, conical, and forming together with the oper almost a perfect cone. Its tip is armed with two pairs of la and both operculum and lingula are minutely setose. Margin (P VIII, fig. 3) entire and just within it all around is a row of simple wax pores. On the subdorsal area are four pairs of wax pores, one pair on each of segments 4 to 7. These pores (P1. VIII, fig. 4) have a clear rim and a central dusky area with a dentate margin. P1 irregularly near these are also noticed a number of min pore-like areas.
The case, under the microscope, is transparent, with the excepion of a central dark-brown region and four radiating bands of the same color on each side, the position of which are shown in Plate VIII, figure 1. A narrow, colorless, central longitudinal band is p on segments 3 to 8, inclusive. Each of the dark radiating extending through its center a darker line and the marginal are closer together on the dark areas than elsewhere. Size of ce
2.368 mm. by 1.28 mm.
Adult female.-Head (P1. VIII, figs. 6 and 7) with the p duced into a cone-like process; frons also produced into a slar process, which extends beyond it; lower portion of the f and face armed with numerous spines. Compound eyes dark brown, constricted in the middle; ocelli prominent, bordered by a dark a The antepne are absent from the specimens at hand. Fore-w (fig. 4) shaded with brown and mottled with a darker shade of te same color as shown in figure. The extent and intensity of s maculations varies somewhat with the individual; veins brown, the cubitus represented by a transparent "fold;" proximal portion of costal margin armed with stiff hairs and entire margin with projections on which sete are situated. Size 2.38 mm. by 1.504 mm. Hind wing with brown maculations, as shown in Plate VIII, figure 4; the proximal portion of the costal margin with usually eleven prominent bristles. Size 1.92 mm. by 0.704 mm. Paronychium of (P1. VIII, fig. 8) armed with a prominent bristle. Lingula of form orifice broad and rounded. Length from vertex to tip of ovipositor 1.91 mm.; fore-tibia 0.48 mm.; hind tibia 0.8 mm. Color

Tech. Series 27, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agricu ture. PLATE VI.


.' 6

;7+ 0 ++ '+\ :


DIALEURODICUS TESSELLATUS. Fig. 1.-Egg. Fig. 2.-Pupa case. Fig. 3.-Antenme of pupa. Fig. 4.-Rostrum
of pupa. Fig. 5.-Leg of pupa. Fig. 6.-Yasiform orifice of pupa. Fig. 7.Paired pores of dorsum of pupa case. Fig. S.-Margin of pupa case. (Original.)





Tech. Series 27, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, PLATE VIII.








Fig. 1.-Pupa case. Fig. 2.-Vasiform orifice of pupa case. Fig. 3.-Margin of pupa case.
Fig. 4.-Subdorsal pores of pupa case. Fig. 5.-Wings of adult. Fig. 6. -HIead of adult,
lateral view. Fig. 7.-Head of adult, dorsal view. Fig. 8.-Foot of adult. (Fig. 7 less
enlarged than Fig. 6.) (Original.)


yellowish brown; shaded on the thorax, the dorsum of the abdomen, and the articulations of the appendages with dusky to brown.
Type.-No. 14778, U. S. National Museum. Described from five females in balsam and two pupa cases, one in batsam and one dry upon theleaf. Taken by Dr. F. W. Urich on coconut in Trinidad.

Genus LEONARDIUS n. gen.

Forewing with radius 1, radial sector, and media forming the veins; cubitus present in freshly emerged wing and traces of it sometimes present later; form of wings rounded, color generally mottled. Vertex produced, somewhat cone-shaped. Antennme of seven segments of which the third is the longest. Paronychium a narrow spined process; puipa case with a series of agglomerate pores, some of which (the two anterior abdominal pairs) take on the nature of compound pores. Lingula of pupa case conical, included, setose, and armed with four spines.
Type, lahillei Leonardi.
This genus is related to Dialourodious in the aute vertex and the wing form of the adult and in the character of the vasiform orifice of the pupa case. The tendency toward the development of compound pores in the pupa shows its relation to Aleurodicus.

Leonardius lahillei (Leonardi.)

(P1. IX, figs. 1-14; text figs. 4, 5.)
Aleurodicus lahillei Leonardi, Bollettino del Laboratorio dl Zoologia generale e agraria della R. Scuola superiore d'Agricoltura in Portici, vol. 4,
p. 316 (1910).

Larva (ultimo stadio).-Corpo di forma decisamente ovale con polo anteriore appena un po' pid acuminato del posteriore, leggermente convesso e circoseritto, lungo 11 margine, da uno strato, abbastanza cospicuo, di secrezione cerosa biancogrigiastra, sulla quale viene a poggiare l'orlo libero del corpo dell'insetto. I1 corpo di questi, lungo il margine ibero, e notevolmente ispessito e presenta tutt' all'ingiro una frangia cerosa ininterrotta e molto breve. Al dorso 1'insetto t rivestito da altri glomeruli cerosi e di pifti presenta, ancora, verso la regione mediana di esso, 4 filamenti cerosi molto lunghl e robusti come si pub rilevare dalla (fig. 1). .
Eliminata la cera, che pit o meno bene riveste la superficie del corpo dell' insetto, questo, appare di una tinta ferruginea piil oscura lungo la regione marginale che non sia verso la regione mediana.
Di pifl si nota ancora che la regione cefalica del corpo non % ben distinta dal torace quanto quest'ultimo dall'addome, come I segmenti toracicl, in confronto degli addominali, sono meno bene separati tra loro.
La consistenza del tegumento dorsale non 6 uniforme, ma, al contrario, essa mostra delle zone. variabili in dimensioni, in cui la cuticola 6 assai esile ed


Incolora e tall zone corispo-ndono ad aggruppamenti di numerous e minuscule ghlandole ciripare che colla loro presenza conferiscono a quelle l'aspetto di tante membrane cribrose. Dette zone possiamo distinguerle in due categories a second delle loro dimension e tanto le une che le altre, rispetto al diameter longitudinale del corpo, hanno disposizione di perfetta simmetria. 11 number delle zone magglorl c% di 7 paia cosi dispose: Un paio situate nella reg!We cefalica, un paio sul second segment addominale, unlaltro sul IV segment addominale e gli altri distribuiti. un palo per calseuno dei Isuccessivi anelli. 11 second e terzo palo rappresentano le zone pift vistose e sono caraterizzate per presented, verso il centre, lo sbocco di una gross ghlandola ciripara provvista di un, robust process chitiniso conico, pRi o meno curvato, snl quale viene a modellarsi il lungo filament, ceroso prima ricordato le zone successive diininuiscono in dimension! man mano che si riprocede verso 1'estrem!tA, posterior.
Le zone della second serle, sono, come si e' g1A osservato, assai meno cospicue e s! trovano distribute particolarmente nella region cefallca conforme quanto vedes! nella fig. 2, no. 1.
Parallelamente al marine del corpo, a breve distanza da esso, corre tutt' all'ingiro una corona di brevi pell distribute! simmetricamente; un'altro paio di peli cosi fatti possiedono ancora i segment toracici ed uno la region cefalica. I segment! dell'addome presentano pochi sbocchi di minute ghiandole ciripare anch'esse dispose in serie ora semplice ora duplice.
L'apertura anale pr senta l'opercolo pluttosto amplo, poco pift largo che lungo con linguetta conical, ottusa all'apice e provvista verso 1'estremitIL, a! lati, di due pala di stole lunghette e abbastanza robust; un'altro palo di peli meno vistas! sta. plantato sull'opercolo, uno a destra e I'altro a sinister della base della linguetta.
Dal lato de venture 11insetto non present alcunche d! particular, salvo le zampe rudimentali che diversamente di quanto si nota nelle forme del genre Alcurodes non sono provviste al loro estremo, come quelled, di una gross ventosa, ma semplicemerite di un robust uncino.
Quest carattere, suppongo, deve essere constant per le specie che rientr,,ino nel gruppo degli Aleurodkus, polchtil lo riscontrat anche nella specie che descriverb in appresso, la quale non v'ha dubblo sla un'autentleo Aleurodiells, presentando ben distinct. tuttl 1 caratteri specific che servono a tener distinct le forme che compongono detto gruppo dagli altri. Se esso, sarh convalidato, r1peto, da altre osservazion! potrA forifire unottimo earattere diagnostic tutte le. volte che per la mancanza, delle forme adult lo stadlo correspondent a quell ora descritto present! gli altri caratterl poco spiccati di mantra da lasclare lo studloso in dubbio c1rea 11 posto da :isseguare alla specie.
Lunghezza del corpo 1520 A.
Larghezza 61 1000 /A.
Filaments ceros! lunghi oltre un centimeter. I
it 46 gross 80 IA.
Lungbezza del process coulco che sorregge 11 filament, ceroso 200 IA.
Adulto Y.-Fornui gVerale del eorpo conform quella delle specie congenerl. All beiie sviluppnte, le witeriori molto pift awpie delle posteriori, rivestite dil una teniiissim--t s,ecrezione eerosi blaticastra.
Tm-ito le -ill anterior che quelled posteriori presentano nunierose niacchle I)r1lialstre, (1i sviluppo vario ed a contorlil o Meno frasteglhiti cojiforine quanto (),,seiwasl nella fig. 2, No. S.
Zimpe 'phittosto hinglie, mediocremeiite robust, disuguall tra loro essendo piil 1weve il palo auteriore. La V,11riabilitil della lungliezza delle zainpe e dovuta sliecie alla inaggiore, litughezza che raggimi.,4ono, tra hittl gli articoll



la tibia ed 11 tarso, glacch6 anefi, trocantere e foornie In tufto e tro le 1).da dt zampe sono dl egual lunghezza. Tutti gli articoli della. zampe sono forniti di pelt I quall nel complesso sono brevi ed esill, 1 pitl delicate, ni.i nuwerosi, Sono quell! hiseriff sull'anca, centre I piift robust, per quanto brerfs.siml, Sono quelli piantati sulla tibia ]a quale, verso il suo apicedistale, present ancora due sproni di discrete dlipensioni. 11 tarso al suo.apice c'A arn)eito di due lun,,he, e robust unghie di cui una al, suo marine intern ctl unidentata, centre Faltra illernle. Tra le clue unghle vi ha pot un empodio In forma di lamina fo-Ijare, il (111.1le present Porlo marginal western fornito di numerous peluzzi. T."estronlith posterior dell'addome terminal In un ovopositore costituito da 4 pezzi di cut I due esterai hanno, l'orlo, western, dentato. L'ultlnio sternite, mostra un certo number, dl, pelt disposti simmetricamente (fig. 2, No. 11).
L'apertura anale e- riparata da un'opercolo a fornia trapezoidale munito d! linguetta che arrive a mala pena o di poco o sopravanzare il margin, posterior dell'opercolo.
Nulla, posso, dire delle antennae con precision perche I due esemplarl foininine venut! in m1o possess le avevano spezzate; dia resti rinvenuti mi sembra, I*ro, che esse debbano, essere conform! o poco dissimili da quelled delle altre specie.
Colored del corpo bruno.
Lunghezza del corpo pift di un millimeter, e mezzo.
Ala anterior lunga 2250 IA.
it 66 larga, 1350 ji.
it posterior lunga 1920 14.
46 4 6 larga 1120 A.
anca --- ---------------------- 1.50
trocantere --------------------- 100
femore ------------------------ 450 A
Zampe del I palo, lungbe 1660 IA tibia -------------------------- 54o /A
I articolo del tarso, ----------- 29-0 A
46 64
if ----------- 130,u
unghie ------------------------ 70 IA
anca -------------------------- 150 IA
trocantere ---------------------- 100
femore ----------------- ------- 450
Zampe del II palo lunge 1750 IA tibia ------ --------------------- 600 /A
I articolo del tarso ----------- 230 /A
III it Ai 44 ----------- 130
unglile ------------------------- go
anca, -------------------------- 150
trocantere --------------------- 100
femore ------------------------ 450
Zampa del III palo lunge 1940 1A tibia -------------------------- 700
I articolo del tarso, ----------- 300 A
11 it 64 6 4 ----------- 150 IA
unghie ------------------------ 90 A

Habitat.-Raccolto nell'Argentina su una plant rimasta Indeterminata.
L'Insetto, sl rinviene fissato alla pagina superior delle foglie, in colonies pift o meno numerous e la sua presenza % facilmente avvertibile causa I'ammasso del lunght. filament! ceros! dorsal che si intrecclano tra loro in tutte le direzion! formando cost una specie di rete, che probabilmente ha l'ufflcio di proteggere gli Insetti sottostanti dai nemici che It insidiano.

Larva (last stage).--The body is of decisively oval shape, wi anterior end slightly more acuminate than the posterior end. It is slightly convex, and along its margin it is surrounded by a conspicuous stratum of a grayish-white waxy secretion, upon wh rests the free end of the body of this insect. The body of this along its free margin, is considerably inspissated, and it presents all around an uninterrupted and very narrow waxy fringe. On the dorsum this insect is partially covered by other waxy glomerules, and, furthermore, it has near the median line of the dorsum four very long and robust waxy filaments, such as can be seen in figure 1 [fig. 4].


-N 7

., h

Fim. 4.--Leonardiu8 lahtllei: 1, Pupa case. dorsal view; 2, pupa case, ventral view; 8, anterior abdominal wax pore; 4, spine of pupa case; 5, vaslform orifice of pupa case; 6, margin of pupa case ; 7. leg of pupa ; 8, wings of adult; 9, leg of adult ; 10, foot of adult, 11, female genitalia. (Redrawn from LeonardL)
If the wax, which more or less invests the surface of the body of the insect, is removed its color is a ferruginous tint, darker along the marginal region, but less so toward the central region.
Moreover, it can be noted that the cephalic region of the body is not very distinct from the thorax. The thorax is more distinct from the abdomen, as the divisions between the thoracic segments, as compared with the abdominal segments, are less well marked.
The consistency of the dorsal tegument is not uniform, but, on the contrary, it shows zones, variable in dimension, in which the cuticle is very thki and transparent, and these zones correspond to groups of numerous and minute wax-producing glands whose presence ca these to assume the appearance of so many cribrate membranes.


These zones we can segregate into two categories according to their dimensions and both, as regards the longitudinal diameter of the body, are arranged in perfect symmietry. The number of the major zones is seven pairs, arranged as follows: One paiir situated in the cephalic region, one pair upon the second abdominal segment, another pair upon the fourth abdominal segment, and the others distributed per pair upon each of the succeeding rings. The second and the third pairs represent the most conspicuous zones and are characterized by' presenting toward the center the mouth of a thick waxproducing gland provided with a robust chitinous, conical process, more or less curved, upon which is- placed the long waxy filament formerly described. The succeeding zones decrease in size successively as we proceed backward toward the posterior extremity.*
The zones of the second series are, as has already-been stated, much less conspicuous and are distributed chiefly in the cephalic region, as can be observed by examining figure 2, No. 1 [fig. 4, 1].

FIG. 15.-Leonardius lahillei, showing wax rods. (Redrawn from Leonard!.)

Parallel to the margin of the body, a short distance therefrom, runs all around a corona of short cilia which are symmetrically distributed. Another pair of cilia, occupy also the thoracic segmenits, and another pair the cephalic, region. The segments of the abdomen present a few mouths of minute wax-producing glands which are disposed in rows, sometimes single, sometimes double.
The anal aperture shows the operculum. of rather large size, its width slightly exceeding its length, furnished with a conical lingula, obtuse at the apex, and furnished near the end laterally with two pairs of rather long bristles that are quite robust. Another pair of hairs that are less conspicuous is attached to the operculum., one at the right and the other at the left of the base of the lingula.
In regard to the venter, the insect presents no particular features except the rudimentary legs, which differ from those generally noted in the forms of the genus Ale yrodes at their extremity in not


being provided, like the others, with a pulvillus, but only with a robust claw.
These characteristics, I suppose, are constant in the species which form the group Aleurodicus, because I find them also in the species which I shall describe after this, of which there is no doubt that it is an authentic Aleurodicus, as it presents very distinctly all the specific characteristics which serve to keep distinct from others the forms composing this group. This will be confirmed, I repeat, by other observations which will be able, to furnish a perfect diagnostic characterization, notwithstanding the fact that by the absence of the adult forms the corresponding stage of the insect here descibed presents the other characteristics little conspicuous, so as to leave the author in doubt in regard to the 'place which ought to be assigned to the species.
Length of body 1.520 mm.; width of body 1.000 mm.; length of waxy filaments exceeds 1 centimeter; thickness of waxy filaments 0.080 mmn.; length of the conical process which supports the waxy filament 0.200 mm.
A dult fernale.-The general shape of the body conforms to that of the congeneric species. The wings are well developed, the anterior being much larger than the hind wings. They are covered with a very thin, whitish, waxy secretion.
The forewings, as well as the hind wings present numerous brown spots of varying size and with a contour more or less notched, as can be seen from figure 2, No. 8 [fig. 4, 8].
The legs are rather long, of medium thickness, subequal, the anterior pair being shorter. The variability of the length of the legs is due chiefly to the difference in length which exists between all the joints of the tibia and the tarsus, while the coxa, the trochanter, and the femur in all three pairs of legs are of equal length. All the joints of the legs are furnished with cilia which, on the whole, are short and slender. Those inser'ted on the coxa are more delicate but more numerous, while those inserted on the tibia are more robust and shorter in length. The tibia near its distal apex presents also two spurs of considerable size. The tarsus at its apex is provided with two long, robust claws, one of which at its internal margin is f urnished with a tooth, the other being unarmed. Between the two claws there is an empodium in the shape of a foliate lamina in which the external marginal edge is furnished with numerous fine hairs. The hind end of the abdomen terminates in an ovipositor consisting Of four pieces the outside two of which present a dentate external margin. The last sternite shows a. certain number of hairs systematica-lly arranged. (Fig 2, No. 11 [fig. 4, 11]).


The anal aperture is sheltered by an operculum of a trapezoidal shape provided with a lingula which hardly at all, or only a short distance, projects beyond the posterior margin of the operculum.
I can state nothing with precision about the antennae because in the two female specimens which came into my possession they had been broken off; from the small remainder still intact it seems to me, however. that they are alike in conformation with, or only little dissimilar from, the antennae of other species.
Color of body brown. Length of body a little more than 1.5 mm.; length of forewing 2.250 mm.; width of forewing 1.350 mm.; length of hind wing 1.920 mm.; width of hind wing 1.120 mm.
coxa -------------0. 150
trochanter ---------. 10
femur -------------.450
Length (total) of the first pair of legs 1-.660 mm. tibia --------------- .540
1st tarsal joint -----. 220
2d tarsal joint -----. 130
claws --------------. 070
coxa --------------. 150
trochanter ---------.100
femur ------------- .450
Length (total) of the second pair of legs 1.750 mm. tibia -------------- .600
1st tarsal joint 230
2d tarsal joint------. 130
claws -------------- .090
coxa --------------.150
trochanter ---------. 100
femur -------------.450
Length (total) of the third pair of legs 1.940 mm. tibia --------------.700
1st tarsal joint------. 300
2d tarsal joint------. 150
claws --------------. 090

Habitat.-Collected in Argentina upon a plant not classified.
This insect is found attached to the upper surface of the leaves, in colonies more or less numerous, and its presence is readily ascertained because of the accumulation of the long dorsal waxy filaments which are interlaced amongst each other in all directions, thus forming a kind of net whose probable office is the protection of the insects from the enemies which infest it.
On January 18, 1912, Dr. C. W. Hooker sent from Mayaguez, Porto Rico, specimens of an aleyrodid taken on Pkoradendron, parasitic on almond. These insects belong to the genus Leonardius herein described. They agree closely with the description of lahillei given by Leonardi. Slight differences are, however, noticeable. In


our specimens, for examp the fre the body, while in lakitlei they are lg. The are
what differentily marked, as will be seen from the ill the legs are relatively shorter in our s pending a careful comparison of the types, to leave the under the name of akillei and give the following d marks.

Egg (P1. IX, fig. 1).-Length, 0.352 mm. Shape el tical, surface unmarked, but numerous oily globules howing within; stalk short, inserted slightly laterad of the base; color lowish, with an orange-red area (part of tht enbryonic structure) at or near the base; red eyespots of the embryo often visible through the shell.
Pupa case (P1. IX, fig. 2).-Iength, 1.44 mm.; width, 0.88 mm. Shape somewhat oval, broadest across the anterior part of the a men, narrower cephalad, dorsum slightly rounded, with the
ments of the abdomen and the median longitudinal thoracic suture fairly distinct. There are seven pairs of large wax pores on the dorsum, one pair on the thorax, and six pairs on the abdomen. The thoracic pair and the four caudal abdominal pairs are of the agglomerate type (Pl. IX, fig. 4). They consist of a clear marginal area and a central area composed of numerous small papillT or rod-like pores, giving this area the appearance of a brush. The two anterior abdominal pairs (P1. IX, fig. 5) have something of the nature of the true compound pores of Aleurodicms. There is a central process which is elongate and somewhat curved. Encircle this at the base is a series of spinnerets which are not elevated. The outer cup is shallow and outside it on the derm is a circular area of papillae-like pores similar to those present in the agglomerate pore. This is bounded again by a clear area in which are a few scattered simple pores.
The vasiform orifice (P1. IX, fig. 3) is elongate cordate, with the anterior edge straight and the latero-caudad margin armed with teeth or folds. The caudal end is armed with a prominent projection. The operculum is almost rectangular, with rounded ed somewhat broader than long and armed on the latero-caudad with two spines. The lingula is conical, rather elongate, in and armed with four spines. Both operculum and lingula are
A pair of small seta is situated just cephalad of the vasifon fi, and within the margin of the case all around is a series of sets. The margin itself is entire but just within it (PL IX, 6) pre two or three rows of rounded papillt-like pores.
The color of the case under the mic is $low, shading into
reddish brown near the margin. On the lef it app

Tech. Series 27, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. PLATE IX.




3 14

0 13

Fig. 1.-Egg. Fig. 2.-Pupa case. Fig. 3.-Vasiform orifice of pupa case. Fig. 4.Agglomerate wax pore of pupa case. Fig. 5.-Compound wax pore of pupa case. Fig.
6.-Margin of pupa case. Fig. 7.-Wings of adult. Fig. .-Forewing of freshly emerged specimen, showing the cubitus. Fig. 9.-Vertex of adult. Fig. 10.-Antenna of adult.
Fig. 11.-Male genitalia. Fig. 12.-Vasiform orifice of adult male. Fig. 13.-Foot of
adult. Fig. 14.-Same, showing claws spread. (Original.)


There is a short, evenly trimmed marginal fringe of white wax all around and from the two anterior abdominal pairs of pores extremely long overhanging white waxen rods are secreted, one from each pore. These give the case the appearance of a phalangid with four white legs. The agglomerate pores secrete a small amount of granular wax.
Adult female.-Length, 2.24 mm. Vertex (Pl. IX, fig. 9) produced, somewhat cone-shaped, with a median longitudinal furrow; ocelli large and distinct. Antennae (P1. IX, fig. 10) of seven segments: I, 0.064 mm., cylindrical; II, 0.096 mm., broad, pyriform; III, 0.208 mm., narrow, cylindrical; IV, 0.128 mm., cylindrical; V, 0.08 mm., cylindrical, armed near its distal end with a fringed sensorium; VI, 0.016 mm., cylindrical; VII, 0.064 mm., armed at about its median part with a fringed sensorium and terminating in a bristle. Segments III-VII imbricated and armed with fine hairs. Between segments V and VI and VI and VII small ring-like segments can sometimes be observed.
Forewings 2 mm. long, 1.2 mm. wide, transparent, marked with dark brown, as shown in Plate IX, figure 7; hind wings 1.76 mm. by 0.96 mm., marked with brown, as in P1. IX, figure 7. In the forewings of freshly emerged adults, before the markings are evident the cubitus can be distinctly seen (P1. IX, fig. 8).
Fore-tibiae 0.448 mm.; fore-tarsi, proximal segment 0.192 mm., distal 0.112 mm.; hind tibiae 0.72 mm.; hind tarsus, proximal segment 0.288 mm., distal 0.144 mm.; claws of foot (P1. IX, fig. 14) well curved and acute, paronychium a narrow hairy structure armed with a central spine; ovipositor acute, armed with the usual spines. Color of head and thorax a reddish brown, shaded on the segments and appendages with dusky. Eyes brownish black, apparently not div ided. Abdomen a brownish yellow, the red portions of the eggs within often showing as a red blotch. Adult male.-In general appearance similar to the female. Forewings 1.84 mm. by 0.9 mm.; length from vertex to tips of claspers 2.64 mm.; genital segment 0.512 mm. long (P1. IX, fig. 11); claspers
0.48 mm., curved and acute; penis short and recurred.

Genus ALEURODICUS Douglas.

Aleurodicus Morgan, Ent. Mo. Mag. (2) vol. 3, p. 32 (1892).
Forms in this genus have radius,, radial sector, and the media present in the forewing, with sometimes an indication of the cubitus. The paronychium is represented by a large spine and the pupa case has large compound wax pores. A study of the forms indicates three subgenera.
Type, anowx Morgan.



L Lingula of pupa case long, spatulate or conical, exserted; lingula of adult long, narrow, and included; compound pores as illustrated in Plate
III, fig. 2.
A. Sides of pupa case flat, not deflexed under ventral surface; vertex of
adult rounded----- -------------------- Subgen. Aleurodices.
B. Sides of pupa case deflexed under ventral surface; vertex of adult
slightly bilobed --- -------------- ...------ Subgen. Lecanoideus.
II. Lingula of pupa case short, conical, usually included; lingula of adult broad,
rounded, and exserted; compound wax pores of pupa case as illustrated in Plate XXVII, figure 3--------Subgen. Metaleurodicus.

Subgenus ALEURODICUS n. subgen.

Fore wings with the veins as given for the genus. Vertex rounded, antennae of seven segments, of which the third is the longest; claspers of male long and narrow; penis recurved, usually short; pupa case flat, with a number of large compound wax pores of the type illustrated in Plate III, figure 2, and sometimes a number of small reduced ones. Vasiform orifice with a long, setose, spatulate exserted lingula, which is armed with four long spines. Size usually large.
Type, anons Morgan.


I. Pupa case with seven pairs of compound wax pores, one cephalic pair, and
six abdominal pairs.
A. All seven pairs of pores equally developed; size of pupa case 1.33 to 1.5 mm. long by 0.83 to 1 mmn. wide; pores broad and shallow; margin of case with irregular rectangular areas and a submarginal row of strong hairs; outline of case subelliptical to ovate; wings white, unmarked ..... ------------------destructor.
B. The two caudal pairs of wax pores and the cephalic pair more fully developed than the other four pairs, and with very long central chitinized processes; size of pupa case 1 by 0.53 mm., shape elliptical; edge of case with large crenulations; egg with the stalk much longer than the egg itself. Case raised on a vertical fringe of white wax and the dorsal surface covered with a plate of fused dirty white wax, through which the compound pores may be seen ............ h---------------------------------tolmncsii.
C. The two caudal pairs of pores are much smaller than the other five pairs.
1. Dorsal disk, as well as the submarginal area, covered with numerous
simple pores; compound pores very large and well developed; margin of case entire, with a row of stout hairs just within.
Lingula long, with four very prominent hairs; operculum with

It has not seemed wise to attempt to include in this key anonw Curtis and conspurcain EnderJeoin. In the former species the description Is too vague, and in the latter the immature stages are as yet unknown.


two large hairs on caudal margin, one on either side. Size (f pupa case 1.3 by 0.92 mm. Shape broadly elliptical. Forewing of adult (female) 2.27 mm. long, marked with dusky spots, six forming a ring around the margin of the wing, two being ceiitral. Segment V of antenme with a fringed sensorium and a stout spine near its distal end. Waxy secretion of pupa n series of fluted bands from simple wax pores, much longer than case is wide, and from the compound wax pores are produced very long, curling, brittle, glassy wax rods -------------neglectus.
2. Dorsal disc without small simple pores, but the submarginal area all
around with very many, forming a band.
a. Exposed portion of lingula of pupa case long and spatulate; operculum without a pair of spines on its caudal margin.
(1). Forewing of adult with one large central reddish brown marking
over the radial fork and extending from the costal margin to or beyond the media. Length of forewing (female) 2.60 mm.; genital segment of the male transversely wrinkled or striate.
Pupa case with submarginal row of stout hairs; size 1.30 by 0.70 mm. Shape elliptical. A prominent palisade of white wax raises the case from the leaf. Dorsum void of secretion, except the glassy wax rods from compound wax pores ---------gippyii.
(2). Forewing of adult with four transverse gray bands, of which
only the third and fourth are joined by a longitudinal band (P1. XIV). Length of forewing (female) about 2.4 mni.
Pupa case ovoid or subelliptical, variable in size, from 1.15 to 1.3 mm. long by 0.7 to 0.85 mm. wide. Dorsum of case powdered with dirty white wax, and case raised by palisade of white wax.
Lingula unusually large, dark brown in color -------dugesii.
b. Exposed portion of lingula of pupa case short and conical; caudal
margin of operculum with a pair of spines.
(1). Pupa case broadly elliptical, with two large, dark, latero-dorsad
areas extending the full length of the case. Margin entire, with a row of small simple pores some distance within it. All around on the submarginal area is a row of stout hairs. These occur a considerable distance mesad on the dorsum, some of them almost between the compound pores; spinnerets of the compound pores spread apart. Size of case 1.33 by 1.15 mm --------------------------------------- pulvinatus.
(2). Pupa case without dark latero-dorsad areas, but of uniform
yellowish color; margin entire and just within it a row all around of large boat-shaped simple pores. A submarginal row of long hairs present inserted in about the same region. Spinnerets of compound pores compact. Size of case variable, ranging in length from 0.98 to 1.26 mm., and in width from 0.98 to 0.7 mm. Shape broadly oval, slightly narrower on cephalic *end.
Forewing of adult with two very faint dusky markings, one extending from the costal margin over the radial fork, the other at the apex of the wing. Length of forewing (female) 2.15 mm.; claspers of male very long and narrow. Immature insects occurring along midrib of leaf and surrounded by a copious secretion of cottony-white wax --------------- cocois.
612010 -13---4


3. Submarginal area of pupa case without a band of small simple pores,
but Just within the margin all around, one row of disk-like simple pores. Forewing of adult with four more or less distinct dusky areas, one within the radial fork, one on either side of the union of radius 1 and radial sector, and one on the proximal costal margin. Waxy secretion composed of distinct fine rods.
II. Pupa case with six pairs of compound wax pores, there being five pairs of
abdominal pores, of which the caudal pair is reduced.
A. Case with marginal row of large simple wax pores, bearing within several
fine rods; margin itself entire and just within it a row of prominent hairs. Compound wax pores with the spinnerets much reduced and short; lingula spatulate, very long and large, being about three times as long as the operculum, armed with four stout hairs. Size of case 1 by 0.84 mm., shape broadly elliptical.
Length of forewing (female) 2 mm. Wings banded with dusky, as shown in Plate XXII, figure 5 ------------------- atus.
B. Pupa case without a marginal row of large, simple wax pores, but the
submarginal area covered with numerous very small pores; margin entire; caudal margin of case with two large spines.
Compound wax pores with the central process about the same height as the cup and the spinnerets not reduced and short, but about two-thirds the length of the central process. Lingula very long, spatulate, armed with four hairs. Caudal margin of
operculum with two spines or hairs situated near the center.
III. Pupa case with five pairs of compound wax pores, there being four
abdominal and one cephalic pair, all of which are equally developed. Margin of case entire; just within It a row of large simple pores; smaller pores similar to these are scattered over the entire dorsum; lingula very long, narrow, tapering, and armed with four hairs. Size of case 1.25 by 0.85 mm.; shape elliptical; waxy secretion fairly abundant, semiflocculent or cottony, and more or less hiding the insects beneath__coccolobo.

Aleurodicus anonv Morgan.

(Plate. X, figs. 1-12.)

Aleurodicus anone Morgan, Ent. Mo. Mag. (2) vol. 3, p. 32 (1892).
FIG. 1. Larva of Aleurodicus anonwr, n. sp., surrounded with white secretion.
2. Mouth organs of same; a, mandibular; b, maxillary seti; c, labium;
d, labrum.
3. Imago, same species, 9 x 22.
4. Genital organs of male; a, penis.
5. Posterior leg of imago.
6. Labium of same.
7. Genital organs of 9 imago; a, colon.
8. Larva, deprived of the white secretion, x 22.
9. Leg of same.
10. Lateral funnel-shaped secreting gland of same.
11. Anus, colon, and ileum of same.
12. Marginal secreting glands of same.

Explanation of Plate I [Plate X], quoted from original description.

Tech. Series 27 Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. PLATE X.


f...4--- \


Fig. 1.-Larva surrounded with white secretion. Fig. 2.-Mouthparts of same: a, Mandibular: b, maxillary setw; c, labium: d, labrum. Fig. 3.-Imago, same species, female, x 22. Fig. 4.
Genital organs of male. Fig. 5.-Posterior leg of imago. Fig. 6.-Labium of same. Fig. 7./

Genital organs of female imago. Fig. l.-Larva, deprived of white secretion, x 22. Fig. 9.Leg of same. Fig. 10.-Lateral funnel-shaped secreting gland of same. Fig. ll.-Anus, colon,
and ilium of same. Fig. 12.-Marginal secreting glands of same. (After Morgan.)

Tech. Series 27, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. PLATE XI.

b l i, Is d d



t4l 91l


ALEURODICUS COCCOLOB,,C. 'Fig. 1. P(11) I ease parasitized. Fig. 2.-Pllpa case nonpanw itized. Fig 3.-Vasiforniorifieo
of plipavase. Fig. 4. V:i-iforinorirceof lor i- MV(] Impac.1-'e. Plg.5.-Colll1)4)1111'1 \%;I', pores of' pllpacasv. Fig. Il. J)orsal porvs of norin d Jol-11). Vi-. 7.-------I)orsaI pores
Of fol-al. Fig. S.-Margin of iionnal pupacase. I it,, 9.-.NLirJiI of parasilized pupa


We have seen no example of this species. Material in the bureau collection supposed to be arnonce, on careful scrutiny, does not fairly conform to the original and rather indefinite description. So far as we are aware anonce has not been rediscovered since it was described. Following is the original description:
Larva. Oval, depressed, ochreous. Longest diameter 1.25 mm. Antennm apparently only 2-jointed, the second long and lateral, infundibuliform, compound spinnerets on each side, and posterior to these, two more simply constructed and smaller secret-glands on one side, also one on each side anterior to the first pair of legs. Labium one-jointed, prolonged. Labrum quadrilateral. Mandi-* bular organs short, with the maxillary setm long and fine (P1. I [X], fig. 2.) Anus large, with long framework of colon easily distinguishable.
6 and 9 adult. Length 2.25 mm. Antenme long, 7-jointed; basal joint short; second longer; third very long; fourth and fifth subequal; sixth and seventh shorter. Legs long; the posterior pair considerably longer than the others. Tarsus 2-jointed; in the posterior pair of legs- the first joint of the tarsus is the longest, in the others equal. Two claws. Tibia and tarsus pinnate. One stout spine at junction of coxa with trochanter. Several small stout spines at junction of tibia and tarsus. Head inserted. Mesonotum chitinous, well developed. Scutellum, a pair of pyriform plates. Wings white, ample, broad; anterior incumbent, length 3 mm.; posterior, length 2 mam. (P1. I [X]l fig. 3) ; strong central nervure bifurcated near the apex; branch nervure proceeding from the base of the central nervure. Genital organs of female bivalvular, and between the halves is situated the ovipositor (P1. I [XI, fig. 7). In the male the valvular organs are modified in the form of forceps, between which lies the penis (P1. X, fig. 4). On the last segment of both sexes are two external processes.
Habitat: Anona muricata and Richardia pacifica, Demerara.

(Aleurodicus) Aleyrodes asarumis Shimer.

Aleyrodes asarumis Shimer, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., vol. 1, p. 281 (1867).
Aleurodicus asarunwis Riley and Howard, Insect Life, vol. 5, p. 219 (1893).
4leyrodes actew Britton, Ent. News, vol. 16, p. 65, pl. 4 (1905).
This species was described as an Aleyrodes by Dr. Shimer. It was later transferred to Aleurodicus by Riley and Howard in Insect Life, Volume V, page 219, apparently without an examination of the form, and this placing has been followed by all subsequent writers. rn Canada it occurs in large numbers on the underside of the leaves of the wild ginger and the cohosh, the plants from which Shimer
described it. An examination of specimens, both of pupa and adults, collected by Prof. T. D. Jarvis, show the species to be an Aleyrodes and not an Aleurodicus. This we would expect, for all known forms of the genus Aleurodicits inhabit the warmer regions. Following Riley and Howard, Dr. Britton considered Shimer's species an Aleurodicus and redescribed and figured the form from the same
plant under the name of Aleyrodes acteee, in Entomological Vews, March 1905. His excellent description and figures can now be transferred to Shimer's species and finally settle the standing of asarumis.

Aleurodicus coccolobve n. sp.
(Plate XI, figs' 1-8.)
Collected on seagrapd (Coccoloba uvifera), Progreso, Yucatan, by Samuel Henshaw, June 24, 1904, and forwarded to the Bureau of Entomology by Professor Cockerell. Only a fragment of leaf bearing a few pupT is at hand, but the species is so distinct that its recognition from the pupal stage alone will be easy.

Pupa case.-Size 1.25 mm. by 0.85 mm.; elliptical in outline, moderately convex. As seen under hand lens the abdominal segments are quite distinct as transverse ridges. Color dull yellowish; parasitized specimens brownish black or plumbeous. There is a fairly abundant secretion of wax more or less hiding the insects beneath. The secretion consists of the usual long wax rods from the compound wax pores and a fairly copious secretion of semiflocculent or cottony wax from dorsum of case. There is a secretion all around of a narrow, short rim of fused glassy wax, seen best upon the removal of the more abundant flocculent secretion, and which largely persists on the leaf after removal of case (P1. XI, fig. 2).
Under the microscope the case is pale yellow to almost colorless. Dorsum of case thickly covered with pores which, however, in the nonparasitized individuals, are made out with some difficulty. On the more central dorsal area, or dorsal disc, the pores are fairly large and scattered promiscuously. The smaller pores occur in a submarginal zone all around the case, and just within margin all around is a closely set row of pores somewhat larger than those on the dorsal disc (P1. XI, fig. 2). The location of these pores is very evident in parasitized pupe (P1. XI, fig. 1), which condition apparently produces rather important structural changes in the pores. In the case of the pores on the dorsal disc there is produced from center of pore a short papilla or peg, acute, rounded, or swollen at tip. From each of the smaller pores forming the submarginal zone is produced a short finger-like process. The pores just within margin of case all around show a group of small dark granules surrounded by many minute granulations. In the single parasitized pupa of jamaicensi8, constituting the type of this species, are to be noted the same minute finger-like processes from the submarginal zone of pores, but the dorsal pores above mentioned appear to be wanting in jamaicensis, and in comparing the lingulw the species are readily seen to be different.
Margin and dorsum of case apparently without spines, except a pair on caudal end of case.


On each side of the abdominal region are four compound wax pores, and there is a pair present on the cephalic end of case (P.

XI, fig. 5). There are no reduced compound pores on caudal end of case as in many species.
Vasiform orifice broadly cordate. Operculum subrectangular and about twice as broad as long, the ends rounded. Lingula long, exserted, tapering regularly from base to narrow tip. Two pairs of spines arise near distal end of lingula (P1. XI, fig. 3).
Type.-No. 14765, U. S. National Museum. Described from a few pupe on leaf, and three parasitized specimens in balsam mount.

Aleurodicus cocois (Curtis).

(P1. XII, figs. 1-15; P1. XIV, fig. 1; text figs. 6-9.)

Aleurodes cocois Curtis, Gardeners' Chronicle, 1846, p. 284.
Aleurodicus iridescens Cockerell, Psyche, vol. 8, p. 226 (1898).
This species was described by Curtis from specimens on coconut and was transferred to Aleurodicus by Morgan (1. c.). Later it was fully described by Riley and Howard in Insect Life, Volume V, page 314, and later Cockerell described what appears to be the same insect as Aleurodicus iridescens in Psyche, June, 1898. These three descriptions and the figures accompanying them are herewith reproduced.


[Fig. 6 (1, 2: 3, 4, 5).]

Aleyrodes cocois (the Cocoa-nut Aleyrodes). There is a little white mealy fly which sometimes infests the cabbages, and an allied species has been sent from the West Indies, which differs from it in its structure and economy. We are indebted to Sir Robert Schomburgk for specimens of this curious and destructive insect, the publication of whose history will be acceptable to the cultivator of exotics, and it is to be hoped that it may lead to the discovery of some mode of extirpating it. Sir Robert says, "On my arrival in Barbadoes, I was forcibly struck with the withered appearance of the Cocoa-nut trees, and I have since been told that a disease is prevailing amongst them which threatens to destroy all the Cocoa-nut trees in the island. This remarkable disease showed itself in the island after the fatal hurricane in 1831, and there are only a few trees which are not afflicted by it. It is no doubt to be ascribed to an insect allied to Aleyrodes. A great many of the plantations of Cocoa-nut trees which formerly yielded an income of 200 or 300 per annum have not a single tree which bears fruit. The lower leaves die first and fall off, the flowers follow, or if nuts should have been formed they dwindle away and do not arrive at maturity; ultimately the budding leaves are attacked, and the crown drops off, leaving the withered trunk. 0
"It Is considered that this disease has been introduced since the hurricane, from some of the neighbouring islands, when it became necessary to rMlace a number of Cocoa-nut trees which had been destroyed; but some pretend that it has been occasioned by the introduction of guano. Smoking, &c., has been of


no avail, and as the Insect most sagaciously places itself under the leaflet, where it is protected against the weather, the heaviest rain does not affect it. It has been advised to root up all Cocoa-nut trees in the island, and after the lapse of a year, when it is thought the insect may be destroyed, to replant the plantations from seeds imported from an island where the insect does not exist.
"On carefully examining the leaves of the Cocoa-nut, it is evident there are two distinct insects upon the under surface, an Aleyrodes and a Coccus. They adhere to the under side of the leaf, and are surrounded by a whitish cottony or resinous powder; both sexes of the Aleyrodes at rest and with their wings closed are exhibited, of their natural size, on a portion of the leaf (fig. 1) [fig. 6. 1], and also some oval animals producing the white powder in abundance from the margins of their sides, and these I suppose are the larva state of the Aleyrodes. There are also numbers of white linear cases, as shown at fig. 5 [fig. 6, 51, which I conceive to be the pupoe of a male Coccus; indeed I found one of the perfect insects sticking to the surface. At fig. 2 [fig. 6. 21 I have represented the under side of one of the larvie; It is oval, concave, ochreous, and shining, with six minute legs and ventral wings, like a female Coccus; but I could not detect any proboscis or antenna. I must, however, observe that the objects had all suffered from extreme pressure and great heat, and It is not unusual for the proboscis to be
broken off in removing such animals from the surface on which
they are feeding."
The winged specimens are
larger than any of our British
Aleyrodes, and from the neuration of the wings being different,
as well as from the remarkable

anal forceps of the male, this insect might with great propriety
be separated from the genus
FIG. 6.-Aleurodicus cocois: 1, Insects on leaf; Aleyrodes. A. cocois is bright
2, pupa case; 3, adult; 4, abdomen. (From ochreous, the head Is rounded,
Curtis. )
the eyes are black, oval, and

notched on the inside, and I think I could discern two minute ocelli on on the Inner margins; the antennae are as long as the thorax, slender, and apparently seven-jointed, basal joint stoutish; second, the longest. The rostrum is stout and moderately long; the thorax Is nearly orbicular, the scutel distinct, the abdomen short and oval In the male, with the last segment long, narrowed, and cylindrical, producing two long incurved claws, forming a pair of forceps (fig. 3) [fig. 6, 3]; wings apparently horizontal in repose, clothed with white scales or hairs, giving them a powdered appearance; superior ample, subelliptical, with a strong costal nervure, and a furcate one with a longitudinal nervure beneath It, Issuing from 11ear the base; inferior wings smaller,* with a single forked nervure. Six legs slender, hinder long but simple; the tarsi blarticulate, basal joint the longest, the second terminated by two slender claws. Female similar, but the abdomen Is ovate-conic, the apex terminated by a very acute transparent valve with a small oval hairy lobe on each side (fig. 4). [fig. 6, 4/].
As insects will remain in an embryo state for long periods, every vestige of the infested trees should be burnt as soon as they are taken down, and the most Tigent search must be made after the Aleyrodes upon plants of the same natural order as the Cocoa-nut, to ascertain if there are not coloiiies established elsewhere. There is the larva of a little beetle, called Scymnus,


which destroys the European Aleyrodes, and it Is remarkable that no parasitic Insect should have appeared to check the increase of the Cocoa-nut species, but this may arise from the disease having been imported without Its usual attendant antidote. Fumigating with sulphur would arrest the plague, if it could be applied; but then it ought to be done simultaneously to be effective, or else at a season when the insects are inactive.-Ruricola.


(Figs. 7, 8, 9.)

The egg (fig. 41, a) [fig. 8, a].-We know the egg only from specimens taken from the bodies of gravid females. Length, 0.29 mm.; greatest width, 0.11 mm.; length of pedicel, 0.064 mm. From these measurements it will be seen that the


FIG. 7.-Aleurodicus cocois: a, Adult female; b, side view of abdomen; c, dorsal view of abdomen; d, antenna; e, head from side; f, costa of forewing; g, costa of hind wing; h, tarsus; i, pulvillus; k, adult male; 1, claspers. (From Riley and Howard.)

egg is broader In proportion to its length than that of Aleyrodes citri. The pedicel, instead of arising from the base of the egg, has Its origin on the side, somewhat above the base, as shown at fig. 41, a. No sculpturing is observable.
Newly-hatched larva, first stage (fig. 41, b) [fig. 8, b].-Wyhat we assume from its size to be the first stage has been sparingly found in a more or less dried up condition upon the leaves of guava received. It is 0.41 mm. long and 0.19 mm. wide, regularly elliptical, flattened and smooth. Twelve hairs of medium length protrude from each side. Antennoe short, apparently five-jointed, Joints subequal. Rostrum one-jointed, arising from "a point half way between the middle of the body and the anterior extremity. The dorsal anal pore is distinct, and the long conical organ protrudes.
Larva, intermediate stage (fig. 41, d, g) [fig. 8, d, g].-A stage intermediate between the newly hatched larva and that which seems full grown has been


found and carefully studied. It is flattened, of short, oval form, 1.02 mm. long and 0.84 mm. wide. The legs are plain and are short, stout, and apparently three-jointed. The basal joint is very stout, nearly as broad as long; the second joint is slender, about twice as long as broad; the third joint is very short, and bears a single, stout, curved hook. The rostrum is distinct, one jointed, and three filaments protrude. Each abdominal segment bears laterally a large, complicated pore, from which protrudes a glassy filament, short in this stage, but very long in the following. A smaller pore is situated just laterad of the base of the antenna and those on the anal and pre-anal segments are smaller than those on the others. Antenme six-jointed. Joint 1 short, stout; Joints 2 and 3 long, sub-equal in length, and each five times as long as 1; joint 4 one-half as long as 2 or 3; joint 5 one-half as long as 4, sharply pointed at tip. Dorso-anal pore large, distinct; protrusile organ conical in shape, supported by a tri-lobed chitinous framework. Entire dorsal surface of body finely granulate, the ventral surface granulate laterally to the large pores. Each ventralabdominal segment bears a transverse row of eight small secretory pores, each of which seems to be tri-cellular.
Adult larva (fig. 40) [fig. 9].-Closely resembles the preceding, except that it is much more convex, and has very long glassy filaments and an abundant


FIG. 8.-Aleurodicus cocois: a, Egg; b, first larva; c, leg of same; d, intermediate larva,
dorsal view; e, protrusile organ of same; f, secretory pore of same; g, intermediate
larva, ventral view; h, margin of body of same. (From Riley and Howard.)

secretion of white wax. Abdominal segments very distinct, arched anterodorsally, with a medium longitudinal ridge. The skin of this larva splits transverso-dorsally along the hinder edge of the thorax, and from the middle of this slit medially and longitudinally to the cephalic end of the body. From this double slit the pupa presumably emerges.
Adult female (fig. 39, a) [fig. 7, a].-Length, 2.1 mm.; expanse, 4.1 rmm. Color dull honey-yellow; eyes darker; abdomen, when swollen with eggs, much lighter and bordered with abundant waxy secretions. Antenme six-Jointed. Basal joint short, stout; joint 2 (scape) twice as long, equal to it in width; flagellum rugoso-annulate; joint 3 longest, more than twice as long as 1 and 2 together. and equal in length to 4, 5, and 6 together. In dried specimens it becomes especially constricted at two points; joint 4 rather more than half as long as 3; joint 5 less than half us long as 4; join 6 equal in length to 5. Joint 0 with a bristle at tip, thll'e other joints with sparse, short bristles. Head conical when seen from above, the rostrum plainly 2-jointed, but perhaps with a basal joint; the apical Joint acute, nearly as long as the preceding joint. Eyes pyriform, large.


Two ocelli, large and conspicuous. Wings large, subopaque, median vein divided at two-thirds wing length. Costa of fore-wing finely crenulate to tip, furnished with sparse bristles arising below edge of wing. Costa of hind wing with 8 or 9 rather long bristles or hairs near base. Legs slender, moderately long, hind tibia with an internal row of bristles, tarsi 2-jointed, two large tarsal hooks, with a median basal hook-like appendage much smaller than the lateral hooks. Abdomen with six plain tergites, but five visible urites. Sixth tergite bearing a pronounced median curved papilla; ovipositor acute.
Adult male (fig. 39, k) [fig. 7, k].-Resembles the female except in being more slender and longer by virtue of the two large forficular claspers, nearly as 4 .
long as the entire abdomen and which V
gave the average specimen a total length of 2.8 mm., as against 2.1 mm. for the female. Between the two claspers is a short curved style rather more than onethird the length of the claspers. Sixth tergite bears a median papilla and the. fourth urite a similar one. Color of abdomen much darker than in female, particularly at hind border of segments; claspers still darker.


Agrees with A. asarumis in having some blackish coloration at the forking of the wing-vein, but differs in having the body and legs a deep chrome yellow, and the eyes not divided. Length of anterior wing 2 mm.; wings noticeably iridescent; a blackish line on the costa. Pupae along the mid-rib of the leaf, as in Aleurodicus pulvinata (Maskell as Aleurodes), surrounded by abundant cottony secretion. Pupoe dark grey or plumbeous, varying to brownish, structural characters as usual in the genus. Vasiform orifice semicircular; operculum very broad, broadly truncated at end. Four large round orifices on each side of FIG. 9.-Aleurodicus cocois: a, Skin of the abdomen, some distance from the full-grown larva from below; b, skin of full-grown larva from above. (From margin, but not nearly so large as Maskell Riley and Howard.) figures for pulrinata; four very much smaller orifices in the caudal region, laterad of the vasiform orifice, the two hindmost nearer to each other than are the anterior ones; two of the large orifices at the cephalic end, and also four small ones as in pulvinata, but they are very minute.
Hab.--Ocean beach between El Faro and San Pedro, Tabasco, Mex., June 12, 1897, on "Jicaco," a busr with large leaves growing on the sand flats (Townsend) Div. Ent. 7824.

In the original description there is little given by means of which this species could be distinguished from others in the same genus.


Realizing this, Riley and Howard made a. careful description of the form. The material upon which their descriptions were is
preserved in the bureau collection, and the following includes a study of this same material. Unfortunately, a slight marking on the forewings of the species was not considered of importance by Riley and Howard, as it was no doubt overlooked by Curtis. This oversight has led Cockerell into the error of redescribing the form as iridescens. Now, however, that Riley and Howard's specimens, Cockerell's types, and many other examples are at hand for study, there is little doubt that all these forms are the same species.

Pupa case.-The pupa cases representing the Riley and Howard material and those composing Cockerell's types, as well as numerous others, are identical in structure as follows: The case (P1. X1I, fig. 2) is surrounded by a row of bristle-like hairs inserted on the dorsum just within the margin. There are usually 13 of these to a side. One pair of long, prominent caudal hairs is also present. Margin entire, and within it all around (P1. XII, fig. 7) is a row of large, simple, boat-shaped pores and the submarginal area is covered with very many minute, simple ones. Along the median thoracic region there are four pairs of small tubercled setae and on the cephalolateral portion a pair of large compound pores of the type illustrated in Plate XII, figure 6. The abdominal region has along each side four large compound pores similar to the thoracic pair, and on either side of the vasiform orifice are two reduced ones. The vasiform orifice is nearly cordate and just cephalad of it is a pair of setw, one on each side. The operculum is subelliptical, broader than long, and armed caudad with two prominent bristles. The lingula is conical, exserted, and possesses two pairs of bristles. Both operculum and lingula are minutely setose.
On the underside (P1. XII, fig. 3) the mouthparts, legs, and antennve are distinct. The tropic tubercle is large, the labium quite distinct, while the seta- are usually carried in the form of a loop. The antenna are of two segments, 0.33 mm. long, and the proximal segment is short, subcylindrical, and unarmed. The distal one is much longer and annulated. At its distal end a short unguis is present and at the base of this a fringed sensorium. The legs are short, thick, of two segments, and armed with a solitary curved claw (P1. XII, fig. 4).
There is considerable variation in the size of the pupa cases, and on this ground it might be possible to separate iridescena from cocois. Since, however, we have considerable difference in the cases of the latter species, depending upon locality and food plants, it seem hardly justifiable to select the larger specimens and call them a differ-

Tech. Series 27, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. PLATE Xll.







Fig. 1.-Egg. Fig. 2.-Pupa case. Fig. 3.-Portion of venter of pupa case. Fig. 4.-Claw of
pupa. Fig. 5.-Vasiform orifice of pupa case. Fig. 6.-Compound wax pore of pupa case.
Fig. 7.-Margin of pupa case, showing boat-shaped pores. Fig. 8.-Forewing of adult.
Fig. 9.-Proximal costal margin of forewing. Fig. 10.-Distal costal margin of same. Fig.
11.-Head of adult. Fig. 12.-Antenna of adult. Fig. 13.-Vasiform orifice of adult. Fig.
14.-Foot of adult. Fig. 15.-Male genitalia. (Original.)


ent species. On the other hand, we have specimens from the Canal Zone in which the pupa cases are of quite a different form from the usual type, being broader. There appear three varieties, one with a large and comparatively elongate pupa, one with a small elongate pupa, and one with a broad pupa. In these there appear no structural differences. The larger material, that which we might call the iideseens material, has an average of 1.22 mm. by 0.92 mm., the smaller material an average of 1.06 mm. by 0.75 mm., while the Canal Zone material, lot No. 6768, has an average of 1 mm. by 0.89 mm. The largest specimen found in any material was 1.26 mm. by 0.98 mm. and the smallest 0.98 mm. by 0.7 mm.
The arrangement of the pupve upon the leaf in reference to the median vein and the waxy secretion developed about them is similar in Cockerell's type of irdescens and in cocois (P1. XIV, fig. 1). The difference in host would easily account for the slight difference seen.
Adults.-Some variation is shown in the adults, first, as to size and, secondly, as to wing marking. The type of Cockerell's iridescenm in the U. S. National Museum collection is a small male and will be discussed under that sex. The vertex (P1. XII, fig. 11) is rounded and the antennae (P1. XII, fig. 12) are of seven segments, not six, as stated by Riley and Howard. Segment III is much the longer; II, IV, and V nearly equal in length, while VI and VII are somewhat shorter. All the segments are imbricated, and V and VII are armed with fringed sensoria. The paronychium of the foot is the usual spine, and the basal segment of the tarsus is nearly twice as long as the distal one. The forewings are armed on the costal margin (P1. XII, fig. 9) with conical hairy projections and two alternate rows of large bristle-like hairs. The remainder of the margin (P1. XII, fig. 10) lacks these hairs. The wings are marked with two dusky patches, one from the costal margin crossing the radial fork and the other at the distal extremity of the wing. In most forms these patches, especially the distal one, are very indistinct, but many degrees of intensity of shading occur, and in specimens from Progreso, Yucatan, lot No. 3286, the clouding is quite marked. Some dry specimens in which we were not able to distinguish any marking showed it quite plainly when balsam mounts were made.
The female genitalia are of the ordinary Aleurodicus type. The forewing is 2.15 mm. by 1.15 mm., the hind tibiae 0.77 mm., and the tarsi together 0.307 mm.
The males show a great range in size. This is shown in a comparative measurement of parts. The type of iridescew has claspers 0.4 mm. long, and the width of the genital segment is 0.22 mm. In material of cocois, from different regions and hosts, a range from 0.4 mm. to 0.92 mm. is met with in the claspers, depending upon the size of the individual. The average seems to be nearly 0.8 mam. In


the wings a similar variation is met with. In endeavoring to dtr mine whether Cockerell's type was different from the forms of oos a large series of male wings was measured. Some were foundsmle than Cockerell's irideseens and some larger, while in every case the relative position and lengths of the veis were practically identical. The average length of the f orewing is 2 mm. and its width 0.89 mm., tand the hind tibive average 0.7 mm.
The species is represented from the following localities and upon the following hosts:

Locality. Host. collector. NueuofEtmlg

Port of Spain Trinidad ........ Guava.............. H. Caracciola......... Quaiutance No. 3287.
El Faro and gan Pedro, Mexico "Jicaco"............ C. H. T. Townsend_ Quaintance No. 3277
(iridescen8). (U. S. Nat. Mus.
Type No. 14772).
Progreso, Yucatan............ Coccoloba uvif era....... F. IKnab............ Quaiutance No. 3288.
Barbados, West Indies......... Coconut palm ........ Sir Daniel Morris...... Quaintance No. 1708.
Venezuela................... Guava.............. Dr. A. Ernst ......... Quaintance No. 3272.
Isthian Canal Zong .......... Guava (?) .......... E. A. Schwarz........ Quaintance No, 8768.

Aleurodicus conspurcatus Enderlein.

(Fig. 10.)
Aleuroclicus con8purcatus Enderlein, Stett. 'Ent. Zelt., 1909, p. 282.
The following is Enderlein's diagnosis of this species. It is unknown to us in nature, but evidently shows a relation to species more generalized than those of this genus by the retention of the cubitus (Enderlein's anais). When all the stages are known, it may be necessary to remove it to one of the earlier genera.


Hell brinlich geib, Aiigen grati; Belne blass ockergeiblich; Spltzenhiilfte des Abdomen grau, Seiten der Basaihuifte ockerg-eib. Abdomen selir selimal mid schaiak() letztes Glied etwa 2j mal so lang wie breit, vorletztes etwa so lang wie brelt, beim 9 gedrungen und kurz. Endzange des 8 selir lang und schiank, und erst am Ende nach innen umgebogen, etwa -2 des letzten Segmentes; Penis in Form eines, stlibchenf~rmlgen Anhangs am Grunde der Zangen und 7zwlschen linen, selir kurz (nnr etwa If der Zangenl 'Inge), dfinn und senkrecht aufgericlitet. 'Stirrirand von oben gesehen elne etwas abgerundete reclitwinklige Ecke bildend.
Filiel yalin, Weiss bestiinbt; Vorder- tind H1intertligel mit kielnen, tnregelnuissig geformiten, bramnen, spiirlich verteilten Flecken. Die Costa lim Vorderflfigel fein, aber deutlich; der Railius (r) In belden Flilgein In der Mlitte stark nach dem Aussenrande zu ningebogen. Der Cuibitns endet In belden Flilgein an d~er H1interecke des Aussenraudes; int llorderfllgel 1st er nahve der itasis stark, nabe demn Enide seliwacli weilig gebuclitet. Analls Im -Vorderfitigel felit aber deutilch his, zur AMiludung in der Mkitte des Hinterrandes 211 verfoigen; im Hlinterfigel feit ste. In belden Fltigeln errelchen Media uud, cas niclit gwuz den Flfigelrand, d~er Radilraus endet zinlch welt vom Flilgelrand eutferut.


Korperlange 8 2.5 mm., 9 2 mm.; Abdominallinge 8 1.75 mm., 9 1 mmi.; Vorderfitigellange S 2.5 mm., 9 3 mm., Hinterftitgellange 8 2.1 mm., 9 2.75 mm. Grsste VorderflUtigelbreite $1.5 mm., 9 2 mm. Grijsste Hinterflfigelbreite S 1.15 mm., 9 1.5 mm.
Stid-Brasilien. Santa Catharina. 13 Exemplare (3 und 10 9). Gesummnelt von Liderwaldt.
Typen im Stettiner Zoologischen Museum.
Clear brownish yellow. Compound eyes gray. Legs pale ochreyellow, lower half of abdomen gray, the lateral part of the basal

FIG. 10.-Wings of Aleurodicus conspurcatus. (Redrawn from Enderlein..)
half ochraceous yellow. Abdomen very small and narrow (male), its last segment about two and one-half times as long as wide, penultimate segment about as long as it is wide, in the case of the female short and contracted. Final forceps of the male very long and attenuated, at its termination curved inward, about at the distance of three-fourths of the last segment. Penis in the shape of staff-like appendix at the base of the forceps and situated between them, very short (only about one-fourth the length of the forceps), thin, and erected in a perpendicular direction. Front margin of the head, viewed from above, forming a somewhat rounded rectangular angle.


Wings hyaline, powdered with white. Both the forewings and the hind wings provided with small, irregularly formed, brown spots that are sparsely scattered. Costa in the forewing fine, but distinct. Radial sector (r) in both wings strongly bent in the middle toward the exterior margin. In both wings the cubitus terminates in the hind corner of the exterior margin. Cubitus in the forewing is strongly sinuate at its base, but near its end it is only slightly undulated and sinuate. "Analis" in the forewing fine, but can be followed distinctly as far as its bouchare in the middle of the posterior margin, not present in the hind wing. Media and cubitus in both wings not quite reaching the margin of the wings, and the radial sector terminating quite a distance from the margin of the wings.
Length of the body, male 2.5 mm., female 2 mm.; length of abdomen, male 1.75 mm., female 1 mm.; length of forewings, male 2.5 mm., female 3 mm.; length of hind wings, male 2.1 mm., female 2.75 mm.; greatest expanse of forewings, male 1.5 mm., female 2 mm.; greatest expanse of hind wings, male 1.15 mm., female
1.5 mm.
Southern Brazil, Santa Catharina; 13 specimens.

Aleurodicus destructor Xackie.
(P. XIII, figs. 1-7; P1. XIV, fig. 2.)

Aleurodicus destructor Quaintance, Mackie, Philippine Agricultural Review,
vol. 5, p. 142 (1912).
Coconut leaves infested with this insect were received August 22, 1911, from Mr. G. E. Nesom, director of agriculture, Manila, P. I., with the statement:
This scale is often found upon the stems of young frdit and in some cases, due to their presence, the tree is unable to set fruit. According to the natives, trees Infested with this insect often die. Many of the owners of coconut groves in the vicinity where this scale is prevalent are rather frightened, and seem to believe that if something Is not done to check this insect their groves will be completely destroyed.
From the above it would appear that this insect is an important enemy of the coconut, exceeding, perhaps, in destructiveness its congener cocoiZ, long known from the West Indies.

Egg.-About 0.31 mm. long, elongate in shape, yellow to brownish in color, dusted with powdered wax. Stalk short, eggs prostrate on leaf. Shell delicate, collapsing upon escape of larva, unmarked.
Pupa case.-Size 1.33 to 1.5 mm. long by 0.83 to 1 am. wide, subelliptical to ovate in shape; some examples narrowed cephala4.

Tech. Series 27, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. PLATE XIll.


@ X .\/\ /

_O 4


Fig. 1.-Pupa case. Fig. 2.-Vasiform orifice of pupa case. Fig. 3.-Compound pore of
pupa case. Fig. 4.-Margin of pupa case. Fig. 5.-Forewing of adult. Fig. 6.-Costal
margin of forewing. Fig. 7.-Foot of adult. (Original.)

Tech. Seres 27, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. PLATE XIV. FIG. 1 .-PUPA_ OF ALEURODICUS COCOIS ON LEAF, SHOWING WAXY SECRETION. (ORIGINAL.)


Tech. Series 27, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agricuture. PLATE XV.


0 7.. .


11 13



Fig. 1.-Pupa case. Fig. 2.-Leg of pupa. Fig. 3.-Antenna of pupa. Fig. 4.Vasiform orifice of pupa. Fig. 5.-Compound pores of pupa. Fig. 6.-Margin of pupa. Fig. 7.-Forewing of adult. Fig. S.-Costal margin of same. Fig.
9.-Head of adult. Fig. 10.-Antenna of adult. Fig 11.-Foot of adult. Fig.
12.-Male genitalia. Fig. 13.-Vasiform orifice of adult. (Original.)

Tech. Series 27, Bureau of Entomology. U. S. Dept, of Agriculture. PLATE XV1.





op 0


7 .......

ALEURODICUS GUPPYII. Fig. L-1-:vV. Fk ,. 2.-Pup t (- izv. Fig. 3.-V L- ifovm orifive of pup-1 Case. Fi ',.
4, -Com pomot pores or pijp i. (- ise. vi-, .-).- Ni irgiii or Impa v:v e.
Fm -v\\ I I IV ()f I( I I I It. Fig. jjj ,I'Vilj of fol'( \vilIV. Fig. -A TI1('IIIIk Of Fiv. Fwd of adult. Fig, 10.-Male gellitatia. Fig. 1I.-Saille,
dur a I N ic w I ig I I lut.)

410. I NtL



Tech, Series 27, Bureau of Entomology, U S. Dept, of Agriculture. PLATE XVIII.




Dorsum but little convex, body segments quite distinct in the dried specimens (P1. XIII, fig. 1). There is a very copious secretion of white wax covering the lower surface of the infested leaves and completely hiding the insects beneath (P1. XIII, fig. 2). The wax rods, from the compound wax pores, are unusually long, attaining in more perfect specimens a length of from 12 to 15 mm. Generally, however, these rods are more or less broken and are intermingled with bands or plates of wax from the marginal wax tubes. There is a short vertical fringe of white wax often persisting on the leaf after the pupa case has disappeared.
The color is yellowish to brownish, some specimens, as seen under hand lens, being dark brown. The empty case is colorless. There is a narrow marginal rim composed of the short, squarish wax tubes, the incisions being shallow and acute (P1. XIII, fig. 4). On the dorsum there are seven pairs of very conspicuous compound wax pores, six pairs on the abdomen about equally developed, and a pair on the cephalic region of about half the size of the former. From the marginal area all around arise a series of spines, 10 to 12 on a side, and there is a pair cephalad of the vasiform orifice.
Vasiform orifice subcordate, about as wide as long. Operculum subrectangutlar, about twice as wide as long. Lingula spatulate, rather short and broad, bearing a pair of spines (P1. XIII, fig. 2). The rudimentary legs and antennoe are quite evident on the ventral surface, and exhibit the usual structures for the typical forms of this genus.
Adult.-A single imperfect male was found among the pupoe on the leaves. The wings are without markings (P1. XIII, fig. 5).
This species, from the structure of the pupa case, suggests neglectus, common on Anona spp., guava, Fic'ua, etc., in the West Indies, but differs in that the wings are not spotted or banded, in the large size of the two caudal pairs of compound wax pores, and there are differences in the lingula. From cocois it differs in numerous particulars, as will be noted on comparison. This is the third species of this genus recorded from outside of tropical America, though it may have been introduced in the Philippines along with its food plant.
Type.-No. 14766, U. S. National Museum. Described from numerous eggs, pupt in balsam mounts, and infested leaves.
Aleurodicus dugesii Cockerell.
(P1. XV, figs. 1-13; P1. XVII, fig. 1.)
Aletrodicus 4ugesi Cockerell, Can. Ent., vol. 28, p. 302 (196).
Specimens of this species are in the Bureau of Entomology collection from several localities in Mexico, and on several different food plants, as follows: Oaxaca, on Hibiscus; Guanajuato, on Anona and


Hibiscus rosa-sinewis; Guadalajara, on Hibisc; and on mulberry, locality unknown. The original description by Prof. Cockerell follows:
Length 1* mm.; length of anterior wing, 21 mm.; its greatest breadth nearly 11 ram. Pale grayish-ochreous, covered with white meal, abdomen beneath shining silvery. Wings white; upper wings iridescent, with markings similar to those of A. ornatus, but very pale gray and quite different in detail. There are four gray bands crossing the wings, of which only the third and fourth are joined by a longitudinal band. The first (basal) band bends abruptly inwards after crossing the main nervure, which branches so near the base of the wing that there are practically two nervures, the first gray band failing in the angle between them, but strong again beyond the second. Second gray band broad as far as the first nervure, just beyond it interrupted broadly, but continued as a large, nearly circular gray patch, the greater part of which is above the second nervure, which it meets at its fork; after that failing, but reappearing strongly a lfttle way down the lowest branch of the nervure and thence passing downwards, becoming very faint. Fourth band broad, passing across the end of the fork, bent inwards, joining the continuation of the third band after the break, itself forking at its lower end. The curve of the fourth band leaves a white apical area in which there Is a gray spot. There is also a gray spot at the tip of the second nervure.
The pupe occur on the under sides of the leaves and are of the usual type-, oval, fiat, pale ochreous, with white mealy powder. Habitat.-Guanajuato, Mexico, on Hibiscus ro8a-sinenis. Sent by Dr. Alfred Dugbs in great quantity. Dr. Dug~s writes that it is also found on the largeleafed Begonia and other plants, and it does not appear to do them a great deal of harm. It is the first AleurodicUs described from Mexico, and Is most nearly allied to the Jamaican A. otrnatus, Cockerell. The genus now includes five species, all neotropical except the U. S. A. asarumis (Shimer, 1867).


Egg.-About 0.3 mm. long; stalk short, from one side of end; color dusky; shell unmarked.
Pupa case.--Size rather variable, from 1.15 to 1.3 mm. in length, by 0.7 to 0.85 mm. in width. Ovoid or subelliptical in shape; brownish in color, as seen on leaf, varying to plumbeous in some specimens, probably parasitized. Case moderately convex, raised somewhat by a vertical fringe all around of white wax (P1. XVII, fig. 1). Dorsum of case powdered with dirty white Wax, and from the compound wax pores are produced the usual brittle glassy wax rods (P1. XV, fig. 1).
Under microscope, empty case colorless, except the prominent lingula, which is dark brown. Abdominal segments distinct. Marginal fifth or sixth of case all around with many small round simple wax pores (P1. XV, fig. 6). On dorsum also are seven pairs of compound wax p6res, one on cephalic end and six on abdomen, the last two pairs being much reduced (P1. XV, fig. 5). There is a pair of
strong spines on caudal margin of case.


Vasiform orifice large, cordate, about as broad as long. Operculum short and broad, the caudal margin concave. Lingula very prominent, spatulate, dark brown in color, bearing distally two pairs of spines (P1. XV, fig. 4). On ventral surface legs and antennoo are quite distinct.
Adult female.-Forewings about 2.4 mm. long by 1.3 mm. wide; legs long and slender. Hind tibia 0.9 mm. long; basal tarsal joint
0.23 mm. long, distal tarsal joint 0.14 mm. long. Adult male.-Essentially as in female, though tibia and tarsus are slightly longer in each case. Valves of forceps long, narrow, and strongly curved at tip (0.86 mm. in length).
Type.-No. 14764, U. S. National Museum.

Aleurodicus guppyii n. sp.
(P1. XVI, figs. 1-11; P1. XVII, fig. 2; P1. XVIII.)

This species was received from Dr. F. W. Urich, Port of Spain, Trinidad, May 25, 1911, on Rheedia latiflora L. The large brown maculation on forewing of adult insect readily separates it from any form heretofore described. The insect infests the lower surface of the large leathery leaves of its host plant, principally the basal twothirds (see P1. XVIII). This area is more or less covered with a powdery white wax secreted from the abdomen of the adults, in which are embedded the immature stages.
Egg.-Size about 0.32 by 0.16 mm. Subelliptical in outline, the stalk very short, attached to one side of end of egg. Color on leaf brownish; lighter under transmitted light, without markings (P1. XVI, fig. 1).
Pupa case.-Size rather variable, averaging about 1.13 by 0.70 mm. Elliptical in outline, the dorsum but little convex, though the case is prominently raised from the surface of the leaf by a vertical rim all around of white wax. Dorsum void of secretion, except the usual glassy wax rods from the compound wax pores. This secretion, however, is meager, the rods being short and fragmentary (P1. XVI, fig. 2).
On leaf, under hand lens, the color is yellow or brownish-yellow; and under microscope yellowish white to darker. Margin of case with very light crenulations, but no distinct marginal rim. On the submarginal area, however, are innumerable closely set small pores, forming a broad band all around the case (P1. XVI, fig. 5).
On the dorsum are seven pairs of compound wax pores (P1. XVI, fig. 4), one pair on the cephalic region and four pairs on the ab612010-13-5


dominal region, and two pairs of smaller pores on anal segments; on caudal end of case there are two pairs of scalelike markings on the thorax, and a pair of simple pores near cephalic margin. Abdominal segments distinct.
From within the margin of case all around arises a series of slender spines, or sette, about 12 on each side. There is a pair of minute seti just cephalad of the vasiform orifice, and two pairs of seta are present on the thoracic region.
Vasiform orifice (P1. XVI, fig. 3) subcordate to subcircular, little longer than wide. Operculum subrectangular, concave on distal margin, almost twice as wide as long. Lingula as usual, spatulate, with two pairs of spines on distal end. Operculum and lingula minutely spinose. On ventral surface of case the legs are quite evident, terminating in a single, hooked claw. Antennse as usual, two-jointed, the distal joint numerously ringed.
Adult female.-Length 1.9 to 2 mm. Forewing, length 2.60 mm., width 1.23 mm. Body and wings dusted with white wax, and there is a copious waxy secretion from ventral surface of abdomen of both sexes. General color of head and thorax dark brown to blackish, abdomen bright red; legs, margins of wings, wing veins, and antenne reddish.
Eyes plumbeous, constricted, the smaller division below. Forewing (P. XVI, fig. 6) marked across the middle with a conspicuous, broad brownish band. This arises from the cephalic margin of the wing and extends caudad usually beyond the media well toward the caudal margin of wing. Hind wing without markings.
Antennee as usual (P1. XVI, fig. 8). Tibia of hind leg 0.8 mnm. long; first tarsal joint 0.26 mm., second tarsal joint 0.13 am. in length.
Adult male.-Length 1.3 mm.; valves of anal forceps 0.7 mm. long, curved, inserted in the cylindrical anal segment (P1. XVI, figs. 10, 11). Forewing 2.1 mm. long by 0.95 mm. wide, marked as described for female. Hind wing unmarked. General color dusky to blackish, more or less covered with white waxy powder.
Type.-No. 14768, U. S. National Museum. Described from numerous eggs, pupae, and adults of both sexes. Dedicated to Mr. P. L. Guppy.
Aleurodicus jamaicensis CockerelL
(P. XIX, figs. 1-5.)
Aleurodieu8 jamoicensis Cockerell, Proc. Acad. Nat. SM., Phila., vol. 54,
p. 280 (1902).
The type of this species consists of a single parasitized pupa case in a balsam slide mount. From this scant material and the imperfect original description we are quite unable to obtain an adequate con-

Tech. Series 27, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. PLATE XIX.

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Aleurodicus jamaicensis: Fig. 1.-Pupa case. Fig. 2.-Vasiform orifice. Fig. 3.Compound pores of pupa case. Fig. 4.-Margin of parasitized pupa case. Fig.
5.-Margin of normal case. Aleurodicus holmeisii: Fig. 6.-Egg. Fig. 7.-Pupa case. Fig. 8.-Compound wax pores. Fig. 9.-Reduced compound wax pore.
Fig. 10.-Vasiform orifice of pupa. Fig. 11.-Margin of case. (Original.)

Tech. Se.:es 27, BureaL' of Entomoiogy, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. PLATE XX.


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1.1z. 2. ---Vllp l 3 mIllwo ()f plipa c lse. Fig.
willm)[11111 \\ [\ pilw (d RA"Illred c(m ilt(IIIII'l wn\ pwv. Fig. W 11-ill
,of jjup i Fw,. 7. Fw -t-\ ill- 44 adlill. J.'iv. ". Cw-skll Ill )?-ill of :Illlc. Fig
Jfe:pf of 'Idilit. I, IL" A lltollw t of a(IIIII. Fig. 11. F(tol. of t(hilt.

Tech. Series 27, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agrculture. PLATE XXI.





ception of the characteristics of this form. Prof. Cockerell's description follows:

Alcurodicus jamo4censti was collected by the writer at Kingston, Jamaica, in 1893. The pupa is small (hardly 1j mm. long), with vertical walls, margin resembling that of pulvinata; color bright yellow, with a brownish dorsal cloud, and a diamond-shaped black patch just anterior to the vasiform orifice. Other characters shown in fig. 2.


Pupa case.-Size 1.3 mm. long by 0.89 mm. wide. Color yellow, with dark brown markihgs as shown in the figure. There is a submarginal area all around marked with many simple wax pores which, in the present specimen, have mostly developed short, stout, spinelike structures, probably due to parasitism (see coccolobe, p. 50). On the abdomen are five pairs of compound pores, the caudal pair being much reduced in size. (The usual cephalic pair is also probably present, but can not be verified in the specimen at hand.) Caudal margin of case with a single pair of spines. Margin entire. Vasiform orifice cordate, about as broad as long. Operculum short, about twice as broad as long, ends rounded; caudal margin coarsely sinuate and bearing a pair of spines. Lingula large, exserted, subspatulate, bearing distally two pairs of spines.
Type.-No. 14771, U. S. National Museum.

Aleurodicus holmesii (Maskell).

(P1. XIX, figs. 6-11; P1. XXI, fig. 1.)

Aleyrodes holmesii Maskell, Trans. N. Z. Inst., vol. 28, p. 435 (1895). Described as Aleyrodes by Maskell and transferred to Aleurodicus by
Cockerell (Bul. 67, Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta., p. 644, 1903).


Larva dull-yellow, elliptical, flattish; length about 1/80 in. Margin thickened, almost entire, the crenulations being very minute and confused. Dorsum bearing, on the thoracic region, six strong rather short spines; of these, two are median, the four others submarginal. In the earliest state there is no fringe, but in the latest stage there is a fragmentary short fringe of white wax. Pupa-case dull-yellow, rather lighter colored than the larva; form elliptical, flattish, and rather thick; length about 1/25 in. Abdominal segments moderately distinct. Dorsum bearing a submarginal series of strong short spines; two of these on the cephalic region and four on the posterior abdominal region are large and conspicuous, the other eight (four on each side), on the thoracic region, are smaller. From these spines is produced a quantity of white waxy secretion, which is very fragmentary, often entirely absent; It scarcely ever seems to completely cover the dorsum. Margin very distinctly and conspicuously crenulated with large thick segments; these produce a fringe of closely-

adjacent waxy tubes, which at first Is fiat, then becomes a rather thick ring or cushion, and at last becomes so thick as to raise the pupa somewhat high above the leaf, and then it seems as if resting on a very elegantly-fluted white wall; vasiform orifice subelliptical, with concave anterior edge and broadly rounded sides and end; operculum broad and short, the posterior edge concave; lingua very long, extended beyond the orifice, subcylindrical, with emarginate sides and compressed extremity, the end rugose, with four rather long and many very short sete or hairs.
Adult form unknown.
Hab. in Fiji, on Psidium sp. My specimens were sent by Mr. R. L. Holmes. The arrangement of the dorsal spines, and the peculiar lingula, will distinguish this species.
The type of this species was unfortunately not in the Maskell collection. We have received, however, what is evidently the same insect from Mr. R. S. Woglum, of this bureau, collected at the Botanic Garden at Buitenzorg, Java, January, 1911, on a plant of the family Sapindaceve, from which material we have drawn up the following description:
The larvae and pupae occur promiscuously over the underside of the leaves, though when few or moderately abundant they occur more along the midrib and larger veins. The surface of foliage on infested plants is more or less covered with the usual growth of "sooty fungus," nourished on the excretion from these insects.
Egg.-Size about 0.2 by 0.1 mm., subelliptical, the distal end pointed. As seen on leaf, dark-brown to blackish in color; many specimens iridescent, without markings. Stalk attached at basal end and about twice length of egg. Eggs scattered promiscuously over
leaf and prostrate. In hatching the shell splits longitudinally in two equal parts, which are held together at base (P1. XIX, fig, 6).
Larva (first stage).-Size about 0.26 by 0.153 mm., elongate elliptical in shape, though somewhat narrowed caudad. Around the margin is a short rim of white waxy secretion. Color on leaf light brown, under microscope light yellowish to whitish. Eye spots reddish, elongate, and often divided. Margin without evident crenulations, except a shallow and variable sculpturing on cephalic end. Dorsum uniform, without evident pores, but little convex. Margin all around with minute setae, the two caudal pairs strongest. Vasiform orifice relatively large, cordate in outline, about as wide as long. Operculum half as long as orifice, the sides rounded. Lingula spatulate, little if at all extended, minutely spinose.
Pupa case.-Size about 1 by 0.53 mm., elliptical in outline, the dorsum little convex; case raised on a vertical rim, all around of white wax, apparently deflexed from the large wax tubes on margin of case. In addition to the above secretion the dorsum is covered with a plate of fused wax, through which project the compound wax


pores, and the body segments are fairly well indicated (P. XIX, fig. 7). From the compound wax pores are produced rather short, brittle, glassy wax rods, usually much broken and lying over surface of leaf. Color on leaf dirty white to yellowish, the empty case clear white. There is no well-marked marginal rim. The margin bears all around conspicuous short wax tubes, broadly rounded distally (P1. XIX, fig. 11). Abdominal segments moderately distinct, thoracic segments less so. On each side are six compound wax pores, a pair on cephalic region, and five pairs on abdominal region. From the center of each of the two caudal pairs of wax pores and from the cephalic pair arises a strong, brownish-colored process or spine. which is quite conspicuous and morphologically appears to correspond with the central rod-like process in the compound pores in other species of the genus.
This spine-like structure is also present in the remaining wax pores, though much reduced (P1. XIX, figs. 8 and 9). There is a pair of minute spines on the caudo-lateral margin.
Vasiform orifice (P1. XIX, fig. 10) subcircular in outline, the cephalic margin a straight line, a little wider than long. Operculum short, about twice as broad as long, cephalic margin straight, caudal margin broadly concave, and the ends rounded.
Lingula large, spatulate, somewhat narrowed at base, and bearing distally two pairs of spines. Operculum and lingula minutely setose.
On ventral surface of case legs and antennae inconspicuous; legs short, conical, without claws. Antennae short, subconical, ending in a spinulous process and apparently but one-segmented. These structures differ notably froni those in typical forms of the genus, wherein the antenna are two-jointed, the distal joint long and ringed, and each leg terminating in a single claw.

Aleurodicus neglectus n. sp.
(P]. XX, figs. 1-11; P1. XXI, fig. 2.)

Guava leaves infested with this insect were collected by Mr. Albert Koebele, at Para, Brazil, in 1882, and forwarded to the Bureau of Entomology. Specimens of the same insect were also received from Robert Newstead on Ficus bengalen8is and Anona s8quarwsa, collected in Demerara in 1892. With the appearance of the description of Aleurodicus anonwc by Douglas in 1892,20 the above two lots of material were erroneously referred to anonce and so labeled and carried in the Bureau of Entomology collection, as was also a distinct and much larger species, with clear wings, A. giganteum, collected by Mr. Koebele December 28, 1882, at Pernambuco, Brazil.


The senior author in studying the forms of Aleyrodidoe in the bureau collection 21 accepted these determinations without critical examination of the material, and thus fell into the error of using the pup-e of ?eglectus and the adults of qigan teus in characterizing anonw in the table of species (1. c., p. 43), and these two species were confused in stating the geographical distribution and food plants of anon (p. 44). A. neglectus differs from anonaw in that the wings of the adult are spotted with dusky. In anonm the wings are stated to be snowy white. A. anon differs from giganteus in its smaller size and in the shape and structure of the pupa case, notably the presence on the caudal region of the two pairs of reduced compound pores, quite absent in giganteus.
Aleurodicus neglectus was also received from H. Caracciola, Port of Spain, Trinidad, September 28, 1896, on Anona reticulata; and again, from Trinidad, June 7, 1907, on coconut, from Mr. 0. W. Barrett. March 11, 1911, a further lot of material of this species was forwarded by Dr. F. W. Urich, Port of Spain, Trinidad, on Anona 8quamosa. The species is therefore known from Para, Brazil, and Trinidad, and from the following host plants: Anona reticulata, A. squamosa, Anona sp. (Brazil), and the coconut, Cocos nucifera.
This insect and A. destructor on coconut from the Philippines are noteworthy on account of the large size of the compound wax pores of the pupa case and the rather elongate and distally narrowed lingula.

Egg.-Length 0.3 mm., light yellow, unmarked; stalk very short; egg lying prostrate on leaf (P1. XX, fig. 1).
Pupa case.--Size about 1.3 by 0.92 mm., broadly elliptical in outline. Dorsum little convex, the body segments distinct (P1. XX, fig. 2). There is a copious secretion in the form of more or less fluted bands or masses of white wax from the simple dorsal and submarginal wax pores, extending out on leaf all around, several times the width of the case. From the compound whx pores are produced the 1*ng glassy wax rods usual in the genus, but their length in this species is remarkable and very similar to A. destructor. The pupe on the leaf are quite hidden under the large mass of wax, which renders them quite conspicuous. In the copious wax on the lower surface of the case the adults occur in numbers. There is evidenced a tendency to congregate along the midrib of the leaf, though individuals are also scattered over the general leaf surface (P1. XXI, fig. 2).
The color of the case, denuded of wax, is yellowish to darker, some specimens varying to plumbeous. Margin of case apparently entire; just within margin all around is a closely set row of simple wax pores (P1. XX, fig. 6) and similar pores are scattered generally over

Tech. Seriesb 21, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. D~


Alcuodius rnats: ig.!.-Ppa ase Fig 2.Vasformoriiceof ppa ase Fi

Aluroicus orauv.-us Fig. 6.-upa case. Fig. -Vabifor orific fpp ae. Fig. Cm

pound pore of pupa case. Fig. 9.-Margin of the case. (Original.)