Classification of the Aleyrodidae

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Classification of the Aleyrodidae
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Quaintance, A. L ( Altus Lacy ), 1870-1958
Baker, A. C
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SWS. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
... :, IBURE3A37 oF' ENTOMOLOGY.
.." .. L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.

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JIFICATION OF THE ALEYRODIDAE.

PART II


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a "BY

'-*r', A. L. QUAINTANCE,

4'":", : In Oarge of Deciduos Fruit Insect Inveetigationr,
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TECHNICAL SERIES, No. 27, PART II.


U. S. DEPARTMENT


OF AGRICULTURE,


t31TREA.IT OF- ENTO MOLOG-X'.
L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.





CLASSIFICATION OF THE ALEYRODIDE.


PART II.



BY


A. L. QUAINTANCE,
In Charge of Deciduous Erai!t Insect In vestigations,
AND

A. C. BAKER,
Ef ;t.


ISSUED SEPTEMBEiL 9, 1914.


















WA SHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1914.
^^pBT














WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1914.



























BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY.


L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief oqf Bureau.
C. L. MARLATT, Entomologist and Acting Chief in Absence of Chief.
R. S. CLIFTON, Chief Clerk and Executive Assistant.
F. H. OCBITTENDEN, in charge of truck crop and stored product insect investigations.
A. D. HOPKINS, in charge offorest insect in vestigations.
IV. D. HUNTER, in charge of southern field crop insect investigations.
F. M. WEBSTER, in charge of cereal and forage insect investigations.
A. L. QUAINTANCE, in charge of deciduous fruit insect investigations.
E. F. PHILLIPS, in charge of bee culture.
A. F. BURGESS, in charge of gipsy moth and brown-tail moth investigations.
ROLLA P. CURRIE, in charge of editorial wor'k.
MA BEL COLCORD, in charge of library.






















CON TE N T S.


Introduction ..............................................................
Genera of tihe Alcyrodin ................. ...............................
Genus Duialhcurodsd .....................................................


Species (f the uigvtis Dialcurodcs ............
Geinus Aleuroplalus.............................
Species of the genus Aleuroplatus............
Genus Dialeurodoides..........................
Species of the genus Dialeurodoides..........
Genus Pealius..................................
Species of the genus Pealius................
Genus Bern isia..................................
Species of the genus Bern isia.................
Genus A leyrodes...............................
Species of the genus Aleyrodes...............
Genus Aleurocybotus ........................
Species of the genus Aleurocyboti's .........
Genus Aleurotulus..............................
Species of the genus Aleurotulus.............
Genus Aleurocanthus...........................
Species of the genus Aleuroca, thus .........
Genus Aleuroirachelus .........................
Species of the genus Aleurotr'achclus.........
Genus Aleurolirixus...........................
Species of the genus Aleurothrix-us...........
Genus Veomaskellia...........................
Species of the ge-uie Nf/V-o) C1,.lia...........
Genus Aleuroparadozus. !.i ---.....-...
Species of the gemms A. orradoaus......
Genus Asterochilon.............................
Species of the genus Asierochiton............


Genus Aleurotithius............................
Species of the genus Alcurotithius............
Genus Tetralcurodes............................
Species of the genus Tclraleurodes ...........
Genus Aleurolobus.............................
Species of the genus Aleurolobus ............
Unplaced species of the old genus Aleyrodts...........


Page.
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ILLUSTRATIONS.


PL.ATES.
Page.
PLATE XXXV. Figs. 1-14.1-Diab ,,rrd,.s citri ................................ 98
XXXVI. Figq. 1-6.-.Jh(,iiirpltits qtcruiis-(pqfi{r{<. Figs. 7-12.-Peal-
i ms maskelli ............................................. 98
XXXVII. Figs. 1-6.-BZmi5 in a in,,nspicua. Figs. 7-11.-Dial irodoidcs
Hirius s ...... ........ ................................ ... 98
XXXVIII. Figs. 1-13.-A-1hyrods splraoidos.: .......................... 98
XXXIX. Fig.. 1-4.-Altiuroparuadox us iridrscens. Figs. 5-8.-Aletro-
cybotis gramin hols. Figs. 9-11.-Aleuiirocanthus spin ifers. 102
XL. Figs. 1-9.-A lt'rotuhts ncphrolcpidis ........................ 102
XLI. Figs. 1-6.-A hrothrirs'korardi. Figs. 7-9.-Aleh:rotrache-
luts truchetifer ............................................ 102
XLII. Figs. 1-15.-Ast'rociiton raporariur m-....................... 102
XLIII. Fis. 1-16.-Aleurotithius tmbcr-luki-........................ 106
XLI V. Figs. 1-17.-Tetral'cutrods ornri.............................. 106
XLV. Fihz. 1-16.--.A leurolobus marlatti--------------------------............................ 106
XLVI. Fig. 1.-Diahlc',rods citri: Pupa case on leaf. Fig. 2.-Aleuro-
paradoxirs irldets ns: Pupa case on leaf. Fig. 3.-Al-euro-
canthus spiniferus: Pupa case on leaf. Fig. 4.-AltroutracIhe-
lhis Irachtifer: Pupa case (in leaf. Fig. 5.-Pcalius kclloggi:
Pupa case on leaf. Fig. 6.- .,rodeaiirxoides: Pupa case
on lhaf ........................- ..... .... W.......-.... 106
XLVII. Fi.z. 1.-Alettrolubtis nwmarlatti: Pupa ca.-on leaf. Fig. 2.-
Asterochiton abutilonea: Pupa case on leaf. Fig. 3.-Tetra-
leburotS mori: Pupa case (on leaf. Fig. 4.-Ahleurothrixus
,,,,'i: hil: Pupa case on leaf. .............................. ------ 106
XLVII.. i 'utrotithius timbi rulak'ci, showing infestatin of underside of
lcavc. of Eridiclqron tomentosu --------- ......... ............ 106












CLASSIFICATION OF THE ALEYRODIDAi-PART II.

INTRODUCTION.
The present paper deals with the subfamily Aleyrodinm and, with
Part I, completes the classification of the family. It has not been
feasible to treat at this time the species of this subfamily in the manner
followed in Part I. Monographic reports of the respective genera of
the Aleyrodinm are, however, now under way and will be issued as
rapidly as practicable.
Students of the Aleyrodidma are well aware that the 'original and
typical genus Aleyrodes had come to include a rather heterogeneous
assemblage of forms. This fact was indicated some years ago by
Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell in his paper, "Classification of the Aley-
rodidae," I in which several subgenera were proposed, as Dialeurodes,
Tetraleurodes, etc. From the writers' studies of these insects it
appears to them that Aleyrodes Latreille should be restricted to
those species essentially like proletella L., the type species, and that
other genera should be erected to include the remaining forms. This
they have attempted to do, as set forth in the following pages.
Unfortunately the Aleyrodidw are as yet largely known only from
the pupal stage, a condition due to their mode of life. A comprehen-
sive classification based on the study of the adults would not, there-
fore, be possible for many years to come. In the generic diagnoses
given herewith it has been necessary to place importance on the char-
acters ,of the so-called pupa case, as has long been the practice in
describing species of this family. In the majority of the genera pro-
posed the adult stage of one or more species, however, is known, and
so far as data at hand indicate, adult characters confirm the grouping
of species followed, as based on the characters of the pupa case.
The writers regret that there should be so many species (14 in num-
ber) which they are unable to assign satisfactorily to any genus by
reason of inadequate descriptions, or failure of authors to describe in
sufficient detail those characters of most value in generic determina-
tions. It is much to be desired that descriptions of Aleyrodide be
made as complete and full as possible.
It should be added that careful examinations have been made of
the types or cotypes of species described by Maskell, Bemis, Quain-
tance, Britton, Morrill, Back, Kuwana, and Kotinsky, and of most of
those described by CockerelL.
SProc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., p. 279 (1902).
95







96


CLASSIFICATION OF THE ALEYBODID.E.


GENERA OF THE ALEYRODIN.E.
I. Frewing of ;adult with radiusi present as a distinct vein ..........Aleurochiton.
II. F,'rewiiig ,,f atllt without radius1.
A. PMupa c:.se without a submarginal row of papilla-like pores, and with dorsal
disk not separated from submarginal area.
1. Pupa case with thoracic tracheal folds present.
a. Thoracic tracheal folds ending on or near the margin min a more or
less circular pore.
(1) Vasiform orifice relatively small and roundly subcordate,
operculum almost filling orifice and obscuring lin-
gula-........................................Dialeurodes.
b. Thoracic trac'heal folds ending in a comb of teeth.
(1) Vasiform orifice relatively small and transversely rounded,
the operculum almost entirely filling it..... Aleuroplatu.s.
(2) Vasiform orifice subcordato, acute caudad, the op)erculum
filling about two-thirds of orifice and leaving caudal por-
tion of lingula exposed.................. Dialeurodoides.
2. Pupa case with thoracic tracheal folds not evident.
a. Vasiform orifice situated in a pit or depression which is usually
transversely ribbed or furrowed.
(1) Operculum transversely rectangular, small, the knobbed
extremity of the lingula visible caudad of it.... Pealius.
b. Vasiform orifice not situated in a pit.
(1) Vasiform orifice triangular, very elongate, operculum small
and transversely elliptical, lingula long and visible for
fully half its length caudad of operculum........Bemisia.
(2) Vasiform orifice subcordate, with cephalic margin straight.
(a) Adults with antennIe of seven segments, of which III
is the longest, IV-VII being subequal ...Aleyrodes.
(b) Adults with antennae of seven segments, of which VII
(in male) is much the longest, being as long as the
remaining ones together............Aleurocybotus.
(3) Vasiform orifice small, roundly subcordate, or subcircular.
(a) Lingula long and distally knobbed, extending caudad
from orifice for one-third to one-half of its length.
A leurotulus.
(b) Lingula short and obscured by the operculum, which
almost entirely fills the orifice.
Dorsum with several series of prominent spines;
margin with very distinct teeth.. Aleurocanthus.
Dorsum without such series of prominent spines.
SDorsum with a central ridge or trachea-like
elevation, the orifice situated on its caudal
extremity; margin with a double series of
teeth, the outer series lighter in color than
the inner. Wax not abundant.
Aleurotrachelus.
Dorsum without such a central trachea-like
structure, but. usually with several pairs of
prominent spine-like hairs. Wax secre-
tion very abund(lant, flocculent, or woolly.
Aleurothrixus.
(4) Vi f-,irm i 1ri lice tra insversely rectangular; operculum similar,
V'ry slihort; lingula broad and short, truncate caudad.
Neomaskellia.







GENUS DIALEURODES.


97


B. Pupa case with a submarginal row of papilla-like pores and with the dorsal
disk not separated from the submarginal area.
1. Vasiform orifice subcordate, with anterior margin straight.
a. Thoracic folds visible and ending in a comb of teeth; operculum
nearly filling the orifice and obscuring the lingula.
Aleuroparadoxus.
b. Thoracic tracheal folds not distinct; lingula visible caudad of
operculum, lobed................................ Asterochiton.
C. Pupa case usually without a row of submarginal papillae and with the dorsal
disk distinctly separated from the submarginal area by a suture-like,
line or depression.
1. Dorsu m covered with a large number of mammiform pores.. A leurotithius.
2. Dorsum without large mammiform pores.
a. Vasiform orifice rounded or cordate, elevated, and not surrounded
by a lobed or palmate area....................... Tetraleurodes.
b. Vasiform orifice subcordate, surrounded by a definite lobed area
with a channel extending caudad................. Aleurolobus.
Genus DIALEURODES (Cockerell) n. gen.
(P1. XXXV, figs. 1-14; P1. XLVI, fig. 1.)
Pupa case variable in size, elliptic to subcircular in outline; color
usually yellowish, varying in some species to brownish; margin of
case toothed, the wax tubes irregular in outline and but little devel-
oped; submarginal area not separated from dorsal disk; dorsum
without papillae or pores; tracheal folds evident, in some species
very conspicuous, terminating on margin of case in a pore, the folds
often showing dotlike, linear, or polygonal markings; wax secretion
absent or very scant. Vasiform orifice relatively small, transversely
oval or subcircular, with or without comb of teeth on inner lateral
and caudal margins; operculum large, mostly filling the orifice and
obscuring the lingula.
Adult with one flexure in radial sector of forewing and no trace of
media. Antennae of seven segments, segment VII not distinctly
shorter than segments IV, V, and VI, but usually longer than these.
Sexes about equal in size, the claspers of male with a few prominent
spines.
Type, citri Riley and Howard.
SPECIES OF THE GENUS DIALEURODES.
D. citri (Riley and Howard), Insect Life, vol. 5, p. 219 (1893). (Southern Lnited
States; Chile (?); China; India; Japan, etc.)
Syn.: aouraitf Maskell.
D. citrifolii (Morgan), Spec. Bul. La. Agr. Exp. Sta., p. 70 (1893). (Southern
United States; Cuba; Mexico.)
Syn.: tubifcra Berger.
D. eugenix (Maskell), Trans. New Zealand Inst., vol. 28, p. 430 (1895). (India.)
D.fjiensis (Kotinsky), Bul. 2, Div. Ent., Board Comm. Agr. & Forestry, Hawaii,
p. 100 (1907). (Fiji.)
D. fodins (Maskell), Trans. New Zealand Inst., vol. 28, p. 433 (1895). (New
Zealand.)







CLASSIFICATION OF THE ALEYRODID2E.


D). kirkaldyi (Kotinsky), Bul. 2, Div. Ent., Boar,1 C omm. Agr. & Forestry, Hawaii ?
p. 95 (1907). (1 awali.) .:,
D. struthanthi (Ilelmpl), Ann. Maz. Nat. IIist. (7, vol. 7, p. 387 (1901,). (Brazil.)
D. tokyonis (Kuwana'). Pomona Jowrn. Ent., vol. 3, no. 4, p. 622 (1911). (Japan.)
Genus ALEUROPLATUS n. gen. I
aF'
(Pl. XXXV, fitis. 1-6.) ,i|
Pupa case usually flat, medium to large in size, oval to subcircular::"
in outline, often notched on cephalo-lateral margins; color yellowish,
or more usually dark brown to blackish, many species variously
dotted with darker markings; margin toothed, wax tubes moder-
ately developed, incisions shallow; submarginal area not separated
from dorsal disk; dorsum without prominent pores or papilla,
though some species show many minute porelike structures; tho-
racic. tracheal folds evident, terminating on margin of case in a
comb of teeth from which may arise pencils of wax, differing in :
color from the more or less amorphous wax surrounding the case and
secreted by the marginal wax tubes. Vasiform orifice small, trans-
versely rounded and almost filled by the operculum, which hides
the lingula.
Adult with radial sector of forewing showing a single flexure; no
spur of media.
Type, qiurcus-aquafica Quaintance.
SPECIES OF THE GENUS ALEUROPLATUS.
A. alcocUki (Peal), Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 72, p. 74 (1903). (India.)
A. cockerelli (Ihering), Rev. Museu Paulista, No. 2, p. 393 (1897). (Brazil.)
A. coronata (Quaintance), Tech. Ser. 8, Div. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr., p. 22 (1900).
(California.)
A. euryae (Kuwana), Pomona Joumrn. Ent., vol. 3, no. 4, p. 625 (1911). (Japan.)
A. gelatinosus (Cockerell), Canad. Ent., vol. 30, p. 264 (1898). (New Mexico; Cal-
ifornia.)
A. hoyx (Peal), Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 72, p. 78 (1903). :
A. quaintancei (Peal), Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 72, p. 78 (1903). (Itdia.)
A. quercus-aquiticx (Quaintance), Tech. Ser. 8, Div. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr., p. 35
(1900). (Florida.)
A4. vinsonioides (Cockerell), Psyche, vol. 8, p. 225 (189S,). (Mexico.)
Genus DIALEURODOIDES n. gen.
(P1. XXXVII. figs. 7-11.)
Pupa case of medium size, subelliptic to subcircular in outline,
usually yellowish or brownish in color; margin of case toothed, the
wax tubes but little developed; submarginal area not-separated from
dorsal disk; dorsum without papilhle, though well developed pores
may be present; tracheal folds present; wax secretion scant or
absent. Vasiform orifice subcordate, rather acute caudad; oper-
culum about half filling the orifice, leaving lingula exposed.
Typ(, atrfuts Maskell.


A.,


98










Tech. Series 27. Part 11, Bureau of Er'-n-,,,,.,_' U. S Dept of Agricu ture.


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14


DIALEURODES CITRI.
Fig. 1.-Pupa case, dorsal view. Fig. 2.-Thoraeic tracheal fold and pore. Fi-_. 3.--M.ir-in of
case. Fig. 4.-Vnviforin orifice of pupacase. Fi.. 5.-Larva, third instar. Fi. 6.-L..r'.,. first
instar. Fig. 7.-Le- of 1 irva. first instar. Fig. S.-Antenna of larv.-i. first instar. Fig. 9.-Egg.
Fig. 10.-Antemu of adult. Fi._. 11.-Wing. Fig. 12.-Claw of adult. Fig. 13.-Male ,cnil.i.i
Fig. 14.-Margin of forewing. ( Original.)


PLATE XXXV.


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Tech. Series 27, Part II, Bureau of Ert-.ro'cg,', U. S. Dept. of Agriculture.


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PLATE XXXVI.


12


'I


10


11


ALEUROPLATUS QUERCUS-AQUATIC/E AND PEALIUS MASKELLI.
Al:uroplatus quercus-aquaticx: Fig. l.-Pupa case, dorsal view. Fig. 2.-Vasiform orifice.
Fig. 3.- I I',r i.ir tracheal comb of teeth. Fig. 4.-Forewing. Fig. 5.-Male genitalia. Fig. 6.-
Margin of 1)pupa case. Pealius mafSkelli: Fig. 7.--'upa case, dorsal view. Fig. 8.-Margin of
pupa case. 1, ig. 9.-Vasiform orifice. Fig. 10.-Thoracic tracheal comb of teeth. Fig. 11.-
Caudal comb of teeth. Fig. 12.-Egg. (Original.)







Tech. Series 27 Part II, Bureau of Er ton-nl,,I.,, U. S Dept of A'. ',.. PLATE XXXVII.












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Vasiform orifice andl caudhl end of pupa. Fig. 4. Forewin. Fig. 5.-Egg. Fig. !.-Auienia
of adult. Dialkurodoides aureus: Fi,-. 7.--Pupa case, dorsal v'iew. Fig. s.--Tracheal combi of
teeth. Fi. 9.--Vasiform cirtih.e. Fig. 10.--Caudal inuargin of case. Fig. 11.--Pore of radlial
p: s~alg t^iia.











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ALEYRODES SPIREOIDE'5.
Fi,1. 1. I'up:1 ase. dorsal view. I- i. 2.--M.I--.'I of pupa case. Fi- 3.-V.i:ifirm orifit, ,f mp:I
I.. Fi. .Abdomnt, -.: female, dorsal viV -l" ill- Ivpical i.,rkinL-. Fi-. .)-Forewill-
Fi-. <..Margiini of f,, ,1 fI 1 7. .D)etails of i i i ii i ,', l',.ri',t,- Fi- ,'.-- Antenna ;
;tid ll femn t\ Fi-. i I, i tm ii distal -,.-2il, If I female, an1ell0 na -'1 ill- t'ill, .ircdL FiL: I i
li til p.'lIionI of third scine'iit ,f m:Iil,' I I l.-Aldomen (f female, dorsal view, showin-
variutim in i m ,; .iri- Fig. 12.-(;enita'i i in l11. F .I-'. 1 : 'Claw. (( r;i i.il )


PLATE XXXVIIIl


7%







GENUS I3EMISIA.


SP I.'' I 0.l.' 'OiH E I EN LY.S J ,\IIA l:.I[; HI> DI.:S.
A.. urcis Ma.skell), Traui.s. New Zealal, TLisl.t. v'.I. 22, p. 17A (IS.9); iiiih.le ,
vol. 2, p. 215 (1879). \Ncw Zeal.il.)
-I.Jsili (Maskell), Trans. New Z(;.alanid Inst., vol. 22', p. 175 (l).sP). (New /Zea-
lan d.)
.1. .iiipklc (.\Iaskell), Trnius. N(.w ZA;al;>d i lust vol. 22, p. 17. (I, sl. (NX '..
Zealand.)
Genus PEALIUS n. gen.
,1. XXXVI, figs. 7-12; Pl. XLVI, fig. 5.)

Pupa case niedium in size, elliptic in outline; color variable; mar-
gin of ease toothed, the wax tubes well developed; subinargitial area
not separated from dorsal disk; dorsum without papillah or pores;
thoracic tracheal folds not discernible, though there is a distinct
furrow from vasiform orifice to caudal end of case. Vasiform orifice
situated in a pit, which is more or less pyriform in outline and trans-
versely ridged, the outline of the orifice being subrectangular; oper-
culuni subrectaniigular, short, filling about half the orifice; lingula
short, the distal extremity visible caudad of operculum, flattened
and knobbed. Named for the late H. W. Peal.
Type, maslcfli Bemis.

SPECIES OF THE GENUS. PEALIUS.

P. bcagleisis (Peal), Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 72, p. 70 (1904). (India.)
JP. hibisci (Kotinsky), Bul. 2, Div. Ent., Board Comm. Agr. & Forestry, Hawaii,
p. 96 (1907). (Hawaii.)
P. kelloggi (Bemis), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 27, p. 499 (1904). (Californiia.)
P. maskelli (Bemis), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 27, p. 524 (1904). (California.)

Genus BEMISIA n. gen.
(P1. XXXV11, figs. 1-6.)

Pupa case varying much in size, elliptic or oval in outline, broadest
across the thorax; color usually pale yellowish; margin toothed, the
wax tubes irregular in size and shape; submarginal area not separated
from dorsal disk; dorsum without papillae or pores; thoracic tracheal
folds sometimes faintly visible. There is a distinct furrow present,
extending from the vasiform orifice to the caudal extremity of the
case. Vasiform orifice triangular, long and narrow; lingula long and
less than half covered at the cephalic extremity by the short oper-
culum.
Adult with one flexure in radial sector of forewing and no spur of
media. Antenme of seven segments, of which the third is the longest,
the remaining distal ones being subequal. Named for Florence E.
Bemis.
Type, inconspicua Quaintance.
48454-14-2


99







100


CLASSIFICATION OF TIlE ALEYRODID.E.


Si'E( iE.-, ori TIlE GENL:s BE-MISIA.
B. ,crbe'ric'ola (Cockerrll), Journi. N. Y. Ent. Sue., vol. 4, p. 207 (1896,. (New
Me.xico.)
B. dcipicas (MaskellI, Tran'-. New Zealand Innt., vol. 28, p. 428 (1895). kAus-
tral i.)
B. iijblhrdi tKotiiinky), Bul. 2, Div. Ent., Board 'omm. Agr. & Forestry, Hawaii,
p. 94 (1907). (Hawaii.)
B. inronispicua (Quaintane.), Tech. Ser. 8, J)iv. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agi'., p. 29
(1900). (Florida.)
B. h'al-ii (Peal), Journ. Aiat. So,:. Biingal, vol. 72, p. 87 (1903). (India; Fiji.)
B. rcligiosu (Poal), Jourt. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 72, p. 67 (1903). (India.)

Genus ALEYRODES Latreille.
(P1. XXXVIII, figs. 1-13; P1. XLVI, fig. 6.)

Pupa case small to medium in size, elliptic in outline; color usu-
ally yellowish or brownish; margin of case toothed, the wax tubes
irregular in outline and rather poorly developed; submarginal area
not separated from dorsal disk. There are no well developed papillae
or pores as in Asterochiton, though minute pores may be present in
some species. Tracheal folds not discernible; wax secretion usually
absent. Vasiform orifice subcordate, the operculum about half fill-
ing the orifice; lingula included within the orifice, but visible caudad
of the operculum; the distal extremity setose and armed with a pair
of spines.
Adult with two flexures in radial sector of forewing, and media
with a very short spur; forewings usually with faint patches of dusky
coloration on flexures of radial sector. Antenne of seven segments,
of which the third is the longe-t, the distal ones being subequal; seg-
mients imbricated. Sexes nearly equal in size; claspers of male with
a few spines.
Type, proletella L.; example, spirxoides Quaintance.
SPECIES O W THE GENu'S ALEYHODES.
.A. akcb'i.x Kuwana, Pomo-na Journ. Ent., vol. 3, no. 4, Deceimber, p. 622 (1.11D.
(Japan.)
A. amni :ila Bemis, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 27, p. 514 (1904). (California.
A. asacrii,,s Shimer, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., vol. 1, p. 281 (1867). (Pennsyl-
vania.)
Syn.: act, e Britton.
A. (r roi'i'' Cockerell, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc., vol. 5, p. 42 (1897) ,New
Mexico.)
A. bivassrh'c Walker, C-'at. Hoinompt. Brit. Mus., p. 1092 (1852). kEutrope.)
A. caprex Signuret, Ann. Soc. Ent. France (4), vol. 8, p. 384-1 (1867). (France.)
A. (raiLa Maskell, Tirani. New Zealand Inst., vol. 28, p. 425 (1895). (New Zea-
land.)
.1. cotesii Ma.-kell, T'raus. New Zealanl Inst., vol. 28, p. 427 (1895). (Balu-
chi.taZI.)
A. fr',ldi M.,,nill, P.yclhe, vol. 10, p. 83 (1903). (Massachiusetts; Connecticut.)
.1.frvjmrixc Walker, List HtIniopt. Brit. Mii.., p. 1092 (1851); also Ann. Soc. Ent.
Fra,,, (4), vol. 8, p. 38S (1h67). (Eingland; Franco.)







GENUS ALEUROTULUS.


101


A. lactea Zelihntner, Mededceleng i'ruefsliai. Oi'. t-Java, n. s. 37, p. 3-34 (1;97); alo
Arch. Java Suikerind., vol. 7, p. 459 (1897). (Java.)
A. lauri Si'iniirei, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, pt. 2, p. 158 (1881). (Greece.)
-1. lonllicr,' Walker, Cat. Homnopt. Brit. Mu.S., p. 1092 (1S52). (Europe.)
A. prcnanithis Sclirank, Fauna Boica, vol. 2, p. 147 (1801). (Germany.)
A.. prolh'tih LiiiUne, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10), p. 537 (1758). (,Eurrope.)
A4. pruinosa B3emis, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.. vol. 27, p. -191, pl. 2, fig. 8 (1904).
(California.)
.A. pr'iinosa va,'. cuphorbiara Cockerell, Ent. News, vol. 22, p. -102 (1911).
-.. pyroi Gillette & Baker, Biul. 31, Colo. Agr. Exp. Sta., Tech. Ser., p). 125
(1895). (Colorado.)
A. quercuis Signorc-t, Ann. Soc. Ent. France (4), vol. 8, p. 3,4 (1867). (France;
England.)
A. ribia Douglas, Ent. Monilhi. Mag., vol. 24, p. 265 (1888); ibidemn, p. 255 (1899).
(England.)
A. rubi Signoret, Ann. Soc. Ent. France (4), vol. 8, p. 382 (1867). (France.)
A. rubicola Douglas, Ent. Monthly. Mag. (2), vol. 2, p. 322 (1891). (England.)
A1. schiuol:ensis Kuwana, Pomona Journ. Ent., vol. 3, no. 4, December, p. 620
(1911). (Japan.)
A. spirxx Douglas, Ent. Monthly. Mag. (2), vol. 5, pp. 73, 154 (1894). (England.)
A. spira'oids Quaintance, Tech. Ser. 8, Div. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr., p. 36 (1900).
A. xyloshti Westhoff, Jahresb. zool. westfSl. Verein, p. 61 (1886). (Germany.)
A. young Hempel, Ann. Mag.- Nat. Hist. (7), vol. 8, p. 385 (1901). (Brazil.)

Genus ALEUROCYBOTUTS n. gen.
(PI. XXXIX, figs. 5-8.)

Pupa case of medium size, very narrow and elongate; margifi
toothed, the wax tubes very poorly developed; submarginal area
not separated from dorsal disk; dorsum without papilla or pores,
though there is present a row on each side of median area of abdomen,
a series of irregular pits; tracheal folds not discernible; secretion
usually present as a short rim of wax, elevating case from leaf.
Vasiform orifice subcordate, the lingula included within the orifice,
but its extremity visible caudad of the operculum.
Adult with a single flexure in radial sector of forewing and no
trace of media. Antenne of male with segment VII as long or
longer than the other segments combined.
Type, gramn icolus Quaintance.
J
SPECIES OF THE GBNL-s AI EUROCYBOTUS.
A4. graminicolas (Quaintance), Canad. Ent., vol. 31, p. 89 (1899). (Florida.)
Genus ALEUROTULUS n. gen.
(P1. XL, fig.. 1-9.)
Pupa case small, elliptic to slightly oval, flat. Color yellowish;
margin of case toothed, the wax tubes not prominent; submarginal
area not separated from the dorsal disk and there are no papille or
pores; tracheal -folds faintly evident. Vasiform orifice subcordate,
somewhat rounded; operculum smaller, similar but shorter in pro-
portion, occupying about two-thirds of the orifice; lingula long,






CLASSIFICATION OF THE ALEYRODID2E.


usually protruding considerably beyond orifice, ligulate, its protruding
extremity knobbed and setose.
Adult with one flexure in radial sector of forewing and no spur of
InCedia. Antennae of seven segments, of which the third is the longest;
segment VII considerably longer than IV, V, or VI.
Type, nephirolepidis Quaintance.
SPECIES OF THE (EN[TS ALEUROTULUS.
A. ne'phuiolepidis (Quaintance), Tech. Ser. 8, Div. Ent., 1'. S. Dept. Agr., p. 29
(1900). (Pennsylvania, in. conservatory.)
Svn.: extranicns Bcnis.
A. filiciun (Goeldi), Mittheil. schweiz. ent. Ges., vol. 7, p. 248 (1886). (.Lrazil;
Rio de Janeiro; Kew Gardens.)
Genus ALEUROCANTHUS n. gen.
(PI. XXXIX, figs. 9-11; P1. XLVI, fig. 3.)

Pupa case medium in size, subelliptic in outline, usually dark brown
or black in color; margin of case toothed, the wax tubes very prom-
inent; submarginal area not separated from dorsal disk; dorsum
without papille or pores, though bearing many heavily chitinized
spines variously arranged; tracheal folds usually not discernible,
though evident in a few species; wax secretion usually present as a
narrow fringe from marginal wax tubes. Vasiform orifice small,
rounded or subcordate in outline, situated on a tubercle-like projec-
tion of dorsum; operculum similar in shape and almost entirely filling
it, obscuring the lingula.
Adult with one flexure in radial sector of forewing and no spur of
media; wings usually blotched or shaded. Males much smaller than
females.
Type, spiniferus Quaintance.
SPECIES OF THE GENUS ALEUROCANTHUS.
A. bambusx (Peal), Journ. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, vol. 72, p. 85 (1903). (India.)
A. banksix (Maskell), Trans. New Zealand Inst., vol. 28, p. 423 (1895). (Aus-
tralia.)
A. calophylli (Kotinsky), Bul. 2, Div. Ent. Board Comm. Agr. & Forestry, Hawaii,
p. 98 (1907). (Fiji.)
.1. citricolus (Newstead), Mitteil. aus dem zool. Mus. in Berlin, vol. 5, pt. 2, p. 173
(1911). (East Africa.)
A. hirsutus (Maskell), Trans. New Zealand Inst., vol. 28, p. 434 (1895). (Auis-
tralia.)
A. nubilans (Buckton), Indian Mus. Notes, vol. 5, p. 36 (1900). (India.)
A. pipcris (Maskell), Trans. New Zealand Inst., vol. 28, p. 438 (1895). (Ceylon.)
A1. spiniferus (Quaintance), Canad. Ent., vol. 34, p. 63 (1902). (Java.)
A. spinosus (Kuwana), Pomona Journ. Ent., vol. 3, no. 4, p. 626 (1911).
A. signatus (Maskell), Trans. New Zealand Inst., vol. 28, p. 447 (1895). (Aus-
tralia.)
A.. roeltzkoui (Newstead), Quarterly Joum. Liverpool, vol. 3, p. 12 (1908). (Mada-
gascar.)


102









Tech. Series 27, Part I1I, Bureau of Er ,'..n,..' ., U. S Dept. of .Iture.


U
-~ o~L)
/



S2:


' N


U


LJ() L1~ 0 C?


V <.71~


-7,


4


..... %


I -








-".-' L.
L


- ~ -- -'7- ------ T- T---


11


10


ALEUROPARADOXUS IRIDESCENT, ALEUROCYBOTUS GRAMINICOLUS, AND ALEUROCANTHUS

SPINIFERUS
Aleuroparadoxus iridescens: Fig. 1.-Pupa case, dorsal view. FiL-. 2.-Vasiform oirfi, c Fig. 3.-
Margin of pupa case, showing thoracic tracheal comb. Fig. 4.-Dorsal pore of pupa case, much
en~r ,,. Aleurocybotus graminicolus: Fig. 5.-Pupa case, dorsal view. Fig. 6.-NVasiform
orifice. Fig. 7.-Irregular oponin on dorsum of abdomen of pupa case. Fir. 8.--Antenna of
adult male. Aleurocanthu ,tpnnry ',ru,v. Fig. 9.-Pupa case, dorsal view. Fig. 10.-Vasiform
orifice. Fig. 11.-Margin of pupa case.


PLATE XXXIX.


n. ';


",--zt= -













T..ch S ries 27 Par II R, *. i of E' SP ..


/

it.


/ .\ I 2


(I ~
~
IL ~ I'
r,


-~


-~ -


-*.- '. .''<:"'.*r1
--- ". ,_._ -


0

-~ 7
~ -ii~Li..J2j ~ Niju ~ -~ ~A~-- -~


ALEUROTULUS NEPHROLEPIDIS.
Si z I l Pl.ic'aieLlndrsal vi ew. .'i. 2. Vaisif(>rmii,'rilir. Fi. :L.3.-.nir.ii ofpupacase. FiL.. 4.-
',.. in-. Fi-. .. -\I iri i (if fore\\ i i Fi -I'F'. FiL.. 7. -C'law of adult. FiL'. .-
Aneiiia of adult male ?). Fi--. .9-'l'ihird -'.-.,it'ii'l. iii .iiliiiii i of male. (Oridiii.i1.)


/It


',, U. S. Dep "t. of ,,-,.f .." C jre


PLATE X L.


^m^TfW" <^r ^K^.:ro^U-rrr







Tech. Series 27, Part I1I, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture.


L' /

/1






-S/ A ,.-y \* ^
4 44
9 -'

/ / N )













6





11
to.








*A













ALEUROTHRIXUS HOWARDI AND ALEUROTRACHELUS TRACHEIFER.
Aleurothrixus howardi: Fig. 1.-Pupa case, dorsal view. Fig. 2.-Larva, first instar. Fig. 3.-
Sword-shaped spine of first-instar larva. Fig. 4.-Egg. Fig. 5.-Margin of pupa case. Fig. fi.-
Vjiifirm orifice. Aleurotrachelus tracheifer: Fig. 7.-PIupa case, dorsal view. Fig. 8.-Vasiform
orifice. Fig. 9.-M.ar-bn of pupa case. (Original.)


PLATE XLI.









Tech. Series 27, Part II Bureau of Er-t.-molr,.,', U. S. Dept. of Agriculture.


PLATE XLII.


K


7 7
( 7


4D-'8


S-:10




--^d11


-\ 14


ASTEROCHITON VAPORARIORUM.
Fig. 1.-Larva, first hnstar. Fig. 2.-Larva, second instar. Fig. 3.-Pupa cas?, dorsal view.
Fi-'. 4. -Papilla of pupa case. FiL. 5.-V,-if.riiiu orifice. Fig. 6.--gg. Fig. 7.--Le of larva,
first inslar. Fi'. S.--Antenna of adult. Fi'-'. 9.-D)islal end of third segment of antenna. Fig.
10. Antenna of larva, first instar. Fig. 11.-Antenna of larva, second instar. Fig. 12.-Fore-
wing. Fig. 13. -(enitalia of male, dorsal view. Fig. 14.-Genitalia of male, lateral -iew. Fig.
15.-Claw of adult. (Original.)


--- -- -- --







GENUS ALEUROTHRIXUS. 103

Genus ALEUROTRACHELUS n. gen.
(PI. XII, figs. 7-9; P1. XLVI, fig. 4.)
Pupa case mostly of mniedium size, elliptic in outline, the cephalic
margin somewhat pointed; color brown to blackish; margin of case
with a double row of teeth, the wax tubes well developed; submarginal
area not separated from the dorsal disk; dorsum without pores or
papille, though body sutures are very prominent and aiong each side
near center there is a prominent fold. Along median line of dorsum
is a trachea-like ridge, terminating cephalad in an arrow-shaped figure
and caudad in the vasiform orifice. Tracheal folds not discernible;
wax secretion usually present as a fringe from marginal wax tubes,
Vasiform orifice small, broadly cordate; operculum similar in shape.
obscuring the lingula.
Type, tracheifer Quaintance.
SPECIES OF THE GENUS ALEUTROTRACHELUS.
A. camellia (Kuwana), Pomona Jouirn. Ent., vol. 3, no. 4, p. 625 (1911).
A. croceatus (Maskell), Trans. New Zealand Inst., vol. 28, p. 428 (1895). (Aus-
tralia.)
A.fumipennis (Hempel), Psyche, vol. 8, p. 394 (1899). (Brazil.)
A. limbatus (Maskell), Trans. New Zealand Inst., vol. 28, p. 436 (1895). (Aus-
tralia.)
A. parvus (Hempel), Psyche, vol. 8, p. 395 (1899). (Brazil.)
A. tracheifer (Quaintance), Tech. Ser. 8, Div. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr., p. 38 (1900).
(Mexico.)
A. trachoides (Back), Canad. "Ent., vol. 44, p. 151 (1912). (Cuba.)
Genus ALEUROTHRIXUS n. gen.
(PI. XLI, figs. 1-6; PI. XLVII, fig. 4.)
Pupa case medium to small in size, elliptic; margin sometimes
angled; color variable, ranging from yellow to blackish; margin of
case with double row of teeth, the wax tubes well developed; sub-
marginal area not separated from dorsal disk; dorsum without papilla
or pores, but bearing along median line a few pairs of long, spinelike
hairs; tracheal folds not discernible; wax secretion usually copious,
flocculent or woolly, secreted by marginal wax tubes. Vasiform
orifice small, transversely elliptic; lingula obscured by the operculum,
which nearly fills the orifice.
Adult with one flexure in radial sector of forewing and no spur of
media. Antenna of seven segments, of which III is the longest.
Sexes nearly equal in size.
Type, howardi Quaintance.
SPECIES OF THE GENUS ALEUROTHRIXUS.
A. adpim (Goeldi), Mittheil. schweiz. ent. Ges., vol. 7, p. 250 (1886). (Brazil.)
A.floccosus (Maskell), Trans. New Zealand Inst., vol. 28, p. 432 (1895). (Jamaica;
Mexico.)
A. horridug (Hempel), Psyche, vol. 8, p. 394 (1899). (Brazil.)







CLASSIFICATION OF TUE ALEYROD1DE.


A. Aouardi (Quaintan.e), Tech. Ser. 12. Bur. Ent.. U. S. Dept. Agr., p. 91 (1907).
(Cuba; Florida.)
A. interrueqatonis (Bemis), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.. vol. 27, p. 510 (1904). (Cali-
fornia.)

Genus NEOMASKELLIA Quaintance and Baker.
JTe.h. Ser. 27, Pt. I, P1. XXXIV, figs. 1-8.)
SPECIES UF THE GENUSS NEOMASKELLIA.
N. comata iMaskell). Trans. New Zealand InAt., vol. 2S, p. 426. (1895). (Fiji.)
N. brgii (Signoret), Ann. Soc. Ent. France (4), vol. 8, p. 395 (1867). (Isle of
Mauritius; Java; Fiji; Levuka: Rena; Manila, Philippine Islands.
Syn.: sacclarl Maskell.
Genus ALEUROPARADOXUS n. gen.
(Pl. XXXIX. ,i:s. 14; P1. XLVI. fi-. 2.)
Pupa case medium in size, elliptic in outline, margin toothed, the
wax tubes only moderately developed; submarginal area not separated
from dorsal disk; just within margin a series of papilla-like pores and
dorsum with numerous large irregular pores; tracheal folds present,
terminating on margin in a comb of teeth; wax secretion brittle
glass-like rods from the submarginal papille and a secretion from the
dorsal pores. Vasiform orifice subcordate or triangular, the oper-
culum similar in outline, obscuring the lingula.
Adult with a single flexure in radial sector of forewing and no spur
of media. Antennae seven-segmented; III the longest; distal seg-
mnits subequal. Sexes nearly equal in size.
Type, iridt.tcens Bemis.

SPECIES OF THE GENUS ALEUROPARADOXU6.
A. iride.:ccns (Bemis), r,.. U. S. Nat. Mus.. vd,. 27, p. 457 (1904). (California.)
Genus ASTEROCHITON Maskell.'
(P1. XLII, ficos. 1-15; P1. XLVII, fig. 2.)
Pupa case medium to small in size, elliptic, usually elevated from
the leaf by a palisade of white wax; color variable, ranging from whit-
ish to d(lark brown; margin of case toothed, the wax tubes moderately
developed(l; submarginlal area not separated from dorsal disk; sub-
marginal area with a row of, or a number of, large papille or pores;
tlhoracic tracheal folds rarely distinguishable; usually a distinct
furrow from vasiform orifice to caudal margin of case; wax secretion
a series of brittle, glassv rods from dorsal papilble or pores and a
1 Maskell erected thi --eniius with his lfaiiiothisas type and placed it in theCoccidme. He later described
a -I''eie;., pi7.i(7fr, in.lic.itin, it .hut his ltcnioi.id,, was in part asynonym of this. The namelecanioides.
ho, o'. r, should have i-',ii useI lor the -p'cie V We have examined the type of papillifir in the Maskell
colle-tionI and finl the specie'i to be nothing other than vapoTariorum Westwood. This latter species.
the1wrefore, becomes t yIi e i the Lenu.


104







GENUS ASTEROCRIITON. 105

palisade of white wax elevating case from leaf; vasiform orifice sub-
cordate, usually notched on caudal end; operculumin transversely
elliptic, about half filling the orifice; lingula spatulate, the distal
extremity exposed caudad of operculum, lobed, and usually armed
with two prominent spineLs.
Adult usually with one flexure in radial sector of forewing and( no
trace of media excepting in freshly emerged specimens. Antennae
of seven segments, segment III the longest, IV to VI subequal;
segments imbricated. Sexes nearly equal in size.
Type, vaporariorum Westwood.

SPECIES OF THE GENUS ASTEROCHITON.
A. abutiloneus (Haldeman), Amer. Journ. Sci. & Arts, vol. 9, p. 108 (1850). (East-
emrn United States; Pennsylvania to Florida.)
Syn.: fitchi Quaintance.
A. ambrosixe (Cockerell), Canad. Ent., vol. 42, p. 370 (1910). (Colorado.)
A. asplenii (Maskell), Trans. New Zealand Inst., vol. 22, p. 173 (1889). (New
Zealand.)
A. coryli (Britton), Ent. News (Phila.), vol. 18, p. 337 (1907). (Connecticut.)
A. diasenius (Bemis), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 27, p. 516 (1904). (Calif(rrliia.)
A. dubius (Heeger), Beitr. Naturg. Ins., p. 223 (1858). (Austria; Germany.)
A. erigerontis (Maskell), Trans. New Zealand Inst., vol. 28, p. 429 (18!5).
(Mexico.)
A.floridensis (Quaintance), Tech. Ser. 8, Div. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr., p. 26 (1900).
A. glocialis (Bemis), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 27, p. 518 (1904). (California.)
A. hutchingsi (Bemis), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 27, p. 532 (1904). (California.)
A. immaculatus (Ileeger), Beitr. Naturg. Ins., p. 1 (1855). (Europe.)
A. madroni (Bemis), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 27, p. 507 (1904). (California.)
A. merlini (Bemis), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 27, p. 512 (1904). (Caliioruiit.)
A. m7norrilli (Britton), Ent. News (Phila.), vol. 18, p. 340 (1907). (Connecticut.)
A. packardi (Morrill), Canad. Ent., vol. 35, p. 25 (1903). (EL-tern lfite( States.)
A. pergandei (Quaintance), Tech. Ser. 8, Div. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr., p. 31 (1900).
A. phillyrese (Haliday), The Ent. Mag., vol. 2, p. 119 (1S34). (Europe.)
A. rolfsii (Quaintance), Canad. Ent., vol. 31, p. 90 (1899). (Flrida.)
A. ruboru.n (Cockerell), Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc., vol. 5, p. 9 (1897). (Florida.)
A. sonchi (Eotinsky), Bul. 2, Div. Ent. Board Comm. Agr. & Forestry, Hawaii,
p. 97 (1907). (Hawaii.)
A. tentaculatus (Bemis), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 27, p. 494 (1904). (California.)
A. vaporariorum (Westwood), The Gardener's Chronicle, p. 852 (1856). (Thought
to be a native of Brazil; now quite generally distributed.)
Syn.: nicotlianae Maskell.
Syn.: papillifer 'Maskell.
Syn.: leca n ioides Maskell.
A. variabilis (Quaintance), Tech. Ser. 8, Div. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr., p. 39 (1900).
(Florida.)
A. vitrinellus (Cockerell), Ent. News (Phila.), vol. 14, p. 241 (1903). (Mexico.)
A. vittatus (Quaintance), Tech. Ser. 8, Div. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr., p. 42 (1900).
(California.)
A. waldeni (Britton), Ent. News (Phila.), vol. 18, p. 339 (1907). (Connecticut.)
A. uwellmianae (Bemis), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 27, p. 525 (1904). (California.)






CLASSIFICATION OF THE ALEYRODIDX.


Genus ALEUROTITHIUS n. gen.
I i'1. X I I. II I, 1-It;, I'l; X I. III.)
'Pupa cas ( of inediuii .size,. lli]ptic iII outline, 'yellowish to darker
i (',hlor; margin toiotilleil, t1h wax tubers bu't little developed; sub-
iar',,! 1ina l 'ea s'pLaratf, l d froin dolrsal dli-k lby I n irregular row of small
papnilla. ;iad m atrked h. liay .nviitu-lik.r lines;: dorsal disk covered
with latcl.s of i rge ma:mmeinlaifo'm, p1,;,ipilla': triachleal folds not dis-
'itiiilhe, \vWIx -cr.e,0 oiou0 (,11,i,.s, ,f w,(,l-like threads from the dorsal
plaill1. \ai-if(IrN 11 (rifice roadlrNly .-uti(-trd tv. the operculum about
11i.lf filling it; ca'ludal extire tity of Linigula (expose(l, lobed, and bear-
ill pN 1ir of ,,])ilCs.
Adult witlh oneI llh1xure in radial sector of fior-wing and no trace of
jin'1ldia; alnternell' of ,.'V'vn st'enients. if wliclh tlhe tiird is the longest,
thj. four (di,,stil .:'enlents siibe(Iual. Ovipositor and labium extremely
lollL;.
FI'vp)e, ilimb rhilct i Quaint ance and Baker.
SPECII-S O)F THE ;ENiUM'S ALEUROTITHIUS.
Aleurotithius timberlakei n. sp.
(PI. XLIII, figs. 1-16; PI. XLVIII.)
This species is represented in the collection by three lots of material.
The first, Quaintance No. S732, was collected by Mr. P. 1-1. Timber-
Like, July 14, 1912, in the upper Sonoran Zone, San Jacinto Mountains,
California. The second, Quaintance No. SS1S, was forwarded by
H. S. Smithl and represents specimens collected by Mr. R. K. Bishop
at Santa Ana, Cal. The third lot was sent by Mr. Bishop from
Santa Ana, May, 1913. All specimens were collected on Eriodictyon
t,, 4 ito.suinm, conmmonly known as Ytrba santa.
Pupa case (P1. XLIII, fig. 1).-Size 1.008 by 0.72 mm.; shape elliptic:
color pale yellowvish. Submarginal area separated from dorsal disk by..
series of small more or less conical papilla' (P1. XLIII, fig. 4). Margin:
with tll( wax tubes as irregular teeth (PI. XLIII, fig. 2) from which,
titurt,-like markings extend mesad across the submarginal area.
Dr-1um with tlie :segments distinctly marked and possessing large
nullnTi'r's. of prominent uainimifoirm papilla v (P1. XLIII. fig. 3). These
:r1, situniatd in .r',ips on tie sull)o(rsal portions of the segments.
Vsi-iform orifice (Pl. XLIII, fig. 5 broadly subcordate, with the
it .lli,,r :air'rii straight. (O)perctilu inimilar in shape to the orifice
.ill filliiin1r alout o, ,e-thlird of it: distal (extremnity of the lingula

As s.en oin the l.af, tliere is a prominent rii of waxy secretion which
cl,\:iv, 1 lite te extremelv from the leaf and there is ani abundant
dors-al .,'e'-ilii, cim)iposed of more or less fused waxen rods from the
ji,,,nmif,,,- lp.ipill;,,.


100










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ALEUROTITHIUS TIMBERLAKEI.
Fig. 1.-Pupa case, dorsal view. Fi-'. 2.-Margin of pupa.case. Fig. 3.-Dl)orsal papilla of pupa
case. Fig. 4.-Papille Lf :~iitir.in:il area of pupa case. Fig. 5.-Vasiform ,irii,. Fig 6.-
Appearance of dorsal p:iill:i- m,.vrn in dorsal aspect. Fig. 7.-FoI',\IIi'. Fi'. .--Margin of
forewing. Fig. 9.-Distal -egimerit of tarsus in claw of adult. Fig. l1.-Vasiformn orifice of adult.
Fig. 11.-Genitalia of male, dorsal view. Fig. 12.-Genitalia of male, lateral view. Fig. 13.-
Ovipositor of female, showing ovipositor folded. Fig. 14.-O-vipositor of female with ovipositor
extended. Fig. 15.-Mentum of adult. Fig. 16.-Antenna of adult. (Original.)


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TETRALEURODES MORI.
FT I.-Forewing of female. Fig. 2.--Forewin,,, of male. Fig. 3. -Antenna of adult female. Fig.
Genitaliaof male. Fi. 5.Distal en of valves of male gi,. Fig. 6. dult claw.

















F~i,-. 7.--Tarsi of adult. Fi-,. 8.--Egg. Fi,. 9.--Polygonal markings of .-.z.,suirface. Fig. 10.-
Larva, firstinstar. F i-. 1. l.-Larv-a, second instar. Fig. 12. --MIargin of ease of larva, second
instar. Fi_. 14.--Pupa,..i-,,. dorsal vi,N. Fig.' of pupaease. Fig. 15.--Vasiform
ortih,,.of ptpa ease. Fig. 16.--Vasiforin orifice of adult. F:ig. 17.--Lateral v-iew, vasiform, orifive
of adult. (rihlal / .)
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TETRALEURODES MaRl.
Fig.l .-Forewving of female. Fig. 2. -Forewin; of male. Fig. 3.-Antenna of adult female. Fig.
4.-Genitalia of male. Fig. 5.-Distal end of valves of male griiii.ilh~. Fig,. 6.-Adult claw.
FiiL. 7.-Tarsi of adult. Fi.'. 8.Eg Fig. 9.-Polygonal markings of "*:*; surface. Fig. 10.-
Larva, tirst in'star. FL-. 11.-Larva, second instar. Fig. 12.-Margin of cass of larva, second
instar. FiL. 13.-Pupa ri~-". dlorsal vi~w. Fig. 14.-M:ir'2in of pupa case. Fig. 15. -Vasiform
01 niii* of pupa case. Fig. 16i.-Vasiformn orifice of adult. Fig. 17.-Lateral view, vasiform orifice
of adult. (Orjiniul.)


PLATE XLIV.








PL ATI XLV.


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ALEUROLOBUS MARLATTt.
1-i. 1.--:. FL'. 2.-Larva, r- inf-tar. I --Vaqform ,':.. of r,, ''-" insiar. Fi.
1.--Larv-a. sctiid instar. Yii. .5.- T i i- i of fias of lirx i, -tw onii in a ir. iz;. >.-\ -";ifini
n lii ** of larva, second ins'r. Fi.- 7.-lUiiA of lir, *I in-tnr. Fn_ ,. lI.drvi. iMi ri
instar. Fi... ', --I- -r.i of case of larva, ihiri instar. Fiz. 1. V\':iurm .' of lIirxi. ihiri
instar. Fi 11.-I'ii ,IcasI-, dor-al view. I :. 12.-V -,. ,m *";'.*.* ai l iirro(>n i,-, trilo l
area of piI'. eaae. Fi.-. 13.-Mi jr..'in 'if pupa ca- e. VFizH. .i'-,. raccwal comb of 1-e'h
' f pip lica .se. Fiz. 15.-F,'r*.vinlz. FI-, l.i. -N ,'.--_ ,-,ii' :i I latIeral -view. 1)ri "in l. .


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Te Series 27 Pa.- 1, B.1a f E U. S. .-.1. of A -.":. -je


PLATE XLVI.


PUPA CASES OF ALEYRODINAE.
Fig. I.-Diahurod s citri, pupa case on leaf. Fi. _2. -Ahuroparadoui:s irdf', '. pupa ease on
lef. FU. 3.-Alhurocanthus spinif'rus. pupa case on leaf. Fig. 4.-Ahlurotrach(lus trl, h,,;,
p]up.a cas oin iaf. Fi-'. 5. -Pfaliius kdoggi, pupa case on leaf. F'-,. 6.--1 1, ,",.t ....px,,i'd, "*,
":!' : ca '- on leaf. (Of i,-'ii :1.)















Tech. Series 27, Part II, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture.


PUPA CASES OF ALEYRODIN/E.
Fig. 1.-Alturolobus, marlatti, pupa case on leaf. Fig. 2.-Asttrochiton abutilonta, pupa case on leaf.
Fig. 3.-T ii ,i', n mori, pupa case on leaf. Fig. .--A4lurothrixis howcardi, pupa case oi
leaf. (Original.)


PLATE XLVII.











Tech Seris 27 Pa-t II, Bueau of E.


U. S. Dept. of Agricuture.


PLATE XLVIII.


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ALEUROTITHIUS TIMBERLAKEI.
A- huntithiu;s ti;.bfr'izkti showing infestation of un'ier-i lt. of leaves of Eriodictyon tomfntosum.
(Orti~iinil.)






GENUS TETRALEURODES.


Adult female.-Length from vertex to tip of ovipositor with this
organ folded 1.392 mm.; color brownish yellow, dusky on appendages;
eyes and tip of labium dark brown. Forewing (P1. XLIII, fig. 8)
1.52 by 0.64 mm., slightly shaded with dusky; radial sector in about
the middle of the wing; margin (P1. XLIII, fig. 9) armed wi h rounded
teeth which appear to be devoid of hairs. Legs long, hind tibia
0.608 mm., hind tarsus, proximal segment 0.26 mm., distal segment
0.112 mm. Labium (P1. XLIII, fig. 11) extremely long, particularly
the distal segment, which is 0.384 mm., while the second segment
is 0.08 mm. Ovipositor (P1. XLIII, figs. 13, 14) extremely long
and acute, usually carried folded (P1. XLIII, fig. 13), in which position
it measures 0.32 mm.; when extended, 0.608 mm. Antennal segments
(Pl. XLIII, fig. 16) with the following proportional lengths: II, 0.067
mm.; III, 0.17 mm.; IV, 0.067 mm.; V, 0.075 mm.; VI, 0.0625 mm.;
VII, 0.05 mm.; distal segments subcylindric, imbricated; III with
a distal fringed sensorium and a stout spine; V and VII each with
a circular fringed sensorium.
Adult male.-Similar to the female in general characters and color.
Length 1.04 mm.; forewing 1.2 by 0.48 mm.; hind tibia 0.56 mm.;
hind tarsus, proximal segment 0.192 mm., distal segment 0.096 mm.;
labium with the distal segment 0.384 mm., and the second 0.08 mm.
Claspers (P1. XLIII, figs. 10, 15) somewhat straight, 0.208 mm. long,
each clasper with a median longitudinal angle which is armed with
a row of six or seven stout spines.
Type.-No. 1479, U. S. National Museum. Described from males
and females in balsam mounts and pupa cases in balsamn mounts and
dry upon foliage. Quaintance No. 8830.
This species shows a remarkable adaptation to its host plant. The
leaves of this plant, Eriodictyon tomenfosum, are very hairy, so much
so that aleyrodids with mouthparts of usual length could not feed
upon them. In this species the mentum and setae are much elongated,
enabling the species to reach through-the hairy covering and puncture
the leaf tissue for food. Similarly the ovipositor is greatly elongated
to enable the female to place its eggs directly on the loaf epidermis-
the universal habit among species of this family.
Genus TETRALEURODES (Cockerell) n. gen.
(P1. XLIV, figs. 1-17; P1. XLVII, fig. 3.)
Pupa case variable in size, elliptic to broadly oval in outline,
usually dense black in color; margin of case with distinct teeth, the
wax tubes usually well developed; submarginal area separated from
dorsal disk and conspicuously fluted by suture-like lines; dorsum
without papillae, though minute pores may be present; reniformn "eye
spots" often evident on cephalic portion of case; tracheal folds, as
a rule, not discernible; wax secretion usually a more or less copious



.: r


107






108 CLASSIFICATION OF THE ALEYRODID.E.

fringe from marginal wax tubes. Vasiform orifice small, subcordate,
sometimes rounded; operculum similar in shape and almost entirely
filling the orifice, obscuring the lingula; orifice usually elevated on a
tubercle-like projection of the dorsum.
Adult with one flexure in radial sector of forewing and no trace
of media. Anteimne of seven segments, of which the third is the
longest. Sexes about equal in size.
Type, perileuca Cockerell; example, mori Quaintance.
SPECIES OF THK GENUS TETRALEURODES (Ckll).
T. abnormnis (Quaintance), Tech. Ser. 8, Div. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr., p. 17 (1900).
(Florida.)
T. acacia (Quaintance), Tech. Ser. 8, Div. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr., p. 19 (1900).
(California; Mexico.)
T. asparagi (Lewis), Joumrn. Quekett Microsc. Club (2), vol. 6, p. 88 (1895).
(Natal.)
T. aucube (Kuwana), Pomona Journ. Ent., vol. 3, no. 4, p. 625 (1911). (Japan.)
T. corni (Haldeman), Amer. Journ. Sci. & Arts, vol. 9, p. 109 (1850). (Penn-
sylvania.)
T. dorseyi (Kirkaldy), Bul. 2, Div. Ent. Bd. Comm. Agr. & Forestry, Hawaii,
p. 52 (1907). (California.)
Syn.: quaintancei Bemis.
T. errans (Bemis), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 27, p. 500 (1904). (California.)
T. miarginata (Newstead), Mitteil. aus dem zool. Mus. in Berlin, vol. 5, pt. 2,
p. 172 (1911). (East Africa.)
T. melanops (Cockerell), Bul. 67, Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta., p. 665 (1903). (California.)
T. mori (Quaintance), Canad. Ent., vol. 31, p. 1 (1899). (Eastern United States.)
T. mori naculata (Morrill), Psyche, vol. 10, p. 81 (1903). (Massachusetts.)
T. mori arizonensis (Cockerell), Science Gossip, n. s., vol. 6, p. 366 (1900). (Ari-
zona.)
T. nigrans (Bemis), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 27, p. 522 (1904). (California.)
T. perileuca (Cockerell), Bul. 67, Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta., p. 664 (1903). (California;
Texas.)
T. plumosa (Quaintance), Tech. Ser. 8, Div. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr., p. 33 (1900).
T. splendens (Bemis), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 27, p. 489 (1904). (California.)
T. slanfordi (Bemis), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 27, p. 508 (1904). (California.)
T. stellala (Maskell), Trans. New Zealand Inst., vol. 28, p. 442 (1895). (Australia.)
T. stgphelix (Maskell), Trans. New Zealand Inst., vol. 28, p. 442 (1895). (Aus-
tralia.)
T. ursorum (Cockerell), Canad. Ent., vol. 42, p. 171 (1910). (Colorado.)
Genus ALEUROLOBUS n. gen.
(P1. XLV, figs. 1-16; P1. XLVII, fig. 1.)
Pupacaseof medium size, subelliptic to ovalin outline; colorusually
dark brown to blackish; margin toothed, the wax tubes only mod-
erately developed; submarginal area separated from dorsal disk and
much fluted by suture-like lines; dorsum without papillae, though
minute pores may be present; tracheal folds evident in some species,
though obscure or wanting in others; when present terminating
on margin of case in a few specialized teeth; reniform "eye spots"





UNPLACED SPECIES OF OLD GENUS ALEYRODES.


usually present on cephalic portion of case; wax secretion usually
present as a narrow fringe from marginal wax tubes, and sometimes
on dorsum. Vasiform orifice subcordate; operculum similar in
shape, almost filling the orifice, obscuring the lingula; orifice sur-
rounded by a definite trilobed figure, the lobes of which form a
channel from the orifice caudad to margin of case.
Adult with a single flexure in radial sector of forewing and no
spur of media; wings usually marked with reddish. Antenna of
seven segments; in the female, III longest; in the male, VII often
as long or longer than other segments together.
Type, marlatti Quaintance.

SPECIES OF THE GENUS ALEUROLOBUS.
A. barodentis (Maskell), Trans. New Zealand Inst., vol. 28, p. 242 (1895). (India.)
A. longicornis (Zehntner), Arch. Java Suikerind., vol. 5, p. 381 (1897). (Java.)
A. marlatti (Quaintance), Canad. Ent., vol. 34, p. 61 (1902). (Japan.)
A. niger (Maskell), Trans. New Zealand Inst., vol. 28, p. 437 (1895). (Australia.)
A. simula (Peal), Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 72, p. 81 (1903). (India.)
A. taonabxe (Kuwana), Pomona Journ. Ent., vol. 3, no. 4, p. 623 (1911). (Japan.)
UNPLACED SPECIES OF THE OLD GENUS ALEYRODES.
The writers have not been able satisfactorily to place the following
species of the old genus Aleyrodes in any of the foregoing genera on
account of inadequate descriptions. It is hoped that those familiar
with these species will indicate their proper systematic position.
A. atriplex Froggatt, Agr. Qazette New South Wales, vol. 22, p. 757 (1911). (New
South Wales.)
A. avellana3 Signoret, Ann. Soc. Ent. France (4), vol. 8, p. 385 (1867). (France.)
A. carpini Koch, Die Pflanzenlaiise Aphiden, p. 327 (1857). (Europe.)
A. complanatum (Birensprung) D'Alton & Burmeister, Zeit. f. Zool., vol. 1,
p. 169 (1849); Spec. Bul. 88, Mass. Agr. Exp. Sta., p. 330 (1903). (Germany.)
A. euphorbix Loew, Verhandl. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, vol. 17, p. 746 (1867).
(Austria.)
A. filicicola Newstead, Mitteil. aus- dem zool. Mus. in Berlin, vol. 5, pt. 2, p.
174 (1911). (East Africa.)
A.fraxini Signoret, Ann. Soc. Ent. France (4), vol. 8, p. 386 (1867). (France.)
A. gossypii Fitch, Third Rep. Nox. and other Ins. N. Y., p. 332 (1857). (Ningpo,
China.)
A. goyabx Goeldi, Mittheil. schweiz. ent. Ges., vol. 7, p. 248 (1886). (Rio do
Janeiro, Brazil.)
A. jelinekii Frauenfeld, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, p. 799 (1867). (France;
Austria.)
A. tabaci Gennadius, Agricolt. Ellenica (Gennaio) (1889); also Targioni-Tozetti,
Animali ed. Ensetti del Tobacco, p. 246 (1892). (Greece.)
A. tinaoides Blanchard, Hist. Fisica y Polit. de Chile, Zoologia, vol. T, p. 320
(1840). (Chile.)
A. vaccinii Kunow, Ent. Nachr., vol. 6, p. 48 (1880). (Germany.)
A. timmermanni Newstead, Mitteil. aus dem zool. Mus. in Berlin, vol. 6, pt. 2,
p. 173.
0


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