Papers on Aphididae

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Papers on Aphididae
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Phillips, W. J
Davis, John J ( John June ), 1885-1965
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TECHNICAL SERIES, NO. 25.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF ENTOMIOLOGY.
L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.


PAPERS ON APHIDID-E.


CONTENTS


AND


INDEX.


ISSUED APRIL 26, 1915.


WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1915.


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TECHNICAL SERIES. No. 25.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREA-A.U OF ENSTOIVMOLO G-Y.
L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.




PAPERS ON APHIDIDME.





I. STUDIES ON A YEW SPECIES OF TOXOPTERA,
WITH AN ANAL.YTICAL KEY TO THE GEM'S
AND NOTES ON REARING METHODS.
By W. J. PHILLIPS AND I. J. DA\'[V. Entomological Assistant
Cereal and Forag'jt, Insect Inz I tlig Jion,.


II. THE YELLOW CLOSER APHIS.
By J. J. DAVIS, Entomologic,! Assistant, Cereal and
Forage Insect In vestigations.







IJ'L-UFI APRIL 26, 1915.


W.SHINGTO0N:
GOVi:RN',IENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1915.






















B URE. 1 U OF ENTOMOLOG Y.


L. 0. HOWARD, Ent,,moloqist and Chicof oBureau.
C. L. MA I.LATTr, Ea to-iioi v.'t f1d Ari'tiq Chit.fin Absc nce of Chicf.
R. S. CLIFTON, Chitf Clirk and Eateutire .Assistant.

F. II. l-ITTENlDEN, in cli'irqt ,f trucl crop and stort d product incl investigations.
A. D. HOPKIN.-. ;, chtriq' of/itst i.'scf it I-tstin lron:5.
W. D. H 'NrfTE i. in charge of 'souti'rn fiic:l. cro pins.(,'t iii IstUiations.
F. MI. VEIISTILH, in charge: of evrcal uzdfibrayc insect in i.fiatfiions.
A. L. QUAINTA( E., in charge of dcuiduousjruit ifibsct in (.Ii.tiltilns.
E. 1'. PIIILLII's, in crge of b,, , A. F. 1t 'RGES:. in rfjiiqi of iipf,. moth (nd hru n-tf;l moth ;n i stigations.
ROLLA P. t i i U Kt.. in chtiorj of editorial work.
MABEL (OI.LC)RD, iII I,, of 1il.,'u .

CERF:AI. AND FORAGE INSECT INVESTIGATIONS.

F. M 3:,'I TE' It, i/ i/I, /(.
G. I. RE.EVX:,. W. J. P)hi1i.iI-. L. 0. G. KI:ILV.Y, J. A. 11YSLOP, J. J. DAVis, C.'N.
AINSLIE, W. R. WALTON, A. B. GIAHAN, J. M. Ai.rDlll, V. L. WVILDERMUTH, W. R.
M C(UNNELL, T. D. U1)A.l-1. R. A. VIKL.jlY, PHILIP LLGINBILL, C. W. CREEL,
IENiY FOX, GiUO. G. AiN-i1If. IAIRiISIN ]E. SMI-rii. P. H. TIMBERLAKE, R. N.
WII.SON, \ErNO)N KING., E. 11. GIj>,N,, L. P. RIOCKW4orD, F. H. GATES, PHILIP
B. MILES, T. I'. <'.1AMISIrii.[1\ A. F. SATlEI'l{Til\VAIT, T. SCOTT WILSON, D. J.
CAFFRIEY, W. H. I.AMlilM .II. L. J. I',WER. C. M. PACKAIl), ADOLPH H. BEYER,
CLAUDE IL. SC)-OTT', S. J. SNOW, Di:s ..A BENNION, R. J. KEWLEY, GEO. W. BARBER,
C. F. TURNER. Jus. S. \\ADrE. W. 1:. PENNINGTON, WV. T. EMERY, D. G. TOWER,
P. R. M YERS. E. L. B .A IS: r1f, (I ,ffit fHI'91 ( .s.>;'.,/l, .
W B. HALL, J. T. MONEI.I.. I()//,/!,f,,',/,-IftI .















CONTENTS.


STUDIES ON A NEW SPECIES OF TOXOPTERA, WITH AN ANALYTICAL KEY TO THE
GENUS AND NOTES ON REARING METHODS.


W. J. Phillips and J. J,
Introduction.............. ....................................
Description of the species.....................................
Genus Toxoptera Koch........................................
Key to the genus...........................................
Distribution of Toxoplera rn uhIlnb rgixe...........................
Feeding habits................................................
H ost plants...................................................
Life history................ ....................................
Continuous-generation experiments.........................
Molting...................................................
Fecundity of the summer forms...........................
Age when individuals begin reproducing .....................
Length of life of the viviparous forms.....................
The sexes.................... ................................
Place of oviposition........................................
Fecundity of the oviparous females........................
M ortality of eggs..........................................
Rearing methods...........................................
THE YELLOW CLOVER APHIS ................................. J. J.
Introduction.................................................
Synonymy...................................................
Generic position.................... ........................
D istribution..................................................


Daris..




















Daris..


In Am erica .......................................................
In A sia...........................................................
Food plants.............................. .................................
Descriptions.......................... ....................................
W ingless stem-mothler................................................
Winged viviparous female.........................................
W ingless viviparous female.........................................
Winged male..................................... ..................
W ingless oviparous female..........................................
E-gog........... . .... .............. ............. ...... .
Life history and habits................................................
M methods of study.............................. ..... ................
Generation experiments...........................................
Molting..................... .. .........................................
Fecundity in relation to other species..............................
Natural enemies........................................................
Bibliography...........................................................


Index


III


Page.






















ILLUSTRATIONS.


PLATES.
Page.
PLATE I. Outdoor raring shelten.......................................... 12
II. Outdoor rearing shelters used in life-history studies on the yellow
clover aphis.................................................. 24

TEXT FIGURES.
FIG. 1. Toxoptra nili1idwrgi.;:: Wiigeil viviparous female and antenna..... 2
2. Toxopt, r a ,m,,l rii.,: Winghvls v iviparoius female................. 3
3. Toropt, r ,,, ,, rffr,. : .W inlt.. Inal :lil antenna- --.................. 4
4. Toxoptera ,,'ilil, ,, rqi.'i.: Win.le.ss oviparous female, antenna, hind
il, ........................................................... 5
5. T,,J'v t ,' ra ,m, 11, 1 '1i. : T'" L' ......................................... 6
6. T,7.rpt, ,', ,, ,1, ,., 7. Lamp-chliinimwyv niltinl. tiage ii-d in ra:Lriiing aphides-................ 14
8. Lamp-chijmiri,. ,*r i,*r.il inn ..,1,. 1I-'.d in r iring alllidos ............. 15
9. Lailp-rliiniy -i C'ck .,'1. us-i.l in rarinir aphides.................. 15
10. Maip showirii -liiibllin of ho. y.ll'w cl ver aphis (Callipterus
trif,,J;;, in flo. U united s .iii...................................... 19
11. '1 T i. .llw ,li.r .:lqlii3 (.Callip',',,n. trn ;J'): Winged viviparous
f..iiil, aIl l .1tail................................................ 21
12. The yellow ,.l, v,.r aipii-" Wi-iN.:!-i vivipariis femniale and details ..... 23
13. The vI'i .llw ,l,',v.r tihpli: W it]_D,1.,1 n;il' anl 1 tit ilnft................. 24
14. The yellow clover a-li-: W'inl',.-- ovi~arn-n, fi.al, and details...... -25
15. ri.._., -1 ', i ._ priiis and su.rri,-i,,n of g, ,ii.ratiins in the yellow
clov..! ali Vi-. .:. l.iyel,.: ,- i 1913 .............................. 34


































ERRATA.
Page 15, legend to figure 9, second line, for ap;, d.nu r,.:il alfI'id5s.
Page 19, line 18, for sa,,foin read si.;fin.
Page 19, line 18, for Unobrychis read] Onobrychis.
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Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2012 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries with support from LYRASIS and the Sloan Foundation


http://archive.org/details/phidida00unit














INDEX


Alfalfa (see also Medicago sativa)-
not food plant of Callipterus trifolii in America ........................
Aphidoletes sp., enemy of Callipterus trifolii................................
Aphis ononidis, probable synonym of Callipterus trifolii......................
Aphis, yellow clover. (See Callipterus trifolii.)
Barley, host plant of Toxoptera graminum.................................
Bluegrass. (See Poa pratensis.)
Cages-
for life-history studies of Callipterus trifolii.............................
for rearing Toxoptera muhlenbergix....................................
Callipterus trifolii-
article............................. ....................................
bibliography..........................................................
cages used in life-history studies.......................................
description..............................................................
distribution in America..............................................
distribution in Asia.............................. ....................
egg, description.......................................................
fecundity in relation to other species....................................
female, winged viviparous, description................................
female, wingless oviparous, description..................................
female, wingless viviparous, description...............................
food plants..........................................................
generation experiments.................................................
generic position......................................................
habits and life history ...............................................
life history and habits ...............................................
male, winged, description.............................................
molting........................... ......................................
natural enemies .....................................................
stem-mother, wingless, description....................................
study, m ethods.......................................................
synonym y...........................................................
Camellia, host plant of Toxopt'ra aurantii...................................
Carex sp., host plant of Toxoptera caricis....................................
Ceylonia theaccola= Toxoptera aurantii.....................................
Chaitophorus maculatus-
bibliographic reference...............................................
= Callipterus trifolii...................................................
Chaitophorus ononidis, probable synonym of Callipterus trifolii................
Citron, host plant of Toxoptera auranlii......................................
Clematis, host plant of Toxoptera clematidis................................
Clover-
alsike, food plant of Callipterus trifolii.................................
aphis, yellow. (See Callipterus trifolii.)
bur. (See Mcdicago maculata.)
E9803-15- 2 41


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42 PAPERS ON APHIDID.E.

Clover-Continued. Page.
English. food plant of Calliplerws trifolii............................... 19
food plant of Macrosiphuin pisi ....................................... 38-39
Japan. (See Lcsped(:a spp.)
mammoth. (See Trifolium mcdiumn perenne.)
red. (See Trifolium praltnse.)
sweet. iSee Mtlil7o/ts -pp.)
white. (See Trifli mrr p. ns.)
Coccinila 9-noala. enemy of (vliipt, riis tri'l-lii-............................... 39
DAVIS. J. J., paper, "Tihe Yellow Clover Aphis (Calliptcrus trifolii Monell)".. 17-40
DAVIS, J. J.,W.J. PHI LI i PS anil. paper, "Studieson a New Species of TOXOPTERA,
with an Analytical Key to the Genus and Notes on Rearing Methods". 1-16
Empiisa aplhidis, funous enemy of Calliphrus trifolii......................... 39
FunL,-iriuiS enemy of Callipb rus trifolii. (See Emtipusa aphidis.)
Grass., various, host plants of Toxoptti ra gram inuin.......................... 8
"GrenIm inzg." (See Torophra grain um.)
IHippolai, i am con it r1, ns, enemy of Calliptcrus trifolii.......................... 39
Lal\yl ird, 9-spittld,. (Sce Coccinl1a 9-niifata.)
L spi ,ieza lspp., nt food plan Its of z ( allipl ris trifo ii......................... 19
Lucern. (See 3i dicajo saliva.)
Mfacros;plih,,n pisi on clo\ver, fecundity in comparison with Calliptcrus trifolii.. 38-39
Mcdi,-,ijn maculata, perhaps food plant of (Callipt, rus trijflii.................... 19
lb fiCtiiio sa;i a (soe also Alfalfa)-
f,.,d .plant of C "allpb' rt.s trifulii in Indlia............................... ..17, 19
.ifiili1 ,,1i.i ''lhlata, cnk-m. y of Callipihrus trifuli................................ 39
Me lil,1'' S lpp., not f'l ,, 1 plants of ('llipt, rs trif. iii........................... 19
Midl, 0b, r/j*a sp., lh,'st I'1liit of Tript, ra iiHil nlhi rq.ix,..................... 1, 8, 9
MAfizoeall.- n ,i ls i, P l',1,al1," TvIi',,yin of f l ',11'1,t, r,. tr'folii .................. 18
Mfz:occall; trifliK-
,ir Ii'-,,._ r irivi e Iire ,,.. .C. .( f.......................................... ...... 40
=I a lpirl. ,, .f tri tJ; o, T................................ .................... .. 18
Oat-n. iLn t pa lt of ,/,'l. r'u ,,,/, ,i1,1,, ...................................... 8
On ,ri,.,mts .,,u.. f ',. T',t food rl.p t i h, i l4 i l( ri..: tr. f l;.i ......................... 19
Oranh-oe, li,-t 111an t o f T1 '. ..lo, ra a,,1 r, i i.. .................................... 8
P1 A.Vr-, W. J.. ;1Id DAVIl-,. J. J.. 1,;iI.-,r, "S1 ,lidit -,o a No(w Species of ToxoP-
TERA. wiltI an .IAnalyli,. K-.I to tlh (",i i.:- .id,l Noti.-son Rearing: Methods".. 1-16
Pih s t pla nt of T"f /'i, ra lnog.....b r.i... .......................... 9
Rains in control of Ca pl,. rais trifoli "......................................... 39
Rearing mn etlfi,,, f,,r T., 114,. ,a ,,,1,1,ii nbirg;* .................... ............. 15-16
0iamnfits alaIt rns i-
liost plant of Tox.rep ra olaf rcim ......................................... 8
host plantof Td rolplru rural noata ........... .............r................. 8
Rye, bust plant of T,,rophra graim tri ........i............................. 8
Sainfoin. (See Otnbruchtis suli a.)
Sclrpus lacislris, host plant of Toropt ra .sc ................................8
Scirpts sp, c; riinm, lost plant of Tor.opt ra scipi................................ 8
TI'frioaplifs ono dis, probable synonym of CaJllib, rs irif,,.................. 18
Timothy, not food plant of Calliplcrus trifolii ................................ 19
To.ropti ra alal, rm a, characters, host plant .................................... 8
Toxioptcra. a new species, paper ............................................ 1-16
To.coph ra auranlia'= Toxropit, ra auranlii..................................... 8
To.'optira aurantii, characters, host plants. ynonymzs......................... 8
To rophra camiifi ,e= Tri.'opt, ra auranltii....................................... 8



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INDEX.


Toxoplera caricis, characters, host plant-....................................
Toxoptra clematidis, characters, host plant.................................
Toxoptera grain ibaim-
chliaracters, host plants................................. .................
mistaken determination of To.roptcra muhlenbergix........................
Toxoptera, key to species of genus...........................................
Toxroplera mi i1 age when iniilividuials begin reproducing...............................
article ................................................................
characters, host plant .................................................
continuous-generation experiments......................................
distribution ........................................................ ..
egg, description.......................................................
egg mortality..................... .....................................


fecundity of oviparaus femalt.-.......................
fecundity of summer forms -..-.......--..............
feeding habits...... ............................-- -.-..
host. plants................ .............................
length of life of viviparous forms-......................
life history.............................................
molting................................................
n. sp., description....................................
oviposition place ...................................
rearing methods ................. .....................
sexes, life history ....................................
stem-mnother, description of instars .......--....--......
winged vivipari ,us f,.male, description................
wingless male, d-c'ription...........................
wingless oviparolis female, description.................
wingless viviparous female, description.................
To.XrVif 'a Scirpi, characters, host plants -..........-- ..--.-
To.roplera variega/a, characters, host plant..................


Trifolium medium perenne, food plant of Callipterus trifolii....................
Trifolium. pralcnrsc, food plant of Calliptcruis trifolii...........................
TrifolbtMin rcpcns, food plant of Calliperus trifolii ...........................
TrifolJim spp., not food plant of Callipichrus trifolii in India...................
Vetch, spring, not food plant of Cdallipl rus trifolii............................
Weather conditions in control of Calliphris trifolii.........................
Wheat-
host plant of Toxoptera graminum.....................................
host plant of Toxoptcra muhlenbergixe...................................

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