Life history of the alder blight aphis

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Life history of the alder blight aphis
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i..- HOWARD, Entomolbgist and Chief of Bureau. :






B -- ; LIGHT -APHIS. ..
S .- .- -.






.;,.: .- ." THEO. PERGANDE,
SA,.- 9. 1912.


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TECHNICAL SERIES, No. 24.


U. S. DEPARTMENT


OF AGRICULTURE,


BUREAU OF1 ENTOMOLOG-Y.
L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.





THE LIFE HISTORY OF THE ALDER

BLIGHT APHIS.


THEO.


PERGANDE,
A.. .istlatt.


IU'EI-El APRIL 29. 1912.


WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1912.































BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY.


L. 0. IIOWAIL), Ento,, ogi,,1ist and Chief of Bureau.
C. L. MAI.LAI'T, Entomiologist and Acting Chief in .Abs.ct'ce of Chief.
R. S. CL.I1TON, E.r<'cutir'c As.xiitant.
W. F. T.sTI:r, Chief Ci(rk.

F. I. C1 IT'rT NiM:EN, iln charge of t'ru-k crop and stor it viprutvlu l' inscl inl rct'.igatlions.
A. I). IIOPKtNS, ill charge( of forest i..i'.t inirc.ti,'iitionis.
WV. D. II :. 1).lil chair'l" of xof u Itr ii fid c'rop il).f rt' ilrl.ligilijoils.
F. M. W i itsi i ii, i (il chari o(if erc(al,1 a1 t! forliale" iiN(c'tf ill1 't'.Nti!iltioHs.
A. L. Q AINTAN(C'E, i n chargeC of drIluiiiIs fruit illse't i(rn.,s"//tiltlion.s.
E. F. PIIILLIPS, in char/l ( of In I culture'.
I). M. Ro.II ..s, il clhharge' of prcr,' ting slpr (ad of moths, fil'Id iworh'.
ROLL.A P. C(RIE, iin lrariftr/ of editorial irorkL'.
21.\ I. COLCOI!I>, in charge of library.
2


















CONTENTS.


Page.
Introduction..........................................................-------------------------------------------------------.... 5
Generic and specific synonymy of Prociphilus tessellata Fitch------------------.................. 6
First series: Pemiphigus acerifolii Riley....---------------.----.....--...--------------9......... 9
Extracts from notes made at the time------................................. 11
Second series: Pemphigus tessellata Fitch.......------------------.--.........-------------... 14
Extracts from notes made at the time-....--------------------------------....................... 14
Description of the principal stages of Prociphilus tics.sellte Fitch-.............. 18
Sexual generation-..................................................... 19
Sexual female-..................................................... 19
M ale ............................................................. 20
W inter egg . .. . 21
Winter eggI ---- I --------------------------- .-..-..-....21
Asexual generations........................................ ..--------------......... -----21
Colony on hlaf of imal)le................ --------------.............. -............ 21
Young stem-mother.....................---..........----------------.............. 21
Mature stemn-mother................. ............................... 22
M igrant............................................................-------------------- 22
Apterous female on alder--------------------------------------........................................... 23
Hibernating serie---................ ...........................------------------------------- ..... 24
Economic stat us................. ............. .................------....... -------------. ... 25
Index .....................................--------------------------------.......................... ----------------------------... 27



ILLUST R A T IONS.


Page.
FIG. 1. Prociphbilus tesselfita: Migrants from maple to alder-------------------................... 12
2. Prociphliis tessellata: Return migrants on trunk of maple.....-----------..-...- 16
3. Prociphiltus tessellata: Sexual female and antenna...................... 19
4. Prociphilus tessellata: Male and antenna.............................. 19
5. Prociphilus tessellata: Colony on leaf of maple...--.................... -------- 20
6. Prociphihus cesselldia: Young stem-mother and antenna.------------... 21
7. Prociphiluis tessellata: Mature stemn-mother and antenna--------------.............. 22
8. Prociphihus tessellata: Migrantand antenna.........-------------..--......----------... 23
9. Prociphilus tcssellatia: Colonies of apterous feniales on alder-............ 24
10. ProcipJhilas te.sellalrc, Colonies of apterouis females on alder------------............ 24
11. Gallery made by the ant Cremaistogaster to protect colony of Procphilius
tesscllla on alder.............. .......................---------------------------------.......... 25
12. Prociphilus tessellata: Apterous female and antenna --.....---...--... 25
3










































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http://archive.org/details/lifeald00unit















THE LIFE HISTORY OF THE ALDER BLIGHT APHIS.


INTRODUCTION.
For many years past the writer has spent much time in studying
the insects of the family Aphididu. or plant-lice, in the office and
laboratory and in the field. In perhaps no other group of insects is
a thorough knowledge of the life histories so nece-sary to correct
conceptions of the species and the differences between them. These
life-history studies are often rendered especially difficult from the
well-known fact that many of these aphide.. have a secondary or
alternate food plant. In the case of injurious species it sometimes
happens that the main injury is to the alternate food plant, and the
discovery of the primary food plant furnishes the key to the most
effective way of controlling the species. A notable example of this
is the hop aphis (Pholrodon hA .mi Slc rank) which lays its eggs
and passes the winter on the plum. and which is be-t combated by
destroying or spraying the wild or cultivated plum trees at the
seasons of the year when the aphis is pre.-ent on this food plant,
rather than by measure., directed against the insect during the
summer when it occiir- on the hopvine-.
The writer has worked out the life histories of several of the
aphides which have alternate food plants. Among these may be
mentioned Hormnaphis ,h,1,,im, loidis Fitch and Hamamelistes .,p)lI,-
sus Shimer. which inhabit both the witch-hazel and the birch,' the
hop aphis, just mentioned, and others.
Investigations by the writer of the pre-ent species, which has
heretofore been confused utinder various names, were begun in 1878
and have been continued up to the year 1911. They have resulted
in straighltening out the synonymy of the species and furnished con-
elusive proof that the Pemphigus acerfoliu of Riley, described from
the maple, and the (Eriosoma) Pcimphigus tch.s.(lata of Fitch, de-
scribed from the alder, are merely forms or series of one and the
same species, which should now be known as Prociphil.sw b,..'sllata
(Fitch).
IlT'ch Ser. No. 9, Div. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr., 1901.






LIFE HISTORY OF THE ALDER BLIGHT APHIS.


GENERIC AND SPECIFIC SYNONYMY OF PROCIPHILUS TESSEL-
LATA FITCH.
Erior.oma t.,.,.'ll7ato Fitch. Cat. Ins. [N. Y.] State Cab. Nat. Hist., p. 4N. 1%51.
.Aphis stamini U.t INI Ihhni;n11. Proc. Bostton Sic. Nat. Iist.. vol. 6, p. 403, 1S59.
SchZiion mu, tr.'.rll.fiti Thomams. Sth Rept. Nox. andl Beni. Ins. Ill., p1). 139,
1 ^79.
P,'imphigus 1t( ,,'itaf Osborn, Can. Ent., vol. 14, p. 61. 1 ".
PemphY1 i1ais a'/ riflii Riley, S[h Rept. Nox. and Ben. Ins. Ill.. Suppl.. p. 209,
1879.
P, mphi'ums ahi Prov:iiclier. Petite Faune Entoiii(lp..iqup], du C(inada, vol. 3,
p. ;12<. 1, S ;.

Pni I i.i LEIS Koch.

The genIus ProTi;phihw wa- de.:crilbvd by C. L. Koch 1 in 1.,57, and
i(ic'ludtel tliree -pecie-. Tl'he following is a trianlation of his generic
diliagr ,t),:i-:
"AlfeI,,imi.-Short : the two biasal joints as ii-.ial. s.lort; joint 3
as long as the two following joints coin'ined and s.(mnewhat uneven;
joints 4 to 6 subeqlal in length; spur of sixth joint thin and rather
short.
Siv; X f rt'i i / "'An, 1/4,',, ,,r'; asf.--rtii. longL_ and narrow: the :tignmal vein
sligihtlv curved. The first two di:,i.,idal veins. ari,.ii nr cl)-e together,
tliougli not from the -.1le point.
'*l, ('s.-4R;ther -tout and long."
All of thv-o charaict.T- agree well with tlio-e of I'. t, of. sel,,f Fitch
;1d -oml other speit.-.
In coli ,tion witl tlwe al)bove dle-cription it T1eii1- ne(e'sIry to add
a few points not mentioul, b)y Koch:
Antmi:;il joints 3 to )5 or 6 more or ( e-- de l-ely provided witlu trans-
ver -. eblo'te-(ival -en ria, t eiiching tlie lateral margin.
Venation of hind wings like that of PJ' p!,tlip',i'. the two discoidal
veins 1ri-ii, ea,2 r each otlher frm tlie sub,'otal vein alout the middlle
I L.tween tlhe 1,a-e of the wiigr and the hooklet-, at a point where the
-1lbcostal blends -ilddvdly toward the front margin of tlie wing, giving
it thle appr-:i.r;i lce of thliree di',oi'll veins or of a three-pronged fork.
La-t alilo)minal -eimnent amd tail senmici rcuilar aid fringed with
-lender la;ir-.
Pi CIPIIILUr TESSEI.LATA Fitch.
This so common ,-pecies was fir-t descriheil 1by Dr. A-a Fitchl. State
entomolo'gi-t of the State of New York. from apterous specimens
fot id on brnmich- of alder (A i-.,. rubra), il his catalogue of tlhe
ITominoptera of the State Cabinet of Natural History of the State of
New York. 1851. page 68, with the following word-t:
1 Pthinz,,nl;mii-e .Aplhido," p. -'71t.






GENERIC AND SPECIFIC SYNONYMY. 7

"Alder blight, E. tessellata. Dull bluish-black; tergumn with the
segments marked by strongly impressed lines and covered by white
down in square checker-like spots. Length, 0.16. On the underside
of branches of the alder (Alnius rubra, Marsh.) crowded together and
concealed beneath a dense covering of snow-white down. I have
searched in vain for winged individuals of this species. No. 863."
A few years later Prof. S. S. Haldeman described the same species
as a large species forming follicles on the leaves of the silver-leaved
maple, Acer erioarpmni (of which Acer dasyar-'piml is but a syn-
onym). He refers to it as follows:

"Apis (Pemp/iyg i, ) stam ,ie u..
"This name is proposed for a large species of Aphis which forms
follicles on the leaves of the silver-leafed maple (Acer eriocar i) ."
Prof. Haldeman, who mistook the migratory female for the male,
gave the following description of the insect:
"Jlale.-Black, feet long, slender, and rufous; tarsi biarticulate;
wings slightly deflexed, translucent, pale ferruginous at the base,
submarginal nervure conspicuous, black, and ending in a long stigma;
disk with four simple nervures; po:terior wings with three nervures;
mesonotumn polished, with a deep Y-shaped impre-sion; abdomen
without tribes; promusci.s obsolete, antenna? 6-articulate, the first
two short, the third long, and the fourth, fifth, and sixth gradually
lengthening; length of body, 11 lines, or, to the end of the wings. 20
lines.
"Femn ale and pupa.-Apterous, dark-reddish brown, feet paler;
promuscis twice as long as the head, thickened near the apex; length,
1 lines."
This is without a doubt the same species as the one described by
Prof. C. V. Riley under the name of Pemphigus acerifolii. the de-
scription of which, for the benefit of those interested in this subject,
may be here reproduced.

"Penmphigus acerifolii Riley.
Living in abundant and long cottony excretions on the underside
of the leaves of Acer da.ycarpurn, causing them to curl, and exuding
an abundance of thick and very glutinous 'honey-dew.'
Winged female.-Alar expanse 16 mm. Head and thorax bluish-
black. Abdomen black, covered with long cottony threads. An-
tennae reaching the wing insertions; annulations not conspicuous;
joints 3, 1, 5, and 6 somewhat contracted at base and apex; apical
unguis not perceptible; joints 5 and 6 subequal; 4 distinctly clavate;
3 as long as the two preceding together. Wings subhyaline, of a
IProc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 6, p. 40:1, 1859.
257950-No. 24-12--2






LIFE HISTORY OF THE ALDER BLIGHT APHIS.


whitish tinge; subcostal vein and the inner margin of the stigma
black; oblique veins whitish, stigma short and broad, not angled at
the base of the stigma] vein, which starts from a little behind the
middle and is comparatively straight, thereby making the apical cell
rather narrow. Terminal distances between the veins subequal, that
between second discoidal and cubital somewhat greatest; basal one-
third of the cubitus hyaline, but not abortive, as it can usually be
traced to its base, which is very close to that of the second discoidal;
bases of the two discoidals either approximate or quite contiguous;
discoidals of the hind wings proceeding connectedly from the sub-
cotnal vein. Larva with 5-jointed antenna and the promuscis extend-
ing beyond tip of abdomen."
Prof. Cyrii, Thomas determined the alder blight as Schlzoneura
tx.ellata, and g-ave the following short note concerning it:
This species is found on the underside of the branches of the alder (Alnus
rulb'a), c(o'iwdod to,,!ether amd (cmiceailed beneath a covering of snwv-white down.
Wingless individuals, dull bluish-black ; the 1ack of the segments are marked
with str ly impressed lines and covered with white down in square, checker-
like sl',its. I.iLIth to tip of the abdmen,, 0.16 inch.
Prof. H. Osborn, on account of the -iinple venation of the wings,
referred the specic:- to the 'reilus Po /pi;l'efus.
Lastly, it was d,'-cribed under the name of Pcilip/i gUs alni by the
Abb6 L. Provnc.lher. who suppo-ed that it was a new species. The
follo\wil Z is an English translation of the French original descrip-
tion:
Pcmpnhiqus of the alder. Po mi iiflhi!/uI. (li.
J.'(h l... 0.'- nni.; to the tip of the wiii.s. 22 umi. Dark brown, including the
h:ed and les. .ud r,' d entirely with a lwhitish powder. The abdomen is covered
witli a 1,,1:z. vlwhite. ;id Wo ,olly se.retlionu. The wings are transpa:,irent, thlie veins
brown and '1,1; slii e"lo:a c14,ii:tted. imi n'ow; radical cell el ingate, inferior
veins 1.lr,,ly .urved.
Found ill n 4lli. (11, co1miaet jIn't-ss. severall inchlics l ii'. on A!.mu.s, during
SelptemblIr.
T'W-ide- the above extracts pertaining to this species, it may be ap-
propriate to mention here also a short report by Dr. Peter Kalm, a
Swedish naturalist, of whose Travels into North America an Eng-
lish translation has been published. In Volume I, second edition
(1772), pg1, 121, there is the following account of an insect on the
alder, noticed by him while traveling through Pennsylvania and
Delaware. October 3, 1748:
I saw to-day the Chcri'm.s of the alder (Chcrmnes atii) in great abundance on
the branches of thliat tree, which for that reason looks quite white, and at a
distance appears as it were covered with mould.
The above lines refer undoubtedly to P. te.,se fata, which Kalm
mistook for the European insect which was mentioned by Linnueus





I







FIRST SERIES: PEMPHIGUS ACERIFOLII RILEY.


in "Fauna Suecica," published in 1746, but which was described in
the "Acta" of Upsala in 1736 under the name of Chernes alni L.
Later, by mistake or oversight, Dr. M. Geoffroy1 redescribed this
latter insect under the name of Psylla viridis, and as inhabiting the
alder, without recognizing in it the Chemes alii L., which may be
considered typical of the genus Psylla, and a good illustration of
which, though without a name, will be found in "Memoires pour
Servir a 1'Histoire des Insectes," Volume III (1737), Plate XXVI.
figure 1, by M. de Reaumur. Another figure of the same psyllid was
published by J. H. Sulzer2 under the name of Chermnes alwi L.
Evidently this psyllid, from a distance, bears some resemblance to
our American insect P. teosellata, which inhabits the American
alders.
Kalm was therefore greatly mistaken when he supposed that our
insect was the same as the European Chermes aJb, L., or rather, as
it is now known, Psylla aini.
Ratzeburg3 refers to this insect in the following words:
Auf Erlen [alders], ist die im Puijl))envzusl 8(ide soh r soidiiii.ria re, kurzborstigo,
grfine, zuletzt schwarznft rig", als Flige, schn -nissgrnine 11', iii* P. a1i L.,
welche mieist in fler Blittachsol iliren Sitz hl;it, shlr,' ausuziciihnlet durch lange
weisse Wolle, welbhe beweglich zu W'erden scheint, w\einn das hIsec(t beunrullhigt
wird.
An English translation of the above would read as follows:
On the alders are found very curious, green, short-siiield pupae, the la
end of which in time becomes quite black, which eventually 'lhamge into the
11 lines loii. bright, raiss-green PI.,llnit (nii L. They are generally stationed in
the angles formed by junctions of the petioles of the leaves and the t\wi-is. The
most obvious characteristic about them is the \ery long, white wool, which
appears to move whenever the insect is irritated.
All of the above facts prove that the European Cl 'ines or Psylla
alni L. has nothing in common with the American insect.

FIRST SERIES: PEMPHIGUS ACERIFOLII RILEY.

Observations on the first or original series of PemphigpsU acc(-eifoli
Riley, inhabiting the soft, or silver maple, .Acer ( asycar(l)pum, were
commenced by me in 1878 and continued until the year 1911, whereai-
observations on the alternating, or -econd series, of P, mphi.gus tes-
sellata Fitch, inhabiting the alders, were started in 1883, or about
five years later than those of the former.
Pemphigius aerfoli issues during the early or middle part of
April, or as soon as the young leaves appear, from winter eggs de-
posited the previous fall in cracks or under loose bark on the trunks
1 Ilistoire .Ahrk't', des Insectes, vol. 1, p. 4.5i6, no. 3, 1709.
2 Die Kenn7(z. .lln 'der Insekten, PI. XII, 1761,
SDie Forst-Insecten, vol. 3, p. 187, 1844,






LIFE HISTORY OF THE ALDER BLIGHT APHIS.


of maples, on which return migrants from alders had delivered
themselves of the true sexes.
These young stem-mothers, after hatching from winter eggs, travel
upward onto the branIches and settle on the midrib of the underside
of the young leaflets. Usually there is but 1, though frequently there
may be 2, 3, or more on the same leaf. in consequence of which, as
well as from the increasing irritation, the leaves thus infested exhibit
a more or less marked tendency to fold or almost to "double up
from the midrib downward.
Under or within this protection or covering there may be observed
numbers of larve and pupe of different stages, up to 100 or more, in
company with their mother, all of which, from early in June to the
end of July, or until the supply for migrants has been exhausted,
develop into winged migrants, without, however, leaving any larv,
behind to continue the series on the maple. These migrants fly then
to the alders. which frequently are rather distant from the maples,
and settle at once on the iunderside of the leaves of these shrubs, where
they are soon engaged in depositing their larva,, which surround
them in a circle of about 20 to 100. These larva, after feeding for
about an hour or so. move to the twigs, branches, or stems of the
-l'rilbs to start a new cycle of life for the species. Here a number
of generations i. developed, after which, from about the middle of
September to tlie middle of Octobe r, mlnierous return migrants are
developcil. which fly bhack to the triunks of the maples to continue the
cycle of life pre-cribed by nature.
In eon-equence of these facts, which were gradually obtained, I
have 1heen able to prove beyond a douiibt that the original host plant
of this -pecie: is the ilver maple, and not, as might be supposed, the
alder; the latter is its -cc(.ondary food plant, and proof of this was
established during June of 1903.
In conjunction with the ibove. it seems proper and just to give
some of the o. )servations madel through which the life history of the
splcies was definitely ascertained.
Be-ide: the migrants from the maple and return migrants from the
;ilder. I ascertained albo that after the departure of the return
mimgrants numbers of mature, apterois, females till remain upon the
alders and keep on producing additional larvw, all of which, without
casting a skin. crawl down the stems, and frequently to the stouter
root-, which are more or less surrounded by cavities made by ants. or
hide between or beneath the dead leaves, etc., which surround the base
of the shrubs, for hibernation. These form the first hibernating series
of larvae and neither feed nor crow until the sap rises again the follow-
ing spring, when, after an absorption of sufficient nourishment, they
cast their first skin and keep on growing until mature, at which time,


10






FIRST SERIES: PEMPHIGUS ACERIFOLII RILEY.


like their parents, they also deposit numbers of larvaN, which in turn
reach maturity.
Multiplication goes on in this way until a second series of migrants
is produced the following fall from the original settlers. However,
there remain again enough apterous females to produce a second
series of hibernating larvae, to produce an additional series of
migrants. A third series of migrants and hibernating larve was
also traced.
How long the vitality of the original stock will last it is impossible
at present to surmise, though it seems that multiplication may go
on indefinitely if the aphides are not exterminated by carnivorous
enemies or by parasites.
The most active among the carnivorous enemies are the larvae of
the lycwenid butterfly Ft ,i.,eca tarqu;i,,s Fabricius; the larvae of the
lacewing fly Chrysopa sicheli Fitch [=C. quadripunnctata Burmeis-
ter] ; the larvae and images of two ladybirds, Hi;ppodam;a coner/ge,/s
Gucrin, and Adalia bpunctata Linneus; the larvae and images of a
hemipteron, (Xabis) Pagasa fusca Stein, besides the larval of various
syrphid flies, which generally prove very destructive to these aphides
and frequently exterminate whole colonies.
Internal parasites are thus far not known.
Besides these enemies, there are various species of ants which are
mainly attracted to thee aphides by the honeydew ejected by them,
upon which they feed, while some of them even protect the aphides
against enemies by constructing tubes or tunnels of earth over and
around such colonies, leaving here and there a few exits open to
enable the ants to enter and leave. The ants which have been
*observed to construct tunnels or covers over these aphides are Tap1-
noma sessile Say and Cremastogaxtcr lineolata Say; among those
which simply gather honeydew, Camponotus pennsyltanicus De Geer,
Lasius alian s F6rster, and Monomori-am> minimntti Buckley (in;in-
turn Mayr) have been observed.

EXTRACTS FROM NOTES MADE AT THE TIME.

June 28, 1883.-Migrants from maple leaves, placed in a jar for
observation, deposited since yesterday a large number of larva. All
of them were provided with a long rostrum, which proved that they
were not the sexes of this species.
Found to-day two colonies on leaves of maple near Rosslyn, Va.,
and considered the migrants in these colonies at that time as being
identical with those of Pemphigus tessellata Fitch, though notwith-
standing that migrants were flying, I failed to observe any of them
or their larvae on any of the alders examined. However, after
placing infested leaves of maple with a branch of alder I found,
later on, that two of the migrants had settled on the alder leaves.
id






LIFE HISTORY OF THE ALDER BLIGHT APHIS.


With them were albo a few small colonies of larvae which had settled
on the branch, while recently deposited larve were also observed on
the leaves.
J1uw, 7, l9n4.-Received to-day from Chatham. Va.. some leaves of
maple infested with pupa: andl migrants of Pmpldg!,s ace(rifolUi. A
number of these migrants were placed with a potted plant of alder
for observation, and I found the following day that quite a number
of tlh-e migrants had settled on the underside of some of the leaves,
and with thein were many young larva' which they had deposited,.
all of which proved them to be identical in every respect with those
of P, m/ipt,,.; t .c Ja/a. These
-*_h f larvae were reddish or brown-
%- [j'!; -h red and provided at the
S '.. ...ana :tla end of the body with a
V .- ...^ white and curly or cottony
'.^ '" \ [V'/~': -ecretion, wlhiclh gradually
,.,.~-.LI spreadL over the whole insect
S...-, .:: % ,,_. until it had the appearance of
.,i' ^.11 little lump) of cotton.
'^^ :.*-'l ^ iraiits \\licli were placed
._ ," _-.>." .. *^ -'ti^ ^ withh a potted maple died with-
'.,'.W I tst ( dep,-itg an'y lr'-d.
'.-Te, Jlwe *.,, suro.-u1)sderved
,:' -''aircl to(-day -;oiun irits of Peal-




1o Irig o h lavI.ThI
1 mip" hl. It "i .]N,/ (j eI; l 1171iv ao nr ,! it a the uin-
in t al .:.. .. d,',r-tid. of leav es of alders,
.... .lh'" ^,,AUnts ,',/,.a, n a;ir tlhe Cliain
ai". iBridl-,. District of Cthletrbia.
m Tlihey were eaoli sarrmuinded by
{^ a circle ,of ;bout "2 larva. all
(of \vhich had already east
e vtls. irg first :kill. wlAio4i was Id-
or lir"ingc to tlhe leavesl. These
FIl; i.-!ohilu.s 1 t,- Wilta: Mi.-rants larvntn wtre Omalngle and theil




fia.. I fun.I-L un ader. the-;i shgg bar of a tre n br of(ea n
fdryre uniii to aldert Oridwthth bdmlsoen coveredd with a long
and bctikward-direttrd, cttnv :t-ecretion. whrTrei- thlat of the thorax
was -liorter and quite erect, longe-t along tlie median line. Some-
timt,- tlitre ,,r four of the migrantst. lad .ttled on the same leaf;
,-,1, of them were already ,d;id or ,arely living. On -nome of the
Ie:nve(- wtre .zevrlil ringz- of cast -kinis. varying f'rom 18 to 40 in num-
1ur. while on the b1and.ie.- of the same shrub-l were numerous larger
or -luialler colonies of larva.
April 11, 1905.--While examining trunks of maples near Rosslyn,
Va.. I found, tnder the shaggy bark of a tree. numbers of dead and
dry return tiigrants, and with them also -oine of the young stem-


12






FIRST SERIES: PEMPHiGUS ACERIFOLII RILEY.


mothers, slowly moving about, all of which would have had to crawl
5 to 10 feet to reach the nearest branches. Young larve were not
yet present, though the buds were just swelling.
May 11, 1906.-To-day I saw near Rosslyn, Va., a few young stem-
mothers on leaves of lower branches of maples stationed near the
base of the midrib on the underside of the leaves. Two of them were
already fully grown and completely covered with a large amount of
woolly secretion, irregularly interspersed with rather long and more
or less curly or wavy white threads. These two females deposited a
few larva, till the day following.
May 18, 1906.-Found at Rosslyn, in the same locality as above, six
of the stem-mothers on one of the maples. With one of them were
75 and with another one over 100 larvae, which were already of two
stages and of a pale orange color. The smaller larvae had a brush
of white secretions at the end of the body. whereas the whole dorsum
of the larger or older larvae was covered with long, white wool, inter-
spersed with twine-like, wavy strands.
June 6, 1906.-A lot of maple leaves badly infested with Pemphld-
91gus acerifolii were received to-day from Fredericksburg, Va. Among
the aphides were quite a number of migrants, some of which were
placed on leaves of a potted alder and soon titled d on the underside
of these leaves. On examining this tree in the afternoon of the
next day I found that one of the migrants had deposited a consider-
able number of larvwe, which soon after were seen traveling up and
down the stem.
June 10, 1906.-Discovered to-day four colonies of Pemphigus
acerifolii on leaves of maple near the Chain Bridge. District of
Columbia. The infested leaves were almost folded, both halves bend-
ing down from the midrib. Inside of these folds were numbers of
pupa? which at the anal end were provided with about 12 rather
stout, twine-like, and somewhat wavy or curly white filaments, about
3 or 4 times the length of the body, spreading out fanlike, inter-
mixed at their bases with shorter, fine wool or secretion. In the
immediate neighborhood numbers of migrants were already found
on the leaves of alders accompanied by a brood of their larvae,
besides numerous colonies of larva' on branches and stems.
June 18, 1906.-A large colony of larvae from migrants of Pemphid-
gus acerifolii, which had settled on the stem of a potted alder, was
greatly reduced by piipa' of (Nabis) Pagasa fusca Stein, which fed
on the aphides.
June 26, 1906.-Observed to-day numbers of migrants from maple
on the underside of leaves of alders near the Chain Bridge, District
of Columbia. Many of them were already dead, though all others,
still living, were empty and shrunken. Two of the migrants, alive
and active, were surrounded by numerous larvae, and still depositing.






LIFE HISTORY OF THE ALDER BLIGHT APHIS.


There were also numerous colonies of young larvav on the branches
and stems.
May 28, 1911.-Found to-day one colony of Pcmpliigis accrfolii
on a leaf of maple near Rosslyn, Va.. containing one stem-mother
and 135 of her progeny-mostly pup'e. in various stages of develop-
nment-besides many quite small larvav, while the mother appeared
to be in a condition to deposit still more.
SECOND SERIES: PEMPHIGUS TESSELLATA FITCH.
Notwithstanding that the insect under this name lad been known
to me since 1869 as having a range from Canada to Florida and as
far west as St. Louis, Mo., occurring upon native and foreign species
of alders, the first attempt to learn its life history was begun in
June, 1883. when young colonies had established themselves on
braunclhes- of different kinds of alders on the grounds of the Depart-
ment of Agriculture at Washington, D. C. The larve were appar-
ently tih progeny of migrants from maples nearby. They had
-ettled on the underside of the branches in groups of 4 to 8 speci-
mens. arranged in circles, with their heads toward the center. All
were covered with ratlier long, white secretion, so as to resemble
a ro-ette, or a Ningle in-ect, reminding one strongly of some of the
aleyrodids. This secretion issies from 6 rows of transversely oval
and rather flat warts.
Early in October of the same year some of the branches were
alnmo-t completely covered with colonies 12 or more inches in length.
Among the gre 'at number of apterous females were also many pupa
and laite, numbers of winged specimens.

EXTRA( T S I- M N1FT.-S MADI)E AT TILE TIME.

.lprl ., 1.97.-Ob-erved again -inzill colonies of larvae on alders
on the ALrricultural grollnds. All of them were densely covered with
a white and woolly secretion, intermixed with stout and curly threads.
They werC1 clo-ely packed and resembled colonies of large mealy-
bugs. arranged more or less in circles; sometimes they3 were, however,
so munch crowded that many were actually standing-on their heads.
Tlese, larv, L-ad apparently been hibernating since the previous fall.
Septeit 1r .12, 189'.-Found large colonies of this insect on alders
at Cabin John, Md., and among them numerous pup I'Thle wied specimen, were densely covered with long, white tufts
of secretion, which formed a dense mass on the dorsum and around
the end of the body, besides projecting in shaaggy tufts above the
closed wings. This secretion was intermixed at the anal end of the
b)ody with longer and stouter threads; along the sides of the abdomen
were rather long, delicate, and somewhat curly, erect tufts or
streamers, and also long and forwardly directed tufts on the thorax


14






SECOND SERIES: PEMPHIGUS TESSELLATA FITCH.


and head, whereas the ventral side of the body was densely covered
with a short and white secretion.
September 14, 1897'.-A lot of migrants from alders were placed in
a tube to obtain their progeny. By the following day they had de-
posited a number of larve which, on examination, proved to be the
sexes, or males and females, of this species, both of them without
a rostrum. The females were about twice as large as the males and
of a bright yellow, whereas the males were greenish or greenish
yellow. The antennae and legs of both were colorless. Each of the
females contained only one egg.
Most of the males were dead about 7 days later, whereas most of the
females were still alive, active, and mature. These females had
cast four Qkins, which in most cases were still attached, in a con-
tinuous string, to the end of the body. None of the females had in-
creased in size, and they looked the same as before. Some had
secreted a quantity of rather long and woolly secretion, which covered
the posterior half of the body.
September 21, 1897.-On examining the trunks of maples near
Rosslyn, Va., I discovered one of the sexual females in a crack of the
bark. in the company of a migrant from alder.
September 30, 1897.-Examiiined the trunk of a European alder on
the Agricultural grounds, the branches of which were still covered
with this insect; on the trunk were also a few mIigrants. though I
failed to find any of the sexes or the winter eggs; there were, however.
on the rough bark and tucked away in cracks or cavities large num-
bers of hibernating larva', while others were still coining down.
Xove,,ber 8, 1897.-Reexamined the same tree, and found again
numerous hibernating larve in cracks and in empty egg-cases of
spiders, but none of the sexes or winter eggs; tlese larvae were either
covered with a bluish-white secretion or ornamented with 6 dorsail
rows of squarish, me:ily patches, giving them a pretty, checkered
appearance.
After an unavoidable intermission of a number of years, observa-
tions on this particular aphis were again taken up in 1903.
January 11, 1903.-While again examining alders on the Agricul-
tural grounds, large numbers of colonies of this species were seen
on the shoots, all of them being covered with cottony secretion. On
examining these colonies it was found that all of the apterous females
were dead, having evidently been killed by the late frosts, but under-
neath them, and between, were found live and active hibernating
larvae, which evidently had been protected against the wintry blasts
by the covering of their dead mothers.
Septe ber. 271, 1905.-A few colonies on alder were found near the
Chain Bridge. District of Columbia, and among them numbers of
return migrants.


15




--7


16 LIFE HISTORY OF THE ALDER BLIGHT APIHIS.
October 5, 1905.-Large numbers of return migrants were found on
the trunks of many of the maples near Rosslyn, Va., while on alders
near by some colonies of Pempligus tcs.cllata, composed of apterous
females, accompanied by numerous larva, of the hibernating series
and numbers of return minigirants, were observed. A comparison of
these migrants with those found at the same time on the trunks of
maples, or with those of the first series, termed Pemphigyus acerifolii,
proved them to be absolutely alike. These return migrants to the
maples were scattered over the trunks of the trees from the bottom
to at least 50 feet above
S' ^the gr1ound,1 or as far up as
the eve could reach, re-
sembling flakes of snow.
Frequently as many as 20
'A ;L or more were counted in
some of these batclies.
St. *yWith the iiignraints were
I-.also numbers of the true
y sexes, many of them in
,coula.llo of tt o fll tese
/'1 ^-.^I fenaChad (.(en ded into



'. *such stall. .' s thleat it.l

., -Cet 'I also win gmposs ie
foi- themt t o dos ); 3 spec'i-




S1oIes of two or moexes were




*--^'i^""<-'*'^^'-^''sligrhtly covered withi or
jV
2."p.ihiiius tcat: Return uirns embedded itween a delicidte
o1. Ir, n of n l O i:ni )r i *i m
."" nsom. I. slayer ol white wools. while





& i11pt femialcs wereP (olorless and~ gen erally d(ied1 somre distance fromn
their e,, thog. someies a ( ead female was found with the egga sall





still attached to it.
.July 19, 190G.-Nar the Chain Bridge. District of Columbia.
".Failed to find P. .,--gus a.c/fo!p on leaves of maple), nor were any






migrants ob-erved on leaves of aldlers. I discovered, however, 3
colonies of the hibernating seres,110 some of which were already males,
ture females acoma ied by hundreds of young larvae, distributed r e
in patches of 5 to 10 or more, all arranged in circles, with their
:ILI ('," :.' ". '"'.. r, P t)II s of two or more,
"._' '-,..,'""+)'",--.- .,ligrhtly covered within or
FmI.. 2.--Pioet'iijhiltu tesselata: Return nilyrants em bedded in a delicate
oni trunk of Inn:Il4e. (01r-i"i:11.) layer of white wool. The
emlpty fenlahc- Were celorh, ss and gteierally died some distance from
their ev still attached to it.
July 19, 1906.--Nt(-ar the Chain Brid1ge, District of Colutmbia.
Failed to find AP, ip/igus a,- eifol;l[ on leaves of maple, nor were any
migrants ob--erved on leaves; of ah~lers. I discovered, however, 3
colonies of the hibernating serie%; some of which were' already ma-
ture females, accompaniied by hundlreds of young larvxa,, distributed
in parolies of 5 to 10 or imore,.a11 arranged in icewtthr






SECOND SERIES: PEMPHIGUJS TESSELLATA FITCH.


heads directed toward the center, each specimen being ornamented
with six rows of shaggy or threadlike secretion.
October 15, 1906.-After examining thousands of alders near the
Chain Bridge, District of Columbia, only three colonies were discov-
ered, composed of apterous females and their larvae situated near
the surface of the ground on the stems, each of which was completely
covered with a tube of mud constructed by the small ant Tapinoma
sess*Ie Say. I saw, however, on the trunks of large maples, thousands
of dead return migrants and the sexual generation belonging to them.
November 26, 1907.-Observed again near the Chain Bridge num-
bers of hibernating larvae between the dead and decaying leaves which
had accumulated around the ba-e of a small shrub. All of them were
quite lively, though not feeding. They were very dark greenish or
almost black, covered with a mealy secretion, and provided with a
cotton-like brush at the anal end of the body.
March 11, 1908.-Numbers of hibernating larvTe were found near
Somerset. Md., which had gathered around the ba-,e of the shrubs,
though still covered with fallen leaves, while smaller colonies had
already settled from 1 to 4 feet above the ground, arranged in circles
.of 5 to 10 specimens. All were covered with a bluish-white secretion
and had 4 dorsal rows of small dense and rounded white knobs and
a fringe of woolly secretion along the sides and around the anal end
of the body.
May 1t.. 1908.-Found again near Somer-et one small colony, about
2 feet above the ground, composed of mature apterous females of the
hibernating series, besides numbers of young larve deposited by them
which had settled near by while others were still crawling about.
These young larvae form the third generation of descendants from
migrants of the previous spring.
June 12, 1908.-Numbers of colonies of the hibernating series, each
colony being about one-half an inch in length, were seen at Great
Falls, Va., on small shrubs. They were about 10 inches above the
ground, whereas those on taller trees had located 10 to 25 feet above
the ground. All of them were already in the third stage, were closely
packed, and covered with a fuzzy secretion. Migrants from maples
were not present.
Septci ber 24, 1908.-Numerous colonies of this species were again
observed on alders near Somerset, Md. Some of the colonies were
more than 6 inches in length and were stationed from near the ground
to 2 feet above. They were composed of apterous females, numerous
larvae of the hibernating series, pupa. and some return migrants,
while at the same time a considerable number of these return migrants
and many of the sexual generation were found on the trunks of
maples along a street near by.






LIFE HISTORY OF THE ALDER BLIGHT APHIS.


October 15, 1908.-Examined some tall alders near Rosslyn, Va.,
on which migrants from maples had settled in spring, and found
four colonies about 10 feet above the ground. These colonies were
from 6 to 10 inches long and contained apterous females and numer-
ous larvae destined for hibernation. They were crawling down the
stems to the base. where they congregated in a dense mass, while a
great many were already in hiding between the fallen leaves near
the base of the trees. There were also many of the return migrants,
which were crawling to the tip of the branches or to the terminal
leaves, on which they settled, ready for migration.
April 27, 1909.-Examined again the above alders near Rosslyn
and found that some specimens of the hibernating series were already
in the second and third stages.
In the youngest, or fir-t stage the antennae are distinctly 4-jointed;
in the second stage, after eating a skin. they are 5-jointed; they are
.1-o 5-jointed in the third stage, tholughl the divisions between the
joints are much more distinct.
June. 1J, 1909.--O1)bserved some migrants of Pemphlgus acerifolil
and their larvwe on the underside of leaves of alders and numerous
colonies of such larva on the stems or trunks of such shrubs from
1 to 10 feet above the ground, at Great Falls. Va. (Early in Octol)er
(of tlie ,inie year large colonies were seen on the same alders, about
4 to 15 feet above the ground, composed of apterous females, accom-
panied by numeroit larvawe of the hibernating series which were
swarming down the stems, and number, of the rvttuir migrants.)
Jue 1910.-Saw again numbers of nmitra its of Pemphigius
J1111 ...,291 0.t-1 t-in m
ai, P'fu,,;i. with recently deposited larvae near them, on the underside
of leaves of alder near Somerset, Md., while numbers of migrants
were still flvinlr about. There were also numbl)er.- of colonies of
apterous females belonging to the hibernating series and numerous
larvw deposited by them.
Sl pttin m: 17, 1910.-Numerous colonies of Pemphigus te.xsellafa,
about 4 feet above the ground, were again found on alders near
Somerset. They were composed of apterous females and their larvae,
l)besidcs pupa, and return migrants. Many of these colonies were
being preyed upon by larvae of Feniseca t 'i'qbiii.s, as well by larva,
of coccinellid and chrysopid insects. Many of the apterous females
descended during October to the base of the shoots or stems, even as
far down as 1 or 2 inches below the surface, where they were sur-
rounded by numerous liberating larvae, constituting a second series.
All of these colonies were covered with tunnels of clay constructed
by Ccnm 11togaster lineolata Say.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PRINCIPAL STAGES OF PROCIPHILUS TES-
SELLATA FITCH.
In view of the fact, as has already been stated, that the spring
migrants from the maple to the alder and the return fall migrants
from the alder to the maple are absolutely identical and, as a rule,


18






DESCRIPTION OF PRINCIPAL STAGES.


destined to continue and to conclude the yearly cycle of life for the
preservation of the species,
the following descriptions
of some of the principal
stages are herewith in-
cluded.

SEXUAL GENERATION.

The larva-like sexes of
the species, which, toward
the end of September and
early in October, occur on .
the trunks of maples, are
rather small and without j d ..
a rostrum for the absorp-
tion of food. /

SEXUAL FEMALE..
The sexual females, as FIG. 3.-Prociphilus lcsscllata: Sexual female
found under loose bark of and antenna. (Ori-zinal.)
maple, are of an orange color, with the sides of the body more or
less distinctly grayish
)green. They are elon-
gate-oval and rather
plump, and contain only
one large< orange egg,
which reaches to the
prothorax. The legs
and antenna are whit-
ish; the eyes small and
black. The posterior
lateral angles of the
prothorax and of the
first abdominal segment
^i' ^. ..are rather prominent,
"'. "- while similar though
smaller angles are also
present on all of the
other abdominal seg-
ments except the termi-
FIG. 4.-Prociphilus tessellata: Male and antenna, nal one. The antenna'
(Original.) ,,
(Original.) are rather short and
reach for a short distance beyond the anterior margin of the meso-


19







LIFE HISTORY OF THE ALDER BLIGHT APHIS.


thorax; they are 5-jointed; joint 3 is shortest and joint 5 longest, or
about as long as joints 3 and 4 combined; joints 1, 2. and 4 are some-
what longer than 3, but shorter than 5, and subequal in length. All
of the tarsi of both sexes are provided with short, capitate digitules.
LenQrth, about 1.2 mm.


FIG. 5--Prrriphihuv tessellata: Colony on leaf of maplp.
(Orizinal.)


MA.LF.
The male is of a more or less greenish color, with its antenna and
legs somewhat dusky. It is rather small and about one-third or less
the size of the female. The antenna are about as long as those of the
feminale, though stouter, while the proportion of the length of the
vallious joints is the same in both sexes. Length. about 0.8 mm.


20






DESCRIPTION OF PRINCIPAL STAGES.


WINTER EGG.

The winter eggs. especially in the vicinity of Washington, D. C.,
are generally deposited during the first half of October, in cracks
and under loose bark of the trunks of silver or -oft maples, where they
are embedded in delicate white wool. They are highly polished and
at first of an orange color, with a greenish-gray central spot, though
they change gradually to a blackish green. They are elongate-oval
and almost twice as long as wide. Their length is about 0.7 mm.,
and the diameter 0.4 mm.

ASEXUAL GENERATIONS.
COLONY ON LEAF OF MAPLE.

As had been stated before, it has been demonstrated that the in-
fested leaves on maple tree-"
exhibit a more or less di-tinct
tendency to fold or to double
downward, o-( as to protect
the in-ects within this fold. in
which frequently there is a
large and closely packed
colony of aphides, covered ,,
with a cottony -ecretion which
gives the entire mass a re-
semblance to a large white-
haired caterpillar. X
,YOUNG S' N-MOTHER. ,
The general color of the
young stemn-mo(ther is a dull -
blackishli or brownish green, ..
the head being darke-t. The
eyes are black and the antenme
and legs du.ikv. The in-sect- FIG-. 6.-Procil/iluAs t.,se.llata: Y(oinz stem-
.mother and antenna. (Oriz-iuil.)
are covered with a delicate
bluish-white secretion, and ornamented with four dorsal and a lateral
row each side of whitish cotton knobs. The antenna' are 4-
jointed and do not reach to the mesothorax; the two ba-al joints are
shortest; joints 3 and 4 are longest and subequal in length, each being
about as long as the two basal joints combined: the third is some-
what stoutest at the apex. while the fourth, including its short,
blunt spur, appears to be more or less distinctly fusiform. The ros-
trum is large, and reaches almost to the tip of the abdomen. Length
about 0.7 mm.


21






LIFE HISTORY OF THE ALDER BLIGHT APHIS.


MATURE STEM-MOTHEI.

The mature stem-mother, as seen on the leaves of the maple, is
densely covered with white wool, which is interspersed with long,
stout, white, and wavy strands. This secretion hides the insects com-
pletely from view, in consequence of which they resemble small
flakes of cotton. Their natural color is dark yellowish green or olive;
the end of the body is black; the legs are of the color of the body,
with the apex of the femora and tarsi blackish. The antenna, includ-
ing the indistinct spur of the terminal joint, are 5-jointed; they
are rather short and reach about to the mesothorax. The first
joint is stoutest and slightly the short-
est; it is about as long as wide, with
the apex truncated; joints 2 and 4 are
oiomewhat longer than the first and sub-
equal in length; joints 3 and 5 are
longest and each of them is almost a.
long as the two basal joints combined;
the four basal joints are of the color
i ......... of the body, while the fifth is blackislh.
$ ... .. Length of body about 4 mm.; diameter
alout 3 nnm.
S... .- The mature -tein-mother deposits be-
*...... -." I ween 100 and 400 larva, all of which
"" : forini the first generation. which may
b.:- -,. 1,' teriled the pupiferomi generation,
.,,. --.*/ -illce all of them gradually develop into
t'he.. .* tie winged or 1,1igr:itory form and,
after having attained maturity, migrate
FIIG. 7.-P-ro(iphli nliv tcssrllata: ^ L
Mature stem-motiher and an- to the leaves of alder., to deposit their
tenna. (Orli1.inI. ) larva,, which, in turn. become the pro-
genitors of the e,'uond .-eriev.. which has been described, by Dr. Asa
Fitch under the name of Eriosomwa t(,,,.f7fl',a.
[ 1IG RANT.
The iiiiriiit, as well as the return migrantn, is rather large and
stout. The head with its antenna, the thorax, and the legs are
black. The abdomen is of a greenish-brown or almost black color,
being palest on the ventral side. The dorsum of the thorax and of
the abdomen is densely covered with a whitish woolly or cottony
secretion, which generally projects above the closed wings and be-
yond the end of the abdomen, while most of the secretion of the head
is generally rubbed off. The ventral side is covered with a whitish


22






DESCRIPTION OF PRINCIPAL STAGES.


powder, which is most dense on the sternum. The antennae are rather
short and reach to or somewhat beyond the in-ertion of the front
wings; they are provided with only a few fine hairs on joints 3 to 5;
there are also 9 to 13 annulations on antennal joint 3, 3 to 5 on joints
4 and 5, and from 5 to 7 on joint 6, all of which annulations are more
or less indistinct. The tail and last abdominal segment are short
and semicircular, surrounded around the edge with slender fine hairs.
Nectaries or nectar-pores are absent. The venation of the wings is
similar to that of other pemphiginids. Expanse of wings about 12
mm.; length of body about 4 mm.


FI.. 8.-Prociphilus tessellata: Mizrnnt and antenna. (Original.)


APTEROUS FEMALE ON ALDER.

The apterous females, as found on the stems of alder, are densely
covered with white woolly or cottony secretion, which gradually
covers a whole colony, though frequently hidden from view by a
covering of earth erected over them by Cremastogaster and other
ants. After having been denuded of their cottony secretion they
are found to be of a reddish or dark orainge-brown color, with the
divisions between the abdominal segments much darker or almost


23






24 LIFE HISTORY OF THE ALDER BLIGHT APHIS.

black; the antenna and legs are the color of the body and the tarsi
are blackish. The antenna are 6-jointed, rather short, and reach
at most to the middle of the mesothorax. Antennal joints 3 and 6
are longest and subequal in length, each being about as long as joints
4 and 5 combined: joints 1, 2, 4, and 5 are shortest and subequal in
length, with the two basal joints, as usual, stoutest; all of the joints


i,.. 9.-Colonies ,if apterous frmalv.;
on :ililr. (' irisiual )


FT,. 10.-Colonies of
apterous f.mnale- on
alder. (Original.)


are provided with a few fine amd short hairs. The tail and last
abdominal segment are at in the migrant. Length about 3 mm.

HIBERNATIN; S.-RIFS.

The hil.rniating larva,, as well as tho<-e deposited by migrants and
apterou- females, are of an oranigre color, with the eve-, and tarsi dark
lrown or black; all of them are covered with a short and shaggy
secretion. The antenna? are 4-jointed in all of them; they are
short, as usual, and reach to nearly the middle of the mesothorax.







ECONOMIC STATUS.


The first joint is shortest, stoutest at the apex, and about one-half
the length of the second; joint 3 is longest, rather slender, though
somewhat stoutest at the apex; joint 4 is next in length and about
twice as long as the second. The rostrum is almost as long as the
body. Length about 1 mm.

ECONOMIC STATUS.

This species may not be considered as particularly injurious, though


FIG. 11.-Tunnel mad( by
the ant Crcmna.itola.(ItI r to
protect colony of Pro-
ciphilus tessellata on alder.
(Original.)


FIG. 12.-Prociphilus tessellata: Apterous female and
anttnna. (Original.)


it may occasionally become quite annoying if present in numerous
colonies on the leaves of maple trees, in consequence of which it may
be advisable to suggest some method for keeping it down, if not
actually exterminating it, in certain localities. To accomplish this
result it is advisable to cut down all of the shrubs of alder during
the spring and fall to near the surface of the ground and to burn
all of the bush as soon as possible, in order to destroy all of the


25






26 LIFE HISTORY OF THE ALDER BLIGHT APHIS.

colonies as a measure to prevent the maturing of the return migrants.
Still later in the season it is advisable to spray all of the remaining
stumps of the shrubs, as well as the accumulated dry leaves and other
debris suTrrounding them, with a dilute solution of kerosene emulsion.
in order to destroy the hibernating larvae. If these shrubs are kept
down for a few years there will be no chance for the migrants from
maples to deposit their larvae and consequently no return migrants
to fly back to the trunks of maple trees.
















INDEX.


Acer (see also Maple). Pa.
dJii..catirpum =Acer eriorplr)m .........................................------------------------------------- 7
original food plant of Prociph;lus tessellata-----------------................... 9-14
Adali:i bipimraa, enemy of Prociphilus tesscllta .........................---------------------------... 11
Alder (see also A ilnus).
alternate food plant of Prociphilus tesell,ta............................ -----------------------14-18
blight aphis. (See Prociphii'bs te.sslaata.)
food plant of Psylla alni ............................................------------------------------------------ 9
Alnus (s.ee also Alder).
,'II'ra, food plant of Prociphilis tessellata .............................. 6,7
rugosei, food plant of Proc)iphilus tessellat -----------------------------.............................. 12
Ants associated with Pro,-iph lThls tesstdl'it ---------------------------------................................... 11
Aphis ,lam zin'us, description by Haldeman .................................-------------------------------- 7
= Prociphilus tessellata-----------------------------------..................................... 6
Birch, food plant of Itnainelistbs sp;inosis ---------------------------------..................................-- 5
Hormaphis haimnamelidis -------------------------------................................ 5
Calnpoiiotfs pewi ns'1lran;ius, association with Pro hiii,. tsellata -------------............. 11
Chermes alni. (See P.Uqllt abi.)
('hjrlsopa quadripui,,,il'i, enemy of Prociphihuis tessl-ta...................... ----------------------11
sicheli= Ch r:suii q? iad ipl nctiati .................................. 11
Oreiiasaogast,'r l w olata, association \w ith Prociphilas te-.ell, ........ ... ------- 11, S, ', 25
Eriosomna te.Fslat i. (See Pr',cip, ii us tessellata. )
Feiscca tarquinits, enemy of Prociph ilus ftessell',ti -------------------------........................... 11,18
IIumameillistes '.i'Lo.l.', food plants .........................................--------------------------------------- 5
IIippi,(laImnia Croiireli,7e',, enemy of Proiph iii's tessellata .......................----------------------- 11
Hop, alternate food plant of Phiirudon humuli-----------------------------.............................. 5
aphis. (See Phor,',dn humuli.)
Hormaphis hamnn,,1w;lis, food plants--------------------------------------........................................ 5
Kero.ene emulsion against alder blight aphis...--....-------------------------- 6
Las.;i,. aliens, association with Prociphilus tessellata ------------------------......................... 11
Maple (see also Acer).
silver-leaved. (See Acer eriocarpum.)
Moniomnor;nm milninmon, association with Prociphilus fi'sselta.-----------------................ 11
M;i', ,iin=J3bonomorium minimum ............................. 11
\',;/i.j'u.,'c(. (See PI g, s.. fu sca.)
Paplsai fils.'a, enviny of Proili u1s te-sellat,................................. -----------------------------11, 13
Pemphig.q areeifolii, description by Riley -.......--------------------.....------------....... 7-8
=Pr'cipJh ibs tesst'ellta................................-------------------------------... 5, 6
dbi;, description by Provanclier -------------------------------.................................-- 8
= Prociph ilis te.ssellata --------------------------------------...................................... 6
stain!n,,.i. (See Aphis staminieus.)
tt'sselita -=P'ociph ils tessellata----------------------------------...................................-- 6
Phorodo,, humuli, fo,'d plants -------------------------------------------.............................................. 5
Plum, original food plant of Phorodor hmimuli...............................------------------- 5
27








28 LfFE HISTORY OF THE ALDER BLIGHT APHIS.

Page.
Procip/i I/iis, description of genus-------------------------------------------........................................... 6
tesqselhta, ant associates ........................................ -------------------------------------11
apterous female oni alder, description----------------- .................. 23-24
asexual generations, descriptions .----...---------------.......---. 21-25
colony on leaf of maple, description-----------------................... 20,21
description by Fitch-------------------------------.................................. 6-7
of principal stages----------------------......................... 18-25
economic status ....---------------------------------.................. 25-26
first series (Peimnphigis acerifolii Riley)----------------................. 9-14
generic and specific synonymy-- ...------.....---------------.......... 6-9
hibernating series, description----------------------......................... 24-25
insect enemis ..----------------..............---------------------.. .......... 11
male, descript i ------------------------------------.................................... ---20
mention by Kalm as C, rmu .- alni---------------------...................... S-9
migrant, descridpt ii n.----------------------..............-----.........-.. --22-23
notes oil alternate series.-------------....-----........---------..... 14-18
,,ri.riial series--------------------------- ............................... 11-14
second series (on ablvr)---------------------------............................... 14-18
sexual femiale, description...-------------------------....... 19-20
generati,,n, dei>-riptiin...................---------------------...... 19-21
stemi-motlier, iiature, dc,.ription----------------------...................... 22
young., dcriptin....------------------.................. ---21
winter eg..........................................----------------------------------------. 21
P'..ql, ,un;, description by Patzeburg, on alder.-----------------------------........................... 9
i'ridi.s=- ", '!, alni.............................................----------------------------------------------.. 9
Si:ii, n, t'..tlaf,, lscritiion by Tlinis............................... ------------------------------8
=-Prf,;1J.. e.e-i ,,Fr.............................--------------------------------... 6
Syrp)hid fly larv,., enemilies of ''lls t,., ll.i-------------------------- .......................... 11
T pi, ,'-n ,t .,. s.;<,', ass,,iitiil w itli P ro-'----7-,-. ,'.-. ,,-,'-....... .... .. .......... 11, 17
Witch-hazel, food plait if If' ili.' s spi.iuMs---------------------------........................... 5
fIruajulis l,,,',,,te'is ........................-------------------------. 5



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