Miscellaneous papers

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Miscellaneous papers
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Russell, H. M
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I I


TECHNICAL SERIES, No. 23.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF ENTOM]OLOG-Y.
L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS.


CONTENTS


AND


INDEX.


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ISSUED JUNE 22, 1915.


_ S. DEPO1SITTO,


WASHINGTON:


GOVERNMENT


PRINTING OFFICE.
1915.


* S
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Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2012 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries with support from LYRASIS and the Sloan Foundation


http://archive.org/details/mispap00unit









TECHNICAL SERIES, No. 23.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BURE-A.U OF SENTOMOLOG-Y.
L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS.





I. SOME NEW CALIFORNIA AND GEORGIA THYSANOPTERA.
By PAUL R. JONES, Entomological Assistant, Deciduous Fruit
Insect Investigations.

II. AN INTERNAL PARASITE OF THYSANOPTERA.
By H. M. RUSSELL, Entomological Assistant.







ISSUED JUNE 22, 1915.


WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1915.






























BUREAU OF E.VTOMOLOGY.


L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.
0. L. MARLATT, Entomologist and Acting Chief in Absence of Chief.
E. B. O'LEARY, Chief Clerk and E.rxecutive Assistant.
F. H. CHITTEN DEN, in charge of truck crop and stored product insect investigations.
A. D. HOPKINS. in charqc of forest insect investigations.
W. D. HUNTER, in charge of southern field crop insect investigations.
F. M. WERSTER. in charge of cereal and forage insect investigations.
A. L. QUAINTAN('E, in charge of deciduousfruit insect investigations.
E. F. PHILLIPS, in charge of bee cultuire.
A. F. BURGESS, in charge of gipsiy moth and brown-tail moth investigations.
ROLLA P. CURRIE. in charge of editorial ii ork.
MABEL COLCORD, in charge of library.
I3















CONTENTS.


Some new California and Georgia Thysanoptera.............. Paul R. Jones..
Introduction..................... ...........................................
Genus Folothrips....................................................
Key to the species...............................................
Description of new species........................................
Eolothrips nasturtii............................................
Genus Thrips................. ........................................
Key to the species..................... ........ ....................
Description of new species........................................
Thrips femoralIis................................................
Genus Sericothrips....................................................
Key to the species................................................
Description of new forms and species..............................
Sericothrips apteris Daniel, male...............................
Sericothrips albus...............................................
Sericothripsm oulloni............ .............................
Genus Limothrips....................... ................................
Key to the species................................................
Description of new species........................................
Limothrips setlari..............................................
Genus Euthrips....................... ...................................
Key to the species...............................................
Description of new forms and species..............................
Euthrips ehrhornii Moulton, male, brachypterous fenial.........
Euthrips 7ongirostrum ...........................................
Euthrips costalis............... ..................................
Genus Anaphothrips...................................................
Key to the species ................................................
Description of new forms and species..............................
Anapholhrips zea Moulton, brachypterous female, male..........


Anaphothrips albus.........................................
Genus Anthothrips.................................................
Key to the species............................................
Description of new species....................................
Antholhrips nigricornis....................................
Anthothrips flavipes..........................................
Genus Cryptothrips.................................................
Key to the species ............................................
Description of new species -...................................
Cryplothrips salicis........................................
Genus Phlieothrips................................................
Key to the species...........................................
Description of new species.....................................
Phloeothrips jennei.........................................
Phlwtothrips arm iger....................... ..................
96757-15


III


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IV MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS.

Page.
An internal parasite of Thysanoptera .........................H. M. Russell.. 25
Introduction......................................................... 25
History of the discovery................................................ 26
Classification and original description................................... 27
Life-history summary of the original host (Heliothripsfasciatus Pergande)..- 28
Methods of collecting for evidence of parasitism.......................... 28
Methods of rearing parasites for life-history study........................ 29
StaGe of thrips showing parasitism..................................... 30
Appearance of parasitized prepupae..................................... 30
Behavior of parasitized thrips......................................... 31
Time between first indication of p)arasitism and formation of parasite pupae
under laboratory conditions........................................... 31
Effect of cold on parasitized prepup-e.................................. 31
The pupa of the parasite.............................................. 31
Form ation........................................................ 31
D escription........................................................ 32
Length of p)upal stage ............................................. 33
Effect of cold on pupal stage...................................... 33
The adult parasite................. .................................... 33
Emergence................ ........................................ 33
Description of newly emergel, live adult............................ 34
Relation and proportion of sexes................................... 35
Parthenogenesis.................................................. 35
Method and period of oviposition...................................... 36
Habits in the open................................................. 38
Effect of oviposition in different stages of host...................... 38
Number of eggs and length of oviposition period..................... 38
Double p)arasitismI....................................................... 39
Activity.......................................................... 39
Flight.................... ......................................... 40
Siht................................................. ............. 40
Behavior on different kinds of leaf surfaces......................... 40
Ho(,st relations........... .......................................... 41
Ileliothrips fasciatlts Pergande ................................... 41
Thrips tabari Lindeman ....................................... 41
Euthrips tritici Fitch .......................................... 42
Ileliothrips hwn'morrhoidlalis Bouch6 ............................ 42
Hcliotihrips femoralis Reu ter..................................... 42
Miscellaneous observations..................................... 43
Summary of experiments to determine host relations............ 43
Lenglth of life in confinement........................................ 43
Causes of mortality in the open............................... :..... 44
Effec t of oviposition in different ages of host larvae....................... 44
Life history.......................................................... 44
Length of time from oviposition to first indication of parasitism........ 45
Length of time from oviposition to pupation of the parasite........... 45
Length of life cycle.............................................. 46
First appearance in the spring...................................... 47
Last appearance in the fall ........................................ 47
Number of generations............................................. 47
Hibernation..................... .................................. 47
Occurrence-........................................................... 48
Distribution.......................................................... 48
Percentage of parasitism in different localities............................ 49
Means of colonizing the parasite......................................... 51
Index .................................................................... 53

















ILLUSTRATIONS.


PLATI


PLATES.

E I. FIG. 1.--Eolothrips nasturtii: Head and prothorax of female ........
2.-6Eolothrips nasturtii: Right fore wing of female .........
3.--Eolothrips nasturii: Right antenna of female...........--.
4.-Eolothrips nasturtii: End of abdomen of female............
5.-Thripsfemnoralis: Head and prothorax of female. ..........
6.-Thripsfemoralis: Left antenna of female..................
7.-Thripsfemoralis: Right fore wing of female ...............
8.-Thripsfcmoralis: End of abdomen of female..............
II. Fio. 1.-Sericothrips apteris: End of abdomen of male.............
2.-Sericothrips albus: Head and prothorax of female...........
3.-Sericothrips albus: Right antenna of female..............
4.-Sericolhrips albus: Right fore wing of femalc...............
5.-Scricothrips albus: End of abdomen of female ............
6.-Sericothrips moultoni: Head and prothorax of female .....
7.-Sericothrips moultoni: Right antenna of female............
8.-Sericothrips moultoni: Right fore wing of female...........
9.-Sericothrips moultoni: End of abdomen of female .........
III. FIG. 1.-Limothrips setarise: Head and prothorax of female..........
2.-Limothrips setarise: Left antenna of female.................
3.-Liminothrips setarie: Right fore wing of female..............
4.-Limothrips setaria': End of abdomen of female. ...........
5.-Limothrips sctarie: End of abdomen of male...............
6.-Euthrips longirostruirm: Head and prothorax of felliale......
7.-Euthrips longirostrum: Left antenna of feImale. ..........
8.-Euthrips loitgirostrum: Right fore wing of felmale...........
9.-Euthrips longiroslrum: End of abdomen of female .......
IV. FIG. 1.-Euthrips costalis: Head and prothorax of female-..........
2.-Euthrips costalis: Right antenna of female-................
3.-Euthrips costalis: Right fore wing of fem-ale....--.........
4.-Euthrips costalis: End of abdomen of female.........-".....
5.-Anapholhrips albus: Head and prothorax of female-........
6.-Anaphothrips albus: Right antenna of female --.............
7.-Anapholhrips albus: Right fore wing of female.............
8.-Anaphothrips albus: End of abdomen of feiMnale-............
V. FIG. 1.-Anthothrips nigricornis: Head and prothorax of female...
2.-Anthothrips nigricornis: Right antenna of female-.-........
3.-Anlthothrips nigricornis: Left fore leg of male...............
4.-Anthothrips nigricornis: End of abdomen of female.........
5.-Anthothripsflavipcs: Head and prothorax of female-.......
6.-Anthothripsflavipes: Right antenna of female.............
7.-Anthothripsflavipes: End of abdomen of female ..........


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I I








MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS.


PLATE VI. FIG.






VII. FIG.


1.-Cryptothrips salicis: Head and prothorax of female......
2.-Cryptothrips salicis: Left antenna of female .............
3.-Cryqptothrips salicis: End of abdomen of female .........
4.-Phlcxothrips jennei: Head and prothorax of female......
5.-Phloeothrips jennei: Right antenna of female .............
6.-Ph olothrips jeznei: End of abdomen of female ...........
1.-Phheothrips armiger: Head and prothorax of male........
2.-Phlaeothrips armiger: Right antenna of male..............
3.-Phlwothrips armiger: Left fore leg of male ...............
4.-Phlcothrips arm ifcr: End of abdomen of male ............


TEXT FIGURES.


FIm. 1. Vials Uied for the study of thrips parasitce-..........................
2. Cage for rearing parasites .................. ............................
3. Parasitized prepupe of Ih liothripsfasciui-us........................
4. Diagram illustrating length of time from appearance of parasitism to
formniat ion of parasite pupwv of Thripocten us russelli, July-October,
1911 ............................................................
5. ThfIipocht nusi russelli: Pupa, ventral view ...........................
6. Dia,,ranm illustrating length of pupal stage in 146 individuals of Thripoc-
tenus russclli.................. ...................................
7. Thripocnrtc s rus lli: Adult-........................................
8. Di.ramn illustratimi,. leiinth of liime from oviposition to first evidence of
patrasitisn for 353 individuals of Thripoctenus russelli ............
9. Dia-ranm illustrali.i eI,_ngth of timne from oviposition to pupation for
241 individuals ,f Tliriportcums russelli ..........................
10. Diagrami illustrating tutal number of days in the life cycle of Thripoc-
tcnus russ(1 l;; aunimary of all rearing experiments.................
11. Mailing tiules used in slhilimrent of thrips parasites ..................


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INDEX.

Zolothrips- Page.
bicolor in key to species................................................ 1
fasciatus in key to species............................................... 1
key to species.......................................................... 1
kuwanaii in key to species............................................ 1
longiceps in key to species.............................................. 1
nasturtii in key to species.............................................. 1
nasturtii new species, description....................................... 2-3
vespiformis in key to species............................................. 1
Zsculus californica-
food plant of Euthrips costalis........................................... 14
food plant of Limothrips setarixE.......................................... 9
Anaphothrips-
albus in key to species................................................ 15
albus new species, description......................................... 16-17
key to specie.s.......................................................... 14-15
longipci n is in key to species.......................................... 15
obscures in key to species, Annphothrips striatus a synonym............... 14
rutht'eni in key to species............................................... 15
tricolor in key to species................................................. 15
zex. female short-winged form, and male, description................... 15-16
zee in key to species.................................................. 15
Anthothrips-
aculeatus, resemblance of Anthothrips flaripcs thereto-.................... 19
flavipes in key to species............................................... 17
flavipes new species, description........................................ 18-19
key to species.......................................................... 17
niger in key to species................................................ 17
nigricornis in key to species............................................. 17
nigricornis new species, description...................................... 17-18
variabilis in key to species............................................ 17
verbasci in key to species................................................ 17
Aphis brassica', not host of Thripoct,'au. ru. s'lli............................... 43
Aptinothrips rufus, resemblance of Anatphothrips zese thereto .................. 15
Bean, lima, Thripoctenus russclli found on leaf..................... : ......... 48
Buckeye, California. (See .,sculus californ ica.)
Cabbage aphis. (See Aphis brassicx.)
Colonizing thrips parasite, Thripochteus russdlli, means...................... 51-52
Cress, water. (See NTasturtiumn ojficinile.)
Cryptothrips-
angustus, resemblance of Cryptothrips salicis thereto...................... 21
californicus in key to species.......................................... 19
carbonarius in key to species...............................---......... 19
key to species .......................................................... 19
rectangularis in key to species-.......................................... 19
salicis in key to species......................................-.......... 19
salicis, new species, description ............-.........................- 20-21
Elderberry. (See SaMnbucus sp.)
96757-15-- 2 53








54 MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS.

Page.
Eriogonumin nudum, food plant of Anthothrips nigricornis ....................... 18
Euthirips-
albus in key to species ................................................ 10
cephalicus in key to species............................................. 11
cephalicus var. reticulatus in key to species............................... 11
citri in key to species ................................................... 10
costalis in key to species........................ ......................... 10
costalis, new species, description........................................ 13-14-
ehrhornii in key to species....................... ................... 11
ehrhornii, male, description ............................................ 12
fuscus in key to species.................................................. 11
hclianthi in key to species.............................................. 11
in.ularis in key to species.............................................. 11
key to species......................................*..................... 10-12
longipcnnis in key to species.......................................... 10
longirostrum in key to species.......................................... 11
longirostrum, new species, desription................................. 12-13
minutes in key to species.............................................. 11
nerrosus in key to spel)cies............................................... 11
ocvidcntalis in key to spcci.-s.............................................. 12
(orc /ilii in key to specie.................................................. 10
p*iri in key to species............. ..................................... 10
tritid, lost of Thripocl( n us russ(Ili............................. 30, 32, 37, 42,43
tritici in key to speciios1............................................. 12
tritici var. californiicui. in key to jwccies................................... .. 12
UIcis ( '(;f 'rnic .s in key to speciet's...................................... 11
Goldonrd (Seo Sol,,l,/,, sp.)
Grass -
food plants of ,%'ricolrips apltris ....................................... 6
greell foxtail. (See Sotaria ridnli..)
teliothrips-
fasciafu., lost of Thripoc-n us ru s lli ................................ 25, 26, 27,
2S. 30, 32. 36, 37, 3S, 41, 43,48,49, 50
fa iu-tuis, life-lii tory stimmary......................................... 28
fil.owcia'iis on .\' liiiia filla u,.ii ..i........................................ 48
fcmoralis, host of Th,'l,'iv i n! s russelli. 'x p.ri'ii -i ....................... 42-43
6ha nrrh,,iirllis, host of T rJi i ,,f, i uits ru..,lli. (, -xp rie mc,.ts................. 42, 44
Jone-. Paul R., p:iper, "Some New California and Georgia Thysanoptera" .. 1-24
Lactuica svtirl'ltbi,, /ripoclcn us russelli found on leaf ......................... 48
Laurel leaf ,rall. food of Phlrothrips armigcr................................ 24
Limoth ri ,. --
(a II !,= Limt.Jthri. cercaliim........................................... 8, 9
cc'r(ulii m in key to species. Liinolhrips arena a synonym................. 8
key to s-pecies ........................................................8
setarix in key to species ............................................... 8
setaria', new species, description...................................... 8-10
Lupine. perennial-
food plant of Euthrips longirostrum..................................... 12-13
food plant of Scricothrips moiltoni....................................... 8
Mimulus sp., food plant of Anmphothrips albus............................... 17
Monkey flower. (See Mimulus sp.)
Nastiurium officinale, food plant of E.olothrips nasturtii ...................... 3
Nicotiuna glanca. food plant of Heliothripsfasciatus......................... 48







INDEX. 55

Page.
Oats, wild, food plant of Limothrips setarix-.................................. 9
Olive thrips. (See Phloeothrips olexe.)
Parthenogenesis in Thripoclen us russelli................................... 35-36
Peach, food plant of Phloeothrips jennei .................................... 22
Pezonwacrus thripites, parasite of thrips on wheat............................ 25
Ph lrothrips-
armiger in key to species.............................................. 21
armiger, new species, description....................................... 23-24
jennei in key to species ............................................... 21
jennei, new species, description....................................... 21-22
key to species ........................................................ 21
maculatus in key to species........................................... 21
minor, resemblance of Ph l'othrips jennei thereto.........--.........-..... 22
olea, chalcidid parasite thereof ....................................... 25
pergandei in key to species............................................ 21
raptor in key to species............................................... 21
uzeli in key to species................................................ 21
Rearing and studying thrips parasites, methods ............................ 28-29
Russell, H. M., paper, "An Internal Parasite of Thysanoptera"............. 25-52
Sambucus sp., food plant of Scricothrips albus......................:......... 7
Scirtolhrips-
ruthveni= A napholhrips ritlireni....................................... 15
status of genus ....................................................... 15
Sericothrips-
albus in key to species................................................ 5
albus. new species, description........................................ 6-7
apteris in key to species.............................................. 5
apteris, male, description............................................. 6
cingulatus in key to species........................................... 5
key to species ........................................................ 5
moultoni in key to species ............................................ 5
vmonltoni, new species, description................................... 7-8
pulchellus in key to species ............................................ 5
retliculatus in key to species........................................... 5
stanfordii in key to species ........................................... 5
variabilis in key to species ............................................... 5
Setaria viridis, food plant of Limothrips setariav................................ 9
Solida7o sp., food plant of Thrip.fcmnoralis.................................. 5
Sonchus oleraceus, food plant, of bean thrips.................................. 48
Sonchus oleraceus, Thripoclenus russeli found on leaf......................... 48
Spider web, Thripoctenus russelli caught fltherein............................ 44
Tetranychus?, oviposition therein by Thripoctcnus russelli in experiment t....... 43
Tetrastichus gentilii, parasi te of Phleothrips olex.............................. 25-26
Thripocten us russelli-
activity............................................................... 39-40
adult, emergence .................................................... 33-34
adult, newly emerged, description..................................... 34
appearance of thrips prepupoe parasitized thereby........................ 30
behavior of parasitized Ihrips .......................................... 31
behavior on different kinds of leaf surfaces............................. 40-41
causes of mortality in the open ........................................ 44
classification ........................................................ 27-28
colonization, means................................................... 51-52








56 MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS.

Thripoctcnus russelli-Continued. Page.
description, original.................................................. 27-28
distribution ......................................................... 48-49
effect of cold on prepupae of thrips parasitized thereby................... 31
effect of oviposition in different ages of host larvae........................ 44
eggs, number......................................................... 38-39
first appearance in spring............................................... 47
flight................................................................. 40
generations, number .................................................. 47
habits in open......................................................... 38
hibernation ......................................................... 47-48
history of discovery................................................... 26-27
host relations......................................................... 41-43
last appearance in fall.................................................. 47
length of life cycle................................................... 46-47
length of life in confinement............................................ 43-44
length of time from oviposition to first indication of parasitism............. 45
length of time from oviposition to pupation of parasite................... 45
life cycle. length .................................................... 46-47
life history........................................................... 44-48
life-history su mmary of original lost, Heliolhripsfascia t us................. 28
mnthod(ls of (ollecting thr;ps for ev dence of parasitism.................. 28-29
occi.,rrence ........................................................... 48
ovip, 'sition, effect in different staLges of host............................. 38
o\vil(sition mietllodL anl period.......................................... 36-37
oviposition period, length ............................................. 38-39
paper ................................... ... .......................... 25-52
p)arasitismI do.ible..................................................... 39
parasitism, percentage ............................................... 49-50
partheiIogene.is....................................................... 35-36
pupa. description .................................................... 32
pupa. n irmalion....................................................... 31-32
pupal stage. effect of cold thereon ..................................... 33
pupal stage. length ................................................... 33
rearii im thlii ds fur life-history study................................... 29-30
sexes, relation and pripJrtiin........................................... 35
si'i t. ................................................................ 40
stage of thlrips showing, parasitism thereby.............................. 30
time between first indication of parasitism and formation of parasite pupa
uilnder laboratory conditions ......................................... 31
Thrips-
(See also Thysanoptera.)
abdi ,mnitidi.? in key to species........................................... 4
appearance of prepup:e parasitized by Thripoctenus russelli............... 30
bean, on Sowicls olcrarcits ............................................ 48
behavior of those parasitized by Thripoctenus rsselli..................... 31
bren ncrii in key to species.............................................. 4
double parasitism by Thripoctcn us russclli............................... 39
effect of cold on prepiup- parasitized by Thripoctenus russelli.............. 31
effect of oviposition by Thripoclcnus russcli in different ages.............. 44
effect of oviposition by Thripoctenus russelli in different stages............ 38
femoralis in key to species............................................. 4
femoralis, new species, description...................................... 4-5
key to species ........................................................ 3-4








INDEX. 57

Thrips-Continued. Page.
madronii in key to species ..-----..-----.-----...----....-----------------------................ 3
magnus in key to species-------------------------------------------............................................... 3
parasite, Thripoctenus russelli, means of colonization................... 51-52
perplexus in key to species........................................... 4
stage showing parasitism by Thripoctenus russeili........................ 30
tabaci, host of T1,ripocten us russelli................. 30, 32, 37, 38, 39, 41, 43,46,48
tabaci in key to species............................................... 4
time between first indication of parasitism by Thripoctenus russelli and
formation of parasite pupsp under laboratory conditions................ 31
Thysanoptera-
an internal parasite, paper ........................................... 25-52
new, from California and Georgia. pziper............................... 1-24
Trichothrips n. sp., not host of Tliripoh-it'.s riisselli in experiments............. 43
Triphleps insidios us-
enemy of Tlrip'uinus ru.ssclli................................-........ 44
in experiment with Thripoctenus russelli................................ 43
Turnips, Thripocle n us russelli found on foliage............................... 48
Willow galls, food of Cryplothlnril.s salicis .................................... .. 21
W innemana. ............................................................. 27




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