Contributions toward a monograph of the scolytid beetles

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Contributions toward a monograph of the scolytid beetles
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Hopkins, A. D ( Andrew Delmar ), 1857-1948
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Govt. Print. Off. ( Washington )
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TECHNICAL SERIES NO. 17.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUTJnREA.U OF ENTOQMOLOG-Y.
L. 0. HOWARD. Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.



CONTRIBUTIONS TOWARD A MONOGRAPH
OF THE SCOLYTID BEETLES.







CONTENTS AND INDEX.








ISSUED FEBRUARY ]9, 1921.














,,iT -.,


^^.___U', !- F. : :S I TO ,R-: :

WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1921.












































Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2012 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries with support from LYRASIS and the Sloan Foundation


http: archive.oi g details 'butionstow00unit








TECHNICAL SERIES. NO. 17.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF EW"7rOMOLOGrY.
L 0. HOWARD. Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.




CONTRIBUTIONS TOWARD A MONOGRAPH

OF THE SCOLYTID BEETLES.







I. THE GENUS DENDROCTONUS.
By A. D. HOPKINS, Forest Entomologist.



II. PRELIMINARY CLASSIFICATION OF THE SUPERFAMIILY SCOLYTOIDEA.
By A. D. HOPKINS, Forest Entomologist.


WASHINGTON:
I ; i I. IN MENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1921.





















B UREA U OF ENTOMOLOGY.
L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.
C. L. MARLATT, Entomologist and Assistant Chief of Bureau.
E. B. O'LEARY, Assistant to Chief.
A. J. LEISTER, Chief Clerk.
ROLL P. CURRIE, Editor.
MABEL COLCORD, Librarian.

W. D. HUNTER, in charge of southern field-crop insect investigations.
W. R. WALTON, in charge of cereal and forage insect investigations.
A. L. QUAINTANCE, in charge of fruit insect investigations.
F. H. CHITTENDEN, in charge of truck-crop insect investigations.
E. A. BACK, in charge of stored-product insect investigations.
A. D. HOPKINS, in charge offorest insect investigations.
E. F. PHILLIPS, in charge of investigations in bee culture.
A. F. BURGESS, in charge of gipsy moth and brown-tail moth investigations.

FOREST INSECT INVESTIGATIONS.
A. D. HOPKINS, Forest Entomologist in Charge.
J. M. MILLER, assistant forest entomologist; H. E. BURKE, W. D. EDMONSTON, T. E.
SNYDER, J. C. EVENDEN, specialists in forest entomology; S. A. ROHWER, specialist
in forest Hymnenoptera; A. G. BOvING, expert; CARL HEINRICH, specialist in forest
Lepidoptera; WILLIAM MIDDLETON, RAYMOND A. ST. GEORGE, J. H. POLLOCK,
scientific assistants; J. E. PATTERSON, W. E. GLENDINNING, GEORGE HOFER, en-
tomological rangers; P. D. HARTMAN, assistant entomological inspector.
n















CONTENTS.


Page.
THE GENUS DENDROCTONUS............................ A. D. Hopkins.. 1
Introductory........................................................ 1
Historical........................................................... 3
Original description of genus......................................... 4
Translation........................................................ 4
Synonymy ....................................................... 5
Revisional notes................................................. 5
Revised description of genus......................................... 5
Anatomical ..................................................... 5
Nomenclature............................................... 7
Illustrations .................................................. 9
External characters of the imago................................... 9
The head .................................................... 11
The thorax................................................... 22
Divisions of the thoracic segment......................... 23
Elements of the adult thorax............................. 26
The prothorax....................................... 26
The mesothorax ...................................... 28
Mesotergum .................................... 28
Mesopleura ...................................... 29
Mesosterna ...................................... 30
The metathorax...................................... 30
Metatergum ...................................... 30
Metapleura. ..................................... 34
Metasterna ....................................... 35
The'abdomen................................................. 35
Abdominal tergites ...................................... 36
Abdominal pleurites ...................................... 38
Abdominal sternites ..................................... 38
Spiracles ................................................. 39
The legs...................................................... 39
The wings.................................................... 40
Mesothoracic and metathoracic wings...................... 42
Metathoracic or hind wings....................--............ 43
Mesothoracic wings or elytra.............................. 49
Internal anatomy................................................ 51
Digestive system ............................................ 52
Secondary sexual characters...................................... 52
Pupa ........................................................... 53
Larva .............. ............................................. 57
External characters.......................................... 57
Digestive system ............................................. 64
Eggs............................................................ 64
Physiological characteristics.......................................... 64
Ti






THE SCOLYTID BEETLES.


THE GENUS DENDROCTONUS-Continued.
Specific distinctions ..................................................
Range or limits of specific variation ..............................
Progressive modifications .........................................
Distinction of major and minor divisions of the genus ..............
Plan of synoptic treatment...........................................
Synopses of morphological and physiological characters..................
Synopsis of adult characters......................................
Synopsis of secondary sexual characters ..........................
Synopsis of pupal characters.......................................
Synopsis of larval characters......................................
Synopsis of gallery characters ......................................
Table of distribution.............................................
Table showing relation of species to host trees......................
Table of host trees .......................................... .....
Revision and systematic notes, with descriptions of new species..........
Distinctive generic characters.....................................
Bibliography and synonymy of genus .............................
Division I........... .................................... ..
Subdivision A ...........................................
1. Dendroctonius brevicomis Le ('onte...................
2. Dendroctonus barberi n. sp..........................
3. Dendroctonus conrexifroisi n. sp ....................
4. Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann................
5. Dendroctonus arizonicus n. sp .......................
6. Dendroctonus mexicanus Hopkins ..................
7. Dendroctonus parallelocollis. ('hapuis.................
8. Dendroctonus uppro.rimntat Dietz...................
Subdivision B ...........................................
9. Dendroctonu. iontieolhe Hopkins ..................
10. Dendroctonu.s ponderosa' Hopkins................
11. Dendroctonusicffreyi ni. sp.........................
D division II ..................................................


Subdivision C..........
12. Dendroctonus simp
13. Dendroctonus pseu
14. Dendroctonus pice(
15. Dendroctonus engec
16. Dendroctonu.y borca
17. Dendroctonus obes
18. Dendroctonus rufi)
19. Dendroctonus murr
20. Dendroctonus punch
21. Dendroctonu, miical
Subdivision D...........
22. Dendroctonus tereb
23. Dendroclotus ralhi
24. Dendroctonus adju
Bibliography. ........................


........................ .. .. o. ...
plex Le C'onte ....................
dotsugae Hopkins .................
aperda Hopkins ...................
'man0 ni n. Sp ....................
ilis n. sp ........................
us (Mannerheim)..............
enwn'is i Kirby)....................
rayana, n. sp......................
clatus I.e ( onte .................
ns (Kugelann)................
............... .. .... .. o... .. .
ra(.s (Olivier) ....................
ris Le C'onte......................
nctus Bland ford ..................


PRELIMINARY CLASSIFICATION OF THE St'PERFAMIY SCOLYTOIDEA.
A. D. Hopkins..
Introduction ........................................................-
Position of the Scolytoidea............................................
General anatom y ...................................................


Page.
66
66
67
68
69
69
69
73
73


165
165
167
168


Dmiglll


75
76
77
78
79
79
79
80
81
81
81
85
87
90
95
97
99
101
105
105
109
114
116
117
117
121
126
130
133
135
138
140
142
143
146
147
151
157
159







CONTENTS. V

PRELIMINARY CLASSIFICATION OF THE SUPERFAMILY SCOLYTOIDEA-CoIItd. I'age.
Taxonomy---------------------------169
Taxonom y. ................................................ .......... 169
Moiphological characters .................-......................... 169
Superfamily characters........................................ 169
Family characters ............................................ 170
Subfamily characters......................................... 170
Generic characters........................................... 171
The antenne............................................. 171
The eyes........... ....................................... 174
The mouth parts......................................... 174
characters s in general........................................... 175
The body................................................. 175
Form................................................. 175
Color.................................................. 176
Vestiture................................................... ... 176
Sculpture -....---.....---.....--.......................... 176
Armatures............................................ 176
Head................................................. 177
Prothorax.............................................. 177
Mesothorax............................................ 177
Metathorax............................................ 178
Legs................................................. .. 179
Elytra..............:................................ 179
Posterior wings -...................................... 179
Abdominal tergites..................................... 180
Abdominal spiracles.................................. 181
Abdominal sternites.................................... 182
Stridulating accessories............................... 182
Internal anatomy.......................................... 183
Digestive system ....................................... 183
Proventriculus.................................... 183
Reproductive organs.................................... 184
The reproductive organs of the male.......---........ 184
Posterior elements............................. 185
Anterior and median elements................. 190
Variations and combinations of the elements .... 190
Terminology of the reproductive organs-............. 192
Classifications based on the reproductive organs...... 194
Secondary sexual characters................................. 195
The pupae .................................................... 196
The larvae .................................................... 197
The eggs ............... ................................ 197
The embryo................................................... 197
Physiological characteristics......................................... 198
General habits................................................. 198
Classification according to habits.............................. 198
Food habits of the adults................................... 199
Food habits of the larvae.................................... 199
Pupal habits.............................................. 199
Flight habits.............................................. 200
Social habits.............................................. 200
Galleries........... ....................................... 201
Terminology of the galleries..................................... 202






!VI THE SCOLYTID BEETLES.

PRELIMINARY CLASSIFICATION OF THE SUPERFAMILY SCOLYTOIDEA-Contd.
Taxonomy-Continued.
Physiological characteristics-Continued. Page.
Classification of the galleries.......... -............... 204
Egg galleries... ....................... 204
Larval mines................................................ 204
Types and subtypes of egg galleries......................... 205
Relation of types of galleries to the subfamilies and fam-
ilies................................................. 206
Taxonomic relation between the beetles and their host plants.... 207
Part of plant selected by the beetles...................... 207
Condition of the plant.................................... 208
Relation of the species of beetles to the systematic position of
their host.............................................. 208
Range of host plants........................................ 208
Associations of species of beetles and species of plants......- 209
Summary of taxonomic evidence furnished by host relations- 209
Geographical distribution in its bearing on taxonomy................. 210
Review of taxonomic characters and characteristics................... 211
Morphological characters........................................ 212
Physiological characteristics..................................... 213
Correlation of morphological and physiological elements.......... 213
Parallel modifications........................................... 214
Reversals..................................................... 214
Progressive modifications-.................................... 215
Examples of progressive modification....................... 215
Statistical taxonomy-................................................ 216
The species..................... ...................................... 216
Varieties, races, etc................................................. 216
The genus............................................................. 217
Nomenclature........................................................ 218
Types of genera........................................................ 219
Genus Scolytusw Geoffroy........................................... 219
Genus Ips De Geer............................................... 220
Genus Tomicus Latreille.......................................... 220
Genus Hylastes Erichson........................................... 221
Genus Cryphalwu Erichson........................................ 221
Genus Hypothenem us Westwood..................................... 221
Genus Polygraphus Erichson........................................ 222
Genus Lepisonmus Kirby............................................ 222
Description of a new genus and species.................................. 222
Preliminary classification of the Superfamily Scolytoidea.................. 224
Key to the families................................................. 224
Division I................................................... 224
Subdivision A............................................ 224
Family Ipida.......................................... 224
Subdivision B............................................. 225
Family Scolytidae....................................... 225
Family Scolytoplatypodida .......................... 225
Division II.................................................... 225
Subdivision C............................................. 225
Family Platypodidw ................................... 225




~1


o002NrSM. VII

PR ELIMINARY CLASSIFICATION OF THE SUPERFAMILT SCOLYTOIDEA-Contd.
Preliminary classification of the Superfamily Scolytoidea-Continued. Page.
FamilylIpidse. Key to the subfamilies............................. 225
Division I..................................................... 225
Subdivision A............................................. 225
Subfamily Cryphalinae................................. 225
Subfamily Ipinae...................................... 225
Subfamily Corthylinse................................. 225
Subfamily Micracinae.................................. 225
Subfamily Webbinai................................... 225
Subdivision B............................................. 225
Subfamily Xyloctonima'................................ 225
Division II.................................................... 225
Subdivision C............................................. 225
Subfamily Crypturgine.................................. 225
Subfamily Phlceotribinme............................... 225
Subdivision D........................................... 225
Subfamily Hylesininme................................. 225
Subfamily Phlceoborince............................... 225
Family Scolytidge. Key to the subfamilies.......................... 225
Division I..................................................... 225
Subfamily Coptonotinae................................. 225
Division I I .................................................... 225
Subdivision A............................................. 225
Subfamily Hexacolinwe................................. 225
Subfamily Bothrosterninse.............................. 225
Subfamily H yorrhynchina?............................. 225
Subdivision B............................................. 225
Subfamily Camptocerinne............................... 225
Subfamily Scolytinve................................... 225
Family Scolytoplatypodidse......................................... 225
Family Platypodidae. Key to the subfamilies........................ 225
Division I..................................................... 225
Subfamily Platypodine................................. 225
Division II.................................................... 225
Subfamily Genyocerinae............................... 225
Subfamily Chapuisinai................................. 225
Position ofjthe principal described genera in the preliminary classification. 226
Genera described in 1911-12, not included in foregoing list, but here
provisionally assigned to the subfamilies............................. 227
Genera of doubtful position............................................. 228
Bibliography.......................................................... 229
INIDEX ..................................................................... 233









ILLUSTRATIONS.


PLATES.


Pt ATE I. Classification of the genus Dendroctonus, showing technical and
common names and species numbers.............................
II. Map of world, showing geographical distribution of the genus Den-
droctonus................... ....................................
[II. Dendroctonus adults. Fig. 1.-D. brevicomis. Fig. 2.-D. barberi.
Fig. 3.-D. conve.xifrons. Fig. 4.-D. fronfalis. Fig. 5.-D.
arizonicus. Fig. 6.-D. inexicanus. Fig. 7.-D. parallelocollis....
IV. Dendroctonus adults. Fig. 8.-D. dpproximatus. Fig. 9.-D. mnon-
ticolx. Fig. 10.-D. ponderos'. Fig. 11.-D. jeffreyi...........
V. Dendrortonus adults. Fig. 12.-D. simplex. Fig. 13.-D. pseudot-
sugx. Fig. 14.-D. pli'raperdo. Fig. 16.-D. borealis............
VI. Dendroclonus adults. Fig. 17.-D. obesus. Fig. 18.-D. rufi-
pennis. Fig. 20.-D. punctatis. Fig. 21.-D. mica.ns............
VII. Dendroctonus adults. Fig. 22.-D. terebrans. Fig. 23.-D. valens..
VIII. Dendroctonus larvm. Fig. 1.-D. brevicornis. Fig. 19.-D. mur-
rayana,. Fig. 23.- D. malens...................................
IX. Figs. 1-18.-Typical tarsi and til iT of the subfamilies of Scolytoidea.
X. Figs. 1-5a.-Antennse of typical species of the subfamilies of Scoly-
toidea.........................................................
XI. Figs. 7-10a.-Antenna, of typical species of the subfamilies of Scoly-
toidea................. ........................................
XII. Figs. 12-18b.-Antennae- of typical species of the subfamilies of
Scolytoidea.....................................................
XIII. Figs. l-9b.-Tibhie and tarsi of typical species of the subfamilies of
Scolytoidea ................................................... ..
XIV. Figs. 10-101).-Tibia1 and tarsi of typical species of the subfamilies
of Scolytoidea..................... ...............................
XV. Figs. 12-15b.-Tibipe and tarsi of typical species of the subfamilies
of Scolytoidea.................... ..............................
XVI. Figs. 16-18b.-Tibiae and tarsi of typical species of the subfamilies
of Scolytoidea..................................................


TEXT FIGURES.


Dendroctonus valens: Adult, dorsal aspect............................
Dendroctonus valens: Adult, ventral aspect-.........................
Dendrocionus valens: Adult, lateral aspect........................
Dendroctonus ralens: Head, dorsal and lateral aspects................
Dendroctonus ralens: Head, ventral aspect, and mouth parts........


6. Dendroctonus valens: Head. oral aspect, epistoma, etc ......
7. Pterostichus californicus: Head, dorsal and ventral aspects.....
8. Pissodes strobi: Head, ventral aspect, and mouth parts........
9. Pissodes strobi: Head, dorsal aspect, and mandibles...........
10. Dendroctonus: Epistomata..................................
11. Dendroctonus: Antenn--....................................
12. Dendroctonus: Antenn ............... .....................
13. Dendroctonus: Antenna ....................................
14. Dendroctonus valens: Mandible..............................
15. Dendroclonus: Eyes.........................................
16. Dendroctonus valens: Area of pronotum.....................
17. Dendroctonus valens: Area of prothorax, ventral aspect........
VIII


Page.

1

80


164

164

164

164
164

164
170

170

170

170

178

178

178

178


FIG. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.


6
8
9
12
13
14







ILLUSTRATIONS.


1'Page.
I'[ 18. Dendroctonus valens: Mesothorax, ventral aspect................... 2
19. Dendroctonus valens: Mesotergum and mesopleurum ................ 28
20. Dendroctonus valens: Metatergum and metapleurum................ 31
21. Dendroctonus valens: Metatergum, inner aspect..................... 33
22. Dendroctonus valens: Abdominal tergites........................... 35
23. Dendroclonus valens: Male, abdominal tergites 7 and 8.............. 36
24. Dendroctonus ialens: Female, abdominal tergites 7 and 8............ 37
25. Dendroctonus valens: Abdominal sternites, ventral and lateral
aspects......................................................... 38
26. Dendroctonus valens: Tibia, tarsus, articulation, etc................ 40
27. Dendroctonus: Left tibiae, dorsal and ventral aspects................ 41
28. Dendroctonus: Left tibiw, dorsal and ventral aspects................ 42
29. Dendroctonus: Left tibia, dorsal and ventral aspects................. 43
30. Dendroctonus ra lens: Diagram of basal area of hind wing............. 44
31. Dendroctonus valens: Right elytron, ventral aspect................. 45
32. Dendroctonus valens: Basal process of right elytron.................. 46
33. Dendroctonus valens: Declivital section of elytra.................... 46
34. Dendroctonus valens: Diagram of elytron, showing strike, interspaces,
and tracheme.................................................... 47
35. Dendroctonus ralens: Digestive organs of adult..................... 52
36. Dendroclonus valens: Fore intestine, showing details................ 53
37. Dendroctonus ralens: Pupa, dorsal, lateral, and ventral aspects....... 54
38. Dendroctonus valens: Pupa. lateral and anal aspects................. 55
39. Dendroctonus valens: Larva, dlorsal, lateral, and ventral aspects .... 58
40. Dendroctonus valens: Head of larva................ .............. 59
41. Dendroctonus valens: Mouth parts of larva........................... 60
42. Dendroctonus valens: Mandibles of larva-........................... 63
43. Dendroctonus ralens: Digestive organs of larva..................... 65
44. Dendroclanus brevico'mis: Egg galleries............................. 82
45. Dendroctonus brezicomis: Bark showing pupal cells, exit burrows,
and pitch tubes................................................. 83
46. Dendroctonus brevicom is: Distribution map......................... 84
47. Dendroclonus barberi: Egg galleries-......-----.....--...--..........-......-- 86
48. Dendroclonus barberi: Distribution map --.......--.-................... 87
49. Dendroctonus convexifrons: Egg galleries and larval mines............ 89
50. Dendroctonus convexrfrons: Distribution map....................... 90
51. Dendroctonusfrontalis: Egg galleries and larval mines.............. 91
52. Dendroctonusfrontalis: Termination of egg galleries................. 92
53. Dendroctonusfrontalis: Beginning of egg galleries................... 92
54. Dendroctonusfrontalis: Bark showing pitch tubes, etc............... 92
55. Dendroctonusfrontalis: Old egg galleries in living trees.............. 93
56. Dendroctonusfrontalis: Egg gallery in living tree, the resulting
wound in process of healing...................................... 93
57. Dendroctominusfrontalis: Distribution map.......................... 94
58. Dendroctonus arizonicvs: Distribution map-........................ 97
59. Dendrocton's mexicaanus: Section of egg galleries.................... 98
60. Dendroctonus mnexicanus: Distribution map......................... 99
61. Dendrocton uts parallelocollis: Section of egg gallery .................. 100
62. Dendroctonus parallelocollis: Distribution map...................... 101
63. Dendrocton us opproximatus: Single egg gallery...--..----...-.......--..... 102
64. Dendroctonus approximatus: Egg galleries.......................... 103
65. Dendroctonus approximnatus: Distribution map..................... 104
66. Dendroetonus rnonticolax: Ev galleries and larval mines in bark-..... 107







THE SCOLYTID BEETLES.


Page
FiGo. 67. Dendroctonus monticolx: Egg galleries and larval mines grooved in
surface of wood............................................... 108
68. Dendroctonus monticolx: Distribution map....................... 109
69. Dendroctonus ponderosir: Egg galleries and larval mines............ 112
70. Dendroctonus ponderosa: Tree with bark removed, showing egg
galleries and marked on surface of wood.......................... 113
71. Dendroctonus ponderoste: Distribution map......................... 114
72. Dendroctonus jeffreyi: Distribution map.......................... 116
73. Dendroctonus simplex: Egg galleries and larval mines............... 119
74. Dendroctonus simplex: Distribution map............................ 120
75. Dendroclonus pseudotsugaz: Egg galleries and larval mines........... 122
76. Dendroctonus pseudotsuyw: Egg gallery and larval mines............ 123
77. Dendroctonus pseudotsugx.: Section of log with bark removed, show-
ing brood galleries marked and grooved on surface of wood........ 124
78. Dendroctonus pseudotsug:e: Distribution map...................... 125
79. Dendroctonus piceaperda: Egg gallery and larval mines.............. 128
80. Dendrocto-nus piceaperda: Distribution map....'.................... 129
81. Dendroctonus engelmanni: Egg gallery and eggs in living bark....... 132
82. Dendroctonus engelmanni: Distribution map ....................... 133
83. Dendroctonus borealis: Distribution map.......................... 134
84. Dendroctonus obesus: Distribution map............................. 137
85. Dendroctonus rufipennis: Distribution map......................... 140
86. Dendroctonus muirrayana': Distribution map....................... 141
87. Dendroctonus punctatus: Distribution map........................ 143
88. Dendroctonus micans: Er galleries and larval chamber.............. 145
89. Dendroctonus micans: Distribution map............................ 146
90. Dendroctonus terebrans: Distribution map......................... 150
91. Dendroctonus valens: Egg galleries and larval chamber .............. 152
92. Dendroctonus valens: Work in bark at base of stump................ 153
93. Dendroctonus valens: Ba!al work in living tree resulting from primary
injury by this species ........................................... 154
94. Dendroctonus valens: Distribution map.............................. 155
95. Dendroctonus adjunctus: Distribution map.......................... 158
96. The antenna in scolytuid beetles: Diagram and terminology....... 172
97. Abnormalities in the antennal funicle of Xyleborus tachygraphus.... 173
98. Ips emarginatus: Proventricular plate............................. 183
99. Scolytus scolytus: Proventricular plate ............................ 183
100. Crossotarsus lecontei: Proventricular plate......................... 183
101. Dendroctonus valens: Membranous and nonchitinous elements of
male reproductive organs....................................... 184
102. Xyleborus saxeseni: Chitinous elements of male reproductive organs.. 184
103. Ips enmarginatus: Chitinous elements of male reproductive organs.. 185
104. Pityophthorus sp.: Chitinous elements of male reproductive organs.. 186
105. Pityophthorus bellus: End plates and seminal rod of male reproductive
organs......................................................... 186
106. Micracis suturalis: Posterior elements of male reproductive organs... 186
107. Dendroctonus valens: Posterior elements of male reproductive organs. 187
108. Scolytus rugulosus: Posterior elements of male reproductive organs. 189
109. Scolytus quadrispinosus: Posterior elements of male reproductive
organs ........................................................ 189
110. Crossotarsus lecontei: Posterior elements of male reproductive
organs ................................ ........................ 191
111. Dendroctonus valens: Female reproductive organs.................. 194
112. Classification of galleries of Scolytoidea............................ 205 A


S


















ERRATA.


Page x, line 23, for Zimmerman read Zimmermann.
Page 1, first paragraph, second line, for 91 read 1902.
Page 3, line 12, forjunipiri readjuniperi; line 14, for Zimmerman read Zim ermann.
Page 40, legend to figure 26, for left read right, throughout; legend to figure26, line
6, for sinistral read dextral, for dextral read sinistral.
Page 41, legend to figure 27, line 1, for left read right.
Page 42, legend to figure 28, line 1, for left read right.
Page 43, legend to figure 43, line 1, for left read right.
Page 59, legend to figure 40, line 4, for gular read entogular; line 5, for gular read
genal, in both places.
Page 60, legend to figure 41, line 4, for labial read labral.
Page 61, line 18, after areas insert (fiq. 40, m).
Page 69, line 30, for distinctly read strongly.
Page 80, line 43, for Zimmerman read Zimmermann.
Page 90, line 15, for Zimmerman read Zimmermann.
Page 95, line 7, for Zimmerman read Zimmermann, after type omit comma; line 35,
for Zimmerman read Zimmermann.
Page 98, line 38, for lejophilla read lejophylla.
Page 101, line 3, for lejophilla read lejophylla.
Page 124, line 21, for 2289 read 2298.
Page 146, line 18, for Quairiere read Quairiere.
Page 148, line 19-20, for Zimmerman read Zimmermann.
Page 150, line 13, for Zimmerman read Zimmernann.
Page 154, line 11, for Cabon read Cobon.
Page 156, line 30, for Zimmerman read Zimmermann.
Page 157, line 1, for Zimmerman read Zimmermann.
Page 160, line 19, for X V read II: line 20, for Zimmerman read Zimmermann; line
21, for X V read II, for 150 read 149.
Page 164, line 28, for 1906b read 1905.
Page 179, line 8, for X read IX.




r













LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY,
Waisington, D. C., March 16, 1909.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith manuscript of the
first part of a bulletin of the technical series to be entitled "Contri-
butions toward a Monograph of the Scolytid Beetles."' This family
of beetles includes some of the most important enemies of North
American forests, as well as of crude forest products, and therefore
must demand special attention in future systematic and economic in-
vestigations by this bureau and by forest entomologists connected
with other public institutions and private enterprises. It is necessary,
as a foundation for such work, that the heretofore described species
should be accurately identified, that those new to science should be
described, and that this information, together with other systematic
data based on original research by this bureau, should be made availa-
ble in the form of contributions to a monograph. This work has
been undertaken by Dr. Hopkins, of this bureau, and the greater
part of the collecting and working up of the material has been com-
pleted. Delay in publication will be avoided, and it is believed that
the published results will be more useful in future systematic and
economic investigation if the results relating to groups of species
which have similar characters and cha-acteristics and similar rela-
tions to given economic problems are published as parts of a bulletin
rather than in one undivided publication. These technical parts
are to be supplemented in a like manner by parts of a bulletin of the
regular series, giving information of immediate practical importance
to the forester and owners and managers of private forests.
The first part of this bulletin is entitled "The Genus Dendrocto-
nus." It embodies the results of extensive systematic investiga-
tions of the genus, carried on by Dr. Hopkins during the past 17
i years, and is of especial interest and importance from the fact that
| it deals with a small group of beetles which are the most destructivee
Enemies of the principal coniferous forest trees of North America.
The discussions and illustrations relating to anatomical and tech-
Snical details are necessary as a basis for the correct description, inter-
I pretation, and recognition of generic and specific characters, on which
: depends the future success of economic work on the scolytid beetles.
!1..1
XIII

"Iiii.,".";
I'ij;,!ii.
1k




"a


XIV THE SCOLYTID BEETLES.

and as aids in the preparation of technical and economic contribu-
tions to the monograph.
I recommend the publication of this paper as Part I of Technical
Series, No. 17, of the Bureau of Entomology.
Respectfully,0.HowA
I O. HowARD,

Hon. JAMES WLSONm Oief of Bureau.
Secretary of Agriculture













INDEX.

Abies- Page.
host of Cryphalus...................................................... 208
host of Dendroctonus micans............................................. 145
host of Scolytus ......................................................... 209
Abies aconcolor, host of Dendroctonus valens................................... 156
Alnus, host of Trypophloeus............................................... 209
Amphicranus, armature................................................... 176
Amphicranusfastigatus, armature............................................ 177
Anisandrs dispar, paired species......................................... 211
Anisandrus pyri, paired species.............................................. 211
Aphanarthrum, distribution................................................. 210
Apion, head............................................................... 177
Apionidae, position in Rhynchophora...................................... 167
Balaninus, head.......................................................... 177
Beth la, host of Scolyttus................................................... 209
Blastophagus, Dendroctonus piniperda and D. minor referred to it............... 3
(Bostrichus) micans-
included in Dendroctonus............................................... 3
synonym of Dendroctonus n micans........................................ 5
Bostrichus scolytus, described by Fabricius................................... 220
Bothrostemrninae, in key to subfamilies....................................... 225
Cactopinus-
armature............................................................. 176
epistoma............................................................... 175
Camptocerine, in key to subfamilies...................................... 225
Carabid.e, position in Coleoptera............................................ 167
Carphobor.us-
connecting galleries.................................................... 203
Dendroctonus minimus referred to this genus............................ 3
eggs................................................................... 197
reproductive organs.................................................... 195
Celtis, host of Scolytus...................................................... 209
Chapuisinae, in key to subfamilies......................................... 225
Coccotrypes, secondary sexual characters..................................... 195
Coptonotinae, in key to subfamilies.......................................... 225
Corthylinae, in key to subfamilies............................................ 224
Corthylus-
general habits.......................................................... 198
host plants........................................................... 209
Cosmioderes, head........................................................... 177
Crossotarsus-
food habits............................................................. 199
larve................................................................. 197
reproductive organs................................................. 18S, 190
social gallery......................................................... 202
Crossotarsus leconlei, probably similar food habits to Webbia dipterocarpi....... 224
Cryphalinae, in key to subfamilies......................................... 224
25153-21-- 2 233







234 THE SCOLYTID BEETLES.

Cryphal is- Page.
host plants............................................................ 208
posterior wings........................................................ 180
types of genera......................................................... 221
Crypturgine, in key to subfamilies.......................................... 225
Crypthurqas-
distribution......................................................... 210
host.................................................................... 209
posterior wings........................................................ 180
Cy0lcne, abdominal sternites............................................... 182
Dendrocion s-
abdomen........................................................... 35-39
abdominal pleurites.................................................... 38-39
abdominal spiracles.................................................... 182
abdominal tergites................................................. 180-181
anatomical........................................................... 5-6
article............................................................... 1-164
bibliography....................................................... 159-164
bibliography and synonymy............................................ 80-81
brood galleries....................................................... 203
comparison of head with Pissodes strobi.................................. 11
comparison of head with Pterostichus................................ 11,12,21
distribution............................................................ 210
eggs.................................................................... 64
epistoma .............................................................. 175
food habits............................................................. 199
head .............................................................11-21
host.................................................................. 209
internal anatomy .................................................... 51-52
larva............................................................ 57-64, 197
larval mines......................................................... 204
legs.................................................................. 39-40
mesopleura.......................................................... 29-30
mesosterna............................................................. 30
mesotergumn.......................................................... 28-29
mesothoracic and metathoracic wings.................................. 42-43
mesothoracic wings or elytra.......................................... 49-51
mesothorax .......................................................... 28-30
metapleura......................................................... 34-35
m etasterna............................................................ 35
metatergum.......................................................... 30-33
metathoracic or hind wings............................................ 43-49
mnietathorax ......................................................... 30-35
nomenclature........................................................ 7-9
original description and translation..................................... 4
progressive modification of characters.................................... 67-68
prothorax .................................................... 26-28
pupa................................................................ 53-57
pupal cell............................................................ 204
reproductive organs............................................. 188,189,190
revisional notes....................................................... 5
spiracles............................................................. 39
secondary sexual characters......................................... 52-53,196
thorax .............................................................22-51
wings............................................................... 40-51







INDEX. 235

Dendroctonus adjunctus-P age.
historical .............................................................. 3
original description...................................... .......... 157-15.8
Dendroctonus approximatus-
adult, variations, distinctive characters, revisional notes............... 101-103
bibliography and synonymy............................................ 104
distribution ......................................................... 104
galleries..................... ........................................... 104
historical.............. ................................................ 3
host trees .................. ....... .................................. 104
identified specimens.................................................. 104
in synopsis of characters................................................ 70
larva........ ...... ............................. ..... ............... 103
pupa............................................................... .103
Dendroctonus arizonicus-
adult, variations, distinctive characters, revisional notes................... 96
bibliography.............................................. ....... 97
distribution ..........................................-.. .. ......... 97-211
galleries............................................................... 97
historical............................................................... 4
host tree ............................................................. 97
identified specimens................................................... 97
in synopsis of characters................................................ 70
larva.......... ....................................................... 96
paired species .............. ......................................... 211
pupa................................................................. 96
Dendroctonus barberi-
adult, variations, distinctive characters, revisional note.................. 86
bibliography and synonymy............................................ 87
distribution .......................... ......................... 86-87, 211
galleries............................................................... 86
host trees............................................................ 87
identified specimens................................................... 87
in synopsis of characters-............................................... 70
larva.................................... ............................. 86
paired species ....................................................... 211
Dendroctonus bifurcus, historical.......................................... 3
Dendroctonus borealis-
adult, variations, distinguishing characters, revisional notes............. 133-134
bibliography and synonymy........................................... 135
distribution ......................................................... 135
historical.................................................... ......... 4
host tree................. ...... ..... ............... ................. 135
identified specimens.................................................. 135
in synopsis of characters ............................................... 72
Dendroctonus brevicomis-
adult, variations, distinctive characters, revisional notes................. 81-83
bibliography and synonymy............................................ 84-85
distribution ........................................................ 84, 211
galleries.............................. ............................... 84
historical.............................................................. 3
host ............ ................. .............................. 68,84
identified specimens.................................................. 84
in synopsis of characters................................................ 70







236 THE SCOLYTID BEETLES.

Dendroctonu s brevicomi--Continued. Page.
larva................................ .................................. 84
paired species ........................................................ 211
pupa............................................................ ..83-84
Dendroctonus califormicus, historical......................................... 4
Dendroctonus convexifrons-
adult, variations, distinctive characters, revisional notes................ 87-88
bibliography......................................................... 90
distribution......................................................... 89-90
galleries............................................................. 89
host trees ........................................................... 90
identified specimens.................................................. 90
in synopsis of characters............................................... 67,70
larva............................................................... 88-89
pupa................................................. ............ 88
Dendroctonus dietzi, historical............................................. 4
Dendroctonus engelmanni-
adult, variations, distinctive characters, revisional notes............... 130-131
bibliography and synonymy............................................ 133
distribution .................................... .................. 132
galleries.............................................................. 132
host trees ........................................................... 133
identified specimens.................................................. 133
in synopsis of characters............................................... 71
larva.............................................................. 131-132
paired species ..................................,.................... 211
pupa................................................................ 131
Dendroctonus fletcheri, historical............................................ 4
Dendroctonus frontalis-
adult, variations, distinctive characters, revisional notes................. 91
bibliography and synonymy............................................ 95
distribution........................................... ....94,211
galleries.............................................................. 94
historical............................................................. 3
host ............................ ................................... 95
identified specimens .............................................. ...... 95
in synopsis of characters............................................... 70
larva................................................................ 94
length of imago..... ./................................................. 10
paired species ....................................................... 211
pupa................................................................... 93-94
pupal cell-........................................................... 204
terminal burrows..................................................... 203
Dendroctonus jefreyi-
adult, variations, distinctive characters, note........................ 114-115
in synopsis of characters................................................ 71
larva.............................................................. 115-116
pupa............................................................... 115
Dendroclonus juniper, historical........................................... 3
Dendroctonus keeni, historical.............................................. 4
Dendroctonus mexicanus-
adult.............................................................. 97-98
distribution............................................................ 98
identified specimens................................................... 98







INDEX. / 237

Dendroctonus mexicanus-Continued. Page.
in synopsis of characters ................................................ 70
paired species......................................................... 211
Dendroctonus micans-
adult, variations, distinctive characters.............................. 143-144
bibliography and synonymy............................................ 146
distribution.......................................................... 145,211
galleries............................................................ 144-145
host trees.............................................................. 145
identified specimens ................................................. 145
in synopsis of characters................................................ 72
larva................................................................ 144
paired species.......................................................... 211
type.................................................................. 3,144
Dendroctonus minimus, historical............................................ 3
Dendroctonus minor, historical............................................... 3
Dendroctonus montico le-
adult, variations, distinctive characters, revisional notes............... 105-106
bibliography and synonymy............................................ 109
distribution.......................................................... 108,211
galleries.............................................................. 107
historical............................................................................ ....... 4
host trees............................................................. 109
identified specimens........................;.......................... 109
in synopsis of characters................................................ 71
larva.............................................................. 106-107
paired species.......................................................... 211
pupa-.... ........................................................... 106
Dendroctonus murrayarna-
adult, variations, distinctive characters.............................. 140-141
bibliography......................................................... 142
distribution,.......................................................... 142
galleries.................................................................. 141
host trees............................................................. 142
identified specimens.................................................. 142
in synopsis of characters............................................. 72
larva................................................................ 141
Dendroctonus obesus-
adult, variations, distinctive characters, revisional notes.............. 135-136
bibliography and synonymy............................................ 138
distribution............................................................ 137
galleries................ ...................................:........... 137
host tree............................................................... 137
identified specimens.................................................. 137
in synopsis of characters................................................. 72
larva.............................................................. 136-137
pupa................................................................ 136
Dendroctonus parallelocollis-
adult, variations, distinctive characters............................... 99-100
bibliography......................................................... 101
distribution.......................................................... 100
galleries.............................................................. 100
historical............................................................. 3






238- THE SCOLYTID BEETLES.

Dendroctonus parallelocollis-Continued Paw.
host trees.............................................................. 101
identified specimens................................................... 101
in synopsis of characters................................................ 70
paired species.......................................................... 211
Dendroctonus piceaperda-
adult, variations, distinctive characters, revisional notes.............. 126-127
bibliography and synonymy............................................ 130
distribution............................................................ 129
galleries............................................................ 128-129
historical............................................................. 4
host trees.............................................................. 129
identified specimens................................................. 129-130
larva.............................................................. 127-128
paired species.......................................................... 211
pupa................................................................ 127
Dendroctonus piniperda-
historical.............................................................. 3
synonym of Myelophilus piniperda..................................... 5
Dendroctonus ponderose-
adult, variations, distinctive characters, revisional notes.............. 109-111
bibliography and synonymy............................................ 114
distribution...................................................... 112-113,211
economic relation to forests............................................. 113
galleries.............................................................. 112
historical.............................................................. 4
host trees.............................................................. 113
identified specimens................................................ 113-114
in synopsis of characters................................................ 71
lanrva................................................................. 111
paired species.......................................................... 211
pupa................................................................ 111
pupal cell........................................................... 204
Dendroctonus pseudotsugs-
adult, variations, distinctive characters, revisional notes.............. 121-123
bibliography and synonymy........................................... 126
distribution.......................................................... 124-125
galleries.......... ..................................................... 124
historical............................................................. 124
hosts................................................................ 68,125
identified specimens.................................................. 125
in synopsis of characters............. ........................... 71
pupa.................................................. 123-124
Dendroctonus punctatus-
adult, variations, distinctive characters, revisional notes.............. 142-143
bibliography and synonymy............................................ 143
distribution...................................................... 142-143,211
historical.............................................................. 3
host tree............................................................... 142
in synopsis of characters................................................ 72
paired species.......................................................... 211






INDEX. 239

Dendroctonus rufipennis- Page.
adult, variations, distinctive characters, revisional notes.............. 138-140
bibliography.......................................................... 140
distribution ......................................................... 140
host tree ............................................................ 140
identified specimens.................................................. 140
in synopsis of characters................................................ 72
Dendroctonus shoshone, historical.......................................... 4
Dendroctonus similis, historical.............................................. 3
Dendroctonus simplex-
adult, variations, distinctive characters, revisional notes.............. 117-118
bibliography and synonymy.......................................... 120-121
distribution.......................................................... 120
galleries............................................................. 119-120
historical.............................................................. 3
host................................................................. 68,120
identified specimens.................................................. 120
in synopsis of characters............................................... 71
larva................................................................ 119
pupa............................................................... 118-119
Dendroctonus spp., relation to host trees..................................... 78
Dendroctonus terebrans-
adult, variations, distinctive characters, revisional notes.............. 147-148
bibliography and synonymy........................................... 150
distribution........................................................ 149-150
galleries.............................................................. 149
historical............................................................. 3
host trees............................................................ 150
identified specimens.................................................. 150
in synopsis of characters................................................ 72
larva................................................................ 149
paired species....................................................... 211
pupa................................................................. 149
Dendroctonus ivalens-
adult, variations, distinctive characters, revisional notes................. 151-152
bibliography and synonymy......................................... 156-157
distribution ......................................................... 154-155
galleries............................................................ 153-154
historical............................................................. 3
hosts................................................................ 68, 156
identified specimens.................................................. 156
in synopsis of characters............................................... 72
larva.................................................. .......... 152-153
length of imago....................................................... 10
paired species ....................................................... 211
pupa.............................................................. 152, 196
D&ndroctonus wickhami, historical.......................................... 4
(Dermestes) piniperda, included in Dendroctonus.............................. 3
Dermestes scolytus, described by Sulzer.................................... 220
Dermestes typographus, type of genus Ips.................................... 220
Dipterocarpus grandiflora, host of Webbia dipterocarpi................. ....... 223
Dolurgus, host......................................................... 209






240 THE SCOLYTID BEETLES.

Dryoca tes- Page.
hosts.................................................................. 209
reproductive organs........ ............................ 192-195
Dryocaetes autographus, paired species................................... 211
Dryocl.tes septentrionis, paired species............ .................. 211
Eccoptogaster, described by Herbst......................................... 220
Eccoptopterus, armature.................................................... 176
Erineophilus schu'arzi, reproductive organs.... ....................... 192
Ernoporus, reproductive organs............... ...................... 194
Fagus, host of Scolytus................................................... 209
Fraxinus, host of Hylesinus and Pteleobius................................... 209
GenyocerinTe, in key to subfamilies........................................ 225
Gnathotlrichus, host......................................................... 209
Hexacolinze, in key to subfamilies.......................................... 225
Hicoria, host of Scolytus.................................................. 209
HOPKINS, A. D.-
paper, "Preliminary Classification of the Superfamily Scolytoidea".. 165-232
paper, "The Genus Dendroctonus"..................................... 1-164
Hylastes-
head................................................................... 177
host.................................................................. 209
types of genera......................................................... 221
Hylesinus-
abdominal spiracles........................................... 182
abdominal sternites............... .............................. 182
host................................................................... 209
(Hylesinus) minimus-
included in Dendroctonus............................................... 3
synonym of Carphoborus minimus...................................... 5
(Hylesinus) m)ior, included in Dendroctonus................................... 3
Hylesinus-
nuptial chamber........................................................ 202
reproductive organs............................................. 188,192,195
Hylocurus, armature...................................................... 176
Hylurgops-
abdominal spiracles...................................................... 182
head................................................................ 177
Hylurgops glabratus, paired species.......................................... 211
Hylurgops pinifex, paired species.......................................... 211
Hylurgus, host plant..................................................... 209
Hylurgus minor, synonym of Myelophilus minor............................. 5
Hylurgus obesus, historical.................................................. 3
Hylurgus rufipennis, historical.............................................. 3
Hyorrhynchinee, in key to subfamilies.................................... 225
Hypoborus-
distribution......................................................... 210
legs.................................................................. 179
Hypothenemus- -
antennal club............................................... 173
antennal funicle.................... ................................... 171
distribution ............. ............................................ 210
elytra............................................................................. 179
hosts.....................................'&........................... 209







INDEX. 241

Hypothenemus--Continued. Page.
legs.................................................................. 179
posterior wings ....................................................... 180
secondary sexual characters........................................... 195
size.................................................................. 175
; social habits................... ....................................... 200
types of genera .....................................................221-222
Hypothenemus miles, armature............................................ 176
Ipide, in key to families.......... ........................................ 224
Ipinwe, in key to subfamilies........................................... 224
Ips-
armature............................................................. 176
brood galleries....................................................... 203
galleries .............................................................. 201
hosts ............................................................... 209
nuptial chamber..................................................... 202
reproductive organs..............................................188,192,195
social habits................................................ 200
Juniperus, host of Monarthrum and Corthylus.............................. 209
Larix- 145
host of Dendroctonus micans........................................... 145
host of Dendroctonus pseudotsug ....................................... 68
host of Dendroctonus simplex............................................ 68
host of Dendroctonus valens ............................................ 68
Larix laricina-
host of Dendroctonus.................................................. 79
host of Dendroctonus simplex...........................................120,156
Larix occidentalis-
host of Dendroctonus.................................................. 79
host of Dendroctonus pseudotsugse..................................... 125
Lepisomus, types of genera................................................ 222
Liparthrum, distribution................................................. 210
Lymantor, reproductive organs...................................192, 195
Micracinee, in key to subfamilies.......................................... 224
Micracis-
legs............ ....................................................... 179
pupal cell............................................................ 204
reproductive organs................................................... 188
Monarthrum-
armature............................................................. 176
host ................................................................ 209
Myelophilus, Dendroctonus piniperda and D. minor referred to it............... 3
Phlooborinee, in key to subfamilies....................................... 225
Phloooborus-
legs................................................................. 179
size................................................................... 175
Phloeophthorus, nuptial chamber.......................................... 202
Phlotosinus-
food plants.......................................................... 199
nuptial chamber..................................................... 202-203
Phloeotribinae, in key to subfamilies......................................... 225
Picea, host of Dendroctonus micans........................................ 145







242 THE SCOLYTID BEETLES.

Picea canadensis- Page.
host of Dendroctonus................................................... 79
host of Dcndroctonis borealis.......................................... 135
host of Dendroctonmis engelmanni...................................... 133
host of Dendroctonus piceaperda....................................... 129
host of Dendroctonus valens ............................................ 156
Pieca engelmanir-
host of Dendroctonus............................................. ..... 79
host of Dendroctonus engelmanni...................................... 133
host of Dendroclonus monticolse....................................... 109
host of Dendroctonus murrayan, ....................................... 142
host of Dendroctonus ponderose......................................... 113
Picea excelsa-
host of Dendroctonusfrontalis........................................... 95
host of Dendroctonus valens........................................... 156
Picea mariana-
host of Detndroctonus.................................................. 79
host of Dendroctonus piceaperda....................................... 129
Picea rubens-
host of Dendroctonus.................................................. 79
host of DendroctonusJrontalis......................................... 95
host of Dendroctonms piceaperda ......................................... 129
host of Dendroctonus punctatus......................................... 142
host of Dendroctanu.s terebrans........................................... 150
host of Dendroctanzis valmns........................................... 156
Picea sitchensis-
host of Dendroctonus.................................................. 79
host of Dendroctaonus obesus............................................. 137
Pinus-
host of Crypturginmse..................................................... 209
host of Dendroctonus mn eimns.............................................. 145
host of Dendroctonus lens .............................................. 68
host of Gnathotrichus.................................................... 209
host of H ylesininT.................................................... 209
host of Monarthrum and Corthylus..................................... 209
host of Pityogenes and Ips .............................................. 209
Pinus arizon ica-
host of Dendroctonus.................................................. 79
host of Dendroctonuis approxirnatus.................................... 104
host of Dendroctonus ralens........................................... 156
Pinus ayacaiuite-
host of Dendroctonus inmexicanus........................................ 98
host of Dendroctonus parallelocollis.........................!........... 101
Pinus chihuahuana-
host of Dendroctonus.................................................. 79
host of Dendrocton us approximatus.................................... 104
h ost of Dendroctonus con verxifrons...................................... 90
host of Dendroctonus valens........................................... 156
Pin ,s echinata-
host of Dendroctonns.................................................. 79
host of DendroctonzsJron.talis......................................... 95
host of Dendroctonus terebrans........................................... 150







INDEX. 243

Pinus edulis- Page.
host of Dendroctonus.................................................. 79
host of Dendroctonus barberi.......................................... 87
host of Dendroctonus valmens........................................... 156
Pinus flevili&-
host of Dendroctonus.................................................. 79
host of Dendroctonus ponderosa.......................................... 113
Pinus glabta-
host of Dendroctonus.................................................. 79
host of Dendroctonus frontalis......................................... 95
Pinus jeffreyi-
host of Dendroctonus.................................................. 79
host of Dendroctonus jeffreyi............................................. 116
host of Dendroctonus valens.............................................. 156
Pinus lambertiana-
host of Dendroctonus.................................................. 79
host of Dendroctonus brevicomis........................................ 84
host of Dendroctonus jeffreyi............................................ 116
host of Dendroctonus monticola,.......................................... 109
host of Dendroctonus valens........................................... 156
Pinus lejophylla-
host of Dendroctonus.................................................. 79
host of Dendroctonus mexicanus........................................ 98
host of Dendroctonus parallelocollis..................................... 101
Pinus monticola-
host of Dendroctonus.................................................. 79
host of Dendroctonus mnonticolx.......................................... 109
Pinus murrayana-
host of Dendroctonus.................................................. 79
host of Dendroctonus monticolxe.......................................... 109
host of Dendroctonus murrayanw ......................................... 142
host of Dendroctonus ponderosm......................................... 113
host of Dendroctonus valens............................................. 156
Pinus palustris-
host of Dendroctonus.................................................. 79
host of Dendroctonus frontalis.............I............................... 95
host of Dendroctonus terebrans.......................................... 150
Pinus ponderosa-
host of Dendroctonus.................................................. 79
host of Dendroctonus brevicomis........................................ 84
host of Dendroctonus jeffreyi............................................. 116
host of Dendroctonus monticolx .......................................... 109
host of Dendroctonus valens.............................................. 156
Pinus ponderosa scopulorum-
host of Dendroctonus approximatus....................................... 104
host of Dendroctonus arizonicus......................................... 97
host of Dendroctonus barberi............................................. 87
host of Dendroctonus convexifrons...................................... 90
host of Dendroctonus ponderosa......................................... 113
Pinus pungens-
host of Dendroctonus.................................................. 79
host of Dendroctonus frontalis............................................ 95








244 THE SCOLYTID BEETLES.

Pinus radiata- Page.
host of Dendroctonus................................................... 79
host of Dendroctonus valens............................ ................ 156
Pinus rigida-
host of Dendroctonus................................................... 79
host of Dendroctonusfrontalis............................................ 95
host of Dendroctonus terebrans........................................... 150
host of Dendroctonus valens.............................................. 156
Pinus scopulorum, host of Dendroctonus... ................................. 79
Pinus serotina-
host of Dendroctonus ........................................... 79
host of Dendroctonus terebrans.............. ...................... 150
Pinus sp., host of Dendroctonus valens...................................... 156
Pinus strobiformis-
host of Dendroctonus.................................................. 79
host of Dendroctonus ponderose......................................... 113
host of Dendroctonus valens.............. ............................... 156
Pinus strobus-
host of Dendroctonus................................................... 79
host of Dendroctonusfrontalis........................................... 95
host of Dendroctonus rufipennis........................................ 140
host of Dendroctonus terebrans........... ............................... 150
host of Dendroctonus valens.................................. ................ 156
Pinus sylvestris-
host of Dendroctonus.................................................. 79
host of Dendroctonus valens................. .................... 156
Pinus txda-
host of Dendroctonus.................................................. 79
host of Dendroctonus frontalis............................................ 95
host of Dendroctonus terebrans........................................... 150
Pinus teocoti-
host of Dendroctonus................................................... 79
host of Dendroctonus mexicanus........................................ 98
Pinus teocoti (?), host of Dendroctonus parallelocollis.......................... 101
Pinus virginiana-
host of Dendroctonus-........................................... 79
host of Dendroctonusfrontalis........................................... 95
host of Dendroctonus valens.............................................. 156
Pissodes-
abdominal sternites................................................... 182
reproductive organs................................................. 188
Pissodes strobi, comparison of head with Dendroctonus..................... 11
Pityogenes-
arm ature................................................................ 176
connecting galleries................................................... 203
nost plants........................................................... 209
social habits...................................... ................... 200
Pityophthorus-
antennal club........................................................ 173
connecting galleries.........................................f.......... 203
nuptial chamber .................................................... 202
reproductive organs................................................. 190,195
Platypodidae, in: key to families............................................. 224
Platypodinve, inkey toasubfamilies.......................................... 225







INDEX. 245

Platypus- Page.
abdominal tergites...................................................... 181
food habits............................................................. 199
general habits.......................................................... 198
larve.......... ............................................. 197
legs................................................................. 179
social gallery........................................................ 202
Polygraphus, types of genera................................................ 222
Populus, host of Trypophloeus............................................... 209
Pseudtsuga, host of Dendroctonus pseudotsugx............................... 68
Pseudotsuga macrocarpa-
host of Dendroctonus.................................................. 79
host of Dendroctonus pseudotsug.................................. 125
Pseudotsuga ta'ifolia-
host of Dendroctonus ......................... ...................... 79
host of Dendroctonus barberi.......................................... 87
host of Dendroctonus pseudotsugwe....................................... 125
host of Scolytus................................................. 209
Pteleobius-
food habits............................................................. 199
host................................................................. 209
Pterostichus, comparison of head with Dendroctonus......................... 11,12, 21
Pycnarthrum-
epistoma.............................................................. 175
labrum ............................................................... 175
Quercus-
host of Dryoccetes..................................................... 209
host of Scolytus........................................................ 209
Salix, host of Trypophloeus.................................................. 209
Scolytidae, in key to families............................................. 224
Scolytinae, in key to subfamilies........................................... 225
Scolytoidea-
antennae........................................................... 171-174
article............................................................. 165-232
bibliography........................................................ 229-232
body.............................................................. 175-183
eggs- ---....................................................... .- 197
embryo ............................................................... 197
eyes.................................................................. 174
general anatomy...................................................... 168
general characters.................................................. 175-195
genera of doubtful position.............................................. 228
genera provisionally assigned to subfamilies.......................... 227
internal anatomy..................................................... 183-195
larva................................................................ 197
morphological characters.............................................. 169-198
mouthparts.......................................................... 174-175
physiological characteristics.......................................... 198-210
position............ ....................................... 167-168
position of principal described genera.................................. 226-227
pupa.............................,................................... 196
secondary sexual characters................. ......................195-196
taxonomy........................................................... 216







246 THE SOOLYTID BEETLES.

Page.
Scolytoplatypodidie, in key to families..:..... ........ .................... 224
Scolytoplatypodina-, in key to subfamilies.................................. 225
Scolyto platypus- ..
food habits................. ........................................... 199
general habits.. ................................................ 198
Scolytus-
abdominal sternites.................................................... 182
distribution............................................................ 210
food habits............................................................ 199
galleries.............................................................. 201
host plants............................................................... 209
legs.............................................. .................. 179
nuptial chamber..................................................... 202
reproductive organs................................................. 194, 195
types of genera-...................................................... 219-220
Scolytus muticus-
pupal cell............................................................ 204
reproductive organs.................................................... 192
Scolytus puicndalus, described by Miiller...................................... 220
Scolytus quadr is)Inosuts-
food burrows......................................................... 203
reproductive organs................................................. 188,192
Scolytus rugulosus-
food burrows......................................................... 203
reproductive organs................................................. 188, 192
(Scolytus) terebrans, included in Dendroctonus................................ 3
Scolytus tkrcbriis, synonym of Dendroctonus terebrans........................ 5
Sih'Ioscf1;s, general habits................... ................................ 198
Stfphaiunodkrrc-
antennal funicle.................:................................... 171
distribution............................................................ 210
food habits.............. ..:. ......................................... 199
head............... .. ... .. ....................................... 177
pupal habits.............. ............................................. 199
secondary sexual characters................ ........................ 195
social habits.............. .. ....................................... 200
Taphrorychus, reproductive organs........................................... 195
Thysanoes, pupal cell...................................................... 204
Tomicus-
food plants............................................................ 199
types of genera................ ....................................... 220-221
Tomicus (Myelophilas), host..... ............................................ 209
Trypoph eis, hosts................... ..................................... 208-209
Ulmus, host of Scolytus.................................................... 209
Webbia-
legs ................ ........ ....... ... ............................. 179
original description.................................................. 222, 223
Webbia dipterocarpi, description............................................... 223
TW(bbina, in key to subfamilies............................................ 224







INDEX. 247

Xyleborus- Page.
antennal funicle ........................................................ 171
armature........................................................... 176,177
distribution............................................................ 210
food habits............................................................. 199
general habits.......................................................... 198
hosts................... ............................................... 209
reproductive organs.............................................. 188, 192,195
secondary sexual characters............................................. 195
social gallery......................................................... 202
social habits......................................................... 200
varieties............................................................. 217
Xyleborusfuscatius, possibly embraces X. viduus.............................. 217
Xyleborus inerm is, possibly embraces X. plan icollis.......................... 217
Xyleborus planicollis, possibly an odd type of X. inermis..................... 217
Xyleborus sa.reseni. social chamber.......................................... 202
Xyleborus viduus, possibly an odd type of X eleborusfuscatus................ 217
Xylocleptes-
armature.............................................................. 176
reproductive organs.................................................. 188,195
Xyloctoninse, in key to subfamilies........................................ 224
Xylolerus bivf'at us, paired species.......................................... 211
Xyloterus lineatus, paired species.......................................... 211

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