Prevention of insect damage to wind-thrown timber in the New England states

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Title:
Prevention of insect damage to wind-thrown timber in the New England states
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Creator:
Craighead, Frank C ( Frank Cooper ), 1890-1982
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine ( Washington, D.C )
Publication Date:

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Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030261815
oclc - 778370479
System ID:
AA00017538:00001


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-.-n Noveilibr 1938


Ut'ted States D r'i.,,rt .ent of Apriculture
'. u of Er-tc1 clc .:,, r1d Plnt Qu-.iran:tine


"','VTIOT OF IN-.'T r.'.7ACE TO WIND-THROWN TIMFLi,
IN THE NEW'. LINCLAND STATES

C. Ci ighead, Divi ic': of Forost Ii' Inv:ti..




'"? of the most serious probl.1.is in the salvage and subsequent
utiliztioti of the rreat quantities of Zt..te? ..-ill be the ,.vidice of "nsect clalmr 3ge. Full reco_,ition of the
cr..r,'-ter of the J,-:1ge to be Expected -nd careful planniil of the salvwi.P_'
openrtio:,z t3 foT-,-!tall insect attack should make it possible to avoid
1..'. I:.-?.: 'i..-~of'.'" as it is py icr -illy and financially po.-sible to ,.,r'
cut tL.e ii':CeS:- a3y measures.

The rurpo-e of this discussion is merely to point out the major
ECu'.7.--.e% of ....: .'rid principal methodscc of prevention of insect attack. '11e.
Nw Hven l-lorc.tory of the Bure-.au of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Forst
I, t .ec vs. *.-tL c.:-- Division, located at 56 HilliLous? Avenue. will have
n._?; av 1".:Ie t, .nke field contacts with the personnel carryi,-.. on the
E.lv- :*: hus providing detailed advice for special situations as they
arise.

I. Insect Problems in Connection With the Salv.,aqc
a-.d Storage of Lois, Pulpwocd, and Luiber

12r .e of _i 'nset d-ii-age.--All species of logs will be att -lkd by
81:br- sa L.:-tles or pin-hole bor.-trs shortly after warm weather sets in if
Cir r-t still exposed to insect attack. Freshly sawn lumber containing a
X-,'- ":*.:.-tt-. t ct- nt will alco be atlrked to some extent, particularly
if b!e b'- is left on the edges of the boards. These beetles make siiAi
lcle s'--c-.tlied pin holes, in the wood ;u'd also introduce blue stains. Both
of tbr. .- defects loe.-r the grade of the lumber.

C.: .fero'- log-- with the bark on are attacked by hark beetles, which
cri. lue stains in.o the sapA'ood. ThF-e blue sVt..ris quickly *in-.:te and
darrk.n n '-: -.ntire sap.vood. Ash, hickory aiud elm ioy also be aLia.'.iu in
f vc:-'le looatin.

C:,fTero? lo.s with the bark on are also attacked by b.,_,ro's, which
rCI.F '.e ':-r .ocd Lnd :"y penetrate Ipto theP heartwood. Round-eh'..d lu;L..r
of a.ll ."i:UJ wil"'h 1.':2 rk on 'will zlo be attacked to some extent the first




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year and particularly the second and third years. Hickory and ash logs are
sometimes badly attacked by wood borers, but other hardwoods are not likely
to be seriously damaged.

Prompt utilization.--The old adage "An ounce of prevention is worth
a pound of cure" is especially applicable to the prevention of insect attack
to logs and lumber. Avoidance of insect damage by proper methods of salvage
and handling of the lumber is far more practical and economical than attempt-
ing to use control measures after the insects have attacked. Fortunately,
during the fall, winter, and spring there will be no insect activity, and
until after warm weather sets in, about May 15 in the southern part of the
storm belt and June 15 in the more northern sections, there will be no danger
from insect attack. With a late season these dates can even be extended,
and in the case of certain types of borers there is a longer safe period.
It is, therefore, absolutely essential to have all the logs out of reach of
the insects before the end of this safe period (May 15 to June 15), unless
under special entomological inspection and advice. This is especially true
of pine, spruce, fir, ash, oak, and hickory logs. With other hardwoods
there is less danger except from ambrosia beetles.

Water storage.--Water storage in ponds or rivers offers the most
satisfactory place of safety. High floating logs may be slightly attacked
on the top side If so, they can be sprayed with a fuel oil or crankcase
oil carrying naphthalene at the rate of 3/4 pound per gallon. The crude
naphthalene flakes go into solution most readily when the oil is warm,
90 F. The flakes will not make a complete solution when cold oil is used.
It is very important to avoid placing the logs in ponds or rivers that will
dry up during the summer, thus exposing the logs to insect attack during the
vulnerable period. Water storage tends to darken some woods after they have
been in the water 6 months or a year.

Barking.--Barking is quite satisfactory to prevent borer and bark
beetle attach and will prevent most of the ambrosia beetle damage if the
logs are in a place where they can season rapidly. On the other hand, this
rapid seasoning increases checking and the resulting injury from this cause
is sometimes worse than that from insects.

Decking logs.--Some measure of protection from insect attack can be
obtained by decking the logs in compact piles, so as to keep the inner logs
cool and moist. This is to be recommended only if the material will be sawn by
midsummer. However, a constant watch should be kept for insect attack, and
at the first evidence of infestation as indicated by boring dust the logs
should be sawn or placed in water. No sprays are known which will effectively
prevent insect attack on decked logs.

Sawn lumber.-Probably the most satisfactory method of salvaging
logs to prevent insect attack is to saw the logs into lumber and then proper-
ly pile or store the lumber. Proper piling to prevent insect attack to green
lumber requires that the piles be raised from the ground on piers and the
boards be separated and well spaced with stickers, so as to permit as much
air circulation as possible. The piles themselves should be set apart to
provide good air circulation.








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It is far more satisfactory +n remove all the bark from the edpes.
of .h. lui.'-r, '.'it if not practical with lumber from ,,,l lo.,,, this
material should bh pil .ed -'p-rately and in,-pecteo :.veral times duri,-n the
sum er '-n for evi i-nce of inr--t attack. Such mn+erial is more subject
to ati.ack during, the qerond and third years.

i, the more southern sections of t1e? storm belt, ash, oak, and hickory
lumber '.D'Y.r thoroug!ly air-dri;-,, may he subject to attack by thie powder-
post beetles (Lvci. species). This dnvmnge is not likely to occur until the
sEond summer or later. There a0- no practical means of avoiding such ,.if1-.,e
oti .r b2rn f-.'queni inspections for evidences of attack and prnript utiliza-
tion. K,1In-dryii* the infested material will kill the insects but will not
prevent reinfestation.

II. Insect Problems in Connection with the Protection
of the Reanninin Stndin- Timber

SrT-e hbaril hc.c!]. .--In somre sections where considerable spruce has
e ,p w.ndc1-thrown, outbreak" of the spruce bar" beetle may r-'ilt duWring the
second or thirrI yo--r if the logs are left in tbhe woods. Tn those place
where this material c-.!not be utilized, it should be inspected during +te
summer of 1939, !,n' if found to be heavily infested 1by this bark beetle, the
logs should be peeled in order to protect the surro,.iding green tim-,r.

The n:'." wreev-il will hecor? very abundant in white pine areas be-
cause of its habit of br-edin-, in cull logs -d stumps. The adult hbeetles
cause ,nuch l :lge by feedic, upon tender bark, often girdling or even com-
pletely stripping the b. rk frcrm you:Lg trees. Young reproduction from 6
inches to 2 feet bgr may be entir.-ly killer over considerable areas. Little
can be do-- to avoid this t"', of injury in windfall arpa.s. Tn some cases
it will be necessary to replant if see-r trees are not aviolabi. This in-
sect is likely to be very abundant for it least +'h next two or three ye.ars.

T-'r. bhrk.--There will prnbo-bly be a derrand for the sal-v'.e and storage
of hemlock and oak tan bark. Several borers attack this bark after the
second anK- third years. Inspection and prompt utilization of infested
material should be provided for.

'm lgs and slash.--Tn those parts of the arep where the Dutch elm
disease or the E.iropean elm bark beetle is now present every effort should
be made to destroy or utilize all elm windfall material over 2 inches in
diameter befor- the coming summer. If this material is not destroyed, it
will serve as a breeding ground for elm bark beetles and thus increase 'hp
danger of spreading the disease among the living trees remaining in the are-
and to new areas.




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