Foreign plant quarantines in-service training series

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Title:
Foreign plant quarantines in-service training series
Physical Description:
7 no. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
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United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
U.S. Govt. Print. Office
Place of Publication:
Washington
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Frequency:
regular

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Plant diseases   ( lcsh )
Plant quarantine   ( lcsh )
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serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographies.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
No. 1-7.
General Note:
Caption title.

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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aleph - 030607137
oclc - 10125141
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lcc - SB981 .A4
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AA00017455:00001


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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Washington, D. C.


April 1, 1940

Foreign Plant Quarantines In-service Training Series. No. 1


PLANT DISEASE REFERENCE AND STUDY MATERIAL

The desirability of ready reference information concerning
plant diseases of special quarantine interest has long been recog-
nized. A series of subject headings to be used in preparing such
information was worked out and the assembling of thi information was
begun in 1927 by Mr. N1. Rex Hunt. From time to time other members
of this Bureau's personnel as well as specialists in the Bureau of
Plant Industry assisted in the work. Much time was consumed in
endeavoring to get all data rewritten or verified by leading
specialists and the data were changing so rapidly that part of the
information at hand was always out of date. These summaries in
various stages of completion have been kept on file here. With the
increasing interest in study meetings at the various ports and the
increasing emphasis on in-service training for improved efficiency
throughout the government service, the time seems opportune to
supply this information, insofar as it has been assembled, for the
use of members of the division who are in the field.

The old "work sheets," as they have been called, are quite
brief. Mr. Hunt felt that the varied needs of the personnel of the
entire division would be better served if more information, some
discussion, and an annotated bibliography were added and that it was
more important to make the material available for use promptly than
to spend so much time obtaining expert opinion and verification of
data, many details of which might be of no significance from a
quarantine viewpoint. This policy was approved. A copy of Mr. Hunt's
explanatory memorandum which accompanied the first group of write-ups
of specific diseases and two papers that might be useful in study
period discussions are attached for your information.

Individuals and study groups are requested to send us any
corrections or additions to the information furnished that may come
to their attention from time to time. Suggestions as to additional
information desired in such write-ups and as to other types of
information or discussion material that would be useful are invited
also. Without your help and criticisms we cannot succeed in our
purpose to make the material furnished as useful as possible to you.




In'Char e,
Division of Foreign Pi t Quarantines /

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I









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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Washington, D. C.




EXPLANATORY STATEMENT

Res Plant disease reference and study material.

Summaries of readily available information regarding
plant diseases which are responsible for specific foreign plant
quarantines and of other diseases which may appear to be of special
interest to those engaged in enforcing the foreign plant quarantines
are being prepared as time permits.

Information, if available, will be given under a fixed
set of headings in uniform order but there will be no attempt to
make the treatment uniform, at least at this time. Any great stress
on uniformity or on an exhaustive and critical analysis of the
literature would mean years of further delay in issuing the
summaries. After the series is completed it should be possible to
revise the write-ups bringing them up-to-date again, making any
desired corrections and making them more nearly uniform.

In using the summaries the reader should remember that
most pathogens are variable, that their hosts are variable, that the
weather and climatic conditions under which the pathogen and host
develop are variable and affect both host and pathogen, and that
observers vary in their interpretation and recording of data.
Furthermore the reviewer is subject to error in his endeavors to
combine data from various workers in different parts of the world
into a brief summary.

The bibliographies are designed to include a few more or
less general studies of the disease covered and in some cases studies
of special phases or items of information of special interest under
some one of the outline headings. Some of the notes following
citations indicate the nature of the work covered in the article,
others give bits of information based on the article. Divergence of
views of different authors will be found in the notes at times also.
These notes are largely copies of rough notes made when the articles
were reviewed and are likely to be limited to a few interesting items
which may not be representative of the article as a whole but
appeared to be useful in rounding out the general picture.







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While we have not hesitated to consult such specialists
as may be available, responsibility for the final form of the
summaries and errors in them rests with us, in fact some statements
made are mere personal opinion, subject to change as additional
data may become available.

In addition to an installment of the summaries covering
specific diseases, a preliminary list of diseases mentioned in
Foreign Plant Quarantines, Regulations, etc., and a tentative
analysis of the basis of plant disease quarantine recommendations
are submitted for possible use in the study meetings held at the
various ports.

It is suggested that users of these write-ups keep in mind
that the information furnished and statements made are not official
pronouncements of fact, policy, or opinion. They are merely work
sheets used as a starting point when information is requested. They
are offered in the hope that a critical study of them will stimulate
thought and will tend to improve the inspector's knowledge of and
understanding of his work.







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SOME FOREIGN PLANT DISEASES MENTIONED IN FOREIGN PLANT QUARANTINES,
REGULATIONS, ET AL.

Prepared by N. Rex Hunt

Seo. 1o DISEASES MENTIONED IN CURRENT QUARANTINES.

Eleven of our foreign plant quarantines as well as the
potato regulations are based in whole or in part on plant diseases.
All but four of these mention one or more specific diseases. The
diseases mentioned are thirteen in number, the pathogens being as
follows:

Bacterium citri (quarantines 19 and 28)
Ceratos tcMelaulm_ (quarantine 70)
Enicama oryzae (quarantine 55)
(Graphium ulmi, a stage of Ceratostomella ulmi)
Melancmma glumarum (quarantine 55)
Oospora yztorum (quarantine 55)
(Peronospora maydis, now Sclerospora maydis)
Physoderma maydis (quarantine 24)
Physoderma zeae-maydis (quarantine 24)
(Selerospora macrocarpa is an error for macrospora)
Sclerospora macrospora (quarantine55 '-
Sclerospora maydis (quarantine 24)
Sclerospora sacchari (quarantine 24)
Synohytrium endobioticum (potato regulations)
Urocystis tritioi (quarantine 59)
Ustilago shiraina (quarantine 34)

Of the thirteen diseases mentioned seven occur, or have
occurred, in the United States, viz., Bacterium citri, Ceratostomella
ulmi, Entylama oryzae, Physoderma zeae-mayds, Sclerospora macrospora,
Synchytrium endobioticum, and Urocystis tritici.

Only three quarantines (Nos. 28, 59, and 70) are expressly
based on the disease mentioned without any wording to include other
diseases. Quarantine No. 15 covers certain injurious insects and
fungouss diseases"; No. 19, "other diseases"i No. 24 covers "certain
injurious diseases," especially those named; No. 53, "plant diseases";
No. 37, fungouss diseases"; No. 41, "plant diseases"; No. 55,
"injurious fungous diseases"; No. 69, "plant diseases"; and the
potato regulations, "other injurious potato diseases." The wording
used in same of these quarantines is not sufficiently general to
cover bacteria, viruses, or nematodes, as you may have noted.







-5-


Sec. 2. DISEASES FORMERLY MENTIONED IN QUARANTINES.

In addition to the diseases and pathogens named in
quarantines and regulations as now worded there are eight pathogens
mentioned in quarantines which have since been rescinded or super-
seded in whole or in part, so the name of the disease or pathogen no
longer occurs in our quarantines. Quarantine No. 1 was based on
white pine blister rust (Peridermium strobi) but entry of the hosts
of this disease is now governed by the restrictions of Quarantine
No. 37 in which the pests concerned are not mentioned. With the
rescinding of Quarantine No. h4 the entry of oriental fruit stocks
was placed under the provisions of Quarantine No. 37 also, eliminating
5 pathogens from the list of those mentioned in the quarantines
remaining in effect, viz., Valsa mali, Diaporthe mali, Taphrina piri,
Gymnosporangum koreaense (now G. haraeanum), and G. photiniae (now
G. japon1ium) The powdery scab of potatoes (Spongospora subterranea)
was found to be more or less prevalent in the United States and doing
relatively little damage so Quarantine No. 11, based on this disease,
was rescinded. Quarantine No. 39 was based in part on take-all
(Ophiobolus graminis) but it also was found to be widely distributed
in the United States and Canada and was omitted when Quarantine No.
59 was issued superseding Quarantine No. 39-

Sec. 3. DISEASES MENTIONED IN ADMINISTRATIVE ORDERS FOR THE
INSPECTION HOUSE.

In addition to foreign plant diseases and pathogens men-
tioned in the quarantines and regulations a few were named in
administrative orders to inspectors at the Washington Inspection House.

All Solanaceous material (particularly of Solanum and
Lyoopersicum) from Central or South America was to be grown in
quarantine because of the danger of introducing Puccinia pittieriana
which was not known to occur in North America at the time. Dahlias
and packing from Europe were to be examined with care for the possible
presence of leaf or stem fragments that might carry the leaf smut,
Entyloma calendulae. Orchids from Europe were to be examined for the
possible presence of rusts (Hemileia spp.). Pineapple slips from
Central and South America were to be grown in quarantine because of
the presence in Costa Rica and possibly other parts of Central America
of a rotting disease, the cause of which was unknown. All Departmental
importations of peanut, Arachis hypogaea, arriving from Java and other
parts of the Orient were to be grown in detention because of the
presence in Java and probably other Oriental countries of a mosaic and
other diseases which may be transmitted in the seed.







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Sec. 4- DISEASES MIENTIONED IN MEMORANDA TO PORT INSPECTORS.

Unnumbered memoranda to inspectors in charge at maritime
ports, or at Mexican Border ports, or at both, were issued from time
to time over a period of several years. A few of these unnumbered
memoranda were based on plant diseases, the pathogens being as
follows Aphelenohus avenae and A. parietinus (now Aphelenchoides
parietinus) in potatoes (Memo. of-Dec. 11, 1930); Aplanobacter
michiganense on tomatoes (Feb. 6, 1931); Elsinoe canavaliae (now
E. phaseoli) on lima beans (Mar. 26 and Nov. 5, 1930, Jan. 24, Mar.
T6, and Mar. 18, 19531); Neotylenchus abulbosus in potatoes (Dec. 11,
1930); Puccinia spp. (reference being made to the 8 listed in
Stevenson's manual as occurring on Salvia in Mexico P. badia,
P. delicatulum, P. diutinum, P. gentilis, P. infrequens, P. mitrata,
7. nivea, and P.prospera) on sage (Feb. 21, 1928); P. ornithogali-
yrsoides on drnithopalum thyrsoides (Nov. 28, 19307; S2haceloma sp.
(now known as Elsinoe (Sphacelca) ri) on apples and pears (July 3,
1930, Feb. 20, 1951); S. perseae on avocado (Mar. 28 and July 3,
1930); Tylenchus dipsaci (now Ditylenchus dipsaci) in Narcissus and
potatoes (Aug. 1, 1923, Dec. 11, 1950); T. pratensis (now Pratylenchus
pratensis), in potatoes (Dec. 11, 1950)-Ustilago Sp. on Ornithoga ux
thyrsoides (Nov. 28, 1930).

Of the present' numbered F.P.Q. series No. 83 concerns downy
mildews of maize (Sclerospora graminicola, S. macrospora, S. maydis,
S. philippinensis, S. sacohari, S. sorghi, S. spontanea and undetermined
species; Nos. 102 and 105 cover the import restrictions on hosts (Ribes,
Grossularia, and Pinus) of white pine blister rust (Cronartium .
ribicola, also known as Peridermium strobi) under Quar. 37; and No. 138
removes restrictions on account of an unnamed nema found in
Ornithogalum bulbs from South Africa.

Sec. 5. QUARANTINE ACTION BASED ON DISEASES NOT COVERED IN SECS. 1-4.

Many foreign plant diseases not mentioned in any of the fore-
going sections are of considerable interest to this division and have
received more or less attention at some time. Some of these have been
discussed during the course of hearings preceding issuance of the
quarantines in which no pests are named specifically. Others have been
the subject of correspondence with inspectors, with state quarantine
officials, or with others in interest. Permits for several hosts have
been refused administratively at times on account of diseases reported
as occurring on them. There is no ready means of assembling a list
of these diseases quickly but information regarding some of them at
least will be prepared and issued from time to time.






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ALPHABETICAL LIST OF DISEASES MENTIONED IN SECTIONS 1 TO 5

Sec. No.


Aphelenchoides parietinus (listed as Aphelenohus parietinus.
(occurs in U. S.)
Aphelenchus avenae (occurs in U. S.)
Aphelenchus parietinus (see Aphelenchoides parietinus)
Aplanobacter michiganense (occurs in U. S.)
Bacterium citri (Quarantines 19, 28. In U. S.?)
Ceratostome-lTaulmi (listed as Graphium ulmi. Quarantine
70.- I'.T.) --
Cronartium ribioola (also listed as Peridermium strobi.
In U. S.)


Diaporthe mali
Ditylenchus dipsaci (listed as Tylenchus dipsaci.
Elsinoe canavaliae (see E. phasier3
Elsinoe perseae (in U. S.)
Elsinoe phaseoli (listed as E. canaaliae)
Elsinoe pyri (listed as S phae1oma sp)
Entylcma --iaendulae (see E. dahliae)
Entylcma dahlia (listed as E. calendulae. In U.
Entyloma ory zae (Quarantine 55. In U. S.)
Graphium ulmi (see Ceratostomella ulmi)
Gymnosporangium haraeanum (listed as G. koreaense.
Gymnosporangium japonicum (listed as G. photiniae.
Gymnosporangium koreaense (see G. haraeanum)
Gymnosporangium hotiniae (see G. japonicum)


In U.S.)


4
4
4

1

2.1
2a 4
2
4


s.?)


In U.S.)
In U.S.)


Hemileia spp.
Melanomma glumarum (Quarantine 55)
Mosaic
Nema, name not given
Neotylenchus abulbosus (In U. S.)
Oospora oryztorm (Quarantine 55)
Ophiobolus graminis (In U. S.)
Peronospora maydis (see Sclerospora maydis (Rac.) Palm)
Peridermium strobi (see Cronartium ribicola)
Physoderamaaydiss (Quarantine 24)
Physoderma zeae-maydis (Quarantine 24. In U.S.)
Pratlenchus pratensis (listed as Tylenchus pratensis)
S In U.S)
Pucoinia spp.
Puccinia badia
Puccinia delicatulum
Puccinia diutinum
Puocinia gentilis
Puccinia infreguens







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Puocinia mitrata 4
Mooia' nivea 4
Puocinia pittieriana 3
uc cinia prosper 4
Rot, undetermined 3
Solerospora graminicola 4
Solerospora graminicola var. andropogonisa-sorghi, see
S. sorghi
Solerosapora indioa, see S. philippinensis
Solerospora javanica, see S. maydis (Rac*) Palm
Solerospora macrocarpa (ai error for S. macrospora)
Solerospora macrosora (listed as S. acrocarpa)Quarantine
55. In U. S.) 1, 4
Sclerospora maydis (Rac.) Butler see S. philippinensia
Solerospora maydis (Rac.) Palm (listed as Peronospora maydis
also. Quarantine 24) 1, 4
Solerospora philippinensis 4
Scl erospora s acchari (Quarantine 24) 1, 4
Solerospora sorghi. 4
Solerospora sepontanea 4
Solerospora spp. 4
Synohytrium endobioticum (listed as potato wart. Potato
Regulations. In U. S.) 1
Taphrina piri 2
Tyienchus dipsaci, see Ditylenchus dipsaci
Tylenchus pratensis, see Pratylenohus pratensis
Urocystis tritici (Quarantine 59. U*. S.) 1
Ustilago sp. 0 4
Ustilago shiraiana (Quarantine 34) I
Valsa mal F 2
Virus, see mosaic


General designations covering diseases not listed in the
quarantines 1
Diseases used as a basis for quarantine action but not
listed 5






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THE BASIS OF PLANT DISEASE QUARANTINE RECOMMENDATIONS

Prepared by N. Rex Hunt

Why do we have quarantines on account of plant diseases?
Why are some plant disease quarantines prohibitory while others
are restrictive only and why do restrictions vary? In general,
what principles or basic facts are used as a guide by the plant
pathologist in making quarantine recommendations?

Briefly, we have plant disease quarantines because they
are profitable.

Some quarantines are prohibitory because the plants protected
represent major crops and the diseases concerned are destructive and
cannot be kept out otherwise, some are restrictive because the
diseases may be detected by practicable inspection or because an
effective treatment is known. As diseases and their detection and
treatments vary and plant materials and the type of treatment they
may be given vary widely, it is necessary to impose equally varied
restrictions. In general the plant pathologist should obtain as
much pertinent data as possible regarding a disease and the plant
material concerned and make his recommendation in accordance with
the data, or lack of data. Now let us examine what is back of these
statements.

QUARANTINE PROFITS
It is impossible to determine accurately the profits on foreign
plant quarantines but the cost of eradication and control methods plus
the losses resulting from the introduction of citrus canker, chestnut
bark disease, potato wart, white pine blister rust, and Dutch elm
disease, when compared with the annual cost of maintaining our foreign
plant quarantines, shows that the average cost of one major plant
disease when introduced is enough to finance the Division of Foreign
Plant Quarantines for years. We intercept large numbers of major
pests each year. How many of these would have succeeded in establishing
themselves without our interference is problematical, but it seems a
very modest claim to state that without the work of this division
increased losses from introduced plant pests would be several times
greater than the cost of the work.

QUARANTINE ECONOMICS
A quarantine costing more in cash, inconvenience or inter-
national good will than the cash and aesthetic value of the plants
protected would be unprofitable and indefensible. Large expenditures
for quarantines to protect corn, wheat, potatoes, citrus fruits,
forest trees, and our more important ornamentals are profitable.






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'Rlalt lyg small additional expenditures for quarantines to protect
spelt, parsnips, husk tomatoes, or wallflowers might be unprofitable
and unjustifiable. Heavy losses resulting in a corresponding
increase in the cost of production of a major crop might result in
a national calamity whereas similar percentage losses in a minor
crop would merely inconvenience some individuals. The quarantine
administrator may be expected to take few chances with diseases of
major crops.

At times a plant little grown in this country is imported from
a country which attaches considerable importance to the importations.
In such cases a prohibitory quarantine against the plant or its
products might result in retaliatory measures which would cost us far
more than the loss of the few similar plants grown here as well as
depriving the importers of material desired by them. The quarantine
administrator would be justified from the economic standpoint in
refusing to invoke a prohibitory quarantine under such circumstances
even though it might be sound practice biologically. On the other
hand, there is no justification for the use of quarantines in lieu of
tariffs.

INFORMATION NEEDED FOR QUARANTINE ACTION

In considering quarantine action the information needed varies
in detail but will usually include a number of headings. One possible
outline of these headings is given here:

A. Importance of the plant.
1. Number of people dependent on the plant for a living.
a. in production.
b. in handling and processing.
2. Number of consumers involved and the importance of the
plant or its products to them.
3- Possibility of replacing the host or its product.
4- Monetary value of the crop.

B. Destructiveness of the disease.
I. Percentage of crop reduction resulting from the disease
in climates similar to ours.
a. annually or occasionally.
b. average annual reduction.
2. Estimated value of the probable loss from the disease
if introduced.

C. Type of quarantine required.
1. Prohibitory quarantine.
a. Because any entry of host material would probably
mean introduction of the disease and domestic
production of the plant is sufficiently important
to us to warrant the cost of this type of protection.






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I. The disease is likely to occur in host
material as imported and cannot be detected
by known, practicable inspection methods.
II. The host material imported is so handled,
distributed, and utilized as to make escape
and establishment of the disease possible
or probable.
III. No practicable method of treatment is known
which will eliminate the risk inherent in
imported material.
b. Probable cost of such a quarantine.
2. Restrictive quarantine.
a. Because adequate protection may be insured
without prohibiting entry of host material.
r. Detection of the disease in material as
offered for entry is practicable.
II. The material is consumed or processed in
areas where the disease could not become
established and practicable precautions will
eliminate the risk.
IllI. The material may be treated at the port of
entry and risk eliminated.
IV. The disease is established in a contiguous
country from which it will inevitably spread
to this country in a short time anyway so a
restrictive quarantine to retard the spread
and limit losses while control methods are
worked out is all that can be justified.
b. Probable cost of such a quarantine.

D. Consideration of possibility of entry of the disease.
1. Natural barriers if any (ocean, desert, mountain, etc.).
2. Possibility of other hosts.
3. Possibility of alternate hosts.
4. Possibility of insect carriers or vectors.
5. Possibility of accidental distribution of imported
material through carelessness, wrecks, high winds,
unauthorized and non-intercepted imports of materials,
etc.

E. Possibility of eradicating the disease if it became established.
1. How does it live over from season to season?
2. How readily is it spread?
3. How long can it live in the absence of a host?
4. Is the host of such a nature that it may be eradicated
readily from infected areas?
5. How expensive would eradication be?






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F. Control if introduced and eradication found to be impracticable*
1. Are effective heat or chemical treatments known?
2. Are resistant varieties of the host available?
3. Would sanitation provide effective control?
4. Would crop rotation give control?
5- Would climatic conditions of our host producing areas
tend to restrict or accentuate losses from the disease
or would only parts of this area be affected?
6. Probable cost of control if 100% and of control plus
losses if less than 100% commercial control is
practicable.

G. International aspects.
1. Importance of material concerned to the country of
export.
2. Policy of country of export (some countries resent
quarantines, somane may consider them auxiliary tariffs
to be manipulated accordingly, others must sell to us in
order to buy from us.)

Very general information is all that is required regarding
the importance of the plant (heading A) in most cases and will be
obtainable from other bureaus in case of doubt as to the approximate
facts and figures. Information as to international aspects (G) will
come from the State Department in part perhaps but will usually be
sufficiently well known to the quarantine administrators in advance.
More accurate and detailed information is needed under the five
headings B to F and it is this information which the pathologist must
assemble and evaluate.

In the case of a newly discovered disease information may be
too fragmentary to make any accurate or assured determination of its
status possible. Under such circumstances the tendency will be to
recommend maximum quarantine protection until sufficient information
is available to show the importance of the disease and the probability
and means of its introduction. Failure to invoke maximum quarantine
protection measures might result in introduction of the disease and
expensive eradication or permanent control measures. It is easy to
eliminate unnecessary restrictions but some diseases are extremely
difficult to eliminate.

In addition to decisions as to new diseases which might
require quarantine action and as to whether new information warrants
changes in the quarantine restrictions imposed in the past on account
of well known plant diseases, there are numerous requests for
decisions with respect to unusual materials, materials from unusual
sources, materials given new or little known treatments, materials
desired for scientific or educational or display, or medicinal, or




UNIVERSITY OF FLORID
'13." 3 1262 08537 0343
.. %..
analytical, or testing purposes. The request r. 1o4ved
inspector at the port of arrival for instruotiosas...:to i.
such material has sometimes revealed an utterly rat
the knowledge and perspicacity of the Waphingtn. 'oR e".. i
and trouble may be saved by furnishiug all avai.letie o.d
which may aid in giving an accurate picture of t. -. ter i 7l
should be assumed that those in Washington arae tallyuW in tl
with the material* Among the items that are ori.n be of n.
we may list the followings name of the plant", poArti SrI Mp
plant present, whether perishable or not, oaditioh,:ak.:A 4
moisture, decay, pests), any process or treat"Atn'gl tg AL
quantity, type of container and packing, purpose. fe'w" .
material is desired, facilities to be used, conditi ,os uni!. k
it will be utilized, possibility of safeguarding th.e matear
points, origin, destination, and means of transportat4on4...4. .....
Frequently the inspector at the port merey has th pllF i
and cannot well obtain any information other than that i
the material, but that should be given as c6apletety aft t#.
material warrants. In-this connection, attenti4. say be li
the fact that the plant quarantine act provides that 'pro' b*4bi
materials may be imported for experimental or s.ientiffi f npt
While such importations must be made by the.DeartAS.t. off C.:
Agriculture and are subject to any conditions deemedi oees4a3ry6
protect the country, most, proposed importations that. wqald be :f0R
marked ,benefit to any one mnay be readily construed t& fall with
scope of. this provision. The most complete informatiau obta
likely to be needed in fixing the conditions of entry and i.aliat
of importations of prohibited material and may be needed 14
cases involving restricted material which is desired for e
or scientific purposes. .,
It should be evident from the statements made and the out
given that plant disease quarantine recommendations are based a '
study of all aspects of the biological problems involved but that
the final recommendations should be in harmony with the economic .
other aspects involved and that complete detailed information 1
needed to insure sound recommendations. .4




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