A Report on the work and expenditures of the agricultural experiment stations for the year ended ...

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A Report on the work and expenditures of the agricultural experiment stations for the year ended ...
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United States -- Office of Experiment Stations
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..&: PA*RT.MIENT- OF AGRICULTURE,
OPPICz OP' E:XPERIMENT STATIONS,
A., C .. TkUEp Dimector.





(. ON THE

GRK AND EXPENDITU
OF THIC


-tLURAL EXPEI lMENTSTATIONS


pu Y AR ENDED) JUNE 30, 1900.
.BY

A-. C6 TR UE% ,
Anotor of the Offee of Experimnent MkNu.










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BULLETIN No. 93. 379
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS,
A. C. TRUE, Director.




IA REPORT

ON TH1E


WORK AND EXPENDITUR1ES

OF THE



AGRICULTURAL EXI'ERIMENT STATIONS

FOR

THiE YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1900.

BY

A. C. TRUE,
1Dirt 04f Ifl of 111 01l1m iSs..


03LL


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WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1901.

























To the Senate and House of Representatives :
I transmit herewith a report of the Secretary of Agriculture on the
work and expenditures of the agricultural experiment stations estab-
lished under the act of Congress of March 2, 1887, for the fiscal year
ended June 30, 1900, in accordance with the act making appropriations
for the Department of Agriculture for the said fiscal year.
The attention of Congress is called to the request of the Secretary
of Agriculture that 3,000 copies of the report be printed for the use
of the Department of Agriculture.
WILLIAM McKINLEY.
EXECUTIVE MANsION, January 16, 1901.
2




















LEITER OF TRNSMITIAL


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AoRICULrRE,

W yhingtw. ). C., Janury 4, 1901.
Sm: I have the honor t transmit herewith a report on the work and
expenditures of the agcultural experiment stations established under
the act of ongrss of March 2, 1887, for the fiscal year nded June
30~ 1900, in compliance with the following provision of the act making
appropriations for this Department for the said fisal year:
The retary of Agriculture shall prescribe the form of the annual financial state-
ent required by section three of the said ct of March econd. eighten hundred
ad eighty-seven shall certain whether fe expenditure under the appropriation
hereby made are in accordance with the sio of the said act, and shall make
report thereon to Congress.
If this report is published by Congress it is desirable that 3,000
copies should be provided for the use of this )epartment.
I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,
JAES WILSON,
SSecrtary,

3




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LETTR )OF SBMIITTAL



OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS,
Wa ,Jtinffn, P. (", Jatnutit/ !, 1901.
Silt: I have the honor to present herewith a report on the work
and expenditures of the agricultural experiment sttions for the tiscal
year ended J.ne 30, 190". In the pI)epration of this report Mr. V.
A. Clark of this olfice has rendered valable asistance.
Very respectfully,
A. C. TRUE,
DJirector.
arJoff Ayr ;u/t Wrts.

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Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013















http://archive.org/details/reportonwor00unit


















CONTENTS.

Page.
tter of the President ................................................... 2
L ter of the S r ary of A rie ture . .............................. 3
Ltter of the Director of the iQilve of Exp 1:rimIn Stations ................. 5
Work and expe ditures of the ricultural expriment stations.............. 11
Summa ........-..---...-.... ..---.......-....--........--.....-.. 11
The work of the stations s related to practical agricultur .......... 11
Problem of station or iatin .................................. 12
The riginal work of the stations.................................. 16
The i spection servie of the statios .............................. 17
Stat aid to the experiment stations ...... .................... 19
A pers l b uest to an experiment statiou........................ 20
operation of the stations with the Iepartuent of Agriculture .... 2
Expriment tations in Iawaii .................................... 21
Experiment statios in P(rt Ric ................................. 23
The Asociation of Cllgs and Stations .......................--... 24
Experimet-station exhibit at the Paris Exposition of 10 ......... 24
The Of of Experiment Stations ....................-.......... 25
Statistic of the stati .......................................... 25
Office of Experiment Statios.............--.. ----............... 28
An ofice in the United States lepartment of Agricultur-...--.....- 28
Miscellanous technical ulletins.................................. 29
Farmers' ullet ............................................... 31
Agricultural experiment stations in Alaska .......... ........... --31
Nutrition in lvestigations.. ....................... 32
Irrigation investig tions ....................................... 34
The Association of American Arieultural olles and Experiment Sta-
tion .........................................----------....................------ 36
The agricultural experimet stations in the sverl States ad Territories.
Alabama College Statio ........................................ 39
Alabama Tuskegee Station..-----....--........--.......----....--..--.... 41
Alaska on ......................................----............ 42
ArizonaStation .................................................. 44
Arkan Station ................................................. 46
California Station ................................................ 48
Colorado Station ................................................-----------51
Connecticut State Station ......................................... 53
Connecticut torr Station..--------------....-----..............------......-- 56
Delaware Station..---------..........------------------.......................-- 58
Florida Station..-------------------------------------------................................................ 60
Georgia Station ------....-...-......---------------......------..--...----....-.....-.......---------.... 62
Hawaiian Islands Station ------....---..----................. 63
Idaho Station --.................................................... 64
Illinois Station................................................... ---67
7






8 CONTENTS.

Work and expenditures of the agricultural experiment stations-Continued. Page.
The agricultural experiment stations in the several States and Terri-
tories-Continued.
Indiana Station -----------.... ----.. ---.. -....................... 69
Iowa Station -.....----.....----..--.....--....................... 72
Kansas Station .-------.. --...-.--...--.-...--.................... 74
Kentucky Station ---------..---------..--...-.--................. 78
Louisiana Stations --------------....----------------..... ......... 79
Maine Station --------------------...---......................... 82
Maryland Station-.....- --------.....--............................ 86
Massachusetts Station -----------.. ----.. ----------................ 88
Michigan Station -------------.. .......------...-----..............90
Minnesota Station----.--.------------- -----.------------------. 93
Mississippi Station. ----------- -.-------------------------------- 96
Missouri Station.....----------..---------------..---.......... --. 99
Montana Station ---------..-------------.---------..... --------. 102
Nebraska Station -----.....----------.. ---.. --.. -............... 104
Nevada Station-........--.........--.............................. 106
New Hampshire Station ----..---------....-------..-------..-- --- 108
New Jersey Stations .--------..-----..--.----------------- -...----- 110
New Mexico Station -.----------.-----------------. ------------- 114
New York State Station .--..------ ....--......---------.... -----. 116
New York Cornell Station .......-...........................-.... 120
North Carolina Station -------...------------------------------- 124
North Dakota Station_............................................ 127
Ohio Station...... ------------------------------- -------------- 129
Oklahoma Station ---.... ..-- ..-.----- --------..-----------------. 132
Oregon Station.---.------. -------.----------------------------- 134
Pennsylvania Station ....-----...--....-- .-------..----.. -- ------ 135
Rhode Island Station .---..-----.....-.-----......-----.. --.----.. 137
South Carolina Station... -........---------...------.-----------.. 140
South Dakota Station .........--..............--- ---------- ...--.. 143
Tennessee Station .....--........------------------------------------ 144
Texas Station ..--.---------------------------------------------- 147
Utah Station ................................. ..-----------------. 149
Vermont Station ...------------------.------------------------- 152
Virginia Station-........--.....---........ ----------------------. 155
Washington Station --..---.....--- .......--------.--------------- 158
West Virginia Station --.....-----------..........-------------......---- -----. 160
Wisconsin Station.............---..---....--------......------------------ 163
Wyoming Station .....................-----------------..--.--.......------.. 168
Table 1.-General statistics of the stations, 1900 ---... .--.. --------------.. 172
Table 2.-Revenue and additions to equipment of the stations, 1900-..--. --. 178
Table 3.-Expenditures of the stations, 1900---. -------------------------... 180


<;-'*


























ILILUSTRATI()NS.



Plt1 I. Fig. 1.-Illinois (oilege and Station, agricultra building. Fig. 2.-
Id1aho Station, arn ........................................... 64
11. FIg. 1-Kans Cllege and Station, Aricultural Hall Fig. 2.-
isiana State Station, lab ratr ........................... ---74
III. Fig. 1.-Maine Station, director's office. Fig. 2.-Minnesta Col-
lg and Station, horticultural building ......................... 82
IV. Fi. .-Miisippi College and Station, dairy building. Fig. 2.-
Nebra. ka Station, la to ................................... 96
V. ig1.--New Jerey Station, plant hose. Fig. 2.-Pennsylvania
Station, loimeter building................................... 110
VI 1.-klaoma Collge and Station, chemistry building. Fig.
2.-Olhoa Colkg and Station, library ...................... 132
VII. Fig. -Tenneee Sation, Dairy Hall. Fig. 2.-Tennessee Station,
ex erima ental plat ....................................--- ....... 142
VIII. Fig. 1-Texas College and Station, agricultural and hortiultural
building. Fig. 2.-Virginia College and Station, harn and silo.. 146
9









































































































































1 :hB~












WORK AND EXPENDITRES OF THE AGRICUURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
FOR THE YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1900.


SUMMARY.

This is the sixth annual report on the work and expenditures of the
agricultural experiment stations in the United States made by the
Director of the Office of Experiment Stations, under instructions from
the Secretry of Agriculture. As heretofore, the report is based on
three sources of information, viz, the annual financial statements of
the stations, rendered on the schedules prescribed by the Secretary of
Agriculture in accordance with the act of Congress; the printed
reports and bulletins of the stations. and the reports of personal exami-
nations of the work and expanditures of the stations made during the
pt year by the director, assistant director, and one other expert
oficer of the Office of Experiment Stations. The stations in all the
States and Territories have been visited since the previous report was
transmitted to Congress.

TE WORK OF THE STATIONS AS RELTED O PRACTICAL AGRILTE.
In making our examination of the work of the expriment stations
during the pat year we have particularly inquir whether their oper-
ations are conducted with special refrence to the agricultural needs of
their respective States and Territories. The results of this inquiry
are embodied in the accounts of the individual stations given in this
report. From these it will be seen that by far the largest part of the
work of our stations has direct relation to the important agricultural
interests of the communities in which they are located. The stations
re, in fact, very responsive to the immediate demands of their farmer
constituencies. Their greatest danger is not that they will undertake
oo much work of remote practical bearing, but that in the effort to
meet thecalls made upon them for immediate assistance they will
attempt individually to cover more fields of investigation than the
funds at their disposal will permit them to treat thoroughly. This
temptation the stations generally are, however, resisting more suc-
cessfully as their work is becoming better organized and their investi-
gations are more carefully planned and supervised. The nature of
their operations is also becoming better understood by the farmers,
and the desirability of more thorough and far-reach inivesitiions
11






12 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

is much more appreciated than formerly. A broader and deeper
foundation of scientific inquiry is being laid each year, and there is a
constant accumulation of data regarding the general agricultural con-
ditions of the different regions of the United States. The climate,
soil, water supply, native and cultivated plants, injurious insects,
fungi, and bacteria are being studied in more detail and with greater
thoroughness than ever before. The principles of nutrition of animals
and the causes of their diseases are being subjected to more elaborate
and fundamental scrutiny. Methods of investigation and the improve-
ment of apparatus for research are being given increased attention.
Much of this work is done without public observation and in the inter-
vals of other operations. Without doubt it should receive more defi-
nite recognition and encouragement. But it is cause for congratula-
tion that so much patient labor of this character is being performed
by station officers, who, as a rule, are seeking to advance the boundaries
of knowledge for useful ends and are not deterred by a multiplicity of
duties from giving attention to the more fundamental concerns of
agricultural science. And this work is having its effect on the more
practical operations of our stations. These are assuming a more sub-
stantial and systematic character and are being conducted with more
definite relation to actual conditions. They have, therefore, a greater
assurance of successful practical outcome. Questions relating to the
introduction of plants or to the improvement of the live-stock indus-
try in any region, for example, are now being investigated with a
strict relation to the real requirements of the agriculture of that region
which would have been impossible a few years ago. The present
activity in plant breeding, as distinguished from the indiscriminate
testing of varieties, is a good example of the raising of the level of
experiment-station work as applied to directly practical ends. The
plant breeder now sets definitely before him the kind of variety needed
by the farmer in a given region or for a given purpose and applies all
his scientific knowledge and practical skill to the production of such a
variety. The notable success of some of the efforts in this direction
already made are but a foretaste of much wider practical results as
knowledge and experience in this line of endeavor increase. To do
such work effectively there must be an almost ideal combination of
science and practice. And the more we can learn definitely regarding
the underlying principles the more surely will we be able to make
successful practical applications. In such investigations science
becomes more practical and art more scientific.

PROBLEMS OF STATION ORGANIZATION.
Much attention has been given during the past year to questions
relating to the more perfect organization of the stations. As the sta-
tions develop, the importance of a clearer definition of the functions






STATION ORG ANIZATION. 13

of different officers in administration and investigation becomes more
apparentl Conditions which existed when institutions for higher edu-
cation and research were established in this country have materially
changed, and the old forms of organization are now, in many ases, a
rious hindralnce to their best development. For example, f thetheory
on which the laws relating to the governing boards of many of the
State colleges and experiment stations are based is that the board is
to have the direct control and management of the institution. For
this purpse it is to meet frequently, keep the details of the business
of the institution well in hand, consult freely with officers of various
grades, and pass rules and regulations governing every operation.
This may, perhaps, have been well enough when tmhe institutions were
in a formlative period and trained executive officers were scarce, but
to-day this theory is out of date, and its apliction to the intricate
and speciaiized business of our colleges and stations is highly injurious
to their best interests. It works just as badly when applied to a col-
lege or experiment station as it would in the case of a railroad or a
k. The fact is that bords of ntrol are most useful when their
fulntions are confined to a broad, general supervision of the policy,
finances, and work of the intitution and the choice of its chief o(licers.
For this purpose annual or semiannual meetings would ordinarily
be sufficient, since the onuber of matters requiring the attention of
the board should be reduced to a mininmm. The best reason for the
continuance of such boards is that when composed of broad-minded
ad successful citizens they represent the best sentiment of the com-
munity regarding these institutions, and are able t give the public an
adequate guaranty for the wise and liberal management of the great
interests involved in the State colleges and universities. Otherwise
it would probbly le bes to do aw( a with the boards and make the
heads of the colleges directly responsible to some Stte officer of high
rak. ne especially annoying and unjustifiable feature of the present
system is the maintenance at many of the colleges of an officer, com-
monly designated secretary of the board, who acts as a representative
of the board in the intervals between their meetings and exercises
important functions relating to the business of the institution inde-
pendently of its president. There is thus divided responsibility in the
daily administration, and in case of friction between the president and
faculty or students often a convenient cnter for discontent and dis-
loalty is ready at hand. All the legitimate functions of a secretary
of the board might easily be performed by a registrar or other officer
attached to the president's office, and thus an important "rock of
offense" miht be removed from the administrative system of these
institutions.
The successful college president is no longer preeminently a great
scholar, but rather a broad-minded and well-trained man of affairs,






4 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

understanding the requirements of modern educational and scientific
institutions and able to administer the affairs and manage the per-
sonnel of such institutions. He will look to his governing board for
advice and counsel on the larger matters of general policy, but he
ought not to have their intervention in the details of the business.
To his hands should be fully committed the administration of the
whole institution, and his work should be judged with reference to its
successful issue. There should be no doubt in the mind of any officer
connected with the institution that he is responsible to the president
for his official conduct, and that an appeal to the board can be made
only in extreme cases.
The institution will naturally be divided into a limited number of
departments, at the head of each of which will be placed an officer compe-
tent to plan and manage the business of the department intrusted to his
charge. The amount and character of the administrative duties which
these officers will be called upon to discharge will vary with the nature
of the department. The agricultural experiment station is by law to
be organized as a department of the college with which it is connected.
It differs from the ordinary college department in being charged with
the work of investigation rather than instruction and in having defi-
nite relations with a great industry for whose promoti6n it is
especially established. Through its correspondence, publications,
inspection service, and association with the farming community it has
an increasing amount of business not immediately relating to its inves-
tigations, but requiring special knowledge and skill for its successful
discharge. To do most effective work the operations of the station
must proceed in accordance with a well-matured plan which involves
the cooperation of different members of the staff. So extensive and
important has the business of the stations become that their proper
management requires the time and energy of an executive officer, or
director. In some cases it may still be possible for the director to
conduct investigations in some special line or do a limited amount of
teaching, but as a rule he can do little beyond attending to adminis-
trative duties. In a number of institutions prudential reasons of
various kinds have led to the combination of the offices of president
and director. Whatever justification there may have been for this in
the past there is little excuse for it in the present. The duties of a
college president are too multifold and onerous to permit his giving
much attention to the special needs of an experiment station. -His
directorship almost necessarily becomes a nominal affair and the gen-
eral business of the station is actually performed by some one member
of the staff or distributed in a desultory way among a number of sub-
or(dinate officers. This arrangement has not worked well and should
be universally abandoned.






STATION ORGANIZATION. 15

As regards the business of the station, the director should be
clothed with a large measure of authority and consequent respnsi-
bility, should plan and supervise its work and expenditures, and con-
trol its staff to such an extent as will bring them together to work as
a unit for the promotion of the station's success. The members of the
staff should be directly responsible to the director on all matters
relating to the station, whatever their position may be in other
departments of the college, and should exct to transact station busi-
ness through the director rather than through the college president
or te governing board. A proper indepndence in the conduct of
investigations, or parts of investigation, in their respective specialties
and just credit for their share in the station's operations as set forth
in publications or otherwise may, it is believed, be amply secured for
the expert officers of the stations at the same time that good discipline
is maintained and ample provision made for unitd effort.
No class of men need to readjust their professional code t he mod-
ern requirements of the organization of great scientific and educa-
tional enterprises more than college professors and scientific specialists.
A way must be found by which teaching and research can be
conducted on a system which combines liberty with law. The old
rgime of the entirely independent teacher and investigator has passed
awa. The specialization which is simply a form of the division of
labor well known in industrial pursuits carries with it a necessity for
combination of workers in ducational and scientific institution, as
well as in manufacturing establishments. In a way hiterto unknown
scientific men will be called in the future to work togeier for common
ends. No matter is of more vital importance in the organization of
our colleges and experiment stations than the securing of harmonious
and concerted action on the part of faculties and staffs for the common
good of the institution to which they are attached. One of the great-
est difficulties now attending the successful management of these
institutions is the fact that while specialization has narrowed the field
and outlook of the individl officer, there has not been a correspond-
ing recognition of the necessity of readjusting the form of organiza-
tion and the spirit of the worker to meet these new conditions. At no
time has there been greater need of the cultivation of an earnest and
enthusiastic esprit du corps among the rank and file of educational
and scientific workers. There are many individual examples of men
impr with this lofty sentiment, but the whole body is not yet
animated with it. Obviously it should especially be a virtue charac-
teristic of men connected with public institutions. The officers of our
agricultural colklges and experiment stations are public functionaries
employed to advance very important public interests. With them the
good of the community, as involved in the success of the enterprise






16 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

with which they are connected, should be the ruling motive of action.
The fame and emoluments of the individual worker should be subor-
dinated to the requirements of concerted action for a common end.
And yet in the long run it is believed the individual worker as well
as the institution will profit by a loyal and self-sacrificing discharge
of common duties, for union of effort will bring greater success; and
whenever a college or a station is strong and flourishing, credit is
reflected on every worker who has contributed to this issue.
The general considerations affecting the efficient organization of our.
experiment stations have thus been dwelt upon because a survey of
these institutions during the past year has brought additional evi-
dence that the problems of organization are being more generally con-
sidered than ever before. The tide is running strongly toward a more
compact organization and a greater unification of the work. On the
whole, those stations which have a strong organization and administra-
tion are meeting with the largest measure of success.
THE ORIGINAL WORK OF THE STATIONS.
There is also unusual interest in the discussion of problems relating
to the functions of the stations and the specific duties of station officers.
There is quite general agreement that each station should conduct a
considerable amount of original investigation; but in what way this
should be provided for and what should be its character are variously
regarded. There is still great variety in the assignments of teaching
and investigation to officers in different stations, and the relative
amount of work of research which is left to assistants differs very
greatly in different places. Considerations relating to the financial
conditions of college and station still affect the assignment of work in
a number of institutions. Our observation of the situation leads us to
the belief that there is actually going on a widespread differentiation
of the investigator from the teacher, and that this is not prevented,
though it may be hindered, by the varying arrangements made at the
colleges and stations. A certain number of men are more and more
devoting themselves to the work of investigation, and succeeding in it.
Others are just as certainly losing their interest and activity in such
work. Because a man is required to teach many hours he does not
thereby become a successful teacher. The research which he is com-
pelled to carry on during vacations and at night may nevertheless be
his real mission, and it will be well if his superiors discover this, .The
leaving of details of research work to assistants often means that the
principal has largely lost his interest in it or considers other duties
more important. We are getting an increasing hody of copetent
investigators by this process, though in too many cases their training
is proceeding under untoward conditions. It will be well if boards and
presidents will consider more fully the actual state of things and make
i






INSPECTION SERVICE. 17

a far as posible su a readjustment that te investigator will be left
very largely to investigate and the teacher to teach. It continues to
be a wekness of a considerable numer of our stations that they are
Son too broad a scale for their resources. Too great a por-
tion of their funds is going into salaries leaving too little to pay the
miscellaneous expenses of important investigations. Here and there
only have the authorities had the wisdom and coage to confine the
operations of the station within compatively narrow lines, leving
important departments of work entirely without recognition. It is
encouraging, however, to observe that where this has been done suc-
ces has broughtadditional funds with which the scope of the station's
work could be safely extended.
On the whole, the amount of what may firly e clled original
ivestigation is, in our opinion, steadily increasing. To deterine
this it i not sfficient to consider simply the bulletins of the stations.
These have in various wys been mde more popular in for and mat-
ter. A larger amount of the more original work is being recorded in
the annual reports and the records of more investiations are being
withheld from publication until results of value are obtained. While
the. e is still need of urging the advancement of the general standard
of investigations, there is every reason t believe that our sttions are
mo g onward and upward as agencies for the original investigation
of agricultural probles.

THE INSPECTION SERVICE OF TlE STATIONS.

The amount and variety of inspection service required of our exper-
iment stations continue to grow from year to year. Beginning with
commercial fertilizers, it now includes feeding stuffs, dairy products
and other foods for man, creamery glassware, insecticides, nursery
stock for injurious insects, and plant and anial diseases. For a con-
sideurble period this matter affected only the sttions in the Eat,
whee commercial fertilizers were largely used, but it is now a live
q in all sections of the country, since there is no region which
does not have some evil against which the agricultural public is
deman g protection by inspection under State or national auspices.
Questions relang to the attitude of the stations toward this work are
therefore enaing the attention of station officers throughout the
ount. Wherever this work has assued considerable magnitude
it s e t tt it requires very careful organization in order that it
may be ucted so as not to interfere with the work of investiga-
tion. Where the same officers are charged with both kinds of work
there is constant danger that the severe routine duties of the inspec-
tin service will diminish the ability of these officers to conduct
H. Doc. 3386-2






18 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

thorough original investigation. It is essential that there should be a
distinct differentiation of this service from the other work of the sta-
tions as regards both funds and time of performance. Unless this is
done and close supervision is exercised, the inspection work is inevita-
bly a drain upon the resources of the station and a hindrance to its
more important operations. While our stations have from the begin-
ning been engaged in inspection work, and this has met with increas-
ing popular favor because of its efficient performance, it is still
doubtful whether it is the best ultimate arrangement. Almost all our
experiment stations are organic parts of educational institutions. As
such they are essentially university departments devoted to research
and the dissemination of new knowledge. To a certain extent they
may naturally and properly engage in the various forms of university
extension work through their more popular publications and connec-
tion with farmers' institutes, etc. They are organized to conduct
investigations on a great variety of subjects, and the scope of their
work of investigation can be almost indefinitely extended as their
funds increase. They do not need, therefore, to go outside of that
work which would be universally considered within their rightful
domain as departments of colleges and universities in order to secure
a wide field of operation. On the other hand, as the range of inspec-
tion service enlarges and its duties become more onerous and compli-
cated it becomes very questionable whether this service should be
connected with our educational institutions. It is essentially a part of
the police functions of the State and National Governments. It
involves many questions on which sooner or later the courts will have
to pass. It may even excite public attention to such an extent as to
be reckoned worthy of consideration by the people in their choice of
administrative and legislative officers. In many ways this kind of
business is much more appropriate to bureaus of the State govern-
ment than to educational institutions.
Thus far the arrangement by which much of it has been connected
with the experiment stations has been largely a matter of convenience,
and in many States the amount of work to be performed has been so
inconsiderable that it has not seemed worth while to create special
agencies for its performance. We have now reached a stage in the
development of this work when it is believed that this matter should
receive careful attention from the managers of our agricultural col-
leges and experiment stations, in order that a sound policy way be
established which will provide for the best future development of
these institutions. In our judgment, this would involve efforts to
relieve the colleges and stations of the inspection service rather than
to increase its scope at these institutions and make it a permanent por-
tion of their work.






SSTATE AID. 19

STATE A TO THE XPERIMENT STATION.

A number of the States continue to supplement liberally the national
funds, and thus to extend and strengthen the investigations of the st-
tions within their brders. This is done by specific appropriations
for substations or special investigations, or by general appropriations
for the current expenses of the colleges with which the stations are
connected. Often the printing of station publicitions is provided for
by the Sate. During the past year notable additions have ben made
to the buildings and equipment of the agricultural colleges, and the
experiment stations have received much benefit from these increased
facilities. At the Universit of Illinois a building costing $150,000
as been erected for the use of the aiculturl college and experiment
station. Thi will be thoroughly equipped with apparatus and other
facilities for instruction, and when completed will form the largest
single plant for agricultural instruction and research in this country.
At the University of Nebraska building costing $35.~o has been
erected for the special use of the eperiment station. At the Wash-
ington Agricultural Colege a science hall costing $0) has been
erected, which provides greatly improved facilities for the work of
the college and station. At the Texas Agricultural College there is a
new agricultural and horticultural building costing over $i0.0)O, and
at the Kansa Agricultural College an aricultural building of the
me value. At the Oklahoma Agricultural Colleg there are ne
chemistry and lib rry and science buildings, and at the Virginia Agri-
cultural College and the University of Tennesee new and conmodious
barns have been erected, each costing about $5,000. At the latter
institution dairy building has also been constructed. At the Agri-
cultural College of the University of Minnesota a horticultural-
botanical building costing $35,00 has been erected.
It is believed that the successful work of the experiment st-tions
has been a large factor in arousing the attention of the public to the
benefits of instruction as well as research in agriulture, and to the
importance of equipping the agricultural colleges more amply and
iving the increased funds for the extension of their work in both
directions. It well that this fact should be brought to the attention
of legislators when appropriations for these institutions are being
made. Funds are needed for the extension of investigations as well
as for better r equipment and oftentimes a comparatively small sum
added to the current revenue of the station will enable it to materially
strengthen its work. This is so because the broad oranization of our
stations requires that a relatively large portion of the national funds
must be expended for salaries and wages. This leaves so little for the
general expenses of investigations that they can not as a rule be made
very extense. If it is desirable t articular investigations should






20 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

be conducted on a somewhat extensive scale or in different localities,
the State can often secure this desirable result by providing funds for
these specific purposes. As regards the investigations which need to
be carried on in different localities, it is, in our judgment, a much
wiser policy to give the stations funds for such special investigations
than to establish permanent substations, which have universally proved
to be relatively expensive and unsatisfactory.

A PERSONAL BEQUEST TO AN EXPERIMENT STATION.

The Connecticut State Station has recently received part of a
bequest made by William R. Lockwood, of Norwalk, Conn., amount-
ing to about $80,000, which is to be held as a permanent endowment,
the income of which is to be applied "in the promotion of agriculture
by scientific investigation and experiment and by diffusion of knowl-
edge of the practical results thereof among the people of the State of
Connecticut." This is one of the rare instances in which wealthy citi-
zens have had the wisdom to insure the permanent application of their
funds to the public benefit by devoting them to State institutions for
education and research. Thus far our wealthy citizens have very
largely preferred to endow institutions not directly under State or
national control. With the growing change of sentiment regarding
the management of our higher educational institutions by the State,
and the consequent development of these institutions on a permanent
and extensive basis, it is much to be hoped that in the future these
institutions will be the recipients of numerous donations from private
citizens.
COOPERATION OF THE STATIONS WITH THE DEPARTMENT OF
AGRICULTURE.

Much progress has been made during the past year in extending
cooperation of the Department and the stations and in maturing plans
for the more efficient organization of this work. The stations in all
the States and Territories are now cooperating with the Department
to a greater or less extent. Among the subjects on which cooperative
experiments are being conducted are the following: Tests of varieties
of grasses and forage plants in many localities; special experiments
with grasses and forage plants for the arid region and the improve-
ment of range lands; breeding experiments with plants; experiments
with hybrid orange trees; the culture of dates, tea, sugar beets,
and tobacco; the planting of forest trees; the nutrition of farm animals
and of man; the effect of feeding stuffs on the chemical composition and
physical character of butter; studies of diseases of plants and animals;
studies of alkali soils and seepage; the survey and mapping of soils;
and irrigation investigations. A representative committee of the






STATIONS IN HAWAII. 21

Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Sta-
tions gave very careful consideration to this subject, and made a report
to the recent meeting of the association in Connecticut, in which they
formulated the principles on which it is desirable from the standpoint
of the stations that cooperation should be based. The officers of the
Department have also devoted much study to this matter and have
thus been able to make plans and contracts for cooperative enterprises
in which the actual conditions and requirements of the stations have
been much more fully considered. As a result there is a much better
understanding on the part of both the sttions and the Department
regarding the proper scope and limitations of coperation and the best
ways to make it effective. It is now quite evident that by a closer
union of effort the work of both the sttions and the Department may
be ade more broadly effective and that the bst interests of both
these agncies for the promotion of our agriculture demand that they
shall be closely affiliated in their operations. With its world-wide
association with governments, scientific institutions, and agricultural
organizations, and with its trained force of specialists, the Department
can bring to the stations advice, information, and materials which will
getly promote their work. The stations, on the other hand, by their
intimate knowledge of local conditions of agriculture and their close
connections with the practical farmers and horticulturists, can make
the work of the Department much more fully felt in the actual busi-
ness of agriculture throughout the country, and can at the same time
provide the Department with that kind of information which will
enable it to direct its efforts in the most appropriate lines and with the
greatest practical outome. The expert officers of the stations can
also supplement the work of the expert officers of the Department in
special lines, so that both the stations and the Department will secure
the fruits of much more expert service for a given amount of funds
than would be possible unde any other arrangement. One very
encouraging feature of the development of more intimate relations
between the Department and stations is that officers of the stations, as
wll as graduate students of the agricultural colleges, are coming in
larger numbers each year to work and study at the Department, and
thus acquire special knowledge, which they will in most cases utilize in
special service for the different States and Territories. In this as in
other ways the Department is becoming more fully an agency for the
benefit of the whole country.

EXPERIMENT STATIONS IN HAWAII.
The first appropriation for the establishment and maintenance of an
agricultural experiment station in Hawaii under the direction of the
Secretary of Agriculture was made by Congress in May, 1900. This
appropriation of $10,000 provides for the erection of buildings and
all other eenses essential to the maintenance of an agricultural






22 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

experiment station, including the printing (in Hawaii), illustration, and
distribution of reports and bulletins.
In order to ascertain definitely the conditions existing in Hawaii
with reference to experimental investigations as related to the needs of
the agriculture of that Territory, it was deemed desirable to send
thither an agent who was thoroughly familiar with the work of the
experiment stations in this country. For this purpose the Depart-
ment was very fortunately able to secure the services of Dr. W. C.
Stubbs, who for many years has been the successful director of the
three stations in the State of Louisiana, in connection with which
extensive experiments have been made in the growing of sugar cane,
the manufacture of sugar, and the production of semitropical crops.
In the management of his work in Louisiana Dr. Stubbs has found it
necessary to familiarize himself with the agriculture of tropical and
semitropical regions throughout the world. He was thus eminently
fitted to make a rapid survey of the agricultural conditions in Hawaii
and to advise this Office with reference to the location and organiza-
tion of an experiment station there.
In connection with his visit to the Hawaiian Islands, under instruc-
tions from the Director of this Office, Dr. Stubbs made a careful investi-
gation of their agricultural conditions and conferred with the managers
of educational and scientific institutions already existing in Hawaii
and with citizens representing various interests. He also received valu-
able advice and assistance from the officers of the Territorial govern-
ment. He was everywhere very cordially received and found that
there was much interest in the establishment of an experiment station.
Since his return he has submitted a report, in which he recommends
that a station be established under the direct control of the Secretary
of Agriculture and independent of existing local institutions. As the
station already maintained by the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Associa-
tion will continue its work in problems relating to the sugar industry,
he recommends that the station to be established by this Department
give its attention to other agricultural interests. Among the subjects
which require especial attention are the culture of fruits and vegetables,
coffee growing, stock raising, dairying, irrigation, forestry, and dis-
eases of plants. In a number of these lines the station will require
the cooperation of the various divisions of this Department.
As a headquarters for the station it is recommended that the reser-
vatiIon made by the Hawaiian government in 1893 for an experimental
and forestry station be secured. This is a tract of 222 acres near
H1I :lulu, with an elevation ranging from 50 to 1,000 feet, thus afford-
ing ,pportunity for a considerable variety of field operations. The
buildinigs needed by the station can conveniently be erected on this
tract, :and limited areas can be at once cleared for experimental opera-
tions. For the proper maintenance of the station, funds equal to those






STATIONS IN PORTO RCO. 23

given to the other stations of the United States should be provided for
the current expenses, and in addition provision should be made for
buildings and equipment. Following the policy pursued elsewhere, it
seems to me that the United States should give to this station the
me annual appropriation which is given to other States and Terri-
tories under the Hatch Act, and the awaiian government and people
should be called upo to supplement these funds s far as may be
necessary to establish and maintain the station on an efficient basis.
The experiment station at Honolulu, maintained by the Hawaiian
Sugar Planters' Association, has continued its work during the past
year, and a brief account of its operations is given on pae 63.
EXPERMENT STATIONS IN PORTO RICO.
An appropriation of $5,() was made by Congress in May, 1900, to
determine the agricultural conditions existing in Porto Rico. with
special rference to the most desirable localities for agricultural experi-
ment stations, as well as the subjects on which the agricultural people
of the island are in most inediate need of practical information, and
how this need can he most economically and effectively supplied. The
ppropriation also provides for the printing (in Porto Rico) and dis-
semination of circulars of inquiry and bulletins of information in the
Spanish and English lnguages. It will he observed that this appro-
priation provides only'for the preliminary study of questions relating
to the establishent of an experiment station in Porto Rico, differing
in this respect from the appropriation for Hawaii above referred to.
The agent selected for this service is Prof. S. A. Knapp. for merly of
the Iowa Agricultural College. In recent years Professor Knapp has
successfully engaged in the growing of sugar cane, rice, and other
semitropical rops in southern Louisiana, and has lately visited Hawaii
and the Philippines in the interests of this Department. He has also
had much practical experience in the development of agricultural
enterprises in the South on a large scale. He is thus well qualified to
judge of theagricultural needs of Porto Rico and to determine what
is feasible there in the way of agricultural investigations.
Under instructions from the Director of this Office, Professor Knapp
visited Porto Rico conferred with oficers of the government and rep-
resentative citizens there, and made investigation of the agricultural
conditions existing on the island with special reference to the establish-
ment and work of an experiment station. Since his return he has sub-
mitted a report, recently trnsmitted to Congress, in which he points
out the urgent need of agricultural education and investigation in the
island. He advises that headquarters for an experiment station be
established in the vicinity of San Juan, and that this station should be
established on a broad basis, special attention being given at the outset
to demonstratin exeriments and the dissemination of information






24 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

regarding approved methods of agriculture. Among the subjects to
which the station should direct its attention are the improvement of
the culture of coffee, sugar, and tobacco; the encouragement of the
production of food supplies for home consumption; the improvement
of live stock; the making of cheese and butter, and forestry.
As in the case of Hawaii, the appropriation for current expenses for
this station should be at least equal to that given to the States and
Territories under the Hatch Act. Funds will also be required at
the outset for buildings and equipment. If it is possible for the local
government to provide the funds for this purpose, as in the case of
other States and Territories, it should do so. Otherwise Congress
should be asked to make an initial appropriation to provide the station
with suitable buildings and equipment.
THE ASSOCIATION OF COLLEGES AND STATIONS.
The Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment
Stations held its fourteenth annual convention at'New Haven, Conn.,
in November, 1900. The association went to Connecticut especially to
celebrate the twenty-fifth anniversary of the establishment of the first
State experiment station in this country, which was organized at Mid-
dletown, Conn., in 1875. There was much discussion regarding the
relations of this Department with the stations, and their closer affilia-
tion was heartily approved. A brief account of the New Haven meet-
ing is given on page 36 of this report.

EXPERIMENT STATION EXHIBIT AT THE PARIS EXPOSITION OF 1900.
A collective exhibit designed to show the development and present
status of the experiment-station enterprise in this country was made
at the Paris Exposition of 1900. This exhibit was prepared under the
general supervision of a committee of the Association of American
Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations, consisting of H. P.
Armsby, director of the Pennsylvania experiment station, chairman;
M. A. Scovell, director of the Kentucky experiment station; A. W.
Harris, president of the University of Maine; W. H. Jordan, director
of the New York State experiment station, and the Director of this
Office.
The exhibit of objects in cases included special devices and apparatus
for station work and illustrations, by models and otherwise, of notable
results of investigation. At the same time this Office secured fro' the
stations over 800 negatives and photographs illustrating their offices,
buildings, and equipment, together with materials for about 100 large
charts illustrating different features of their work. This Office also
collected a complete set of the office and station publications (some
4,000 documents), and books and monographs by station officers,
making in all a library of 750 bound volumes;.






ST ATISTICS. 25

To accompany the station exhibit the Director and Mr. V. A. Clark,
of this Office, aided by the dirextors of the stations and members of
the Office force, prepared a coprhensive report on the history and
p t status of the experiment tations in the United States. When
printed this made a volume of 36 pages, and was illustrated with 306
tigures (arranged in 153 plates), showing bildings, equipment, and
features of the ork of the individual stations. While this report
was prepared priarily to show to foreign nations represented at the
Paris Exposition something of the magnitude and success of our
experiment-station enterprise, it was also intnded to reveal this more
clearly to our own countrymen, and to make a permanent record of
the condition of the experiment stations in this country at the close of
the nineteenth century. This exhibit received much commnendation
from the foreign officers and experts who examined it, and was given
very attering recognition though the awards conferred by the jury.
THE OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

Among the matters to which this Office has given special attention
during the past year hs been the organization of cooperative enter-
pries between the Department and the stations. By conferences with
Departent and station officers the Director of this Office has been
able to secure and dissiminat information regarding the conditions
existing in both.the Departient and the stations and the requirements
of cooperative work. Contracts for coperation have been recorded in
this Office and general assistance has been given in the formulating of
plans for such work. Much has been accomplished during the past
year in strengthening and developing the special investigations in irri-
gation intrusted o this Office, and it is blieved that these are now
organized on a substantial and permanent basis. The work on the
nutrition investigations ha also been somewhat extended, and efforts
have been continued to make the results of this work of especial use
to educational institutions of different grades, women's organizations,
benevolent associations, public institutions, and the Army and Navy.
A brief account of the general buiness of the office will be found on
page 28.
STATISTICS OF THE STATIONS.

Agricutural experiment stations are now in operation, under the act
of Congress of March 2, 1887, in all the States and Territories. As
stated elsewhere in this report, agricultural investigations in Alaska
have been continued with the aid of national funds; an experiment
station under private auspices is in operation in Hawaii; and Congress
has appropriated $10,000 for the establishment and intenance of
an exeriment station under Government auices in Hawaii, and






26 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

$5,000 for a preliminary study of questions relating to the establish-
ment of an experiment station in Porto Rico. In each of the States of
Connecticut, New Jersey, and New York a separate station is main-
tained wholly or in part by State funds; in Louisiana three stations
are thus maintained; and in Alabama two-the Canebrake and Tuskegee
stations-are maintained wholly by State funds. Excluding the branch
stations established in several States, the total number of stations in
the United States is 57. Of these, 52 receive appropriations provided
for by act of Congress.
The total income of the stations during 1900 was $1,170,857.78, of
which $719,999.07 was received from the National Government, the
remainder, $450,858.71, coming from the following sources: State
governments, $247,281.46; individuals and communities, $2,420.51;
fees for analyses of fertilizers, $70,927.31; sales of farm products,
$90,088.84; miscellaneous, $40,140.59. In addition to this, the Office'
of Experiment Stations had an appropriation of $45,000 for the past
fiscal year, including $12,000 for the Alaskan investigations. The value
of additions to the equipment of the stations in 1900 is estimated
as follows: Buildings, $89,416.23; libraries, $10,784.70; apparatus,
$19,397.85; farm implements, $17,015.86; live stock, $22,009.10; mis-
cellaneous, $8,850.94; total, $167,474.68.
The stations employ 693 persons in the work of administration and
inquiry. The number of officers engaged in the different lines of work
is as follows: Directors, 71; chemists, 143; agriculturists, 74; experts in
animal husbandry, 14; horticulturists, 75; farm foremen, 24; dairy-
men, 30; botanists, 55; entomologists, 50; veterinarians, 29; meteor-
ologists, 16; biologists, 6; physicists, 7; geologists, 6; mycologists
and bacteriologists, 17; irrigation engineers, 7; in charge of substa-
tions, 10; secretaries and treasurers, 27; librarians, 10; and clerks, 51.
There are also 30 persons classified under the head of "miscellaneous,"
including superintendents of gardens, grounds, and buildings, apiarists,
herdsmen, etc. Three hundred and twenty-seven station officers do
more or less teaching in the colleges with which the stations are
connected.
The activity and success of the stations in bringing the results of
their work before the public continues unabated. During the year
they published 386 annual reports and bulletins, which are many more
than are required by the Hatch Act. These were supplied to over half
a million addresses on the regular mailing lists. A number of stations
supplemented their regular publications with more or less frequent
issues of press bulletins. These are short popular articles which are
prepared at little expense to the station, but which, through the
medium of the local agricultural press, reach a wide circle of readers
and bring the station and the practical results of its work pointedly
before the public.






STATISTICS. 27

The stations are bein consulted more and more by farmers, and the
information given is of the most varied character. his necessitates a
voluminous and constantly increasing correspondence. Station officers
come into personal contact with farmers at farmers' institutes, where
they make addresses and answer questions. Many persons are thus
benefited by the stations' work who would not otherwise be reached.
The results of station work are further given wide publicity by the
general agricultural press. These papers not only give numerous
popular accounts of the work of thhe stations, but they often employ
station officers to answer questions of correspondence and as spcial
contributors. Station officers are also frequent contributors to scien-
tific journals. A numblr of books by station officers has been pub-
lished during the year.











OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

AN OFFICE IN THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.

The work of the Office of Experiment Stations during the past year,
as heretofore, has included the supervision of the expenditures of the
stations; conferences and correspondence with station officers regard-
ing the management, equipment, and work of the stations; the col-
lection and dissemination of information regarding the progress of
agricultural education and research throughout the world by means
of technical and popular bulletins; the management of the agricultural
experiment stations in Alaska, and the conduct of preliminary investi-
gations with reference to the establishment of stations in Hawaii and
Porto Rico. Special investigations on the nutrition of man and on
irrigation assigned to this Office have been prosecuted very thoroughly
in cooperation with experiment stations, educational institutions, and
other agencies in different States and Territories. The Office also did
a large amount of work in connection with the collective experiment
station exhibit at the Paris Exposition.
The income of the Office during the past fiscal year, derived wholly
from appropriations by Congress, was as follows:
For the general business of the office .-....----------....---- $33, 000
For the Alaska experiment stations-----.....--..-- ...-- ..-.-- 12,000
For nutrition investigations ................................. 15,000
For irrigation investigations................................. 35,000
Total..--.......--..............---- -........ ......... 95,000
During the year the Office issued 58 documents, aggregating 3,367
pages. These include 10 numbers of the Experiment Station Record,
with detailed index, 15 bulletins, 7 farmers' bulletins (including 4
numbers of the subseries entitled Experiment Station Work"), 4 cir-
culars, 4 reports, 4 articles for the Yearbook of the Department, and
14 special articles published as separates.
Experiment Station Record, Vol. XI, pp. 1~20.-This contains
abstracts of 355 bulletins and 43 annual reports of experiment stations
in the United States, 153 publications of the Department of Agri-
culture, and 1,184 reports of foreign investigations. The total nnum-
ber of pages in these publications is 74,981 (for Vol. VIII it was
38,552). The total number of articles abstracted is 2,225, classified as
follows: Chemistry, 146; botany, 175; fermentation and bacteriology,
19; zoology, 18; meteorology, 54; air, water, and soils, 79; fertilizers,
102; field crops, 220; horticulture, 232; forestry, 59; seeds and weeds,
28,






OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 29

66; diseases of plants, 179; entomology, 221; foods and animal produc-
tion, 194; dairy farming and dairying, 184; veterinary science, 234;
technology, 6; agricultural engineering, 37; statistics, 86. Classified
lists of articles, in some cases with brief extracts, are also given in
each number. The aggregate number of titles thus reported is 2,247.
Special articles were also published in this volume of the Record as
follows: "Selection and its effects on cultivated plants," "Artificial
changes of physical properties of soils," and "Adaptation of methods
of cultivation and manuring to the physical properties of soils."
There are condensed accounts of the Proceedings of the Sixteenth
Annual Convention of the Association of Official Agricultural Chem-
ists, 1899, and of the Thirteenth Annual Convention of the Association
of American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations; and, in
addition, editorial discussions of a number of topics.
MISCELLANEOUS TECHNICAL BULLETINS.

Bulletin 70, jp. 36.-Frme.rs' Reading (Ourscx.-This bulletin
shows the scope and methods of work followed in farmers' reading
courses in the United States, which, "as an important phase of the
general movement among our agricultural colleges to go outside of
their class rooms and promote the education of our farmers along the
linesof their art, are now attracting widespread attention." It reviews
their history and present status, describing reading courses actually in
operation in seven States, and contains suggestions regarding the
organization of such courses, with an aplpndix showing representative
documents used in the courses in various States.
Bulleti 74, pp. 1.t Lit of the A4 riltural l-
leg; and Eperiment Statios in the United States, with a List of
Agrictural Erer t Station in rgn ntr -This con-
tains a list of the offiers of the Associatin of Agricultural Colleges
and Experiment Stations and of the Association of Official Agricul-
tural Chemists; a list of institutions having courses in agriculture in
the United States, with courses of study and boards of instruction; a
list of experiment stations in the United States, with governing
boards and station taffs; a list of experiment stations in fifty-seven
foreign countries, with their location and directors; a list of station
publications received by the Office of Experiment Stations during
1899; Federal legislation affecting agricultural colleges and experiment
stations, and regulations and rulings of the Federal Departments
affecting the stations.
Blleti 76, pp. 11.-Prceeding of the irteenth Annual Con-
vention of the Aociation of American Agricultural College and
Eperiet Station, held at San Francico, Cal., Jdy 5-7, 1899.-
Contains, in addition to the proceedings of the convention, papers,






30 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

addresses, and reports on a number of subjects of interest to students
and investigators in agricultural science.
Bulletin 77, pp. 100.-The Digestibility of American Feeding
StuJfs.-Summarizes the results of 378 experiments made at the experi-
ment stations in the United States up to the close of 1898 on the
digestibility of feeding stuffs by farm animals, and discusses the proc-
ess of digestion, the significance and practical value of digestion
coefficients, the methods, sources of error, and limitations of digestion
experiments as at present conducted, and the various factors affecting
digestibility.
Bulletin 78, pp. 39.-Statistics of the Land-Grant Colleges and
Agricultural Erperiment Stations in the United States for the Year
Ended June 30, 1899.-Shows the number of officers and students,
endowment, equipment, and revenue of the colleges, and the number
of officers, revenues, expenditures, lines of work, and number of pub-
lications of the stations.
Bulletin 79, pp. 34.-Farmers' Institutes.-Gives the history and
present status of farmers' institutes in the United States and Canada.
Bulletin 80, pp. 636.-The Agricultural Erperiment Stations in the
United States.-Prepared as a part of the exhibit of the agricultural
experiment stations in the United States at the Paris Exposition, is
an account of the history, work, and present status of the experiment
stations in general, and of the fifty-six stations individually, profusely
illustrated with half tones, showing buildings, plats, laboratories,
herds, etc. It treats of the agricultural conditions in the United
States as related to the work of the stations; history of the stations;
relation of the Federal Government to the stations; relations of the
stations with associations; organization, equipment, lines of work, and
general results of the stations; the associations affiliated with the sta-
tions; and gives a list of officers, history, organization, equipment,
financial support, lines of work, methods of disseminating informa-
tion, and general results of the work of the individual stations in the
several States and Territories. An appendix includes an article on
inspection work of the stations; Federal legislation and rulings affect-
ing agricultural colleges and experiment stations; statistics of the agri-
cultural experiment stations in 1899; publications of the Office of
Experiment Stations and the several stations, from 1875 to 1899,
inclusive; a description of the card index of experiment-station litera-
ture; a list of books by experiment-station officers, and a catalue of
the collective experiment station exhibit at the Paris Exposition.
.ulletin 82, pp. 55.-Third Report on the nvestifations oftheAgri-
ctural Capabilitie of in 1899.-Includes the report of the
special agent in charge of the Alaska investigations on the work at
Sitka, Keni,. and Kadiak during the open season of 1899.
Bulletin 8p., pp. 111.-Report on the r and enditr of the






OFFICE O1 EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 31

Ar cult Experint Stations for the ~ I ar Enled -hine 30, 189.-
Contains the report of the Director of this Offi(e as transmitted to
Congress.
SS. Dept r. ~Rept 63, 1j. 48.-The Ifork f the Aftricultural
Epermet Stati. on .T-hco.-This bulletin contains abstracts of
the publications of the stations on this subject, with an introduction
and comments by the Chief f the Division of Soils.
Card le of Erperet Station Liteature.-Copy for 1,300
cards was prepared during the past year. The number of index cards
distributed has reached 19,200.
FARMERS BULLETINS.

Frmr' ll 19.-Piru' Rd ne.-This is
an abridgment of Bulletin No. 72 of the Office of Experiment Stations
above referred to (p. 29).
Farmer'ulletin 11,. .Band the Iine"iple f 1Brad
a -Summarizes recent inforiation on this subject compiled
from all available sources, including standard works and the results of
investigations conducted under the auspices of this Office. Among
the topics treated are grains and flours, yeasts and other leavening
agencies; raised bread; special breads; household methods of bread
making; imperfectis and impurities in bread; and the nutritive
value and cost of bread.
armers' BullItin 116, pp. 8.-Irrigatio n in t Grut (irlin. -Dis-
cusses "the relations of irriation to fruit production, and irrigation
methods as they have been demonstrated by acific coast experience,
to the end that recourse to irrigation, wherever it be found desirable,
may be facilitated and promoted." The tpics treated include the
relations of cultivation and irrigation; effects of insufticient moisture;
time of application; flowing water v. falling water; development and
utilization of irrigation water; preparing land for irrigation; methods
of applying irrigation ater; how much water to apply; after-treat-
ment of irrigated land; cover crops in the irrigated orchard; and
minor results of irrigation.
Farmers' Bulletin. 103, 105, 107, 114, 119.-Experiment Station
rk XI, XII, XIII, XI X -The five numbers prepared dur-
ing the past year of the subserie of brief popular bulletins compiled
from the published reports of the aricultural experiment stations and
kindred institutions in this and other countries.

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIENT STATIONS IN ALASKA.
For an account of the work of the Alaska stations during the past
year, see page 42.






32 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

NUTRITION INVESTIGATIONS.
The investigations on the nutrition of man, in charge of this Office,
have been conducted during the past year along the following general
lines:
Observations have been made on the nutritive value and cost of
different food materials in various localities in the United States.
These were less extended than in some previous years and were mostly
in connection with dietary studies.
Studies have been made of actual dietaries in order to learn the
kinds and amounts of food materials consumed by people in different
localities, of different occupations, ages, and sex, and under varying
conditions.
The digestibility of certain articles of food, especially cereal prod-
ucts, has been studied, and comparisons have been made between the
cheaper and more expensive foods to determine the relative effect on
health and comfort by their use.
Studies have been conducted to determine the losses in nutritive
value from various modes of cooking and to find out the most econom-
ical methods for ultilizing different food materials.
Metabolism experiments have also been continued with the respira-
tion calorimeter. The principal theme has been the transformation
of the energy of food materials in the body, and the use which the
body makes of the energy so transformed. One important topic has
been the relation of muscular work to digestibility and metabolism.
The amounts of food consumed and metabolized by men under dif-
ferent conditions of work and rest have been observed. The fuel
values of the fats, carbohydrates, and alcohol have been compared.
Determinations of the heats of combustion of food materials have
been made with the bomb calorimeter.
Methods of investigation are being studied with reference to their
improvement, and constant effort is being made to devise better forms
of apparatus.
The current literature of the nutrition of man, which is now quite
voluminous, is being regularly followed up, and such abstracts and
compilations are being made as will promote the interests of our
investigations.
The rapid accumulation of material which must be made ready for
publication in both technical and popular form necessitates a large
amount of editorial work. The correspondence connected with -these
investigations has grown to be extensive.
This work was carried on in cooperation with colleges and experi-
ment stations in Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maine, New Jersey,
Tennessee, Illinois, Ohio, Minnesota, and California.
Six bulletins and one Yearbook article on subjects relating to the






OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 33

food and nutrition of n have been issued ro this Office during the
pat year, a follows:
Bulletin pp. 51.-Studies on Bread and Bread Vaking.-Con-
tain tudie on bread and bread making at the University of Minne-
ta in 189 and 1898, and on losses in the process of bread making at
the New Jersey Agricultural E eriment Station.
Bulleti 68, pp. 48.--A Description of ime Chinee getabhc Fod
Aaterials and Their ut ritive and Econmic V .ue- Describes and dis-
cusses the nutritive and economic value of some vegetable food mate-
rials (roots and tubers, green vegetables and cucurbits, seeds and grains,
fruits, nuts and flowers fungi and alg, and miscellaneou substances)
which are used to a siderable extent by the Chinese population in
n Francisco and other cities of the United States, and which may
become generally and favorably known in the United States.
Bulletin 69, pp. .-Epts on the 3fta&l.Vn "f tter and
IEnergy n the Iunam Body. -Contains a report of experimental tests
of the Atwter-Rosa repiration clorimeter, and a detailed account of
six experiments on the metabolism of matter and enery in the human
body.
Bullet 71, pp. 45.-Dietary Studi f gres in Ete r-
ginia in 1897 1898-ontains accounts of twelve dietary studies
conducted in 1897 in families living in the region bordering the Dismal
Swamp, where the style of living is very primitive and the income
usually quite limited; and of seven dietary studies conducted in 1898
in families living in the neighborhood of Hampton, Va., some of
whom had been under the influence of the Hampton Institute, and
were quite well to do, while other had rceived no such training and
were believed to be fairly representative of egroes of very limited
means and little or no education.
Bulletin 75, pp. 72.-Dietary Studixes f h iversity Boat ( ,rews.-
This is an account of seven dietary studies made with Harvard and
Yale boat crews in the spring of 1898, during the month preceding
the annual races of these rews at New London. These studies were
undtaken prarily to secure data regarding the food requirements
of man performing severe muscular work.
Farnmer' Bulletin 112, pp. 38.-Bread ad the Principles of BRead
akng.-Summarize the latest knowledge on this subject, as stated
on page 31.
arbook of the Department of Agriculture, 1899, pp. 403-414.-
Development of the utrition Investigations of the Department ofAgri-
culture. -Desc'bes the origin, progress, and present status of these
investigations.
H. Doe. 336-3






34 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

IRRIGATION INVESTIGATIONS.

Much progress has been made during the past year in the organiza-
tion and development of irrigation investigations in charge of this
Office. In accordance with the terms of the appropriation act two
general lines of investigation have been pursued: (1) The study of the
laws and institutions relating to irrigation in different regions, and (2)
the determination of the actual use made of irrigation waters. Inves-
tigations have been made in seventeen States and Territories, largely
in cooperation with the agricultural colleges, experiment stations, and
State engineers' offices.
The largest single enterprise connected with these investigations has
been in the State of California, where a large amount of information
has been collected as to how water for irrigation is owned, distributed,
and used on eight typical streams in different parts of the State. The
California Water and Forest Association has contributed several thou-
sand dollars to aid this work. The University of California and Leland
Stanford Junior University have also given efficient aid to this enter-
prise and have been represented on the staff of agents employed in the
prosecution of the work. A comprehensive report on these investiga-
tions is now in course of preparation. It is believed that this is the
largest and most comprehensive inquiry regarding irrigation laws,
customs, and conditions which has been undertaken in this country.
Similar investigations, though on a smaller scale, have been made in
Utah, Colorado, and other States.
The measurements of the duty of water undertaken last year have,
been extended this season, regular stations for this purpose having
been maintained in eleven States and Territories in the irrigated
region. A detailed report on the observations of the previous season
is now in press, which includes a larger amount of data on this subject
than has ever been brought together before. Studies of the losses
from evaporation and seepage and of the amount and character of sedi-
ment contained in irrigation waters have also been carried on in a num-
ber of localities.
Interest in the use of irrigation to supplement rainfall in the humid
regions of the United States is constantly growing. In a number of
sections this has been greatly stimulated during the past season by
long-continued drought. Interesting and valuable investigations
regarding the use of water for irrigation in New Jersey have been
made by Professor Voorhees, director of the New Jersey agricultural
experiment stations. The results of these investigations have recently
been published, and they indicate that the practice of irrigation has
been quite profitable in that State as far as it has been tried.
Similar investigations are being undertaken in Missouri and Wis-
consin in cooperation with the experiment stations in those States. A






OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 35

preliminary survey was also made of the conditions of irrigation prac-
tice in the rce fields and sugar plantations of the Southern States.
This indicated that there is great opportunity for improvement in the
methods and use of water in that region, and it is hoped that it may be
possibe to undertake a study of some of these problems in the near
fu ture. A reprt of the irrigation system of Hawaii is now in press.
During the past year six bulletins and reports on irrigation have
been prepared for publication in this Office:
Bulletin 70, pp. 40.- W~i tr-Ri1ht Proh/ew / er R,.-A dis-
cussion of the water-right complications and problems of a typical
interstate stream.
Bulletin 7, -pp. t4.--rricatn a /the / Rocky 31bountain MafW.-
Explains the agricultural conditions prevailing and the methods of
acquring and using water for irrigation practiced in that portion of
the arid region, covering more prticularly the States of Colorado,
Wyomling, Utahl, Idaho. and Montana. This is preliminary to a more
thorough investigation on the laws of the water-right problems of
these States.
Blletin 81, pp. 56.-The e f later in Irrigation in Ifyom, g,
hitd ds telation to iLw .iwA p and Ii)trIutn of tle A tural AIp-
py.-Teats of the application of water to crops, water measurements
in WyoIing, duty of water, the irrigrting sason, "and ontimuouls
flow a asis for appropriatimn.
Bdletin 86, pp. --The ~ e f Iiter n I atin.-)iscusses
in detail the results of investigations on the duty of water in eight
States of the arid region. It records the results of systematic meas-
uemlents of the amount of water actually used on a large numbIer of
farms in widely separated portions of this region.
iner' Blltin 1W, pp. IS.- Iriatin in. Fruit Gos'wng.- --Is a
practical treatise on this subject by a horticulturist of longexperience
in California.
arook of the Department of Agriculture, 1899, 591-61.-
SRie and t f Irriation in the 1nited States.-This is a concise
presentation of the history, present status, and future prospects of
irrigation in this country, with brief sttements regarding some of the
most important problems affecting further development of our irriga-
tion system.












THE ASSOCIATION OF AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES
AND EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

The fourteenth annual convention of the Association of American
Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations was held at New Haven
and Middletown, Conn., November 13-15, 1900, and was attended by
delegates representing all sections of the country. The association
went to Connecticut this year especially to celebrate the twenty-fifth
anniversary of the founding of the Connecticut Agricultural Experi-
ment Station, which was the first station organized under State aus-
pices in this country.
One day was spent at Middletown, where the association was most
cordially received and hospitably entertained by Wesleyan University.
The delegates also had the opportunity of seeing the Atwater-Rosa
respiration calorimeter in operation. At a meeting held in the uni-
versity chapel, Dr. W. H. Jordan, director of the New York State
Experiment Station, gave a historical address on the American agri-
cultural experiment stations. Besides reviewing the rapid growth of
this great enterprise from its beginning at Middletown twenty-five
years ago, and pointing out the great scientific and practical results
which it has already achieved, Dr. Jordan strongly urged that the
stations should use every effort to put their work more fully on a high
scientific level and devote themselves very largely to original investi-
gations.
He was followed by Prof. W. 0. Atwater, who gave a number of
interesting details regarding the establishment of the Connecticut Sta-
tion as the first State station in this country, and showed that the
influence of this station had been very great in shaping the organiza-
tion and work of other stations.
President J. E. Stubbs, of the University of Nevada, presided at
the general sessions, and delivered the president's annual address. He
took strong ground regarding the fundamental necessity for the direct
and indirect teaching of sound moral principles in our public educa-
tional institutions of all grades. "It is character and not intelligence
that determines the historical development of nations. It is character
and not intelligence that distinguishes one individual from another and
contributes to social well-being. The morality of the race, together
with its strength and vigor, must be the principal object of education;
all else is secondary."
A carefully prepared and eloquent address on the career of the late






ASCIATION OF COLLEGES AND STATIONS. 37

Senator Justin S. orrill, of Vermont, was delivered by President
G. W. Atherton, of the Pennsylvania State College. President Ath-
erton's ose association with Senator Morrill for many years and his
intimate familiarity with the history of the movement for the estab-
lishment of colleges and agricultural experiment stations under national
auspices enabled him to treat this subject in a very thorough and sat-
isfactory manner, so that his address will have a permanent historical
value.
Dr. Bernard Dyer, of London, England, as the representative of the
Lawes Agricultural Trust, delivered the biennial course of lectures
provided for in that trust. In these he gve a resuin of the investi-
gations at the Roth sted Experiment Station during the past fifty
years with different kinds of fertilizers on wheat, pinting out espe-
cially the effectof of fent f manuring on the amount and
avaiability of the fertilizing constituents in the soils experimented
with. Besides resoluions of thanks to Dr. Dyer, the association
adopted a memorial showing its high appreciation of the life and
work of Sir John nnet Lawes and his associates at the Rothasted
Station.
The report of the executive committee pointed out that Congress
had recognized the importance of the land-grant colleges to the coun-
try in a notable way during the ast year, by providing tat when the
proceeds of the sale of public lands were insufficient to meet the annual
appropriations for these institutions the deficiency should be met by
direct appropriations from the National Treasury.
In the section on agriculture and chemistry much attention was
naturally given to discussions of investigations on tobacco, the Con-
necticut State Station ing engaged in important work in this line in
cooperation with the Division of Sils of this Department. Papers
were read on method of experimenting with cigar-wrapper leaf
tobacco and on the methods of growing and curing white Burley
tobacco. Among other papers read in this section were those on tests
in feeding dairy herds, cooperative field experiments, on the raising of
sugar beets as a new and profitable industry in this country, and on
available energy in foods.
The report of the section on horticulture and botany showed that
there had recently been a great growth of interest in the subject of
plant breeding and that studies in this direction were being undertaken
by both botanists and horticulturists. There is a marked tendency to
devote relatively less time to systematic botany and give much more
consideration than formerly to problems in plant physiology. The
testing of ieties still occupies a large place in the work of the
stations, but it is being supplemented by iestigations conducted on
a more scientific basis. Among the papers read in this section were
the following: Plant physiology in its relation to agriculture and






38 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

horticulture; grasses and forage plant investigation in experiment sta-
tions and the Division of Agrostology; laboratory and field work for
students in horticulture; the educational status of horticulture; what
our experiment stations have done in originating varieties of plants by
crossing and selection; the relation of the Section of Seed and Plant
Introduction to experiment stations; and vegetation house arranged
for pot experiments.
The section on entomology had a larger attendance than usual, and
there was a full programme, which brought out much interesting
discussion. Among the papers read were the following: Observa-
tions on the banding of trees to prevent injury by the fall canker-
worm; suggestions toward greater uniformity in nursery inspection
laws and rulings; nursery inspection and orchard insecticide treatment
in Illinois; entomology in the Southern States; economic entomology
in Florida; experiences in nursery and orchard inspection; some
recent results with hydrocyanic acid in large buildings for the destruc-
tion of insect pests; danger to American horticulture from the intro-
duction of scale insects; entomological oecology; recent progress in
cotton spraying, and new designs for cotton sprayers; some cotton
insects and methods for suppressing them; observations on Artace
punctdistriga; a little known asparagus pest; a power sprayer for
asparagus; notes on crude petroleum and its effects upon plants and
insects; and nursery inspection in a State free from San Jos6 scale.
The report of this section showed that much progress is being made
in the specialization of the work of the station entomologists, in
instruction in entomology in colleges, and in the improvement of
facilities for research and instruction in this branch. There is a
marked increase in recent years in the amount of inspection work
required of station entomologists, and problems relating to the organ-
ization and management of this work require very careful thought
and attention. Uniformity of inspection laws was advocated. It was
shown that inspection had already caused much greater carefulness
among nurserymen, thus removing one of the main causes of the dis-
seminnation of injurious pests.
One of the most important subjects on which the association took
action at this meeting was the report of the committee on cooperative
work between the Department of Agriculture and the experiment
stations. This was carefully prepared by a thoroughly representative
committee after consultation with the directors of the stations, and was
unanimously adopted by the association. It commended the attitude
of the present Secretary of Agriculture toward closer cooperation
hetween the Department and the stations and pointed out'the different
ways in which the two institutions might aid each other. It also
attempted to define the principles on which, the joint work should be
arranged and conducted.














TH AGRICULTURAL EXPERIENT STATIONS IN THE SEVERAL
STATES AND TERRITORIES.
ALABAMA.
Agricltur Experiment Station of the Alabama Polytechnic Institute,
Auburn.
DEPARTMENT OF THE ALABAMA PULYTFHNI' INSTITUTE.

The work of the Alahama Station during the past year has included
experiments in soil improvement; studies of fertilizers and the nutri-
tive value of legumes; experiments with corn; studies of forage plants,
especially sorghum, cowpeas, rye, vetch, and crimson clover; investi-
gations on the imediate and residual fertilizer effects of legumes and
stable manure; variety, breeding, and fertilizer experiments with cot-
ton; investigations to ascertain the portion of nitrogen obtained by
cowpeas from the air; experiments with fodder crops; feeding experi-
ments with pigs and with dairy cows; experiments in butter making;
investigations on the availability of phosphoric acid in phosphatic
manures; studies of phosphate beds in north Alabama; investigations
on the chemical life history of the cotton plant; soil tests with legumes;
experiments in sirup making; experiments on the immunity of North-
ern-bred cattle; studies of animal diseases and the toxic effects of
cotton-seed meal and cotton seed when fed to hogs; diseases of plants,
particularly of fruit trees; experiments with vegetables, small fruits,
and ornamental trees and shrubs, and with hybrid oranges and tea
received from this Department, and experiments with grasses, par-
ticularly native species.
The station ha continued the inspection and analysis of fertilizers
under State law, and has aided in the establishment of the inspection
of milk, meat, and dairy products in different parts of the State.
The officers of the station are assisting in a biological survey of the
State. Cooperative experiments with farmers are being continued,
with special reference to the improvement of soils and the rational
use f commercial and farm fertilizers and green manures. The sta-
tion is developing an arboretum of native trees, and during the year
has issued a comprehensive summary of its investigations on cotton
from 1883 to the present time. The horticulturist has given consider-
able attention tomato rot, and fins that it is caused by a bacillus
and not by the filamentous fungi, as commonly stated. During the
39






40 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

year the horticulturist has begun irrigation experiments with cabbages
and other vegetables, and is already getting very favorable results.
A new analytical laboratory is being equipped for the chemical depart-
ment. The farm has recently been enlarged by the purchase of 80
acres, and extensive additions have been made to the live stock.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
United States appropriation.............................. $15,000.00
Fees for fertilizer analyses .--....-.--.......-- .......-... 5,628. 21
Farm products .----------------------.....-...-.--...--. 931.94
Miscellaneous ----.--....--.---------------.............. 1,668.87
Total ---.....--...--------------.. --- ---.. --. ...-- 23, 229.02
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 105-108, Index to Volume 7, and the Annual Reports
for 1898 and 1899.
Bulletin 105, pp. 34.- Winter Pasturage, Hay and Fertility Afforded
by Hairy Vetch.-This bulletin gives in detail methods of growing,
inoculating, and fertilizing hairy vetch, and considers its adaptability
for winter pasturage and green manuring in the South.
Bulletin 106, pp. 16.-Orchard Notes.-These notes are largely con-
fined to the effects of the unusual cold of February, 1899, on the apples,
cherries, figs, grapes, Japanese persimmons, peaches, pears, and plums
growing at the station and in different parts of the State. Notes on
injurious insects and diseases are given in some instances.
Bulletin 107, pp. 2947, pls. 23, figs. 3.-Results of Experiments on
Cotton in Alabama.--A report on cotton prepared for the Paris Expo-
sition, embodying the experience of the station with cotton for sixteen
years, and covering the following subjects: Varieties, culture, ferti-
lizers, diseases, list of fungi recorded as growing on cotton, bibliog-
raphy of cotton diseases, climate of cotton belt, improvement of
cotton by hybridization and by selection, and chemistry of cotton.
Bulletin 108, pp. 36, figs. 2.-Tomatoes.-An outline of methods of
culture and the results of experiments at the station, including a dis-
cussion of the following topics: Soils and fertilizers, plant growing,
cultivation and training, pruning, diseases and insects, varieties, and
marketing.
hLde~r to /olumae 7, pp. 28.-An index to Bulletins 101-107 'o the
station, issued during the calendar year 1899.
Annuai l Report, 1898, pp. 38.-The organization list of the station,
financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1898, summary
of the bulletins issued during the year, list of the subjects treated in
the 100 bulletins issued since the organization of the station, list of






ALABAMA. 41

exchanges, and departmental reports reviewing the work of the sta-
tion along the different lines.
Annual Rort, 1899, 1p. J. -The organization list, report of the
treasurer for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1899, and reports of the
director and botanist, chemist, associate chemist, veterinarian, agri-
culturist, and biologist and horticulturist, giving a general review of
the station work during the year ended December 31, 1899.
The work of the Alabama Station naturally centers abut cotton,
which is the great staple crop of the State. Its efforts are directed to
the improvement of this crop, the maintenance and restoration of fer-
tility of the soil, and the diversification of griculture through inves-
tigations in animal industry and dairying and experiments with forage
crop. The recent additions to the farm and live stock of the station
were made with a view to developing work along these latter lines.
The horticulturist is endeavoring to further the interets of conner-
c fruit and vegetable growing in the Stte. The new analytical
laboratory will facilitate a greater differentiation of station, college,
and State work along chemical lines. The station continues to keep
in touch with farmers through its system of farmers' institutes, which
are in charge of the vetrinarian, and through its system of coopera-
ive experiments. That the station is appreciated by the farmers is
shown by the steadily increasing demand for its bulletins. The affairs
of the Alabam&Station are in good condition, and the prospects for
its increased efficiency are bright.

Agricultural Experiment Station of the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial
Institute, Tuskegee.
DEPARTMENT OF THE TUSKEGEE NORMAL AND INDUSTRIAL INSTITUTE.
This station was esblished four year ago by the State, is main-
tained by a State appropriation of $1,500 a year, and is associated with
the agricultural department of the Tuskegee Institute. The land
regularly devoted to experimental work consists of 10 acres, but other
land is available if necessary. The experimental work thus far has
been confined ainly to field and fertilizer work. Such experiments
have been made with sweet potatoes, cotton, peas, onions, crimson
clover, wheat, corn, teosinte, cabbage, rye, and vetches. Vetches,
rim clover, and velvet beans have given very good results in the
locality of the station. Some feeding experiments have also been
e. The station staff consists of a director, farm manager and
market gardener, floritrist, manager of dairy herd, superintendent
of stock, dairyman, and horticulturist, who are likewise instructors in
the institute.
The publications of this station received from the date of organiza-
ti to the end of the past fiscal year were Bulletins 1-3.






42 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

Bulletin 1, pp. 9.-Tuskegee Station.'-Feeding Acor -Text of
the act of the Alabama legislature approved February 15, 1897, estab-
lishing the station, brief notes on proposed station work, and a dis-
cussion of the composition and feeding value of acorns.
Bulletin 2, pp. 15, fgs. 5.-Experiments with Sweet Potatoes.-
Results of fertilizer tests with sweet potatoes and general directions
for the culture of the crop.
Bulletin 3, pp. 16, figs. 3.-Fertilizer Experiments with Cotton.-
Results of experiments in growing cotton with commercial fertilizers
on a worn-out soil. Nitrate of soda, acid phosphate, and muriate of
potash in different combinations were compared on limed and unlimed
plats.
The work of the Tuskegee Station is especially in the interests of
the colored farmers of the State, although white farmers also make
use of the results obtained. Much of the work done is in the nature
of object lessons, and as such is productive of much good. It is
especially beneficial to those who come to the institute to examine it
either as students or visitors.

ALASKA.
Agricultural Experiment Stations, Sitka and Kenai.
IN CHARGE OF OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

The work in Alaska during the past year has included experiments
in growing wheat, barley, rye, oats, emmer (Russian spelt), millet,
buckwheat, corn, and numerous varieties of vegetables; experiments
on new land with lime, barnyard manure, guano, and seaweed; drain-
age experiments; experiments in the making and storage of silage; an
investigation of the agricultural possibilities of the interior of Alaska,
especially the Yukon Valley; and a preliminary investigation of the
Copper River region. Regular stations were maintained at Sitka and
Kenai, in Cook Inlet, and in addition to the data collected by officers
of these stations considerable additional information regarding the
agricultural capabilities of the coast region and the interior has been
obtained from residents of Alaska. Meteorological observations have
been made at a number of places in cooperation with the Weather
Bureau of this Department. Soil temperature records were made at
Sitka, Kenai, Eagle, and Fort Yukon.
The fourth report on the investigations in Alaska, giving a detailed
account of the operations during the year 1900, has been prepared for
transmissioii to Congress and has been published as House of Repre-
sentatives D)ocument No. 335, 56th Congress, 2d session (Office of
Experiment Stations Bulletin No. 94).
The appropriation for the Alaska investigations for the fiscal year
ended June 30, 1900, was $12,000.






ALASKA. 43

In orer to gain ore complete information regarding the agricul-
tural posibilities of Alaska it was decided to give considerable atten-
tion this year to a preliminary survey of the interior. For this purpose
two offcers made a tour from Skagway via White Horse to Dawson
and down the Yukon River, stopping at a number of points, including
Eagle, Circle, Fort Yukon, Rampart, Weare, Holy Cross Mission, and
St. Michel. Resevations of land for experimental purposes were
made at Rampart and Fort Yukon, and headquarters for this work
were established at the former plce, where an officer of the station
will pass the winter with a view to inaugulating experimental work
next season.
At Sitka a silo was built entirely of logs. except the roof, which is
of common native spruce boards. The logs were fitted together with
Iuch exactness and cracks hetween them were filled with mass. The
silo was filled with grass (/,lyinis m/Wb/x) found growing on the beach.
The silo was opened on November l1, and the silage wns found to be
in first-class condition.
Wheat, barley, rye, oats, eImner, and buckwheat were successfully
matured at Sitka, but millet and corn did not mature. Th experi-
ments with lime and fertilizers gave additional evidence that with proper
treatlent new land in Alaska may be made to produce crops success-
fully. Of especial interest are the results indicating that seaweed Ilay
be used with success as a fertilizer in this region, since this mIaterial
can be gathered in almost unlimited quantities on the coast in Alaska.
At Kenai a house for the station superintendent has been constructed
and 2 additional acres of land have ben cleared. The experiment
with winter wheat and rye sown in August, 189j, were unsuccessful.
Owing to dry weather early in the season the spring grains did not
get a good strt, though later in the season they grew rapidly. A final
report has not been received from this statio, bhut it has been learned
that mature barley was harvested September 20 from the seed which
matured there last year.
Experience at the stations and in other parts of Alaska during the
past season, a heretofore, shows that a considerable variety of vege-
tables can be grown both in the coast region and in the interior. At
Dawson, for example, there are several successful market gardens, and
the common hardy vegetables are grown without trouble. Barley and
oats were also matured at Dawson in 1899. At Eagle vegetable gardens
are successfully maintained, and oats and barley were matured this
season. Last winter 19 head of army horses and mules at Fort Egbert
were pastured out and successfully maintained in this way on native
forage with the addition of only 2 pounds of grain a day per head.
The vegetable gardens at Holy Cross Mission have been very successful.






44 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.
ARIZONA.
Agricultural Experiment Station of the University of Arizona, Tucson.
DEPARTMENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA.
The lines of work of the Arizona Station during the past year have
included irrigation investigations; experiments with green manuring
crops; vegetable growing; the improvement of grains, especially wheat
and barley; experiments with drought-resistant forage crops; experi-
ments with fruits and varieties of eucalyptus; feeding experiments
with steers and sheep; dairying; the improvement of worn-out ranges;
the utilization of cacti for forage purposes; chemical studies of irriga-
tion waters, with special reference to the amount and nature of silts
and soluble salts contained, and the practical application of the results
in problems of drainage.
In cooperation with this Department, experiments in the growing of
date palms and sugar beets have been continued; a soil survey of the
Salt River Valley, with especial reference to the location of alkali
soils, has been undertaken, and irrigation investigations and studies
with reference to the maintenance and reclamation of the ranges are
being made. By special arrangement, the entomologist of the New
Mexico Station has made a special investigation of the insect pests of
the Salt River Valley. Experiments have been commenced in the cul-
tivation of opuntias on arid lands as a means of improving worn-out
ranges. Variety tests of barley, especially beardless varieties, for hay
have resulted in the discovery of a Minnesota variety much superior
to any previously grown in Arizona. This discovery is believed to be
worth thousands of dollars to the stockmen of the valley. The agri-
culturist and horticulturist has devised an ingenious arrangement for
determining, in the irrigation of orchards, the loss of water by seepage
and evaporation and the amount taken up by the trees. Borings are
made and samples taken to determine the depth at which the soil is
moist. An expert in animal husbandry has been added to the staff.
A tract of 28 acres has been acquired and added to the experimental
farm at Phoenix for the especial use of the division of animal husbandry.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
United States appropriation.............................. $15,000.00
Fees.-..-.... ...........-- ..............---- ....-----.- 295.23
Farm products --..-----.-------.....---------.......--- 157. 76
Miscellaneous, including balance from previous year ....... 782. 65
Total ................. .................-......... 16,235.64
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 31-33 and the Annual Report for 1899.






A I ONA. 45

B n R i, 3 p. if, pl. 1.-Sugar Beet &Eperiments during 1899.-
An acount of experiments conducted mainly to study the question of
irrigation for sugar beets. Incidentally data were secured on the
limits of the sn, bet time to sow and harvest, and on the changes
taking place in the beet during ripening.
Bulletin 3S, .1. 27.- oe Insect Pests of Salt Rhqr TaIley and the
Remedie fr T n.-Notes on the more important insects of Salt River
Valley, with a discussion of remedies for each.
Blletin 3, 64, pl. 1, Jigs. 31.-An Inuiry Ifdo th1 (Uause and
Nature of Cro Gall.-The author reviews previous investigations
regarding crown gall, outlines its geographical distribution in the
United States, and gives a detailed account of field and inoculation
experients concerning the cause, nature, and treatment of this
disease.
A al Rprt, 1899, 40, -. .-The organization list of the
station financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1899; and
reports of the director, chemist, botanist, agriculturist and horticul-
urist, and meteorologist reviewing the work of the station, and includ-
ing notes on the examination of samples of sugar bee, water, oils,
canaigre, etc.; a brief account of investigations concerning crown gall;
notes on the establishment of the date industry in Arizona: a report
on cultural experiments with sugar beet, plant for green manuring,
wheat, barley, otatoes, garden vegetables, melons, forage crops, and
eucalypti,and of the effect of winter irrigtion on orchards; and a sum-
mary account of tests of severl diry herds.
As Arizona is located in the great arid region problems of irrigtion
and alkali soils are of first and fundamental importance. Along these
lines are the station's chemical invesations on irrigation water sup-
ply and its il survey with special refernce to alkali. Stock raising
is an industry of importance in the Territory, and with the recent
addition to the staff of an expert in animal husbandry the station pro-
poses to give special attention to this subject. The most difficult
problem of stock raising locally is the production of forage, hence the
station's investigation of drought-resistant forage plants, both native
kinds, such as cacti, and foreign kind, such as Opuntia. The condi-
tions in the Territory are very favorable for fruit growing and the
station is endeavoring to aid in the development of this industr. The
striking results of thestations experiment with the date pa have
already attracted much attention, and with the aid of this Depart-
ment this work is now being conducted on a relatively large scale.
The work of the station has progressed satisfatorily during the past
year, and the outlook for the future is very bright. Te management of
the station has been put on a sound and efficient basis, and the funds are
much more economically administered than formerly. The university
adoted a liberal policy toward the station. The present director






46 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

has thoroughly reorganized the station business, systematized the office
work, and instituted a popular series of leaflets entitled Timely hints
for farmers." These are based upon the wvork which the station is
doing, and, while popular in their nature, are not merely compiled
essays. They have been very useful in bringing the station to the
attention of the farmers of the Territory and winning their confidence.
Farmers' institute work was taken up last year with promising suc-
cess. The new work in animal husbandry has already attracted the
favorable attention of the stock growers of the Territory, and prom-
ises to materially increase the usefulness of the station. The station
needs better buildings, and it is hoped the Territory may soon be able
to supply its necessities in this direction.

ARKANSAS.
Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station, Fayetteville.
DEPARTMENT OF ARKANSAS INDUSTRIAL UNIVERSITY.

The work of the Arkansas Station has been along the same lines as
heretofore, and has included studies in bacteriology, principally inves-
tigations on hog cholera; chemical investigations of cotton seed and its
products; tests of methods for keeping first-crop Irish potatoes in
marketable condition; variety and curing experiments with tobacco;
variety and cultural experiments with melons and strawberries; spray-
ing experiments; variety tests with fruit; experiments in the produc-
tion of pork, with the use of crops gathered by hogs; tests of proposed
methods for hardening pork fat; rotation experiments for increasing
the productiveness of worn cotton soils; tests of the manurial value of
various legumes; experiments with forage plants, and studies on the
effect of latitude on corn. The pomologist has planted experimental
orchards at eight different points in the State on land furnished by
farmers, selecting typical sections or soils. At Newport experiments
have been continued in growing various crops to be harvested by hogs
and in the improvement of worn cotton soils. During the year a
tobacco barn has been erected for experiments in curing tobacco.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
United States appropriation ...--............---- -....... ---. $15, 000
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by3this
Department, and has been approved.
lThe publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were lBulletins 57--0 and the Annual Report for 1899.
i/llrtin 57, pj. 7. .- 1e RelatVwe Virulendce for the LDomestic Ani-
wahls of Juwannw and Boorwe Tuercle.- A review of some of the liter-
ature on the subject of tuberculosis, with a brief bibliography, anan






ARKANSAS. 47

account of field and inoculation expriments with calves, pigs, sheep,
chickens, guiea pigs, and rabbits to determine certain factors in the
question of the transmission of turculosis fro man to animals and
from animals to man.
Bulletin 58, pp. 14.-An E riment in Gring a trn a Cw-
e Field ith Ste rs-Eerine7ts it Pentanut Lsguic iJblauring,
Cottm Hal, lhFole and Crushed (ottrn Sed illanuring, and T1rieties
of Cotton.-This rei rts a test with 5 steers to determine the profit
of grazing steers on a corn and cowpa field, this being supplemented
with as much cotton seed as the animals require; an experiment in
planting Spnish peanuts at different distances: a comparison of grow-
ing peanuts from shelled, unshelled, and broken seed: trials to deter-
mine the relative effects of cotton meal and of whole and crushed seed
on the yield of corn, cotton, and ptatoes; trials to determine the rela-
tive effects on cotton and corn of coNpeas, soy beans, and velvet beans
turned under entire and their stubble only turned under, and a test of
Allen hybrid cotton.
Bulletinp 6, pp. 15.-TAe aarative d rf 'rn frm d of
the SInw Vriety GIran in ID/ nt Latituds.- I)ata and results of
a test covering two years, in which a comparison was made of seed
Sof 11 varieties of corn obtained frm l10 Northern 7 Middle, and 3
Southern States, with tables showing the condition of the weather
during the two years.
Bullleltin 60, fqm. 1?, f 4. -eeond Iepart in .trka Seed/tq
ppls. -Nots on 25 varieties of Arkanss seedling apples, with
remarks on their nomenclature and economic value.
Annual Report, 1899, pp. 1, pls. 2.-A financial statement for the
fiscal year ended June 30, 1899; a brief reprt by the director, and
reprints of Bulletins 56-0 of the station.
The peculiar problems confronting the Arkanss Station are similar
to those of other States in the cotton belt. Long-continued growing
of cotton without rotation has impoverished the soil, and at the same
time the market value of the product has declined. The physical
problem, then, is soil improvement, and the economic problem, the
introduction of more profitable money crops. Both requirements are
met at once by hog raising, using leguminous plants s far as possible
as soil renovators and forage crops. Rotation experiments are also
being used as a further aid to soil improvement. The diversification
of agriculture is being promoted by encouraging the trucking and
fruit-growing industries of the State, which are already of consider-
able importance. With this end in view, the pomologist is carrying
on cooperative experiments in fruit growing with farmers, with the
triple objet of testing the adaptability of varieties, of introducing
he industry, and of educating the people in advanced methods of
rd culture. The station has pofited to a considerable extent by






48 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

recent special appropriations by the State legislature for the agricul-
tural department of the college. The farm has been put in very much
better condition, and an additional piece of land has been cleared. The
pomologist continues to conduct the farmers' institute work. He
forms farmers' clubs in every county and is meeting with success in
this work. He has also succeeded in arousing much inteiest in
advanced methods of fruit culture, especially in spraying.
Considering the varied agricultural conditions of this great State,
the station needs enlarged funds, which will enable it to carry on
investigations in different regions and to bring its work more thor-
oughly to the attention of farmers throughout the State. Greater
attention to agricultural education, through farmers' institutes and
otherwise, is also much to be desired, and the recent action of the
legislature toward the development of the agricultural department of
the university is very commendable.

CALIFORNIA.
Agricultural Experiment Station of the University of California, Berkeley.
DEPARTMENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.

The work of the California Station during the past year has been
for the most part along the same lines as heretofore, and has included
investigations on the application of heat in the extraction of color and
tannin from grapes for wine making; sterilization and use of pure
yeast; methods of preservation of unfermented grape juice; experi-
ments in pickling ripe and green olives; investigations on plant dis-
eases, especially those of the vine, sugar beet, onion, etc.; studies in
agricultural and horticultural chemistry, especially analyses of soils,
Swaters, sugar beets, fruits, dairy products, human and cattle foods,
insecticides, fertilizers, fruit-preserving liquids, etc.; chemical studies
of humus and the availability of plant food in soils; investigations of
the various crude petroleums of the State with reference to the insec-
ticidal value of the different distillates; studies of the effect of sugar-
beet pulp on the hardness of butter; investigations of the nutritive
value of different varieties of edible mushrooms; investigations of
soils, soil moisture, and. alkali; experiments with resistant roots and
stocks, and tests of methods of propagation and grafting.
The work on liquid bleaches for nuts has been continued and has
resulted in the recommendation of a formula now popularly known as
the "instantaneous bleach." In practice, on a large scale, 1 ton of
nuts is put in the best marketable condition at a cost of only 8 to 10
cents. As a result of its examinations of the Paris green in the mar-
kets, the station has set the limit of tolerance of white arsenic at 4 per
cent. The feeding value and salt content of the Australian saltbush
in different localities has been determined, and it has been shown that






CALIFORNIA. 49

the latter is the same on alkali and nonalkali land. The station has
published the results of a careful inquiry into the condition of olive
culture in California, explaining many causes of failurie and disap-
pointment with this fruit.
In cooperation with this Department, the study of grasses and for-.
age plants adapted to semiarid conditions is bIing continued together
with its corollary, seed and plant distribution. Nutrition investiga-
tions have also been continued in cooperation with this D)epartment.
The university is cooperating with this Department in irrigation inves-
tigations. During the year a dairy husbandman has been added to the
stff. The 4 culture and 2 forestry substations have been continued
with the aid of State funds, and a wide range of field experiments of
a grat variety of forage plaInt., crevals, vegetables, fruits, and forest
trees is thus being carried on in different parts of the State.
The income of the station during the past tiscal year was a follows:
United Stats appr riation .............................. ($1, OK). )
State appro riation ...................................... 11, 50i). (0
Farm pro ucts .......................................... 17. 1
Total ............................................. 27, 377. l
A re3ort of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has beeln rendered in accordance with the schedules pirescribed by t1is
Department, and has een approved.
The publications of this stationreceived during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 1124-8; Circular. Septembenr. 198: and Seefd Bulle-
tin, 1899-1900.
Bulletin 14, 21.31, p1. 5.-iLupn;r .r ,'r i lp / trig. -Botan-
ical descriptions and notes on the history. culture, and food and
manuIal value of 13 species or varieties of lui nes. grown as agriicul-
tural crops in the United States and foreign countries, together with
the results of culture experiments with 7 of the more im)ortant of
these varieties grown at the station and substations, a test of the rela-
tive ates of rotting of the same varieties when turned unlder for green
manures, and a hibliography of 20 works bearing on this subject.
Blletin 30, p. 7.-A utralhin A')altllb/ule: Re'Slt of
18 TearS' Tet~- karactert ic ,/t aPVQaat;on, an/d FIeP d E~pe it/en It;
mpoition and Fod tue.-An account of the introduction and
increasing culture throughout the State of the different species of salt-
bushes brought into Caifornia from Australia; of the tolerance of
these plants for dry alkali soils, and of their growth on nonalkali
uplands; of their vegetation charcteristics, and of the cultural meth-
ods practiced in California; together with notes on saltbushes in other
countries, descriptions of some 15 species of Atriplex and of the Pacific
coast Salsolace, results of seed germination tests, and data as to the
composition and fodder value of saltbushes.
H. Doc. 336-4






50 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

Bulletin 126, pp. 40, figs. 2.-Paris Green for the Codling Moth.-
This contains notes and replies to a circular letter sent to entomolo-
gists and editors of agricultural newspapers regarding the purity of
Paris green, discussions of the forms of impurities in Paris green,
danger from arsenical adulterations, causes of injury to foliage, tests
for purity, requirements for spraying purposes, laws concerning Paris
green, standards of purity and quality, substitutes for Paris green and
other methods of fighting the codling moth; directions for the use of
Paris green in fighting the codling moth, and a brief discussion of
other methods; and the results of chemical examination of Paris green
and several other arsenical spraying materials.
Bulletin 127, pp. 38, figs. 10.-Bench-grafting Resistant Vines.-An
account of extensive investigations as to the most suitable varieties of
grapes for the reestablishment of California vineyards necessitated by
the spread of the phylloxera, the best methods of grafting the same,
and the grafting of vinifera varieties upon various resistant stocks.
Bulletin 128, pp. 46, figs. 16.--Nature, Value, and Utilization of
Alkali Lands.-A general summary of the results of investigations at
the station on this subject during the past twenty years, the details of
which have been previously reported.
Bulletin 129, pp. 34, pls. 5.-Report on the Condition of Olive Cul-
ture in California.-An account of an investigation concerning the
cultural and commercial conditions depressing the olive industry in
the State, together with a discussion of pickling olives and preserv-
ing the product from bacterial growth.
Circular, Sepltenber, 1898, pp. 3.-The Extermination of Weeds.-
Brief notes are given regarding the principles of weed extermination.
Seed Bulletin, 1899-1900,pp. 4.-Distribution of Seeds and Plants.-
A descriptive list of the plants and seeds available for distribution
through the station in 1899-1900.
The California Station is aiding in the development of the great
horticultural and forestry interests of the State, the diversification of
its agriculture, and the reclamation of its arid lands. In the investi-
gation of the problems due to natural conditions consequent on aridity,
the station has been a pioneer and its work has attained to world-wide
reputation. The most extensive investigations have been on alkali
soils--their nature, origin, and reclamation.
The California Station continues to have considerable financial aid
from the State through the university. This enables it to iaintain
substations in different localities, with a view to meeting the varied
requirements of the vast agricultural and forest regions of the State.
The university also aids in the. diffusion of useful agricultural infor-
mation through its system of farmers' institutes. The great success
of the station in different lines of work has led to a demand for the
invesgtgation of numerous problems the thorough study of which ,






COLORADO. 51

would require many years and much greater funds than are now at the
of the station. Without doubt any of these problems
should be studied in different localities, and arrangements should be
made for the thorough coordination of the work and its close supr-
vision by the expert officers of the station. This will involve consid-
eble expenditures for traveling, transportation of materials to the
central laboratories, and other items necessarily connected with inves-
tgations. covering wide areas. It is believed that the importance of
the thorough organization of this grat enterprise with reference to
the needs of the entire State has not yet been sufficiently appreciated
by the peoe and their representatives in the Ste legislature and
gvernment. Much has alrdy been done but more is urgently
needed and only awaits financial suplprt for its acconplishment.

C(OLORA DO.
Agicultural Experimt Station, Fort Colins.
DEPARTMENT Ov TiE STATE AiGRICULTURAL Cu)LLE(gE OF t LORAI).
The work of the (olorado Station for the past year has included
studies of irriation proble. especially seepage of streams and the
duty of water on the Big Thompson and in other parts of the State;
metrology. including observations on the effect of forests in pre-
serving snow; soils, especiafly the effect of irrigation on the motion and
character of soils, and studies oit feldspar: experiments with orchard
and small fruits, especially phenological observations; investigations
on cantalope blight; investigation of sugar beets, especially with
refere te to the elaboration of sugar, and experiments in breeding;
bee keeping, especially the determination of glucose in honey, and
experiments with comb foundation and in the prevention of foul brood;
entomology, especially investititions on grasshoppers, the codling
moth, and insects injurious to sugar beets; breeding experiments with
wheat; feeding experiments, and digestion experiments. The test of
varieties of apples has ben abandoned. An experiment in soaking
sugar beets showed that an irrigation late in the season increases the
sugar, provided the temperature is low. The changes in ammonia,
nitrates, and nitrites as irrigation water flows on and off the soil have
been much studied.
The substations at Cheyenne Wells and Rockyford have been con-
tinued. At the former substation all of the farm of 160 acres, except
about 20 acres, has been rented in order to reduce expenses. On the
small tract retained the tests of the various crops that have been tried
will be continued. At Rockyford the area of the station hs been
reduced to 40 acres, the rest of the land ing leased. From this time
on the principal lines of work will be the investigation of cantaloupe
~lisrht and experiments in sugrar-beet culture.






52 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
United States appropriation -------.----------------. $15, 00.00
Farm products ----..------------.............--...-- 1,013.22
Miscellaneous, including balance from previous year-... 511.69
Total -----..---........ .......---- ------------ 16,524.91
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletin 53 and the Annual Report for 1899.
Bulletin 53, pp. 27.-Strawberries.-Detailed popular directions for
the culture, fertilizing, irrigation, selection, and pollination of straw-
berries, with notes on seventy-four varieties tested.
Annual Report, 1899, pp. 113, pls. 8, dgms. 6.-The organization
list of the station; a financial statement for the fiscal year ended June
30, 1899; a report of the director discussing at some length the organ-
ization and work of the station and substations; an inventory of sta-
tion equipment; detailed outlines of station work for 1899, and reports
of the heads of departments and superintendents of substations, giving,
in addition to a general review of the different lines of station work
during the year, notes on various insects, measurements of seepage
and river flow, monthly and annual summaries of meteorological obser-
vations during 1898 and 1899, observations during thirteen years on
the evaporation from a water surface, and results of culture and
variety tests with a large number of field and garden crops.
As Colorado lies in the arid region, the station's natural lines of
investigation relate to irrigation farming. Among these are the deter-
mination of methods of procuring and distributing water with the
attendant problems of duty of water and determination of seepage.
In applying water to the soil, it should be done in such a way as to
bring the least alkali to the surface; hence it is necessary to know the
effect of irrigation on the motion and character of the salts in the soils,
and this point is being investigated. At the same time the loss of fer-
tilizer elements in irrigation water must be guarded against, and to
this end numerous determinations of those elements have been made
in irrigation waters flowing on and off of land and in'the seepage.
Feldspar forms the basis of Colorado soil, and the relation of this sub-
stanlce to productiveness is being studied. Since forests are so impor-
tant an agency in conserving water, the extent of their agency in this
State s being nvestigated. The station has establis the adapt-
ability of the State for the production of sugar beets, and is now
studying the growing of sugar-beet seed. Colorado wheat is low in
protein content and that of the San Luis Valley unusually so. The
station is trying to riemedyk this by ende'avoring to find or produce a






CONNECTICUT. 53

variety giving a bettr yield and a better flour. For the latter place
an earlier variety is also being selected, as the crop is frequently
frosted. Alfalfa is an iportant fodder crop in Colorado. The sta-
tion has made feeding tests with cows t deterine how much protein
caln e used to advantage in the ration, and a variety of feeding experi-
ments and. sonie digestion experiments with alfalfa have been carried
on. On a unt of the danger to fruit trees from late frosts in this
Stat, the observatios on blossoming priod, etc.. being iade by the
station are iportant. The iportant antaloue-growing industry of
Rockyford sffers much frm blight. The station is trying to find a
method of dealing with this disease. rshopprs and the codling
moth are among the serious insect psts of the State, and meth(os of
fighting tm are hing investi d. The exeriments in the preven-
tion of ful brod, the preparation of comb foundation, and the deter-
mi tion of lucose in honey are of immediate ilmprtallce to the bee-
keeping ind ustry and the last-named line of work was undertaken at
the instance of the lekeepers' Association. The station continues
to aid in the farmers institut of the State.
The separation of the office of director from that of presidelt of the
college has reulted in the more thorough organizati6n of the station's
work and the coordinationf the of t ivetitio f he different divi-
sions in accordance with a well-matured plan. )n the hasis of investi-
gations relating directly to irrigation, the effort is being made to make
the work of the station a joint enterprise along a few of the lines of
iost importance to the a riculture and horticulture of the State. In
the interests of onomy and effective work the areas of land used by
the substation have been materially reduced, and their operations have
been limited and brought into organic relation with those of the main
station. For these outside enterprises the financial aid of the State is
urgently neded and it is hoped Coloro will soon follow the example
of other States in this regard.

CONNETICIUT'.
The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven.
The Connecticut State Station has continued its work during thd
past year along the same line as heretofore. The study of the vege-
table proteids continues to be a prominent line of investigation.
Experients in the fertilization of orchards, especially peach orchards,
have been continued. The botanist is cooperating with fruit growers
in experiments in spraying peach orchards, and at the same time is
making investigations on the causes of injury to peach foliage by
ungicides. Experiments have been begun on a somewhat large scle
ngrafting the native chestnut on wild stump land with improved vari-
eties. Forestry exeriments have also been inaugurated with a view






54 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

to the utilization of waste land. Investigations on the fertilization,
curing, and fermentation of tobacco have been continued with the
cooperation with this Department and the tobacco growers of the
State. The botanist is studying the rot of tomatoes, and the horticul-
turist is carrying on breeding experiments with the same vegetable.
Pot experiments with fertilizers have been continued, and the grass
garden at South Manchester is still being maintained. The station
still carries on, under State law, the inspection of fertilizers, human
foods, and commercial cattle feeding stuffs. It also inspects orchards
and nurseries at the expense of the owners. During the year the
director, S. W. Johnson, resigned and was succeeded by the vice-
director, E. H. Jenkins. The former director was retained on the
staff, however, in the capacity of advising and consulting chemist.
The station has recently received part of a bequest by William R.
Lockwood, esq., deceased, late of Norwich, Conn. Besides some
accrued income, $79,970.31 are legated to be held as permanent endow-
ment, the income of which is to be applied in the promotion of agri-
culture by scientific investigation and experiment and by diffusing a
knowledge of the practical results thereof among the people of the
State of Connecticut."
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
United States appropriation........---.........------..--. $7, 500. 00
State appropriation -----..--...---- .......-------- ------ 12, 500.00
Fees, including balance, from previous year --------.....--- 8, 471. 03
Farm products .......---.....-..---------......---..-------------- 1,103. 42
Miscellaneous .---...--..............------------------------------271.31
Total ..--...............--.............. ..---- ---.. 29,845.76
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletin 130 and the Annual Reports for 1898, Part III, and 1899,
Parts I and II.
Bulletiri 130, 1). 40.-Commercial Feeding StufS in the Connecticut
a7'rJket.-A brief discussion of commercial feeding stuffs and their uses,
with tabulated analyses of a large number of samples.
Annual .Report, 1898, Part III, pp. 132, pis. 0, figs. 4.-This con-
tains a descriptive account of several diseases of melons with the
results of experiments for controlling them; results of experiments
testing the difference between thick and thin planting and upright and
slanting poles as regards the prevalence of mildew of Lima beans;
extended notes on two diseases of tobacco known as "calico" or "mot-
tled top" and spotting;" notes on M1onilia fructigena on the peach,
bacterial blight of Lima beans, damping off of peas, relation between
plant diseases and weather, preparation or Bordeaux mixture, and on






ONNECTICUT. 55

praing apparatus; an account of an experiment in growing roses in
the greenhouse in compost and in coal ashes and peat moss to which
commercial fertilizers had been added; brief notes on a number of
insects; results of grafting chestnuts at the station on different dates
and by different methods and the experience of three prominent Con-
necticut horticulturists in chestnut grafting, with notes on the tech-
nique of grafting and charactristic of American, European, and
Japanese chestnut scions; results of experiments to determine the
availability to grass of nitrogen in the for of nitrate of soda, cotton-
d meal, and fine hard bone; results of experiments in curing and
fermenting tobacco during 1898; a discussion of the nature of fermnen-
tation of tobacco, and a acount of efforts to ferment Connecticut
toacco in bulk by the ethods practiced in the South; tabulated
analysesof 5 feeding stuffs; results in tabular form of tests of the vitality
of a large number of samples of vegetable seeds and of experiments to
test the vitality of onion seed as affected by age, crop, and variety;
an account of the preparation, composition, and properties of crystal-
lized egg albumin; an index to the complete report; a brief review of
station work during the year, and a financial statement for the fiscal
year ended June 80, 1898.
iAnnual Rq;rt 1899, Prt I iad TI 1pp. 196.-An abstract of the
State laws relating to fertilizers; explanations concerning the analysis
and valuation of fertilizers; analyses and valuation of 459 samples of
fertilizing materials; State laws relating to food and feeding stuffs,
and detailed results of the examination of a large number of samples
of foods, condiments, and feeding stuffs, with notes concerning meth-
ods of examination.
Connecticut is a thickly peopled State where agriculture has become
highly diversified and intensive. Important products are fruit, to-
bacco, and greenhouse crops, it being estimated that the fruit crop
brings $1,000,000 annually into the State and the tobacco crop
$2,000000. Under intensive agriculture, fertilization is one of the
most important problems, and this has been for many years a lead-
ing feature of the station's work. The recent work of the station on
the uring and fermentation of tobacco and the growing of Sumatra
tobacco has been very successful and is being further developed ii
lines of great economic importance with the aid of the Division of
Soils of this Department.
Station officers continue to keep in touch with the farmers of the
State by taking part frequently in farmers' institutes. The inspec-
tion work of the stationis of much value to the State and is highly
appreciated by the farmers. Dr. S. W Johnson, the eminent agri-
cultural chemist, was director of this station for nearly a quarter of a
ntury, and under his management it achieved great success in both
tific and practical lines Hi recent retirement from the active






56 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

direction of its operations has been attended with no change in the
policy on which it has been so long conducted, and there is every rea-
son to expect that its work will be developed with increasing thorough-
ness and efficiency.
Storrs Agricultural Experiment Station, Storrs.
DEPARTMENT OF CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE.
The work of the Connecticut Storrs Station during the past year
has been along the same lines as heretofore, including field experi-
ments with fertilizers, especially to study their effects upon the growth
and composition of plants; studies in dairy bacteriology and on bovine
tuberculosis, and investigations upon the food and nutrition of man.
Experiments in cooperation with farmers throughout the State in
feeding dairy cows have been continued, and an interesting bulletin
showing the results obtained has recently been issued. The investiga-
tions on the food and nutrition of man have continued to be the most
important line of work carried on by this station, and, as heretofore,
have been aided by Wesleyan University and by a special State appro-
priation, and have been carried on in cooperation with this Depart-
ment. The work includes the study of the composition of foods and
food materials by chemical analyses; dietary studies showing the kinds
and amounts of foods consumed by individuals, families, boarding
houses, institutions, etc.; digestion experiments furnishing informa-
tion concerning the digestibility or availability of different classes of
food materials; determinations of potential energy (heats of combus-
tion) of different foods by the use of the bomb calorimeter; metabolism
experiments with and without the respiration calorimeter, furnishing
data concerning the conservation of matter in the human body, the
physiological requirements of the body for nutriment, the nutritive
values of different food materials, and the fundamental laws of nutri-
tion. In connection with these lines of work considerable attention is
also paid to the improvement of methods of analysis and manipulation
and to devising and improving apparatus. A new dairy building is
to be erected for the college at a cost of $6,000 or $7,000. The
present building will be used by the experiment station as a working
dairy.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
Inited States appropriatio .......---------------..---. -- 7$7, 500. 0
Stat r ration ............... ......---- ..-------------. 1, 800:.
Micellaeou ...............................-----......------------ 1, 684. 75
Total -----------------........------------.. ..--. 10,984. 75
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
I)epartment, and has been approved.






CONNECTICUT. 57

The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 20 and 21 and the Annual Report for 1898.
Bu ; pp. 4, fgs. 16.-A Study f DaIy '. -sData as to
the production of dairy cows in Connecticut; a discussion of variation
in the production of individual cows, and of the anatomical and physi-
ological features of the dairy cow; and a comparative study of indi-
vidual cows as regards type and economy of production.
Buletin 21, pp. .--T Ri ning of (rm.This is a general
discussion of the purposes, use, and control of cream ripening; the
effect of different species of bacteria; the use of pure cultures in the
United States and Europe; results of the use of pure cultures; and
the u of starters with and ithout teurization.
Annual RLOt, ,18, p. 2';. -This includes the organization list,
financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30, 18$8; a brief
review of station work by the director: a general discussion of the
pinions of European veterinarians and agriculturists upon the
various problems connected with tuberculosis in cattle: an account of
some practical applications of bacterioloy in European dairying as
observed by the author as the result of an examination of various insti-
ttions in England, Holland. Denmark, Germany, and Switzerland; a
report of an experiment to study the effect of feeding the milk of
tuberculos cows to healthy calves: an extended report on investiga-
tions which have ben iin progress at the sttion since 1888 to deter-
mine the effect on the yield and composition of certain farm crops when
fertilized with different kinds and quantities of nitrogenous fertilizers
used with uniform quantities of potash and phosphoric acid, and also
to study the relative economy of using the different nitrogenous fertil-
izers; data for a number of digestion experiments with sheep, with a
summaryt of the results of the present and earlier experienlts; an
account of feeding experimnt in the winter fattening of lambs; tab-
ulated analyses of a number of samples of fodders and feeding stuffs;
and a sunnary of meteorological observations during 1898.
Among the more important needs of agriculture in the State is a
clearer knowledge of the principles of nutrition of both plants and
anim.al, Intensive cultivation of crops and expert management of
herds are more and more indispensable to successful farming. It is
the effort of the station, therefore, to furnish information concerning
ese matters. The field experiments are made for the special purpose
of studying the particular needs of different soils and crops and the
best methods of supplying them with fertilizers. Experiments are
also being made to learn the best method of restoring fertility to soils
hat have long been under cultivation and are lacking in some of the
igredients of plant food. The experiments with nitrogenous fertil-
s indicate that these fertilizers increase not only the yield of various






58 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

crops, but also the percentage of protein in them, thus improving
their feeding value.
The officers of the station participate in farmers' institutes and other
meetings for farmers as far as possible, and through the cooperative
feeding experiments keep in touch with the needs of the practical
farmer. Arrangements have recently been made which will render
possible the issue of bulletins more frequently than heretofore.
The investigations on human nutrition carried on by this station, in
cooperation with this Department, are of general value to all our peo-
ple, and their results already form the basis of a considerable share
of the instruction on this subject in many public and private schools
throughout the country. Locally considered, they are of especial
importance to communities like that of Connecticut, where a large pop-
ulation engaged in many different kinds of highly developed industries
are living under conditions that make problems of food supply of vital
importance to their physiological and economic welfare. It is very
encouraging to have the State recognize this by a special appropriation
for this work, thus enabling the station to more efficiently cooperate
with this Department in this line of investigation.
DELAWARE.
The Delaware College Agricultural Experiment Station, Newark.
DEPARTMENT OF DELAWARE COLLEGE.
The work of the Delaware Station during the past year has been
along the same general lines as heretofore, and has included investi-
gations looking to the -introduction of leguminous plants, especially
cowpeas; varietal studies of cowpeas and tests of the crop in rotations;
field and chemical studies of sorghum as a sugar producer; tests of
silage for summer feeding on the dairy farm; comparisons of methods
of handling dairy cows; studies of certain diseases of apples and pears;
investigations on certain diseases of poultry: studies of bovine pneu-
monia; bacteriology of water; investigations looking to the establish-
ment of milk standards for dairy farming; chemical analyses of feeding
stuffs, etc.; studies of the sour cherry groups and their classification;
top working of young fruit trees; investigations in the pollination of
apples; experiments in thinning fruit; general studies of the fruit
industries of the State; entomological studies, especially of the straw-
berry root louse, the pea louse, and of insects affecting young apple
trees; experiments with hydrocyanic-acid gas as an insecticide, studies
in the classification of the immature stages of the Coleoptera, and the
formation of an economic collection of the injurious insects of the
State.
Cowpe-t have been successfully grown with corn as a silage crop,
the crop being cut with a corn harvestern and easily handled in this
way. The chemist has studied the diffusion of hydrocyanic-acid gas






DELAWARE. 59

as ed in treating nursery stock, and has demonstrated that it does
ot mix evenly with the air in the compartment, but rises to such an
extent that a rabbit at the bottm of the compartment is not hared
by it. This in practice ay lead to overtreatment of some of the
stock to an injurious extent and failure of other prtions to come under
the influence of the gas. To correct this, a simple fan within the conn-
rtent has been found very advantageous for mixing the gas with
~he air, and so bringing the as into contact with all parts of the stock.
The chemist has also devised an ingenious apparatus for making fat
determinations in milk on a lar scle, with a view to securing better
results in preserved sanples than by the Babcock method. The station
hs made an examination of a certain proprietar remedy used in vet-
rinary practice, which resulted in the discovery that the so-called
lack antimony of commerce is almost invariably an absolute fasifica-
tion. The director is making experiments in feeding animals at his
own expense on his own farm, for lack of facilities at the station. In
its different lines the station is doing a good deal of cooperative work
with farmer During the year an entomologist ha been added to the
tation staff.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
nite State appropriation ............................ .....,
A report of th eceipts and expenditures for the United States fund
h been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
epartment, and has been approved.
The pubications of this station received during the pst fiscal year
were Bulletins 45 and 46.
Bltin 4, 16, jg. 7.~-Te 5,ru)in, of )~ u Fruit .Tre-
A dcussion of the Stringfellow nmthod of root pruning; the results
of root-pruning experiments carried out on heavy clay land and light
andy loam with different sorts of fruit trees, and somi general con-
iderations based on the experiments relative to the formation of root
ystems of newly planted trees.
B etin 46, -The &t in D laware. Notes
n the relative merits of crison clover and cowpeas for culture in
laware; an account of culture, ferilizer, and variety tests with
owpeas, with notes on the history, botany, etc., of the cowpea, and
eresults of an experiment to compare pea-vine silage and June pas-
ture for dairy cows.
The uerlying thought in the management of the Delaware Station
is the incr e of soil fertility by the use of leguminious plants and
te use of this increased fertility in general agriculture. Through
the efforts of the station crimson clover has been quite generally
inrduced throughout the State, and attention is now being concen-
trton the cowea. The general advantage of grpwing this crop in






60 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

the State has already been demonstrated, and the station is now endeav-
oring to ascertain the best varieties and the best methods of managing
the crop. Much attention has been given to the study of the bacteria
of soils, a matter of general and fundamental importance in scientific
agriculture, and the subject of denitrification of soils is now being taken
up. The pea louse, which is of great injury to the growing of peas for
canneries, is a subject of special investigation. The large horticul-
tural interests of the State are being actively promoted by the investi-
gations of the station.
Farmers' institute work is in a flourishing condition, and the station
takes an active part in it. Several of the station staff have also done
considerable lecturing on nature-study subjects, which, however, was
so managed as not to interfere to any extent with the station work.
The Delaware Station enjoys the confidence of the farmers of the State
to a large extent, and is cooperating with them in various ways. Its
work seems to be meeting the most pressing needs of the farmers and
horticulturists, and there are evidences of its increasing usefulness.

FLO)RIDA.
Agricultural Experiment Station of Florida, Lake City.
DEPARTMENT OF FLORIDA STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE.
The work of the Florida Station during the past year has included
fertilizer experiments, especially studies on the effects of different ele-
ments on the quality of tobacco, and on methods of influencing the
starch content of cassava and the sugar content of cane; experiments
in the utilization of cassava; feeding experiments; determination of di-
gestion coefficients of important Florida feeding stuffs; experiments
with legumes as soil renovators; tests of forage plants; investigations
of diseases of celery,. cucumbers, and citrus fruits; fertilizer and va-
riety experiments with citrus fruits and tests of stocks; experiments
with pecans; investigations of the cottony cushion scale; colonization
experiments with the Australian ladybird; investigations of white fly;
spraying experiments with crude petroleum and kerosene mixtures
against scale insects; investigations of various common scales; collec-
tion and systematic study of various insects; chemical studies of food
products on sale in the State; investigations of the composition and
digestibility of the velvet bean; fertilizer tests with pineapples; and
miscellaneous analyses. The pineapple experiments at Jensen have
been abandoned. The station has recently been given 20 acres of land
and $1,000 for special experiments with citrus fruits at Bocaraton,
in the southeastern part of the State, under the supervision of the
horticulturist of the station. About 80 acres of land in the vicinity
of the station have been obtained for experimental purposes. During






SFLORIDA. 61

the year a dormitory building has been erected by the college, a part
of which will be used by the director as a residence.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
United State appropriation ....... ..... ---....... $15,000. 00
Far produc .......-.....---..........----.........--- 1, 132.55

Total -........ -....... --... ---.--.... -- -....- -, 132.55
A reprt of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has ben rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The publications of this sttion received during the pst fiscal year
were Bulletins 50-53.
Bulltin 50, .p. 10, .- ,n a.le rt/q.ler.-The
generl plan, details, and results of extensive fertilizer experiments
with different forms of potsh, nitrogen, and phosphoric eid used
alone and in various combinations on pineapples, with an extended
discussion of the data as regards the efect of the diffeent fertilizers
on the general develollent of the plants, abundance and earliness of
fruit, blooms. the frost-resisting properties, etc.; analyses of pine-
apples, and descriptive and remedial ntes on the more important
diseases and insect enemies.
1Bul/i 51, p. 24, -8,u Ir 'anun Fl.rida Sas.- Notes
on the apeane, habits, life history, natural enemies, remedies, and
host plants of 8 insects, with general observations on spraying.
B.lletin 1. Aiu Illder. A descriptilon of the differ-
ent classes of baking powders, with the results of an examination of a
mmhber of aples.
Bulletf 63, p. 27, pN. 6, jits. 1S -&rin (dras Tr-ules.- Notes
on diseases of citrus fruits, including foot rot, scab, dieback, sooty
mold, blioght, imelanose,, and lf t, d on the injuries caused by the
presence of lichens and moss upon the trees, with suggestions for the
prevention of these diseases.
The staple crops of the State, especially tobacco, sugar cane, citrus
fruis, and pineapples are being studied with respect to fertilizer
requirements and utilization. The pecan is a native nut of importance
in conmerce. Its culture ha, however, not yet been developed, and
this the station is endeavoring to bring about. The work with cassava
has been of considerable value. Florida offers excellent opportunities
for the development of cattle raising; hence the station's experiments
with forage crops, especially velvet beans and cassava. The station is
getting into closer relations with the general agricultural interests of
the State through a system of farmers' institutes which have been
conducted under the direction of the agriulturist.






62 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.
GEORGIA.
Georgia Experiment Station, Experiment.
DEPARTMENT OF GEORGIA STATE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND MECHANIC ARTS.
The work of the Georgia Station during the past year has been for
the most part along the same lines as heretofore, including variety,
fertilizer, and culture experiments with corn and cotton; horticultural
investigations, especially with strawberries, plums, peaches, grapes,
and onions; and feeding experiments and work in dairying.
As already reported, the biologist and horticulturist is developing his
work principally along horticultural and entomological lines, giving
incidental attention to the study of diseases of plants. The dairyman
has undertaken some incidental work in the breeding of hogs, and is
making observations, in cooperation with this Department, on the
infection of cattle with Texas fever by means of ticks.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
United States appropriation ---.....------------..----... $15, 000. 00
State appropriation -........-..----.------...........- -.. 700.00
Farm products ..----...-----... ---.---..-------..------ 1,608.89
Balance on hand July 1, 1899-....----..------..----.----- 2,400.36

Total -----....... -------.------ ---------------- 19,709. 25
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 44-48 and the Annual Report for 1899.
Bulletin 44s, pp. 19.- Wheat and Oats, Rye and Barley.-Popular
directions for the culture and manuring of wheat and oats for grain
and for the culture of barley and rye for pasture, with the results of
several fertilizer and variety tests.
Bulletin 45, 1pp. 30, figs. 17.-Some Important Lnsect Enemies of
Cucurhits.-A general discussion of the habits, life history, distribution,
natural enemies, and remedial and preventive measures of the striped
(ucumber beetle, melon aphis, pickle worm, melon worm, squash-vin
borer, and the squash bug.
Bullet in46, 2pp. 23.- (wrn Cltur'. -A report on cultural, variety,
and fertilizer tests with corn; detailed directions for corn culture
based on the results of ten years' experience at the station; and a brief
summary of rainfall and temperature at the station during the corn-
growing season each year from 1890 to 1899.
BIaClletin 47, pp. 32.--Fertilizer, C ulture, and Variety perments
Ctitoni.-Results of tests of 25 varieties of cotton, with notes on som
of the varieties tested; tests to determine if the ripening season o
cotton could be lengthened and thus the capacity of the soil more full
utilized by mixing and planting together seed of an early and a la






(EOIRRTA. 6 3

variet of cotton; experiments in planting at different distances; and
fertilizer tests together with directions for cotton culture based on
the results of ten years' experience in growing cotton at the station,
and a reprint of meteorological dta from Bulletin 46 of the station
noted above.
SBullet 8, J. 27, p4. 6, fg. 5.o-Strtawey S 1899.-
Results of tests of 60 varieties of strawberries, with descriptive notes
on 17 varieties not previously teted at the station: details and results
of several culture and fertilizer experiments: and cultural directions
reprinted from an earlier ulletin of the sation.
Anual Report, 18, .9 S.-This includes a brief account of the
organization and work of the station during the year: a financial
statement for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1899); and a report of the
biologist and horticlturit, giing ables showing the resultof a severe
frost on 45 varieties of plums and the effect of ringing on 195 varie-
ties of grapes; brief notes on experiments with onions, sweet corn,
celery, and asparaus; and notes on various plant diseases and injuri-
o insects, with the reslts of experimens for their ontrol.
Cotton and corn are the field crops most extensively cultivated in
Geora, and to these the station has continued to devote the larger
part of its attntion as heretofore In recent years the horticultural
interests of the State have also become prominent, and these are also
eing aided. station has demonstrated the suitability of the State
for dairying, and its studies of Texas fever and experiments in the
breeding of hogs are matters of immediatc importance to the agricul-
ture of the State.
HAWAIIAN- ISLANDS.
Hawaiian Experiment Station, Honolulu.
MAINTAINED BY THE HAWAIIAN SUGAlR PLANTERS' A.S oCIATION.

The work of this station has included the physicl and chemical
examination of the soil of the Haaiian Islands, and a study of the
lavas from which these soils have been derived; investigations regard-
ing the fertilizer requirements of different soils; studies of soil
evaporation and plant transpration as related to irrigation; variety,
fertilizer, and culture experiments with sugar cane; investigations on
the manufacture of sugar; studies of the economic plants of the
islands; experiments with reference to the introduction of new plants;
investigations on certain diseases and insect pests of sugar cne; and
miscellaneous chemical analyses, including soils, waters, sugars,
molasses, etc.
The studies of varieties of sugar cane have been very comprehen-
ive and have approached the subject from many standpoints. Deter-
minations have been made of the mineral matte in the canes and in





64 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

various parts of plants of numerous varieties, as also of the solid
matter, the yield of sugar, and the consumption of nitrogen and the
other fertilizer elements. During the past year, as during previous
years of the station's existence, it has mntatained an unofficial ferti-
lizer control in the interests of its patrons. The director has recently
resigned to accept a position under the Government of Queensland,
Australia, and has been succeeded by R. E. Blouin, previously assist-
ant director of the Louisiana Sugar Experiment Station.
The publication of this station received during the past fiscal year
was the Annual Report for 1900.
Annual Report for 1900, pp. 51.-This is an account of experi-
mental work with sugar cane during the year and includes results of
tests to compare planting seed at different rates and of tests of 4
native and 9 introduced varieties; analyses of different parts of the
plant in connection with a discussion of the elements removed from
the soil by the 13 different varieties studied; notes on insects affecting
sugar cane during the year; a monthly record of rainfall and of irri-
gation water used during the growth of the crop (July, 1898, to
November, 1899); and a statement of new work.
The work of this station continues to be of much value to the sugar
industry of Hawaii, and it will be maintained as heretofore by the
Sugar Planters' Association. The station to be established by this
Department (see p. 21) will supplement this work by investigations in
other directions.
IDAIHO.
Agricultural Experiment Station of the University of Idaho, Moscow.
D)EPIARTMENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF IDAHO.
The work of the Idaho Station during the past year has included
investigations of the apple scab; experiments to determine the kinds
of grasses best adapted for local culture without irrigation; work on
the powdery mildew and on edible fungi; studies of the native grasses
of the State; investigation of a scale insect resembling San Jose scale;
experin l(nts with crude petroleumn as an insecticide; studies of the life
history of the elm louse, with experiments in repression; studies of
the effects of climate on the codling moth; experiments in the repres-
sion of onion thrips and the clover louse; continuation of stematic
study of the insect fauna of the State; meteorological obvations;
observations of soil temperatures; experiments with an apparatus
for the tdetection of frost; experiments with an automatic electrical
apparatis for detectiing and recording in irrigation to prevent
ex(cessi\ irrigation; culture experiments with fruit trees; experi-
mIlents inI pruning orchard( and forest trees; observations on root sys-







HouseD Io. 336 PLATE I.

















AN










FIG. 1 -ILLINOIS COLLEGE AND STATION-AGRICULTURAL BUILDING.





































FIG. 2.-IDAHO STATION-BARN.






IDAHO. 65

tms in subsoil; tests to determine forest trees best adapted to local
conditions; ex in root-pruning certain vegetables with a
view to a nng ripening; experiments in forcing lettuce; culture
experiments with nut trees; feeding experiments with steers and with
lambs; experiments with various forage crops; chemical comparisons
of Idaho wheat with that of other States; examination of various
forms of commercial Paris green; analyses of prune soils, irrigation
water, sugar beets, and green and cured fruits; and comparisons of
different methods of curing fruits.
Cooperative experiments have been carried on with farers in testing
potatoes, alfalfa, millets, Bro ine etc. The agriculturist is
paying speci attention o animl industry. He proposes to introduce
te of a type for bth beef and milk production, with a vie to
meeting the conditions of the region in which the station is located,
where the raising of cattle is beginning to supplement grin growing.
The entomologist continues to act as adviser of the district horticul-
tural inspectors apointed under a State law. he quarters of the
station staff have been greatl impl rovd by the finishing off of new
rooms in the upper story of the main building of the university.
The farm has been much improved and a farmhouse and a good-sized
barn (Pl. I, fig. 2) have ben erected. The preident and director
resigned at the end of the iscal year and was succeeded by Prof. J. A.
MoLean, of the Colorado State University. The irrigation engineer
also resigned.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year ws as follws:
United tat appropri on .......................... .. $15, 000
arm product ...................... .................. 612
Total................. .............................. 15, 612
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United S~ttes
fund has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed
by this Department, and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the pat fiscal year
ere Bulletins 1 -23.
B letin 17, p. j -. Cnst t al nnt of ot-
ds.-Poplar notes on the construction and management of hotbeds;
ially for the home garden.
n 18, p. 2. --Suar Beet vestigati in 1898.-A report
nculture experiments carried on at the station and in various sec-
of the State, with directions for the culture of sugar beets and
destruction of insect pests; instructions for taking samples for
ysis; summary of analyses of samples; a discussion of the cost
of producing beets; and a comparison of the profits in beet and wheat
SraisiD g.






66 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

Bulletin 19, )pp. 22.--liscellaneous Analyses.-Analyses of 36 vari-
eties of strawberries, 65 varieties of peas, 6 samples of wines, 7 sam-
ples of Paris green, 7 samples of ashes, 21 samples of water, and 20
miscellaneous samples, with a brief discussion of the importance of
pure water, directions for taking samples of water for analysis, and
notes on the interpretation of the results of water analysis.
Bulletin. 20, p. 18, pls. 3.-Apple Scab in the Potlatch.-A descrip-
tion of this disease and of remedial treatment, such as spraying with
copper sulphate solution, Bordeaux mixture, and ammoniacal copper
carbonate, with the results of spraying experiments.
Bulletin 21, pp. 16, fgs. 6.--The Codling Moth.-A description of
this insect; observations on its life history, habits, etc.; and a discus-
sion of remedial measures, including the results of experiments at the
station.
Bulletin 22, pp. 13, fgs. 8.-Onion GrCoing.-This gives methods
of onion culture adapted to Idaho soils and climate based on three
years' experience in growing onions at the station; descriptive notes
on 6 varieties and the comparative results obtained in growing these
by transplanting and from seed sown in the open field; and directions
for irrigating onions.
Bulletin 23, p. 15, figs. 3.--Mieteorological Records.-Prediction of
Fros.t.-Meteorological summary of observations at the station and
tabular record of soil temperatures at different depths during the
growing seasons of 1898 and 1899; a brief discussion of protection
against frosts by means of smudges, and a description of a piece of
electrical apparatus devised by the author to give warning of a fall in
temperature.
This station is investigating a number of the most serious difficulties
confronting Idaho farmers. Stock raising is just beginning to be
developed in a regular way in this region, and the station is doing all
it can to encourage it. The botanist is determining the grasses, both
native and introduced, that can be grown most profitably. He is also
investigating a few fungus diseases which are especially troublesome
to fruit growers. The chemist is also helping fruit growers through
his determinations of soils best adapted for prune growing and his
studies of methods of curing prunes. The entomologist is trying to
lessen the ravages of those widely distributed and highly troublesome
insects, the San Jos4 scale and codling moth. The latter presents cer-
tain peculiar local problems. Farmers' institutes have been hopefully
begun, but a scattered population and lack of transportation facilities
make this work difficult and expensive. Nevertheless, the farmers are
becoming better acquainted with the station, as is attested by a greatly
increased correspondence. The affairs of this station are on a sounder
basis than formerly, and if a vigorous and consistent policy is here-
after ipursued, much useful work will be accomplished. The station is






ILLINOIS. 67

doing what it cn to promote the general agricultural interests of the
State It needs to develop its work relating to irrigation, and it is
hoped that it may soon be put in a position to ooperate effectively
with this Office in irrigation inveti ons.

ILLINOIS.
Agricultural Experient tation of o f Illinois, Urbana.
DEPARTMENT OF THE UIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS.

The work of he Illinois Station during the past year has been along
thse lines as heretofore, and has included studie on the compara-
tive value of corn silage and corn stover in beef production; experi-
ments to determine the effect of small additions of gluten eal to corn
rations for fattening steers; observations on the comparative efficiency
of individual cows in capacity to make milk and butter fat from given
amounts of feed; chemicl selection of corn; experiments in inbreed-
ing corn; experiments in the conservation of soil moisture by tillage;
culture experiments with sugar beets; experiments in improving white
clay lands, especially by drainage; experiments in the cultivation and
praying of orchards; and studies on the winterkilling of fruit trees.
Cooperative work in horticulture and along other lines is being
undertaken in different localities. The university continues to coop-
erate with this Office in nutrition investigations, especially on the
nutritive value of meats and their place in the diet. A department of
domestic science has recently been estalished. The State legislature
has recently made an appropriation of $150.000 for a building for the
college of agriculture and the experiment station. This building is
now in process of erection, and besides rooms for college purposes it
will contain laboratories and offices for the station. (See Plate I, fig. 1.)
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
nited ates appropriation ............................. $15, 000. 00
Fees..---.----. --....-------... -----------...... .... 260.00
Far produc ......................................... 747.04
Balance on and July 1, 1899 ............................ 196.15
Total ............................................ 16,203.19
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The pulications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 55-9 andthe Annual Report for 1899.
Bulleti p. 36, f. .-mprvement in the Chemical Copo-
itin of the Corn Kernel.-Details and results of extensive experi-
sm made to determine the influence of selection in increasing or
ishing the content of protein and fat, respectively, of the corn






68 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

kernel, together with other data on the selection of corn with refer-
ence to protein and fat content on the basis of mechanical analysis, and
on the proportion of corn germ to kernel.
Bulletin 56, pp. 47, pls. 4.-Recent Work on the San Jose' Scale in
Illinois.-A detailed account of the work of the entomological depart-
ment, especially of the field assistants, in locating new areas of infec-
tion, inspection of nurseries, insecticide treatment, and distribution of
fungus diseases for destroying the-San Jose scale.
Bulletin 57, pp. 72, pis. 10.-The Smuts of Illinois Agricultural
Plants.-The results of studies made during the past five years to
ascertain the kind of smuts infesting cultivated plants, the injuries
inflicted by them, their life histories, the most practical methods of
preventing their ravages, with a description of the general structure
of smuts, and directions for their prevention.
Bulletin 58, pp. 10.-Composition and Digestibility of Corn Fodder
and Corn Stover.-A report of a digestion experiment with 4 lots of
4 steers each, to test the digestibility of corn fodder and corn-and-cob
meal.
Bulletin 59, pp. 26, pls. 9.- Orchard Management.-Popular direc-
tions for the cultivation, pruning, fertilizing, and spraying of orchards,
with notes on fungicides and spraying machinery.
Annual Report, 1899, pp. 16.-A brief statement of the principal
lines of station work, subject list of bulletins published since 1888, a
detailed financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1899,
and the organization list of the station.
Corn, beef, dairy products, and apples are the important agricultural
products of Illinois, which the station is studying. The investigations
on corn and in animal husbandry converge in the work on silage and
stover. While corn is of great importance as a feeding stuff, it is
deficient in protein as compared with other grains. This deficiency the
station is trying to supply by artificially increasing its protein content
by chemical selection. In this State, as in the West generally, prob-
lems of conservation of soil moisture are of great importance and are
receiving attention.
The status of the Illinois Station as a part of the University of nlli-
nois has been materially changed during the past year, as the result of
the increased income of the college of agriculture. This has made it
possible to make a much clearer differentiation of the station equip-
ment and work. The station has been relieved from the -general
expenses of the farm and from the management of the dairy. The
completion of the magnificent building now in process of erection for
the use of the college of agriculture and the experiment station will
give very much better facilities for station work. The station is also
perfecting its organization so as to put direct management of its oper-
ations more fully in the hands of its chief expert officers, and to con-
centrate its efforts on a few important lines of work.






INIANA. 69

The reent awkening of the agricultural people of the State, espe-
cially as represented in their ganizations, to the importance of the
work of the agricultural college and experiment station is very encour-
aging. Already the number of students in the agricultural courses
offered by the university has been materially increased, and with the
further privileges which each student will enjoy after the completion
of the new agricultural building, there is every reason to expect they
will come in still larger numbers. The vast agricultural interests of
Illinois, including the production not only of crops and animals but
also of dairy and eat products valued at many millions of dollars,
ill, it is believed, from this time on increasingly aid the university to
extend it teaching and experimenting along lines of the greatest eco-
nomic importance.


Agricultural Experiment Station of Indiana, Lafayette.
EPARTMENT OF PURDUE UNIVER ITY.

The work of the Indiana Station during the past year has been mainly
along the same lines as heretofore, including chemical invesitiions
on sugar beets, toatoes, soils, fertilizers, etc.: investigations on ani-
mal diseases and regarding sex and fecundity of domestic animals;
bacteriological dies of milk; feeding experients with pig, sheep,
and poultry; field experiments with wheat, corn, oats, soy beans, Kafir
orn, and other forage plants, with fertilizers, and on rotation of crops
and methods of tilage; studies on corn smut and rusts; greenhouse
experiments with fertilizers for lettuce, tomatoes, chrysanthemus,
and roses, and on surface v. subwatering for toatoes, and the culture
of mushrooms, and hortic ltural ivestiations, including the testing
and crossin of varieties, grafting, and fertilizer expriments. Experi-
ments on different methods of grafting apples are being made in cooper-
ation with the Division of Pomology, and seedling forest trees are
eing tested in coope n with the Division of Forestry of this Depart-
ment. The chemist of the station continues to act as State chemist
and to make fertilizer analyses with funds furnished by the State.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
UnitedStatesappropriati.......... ........... $15,000.00
Far pro uc -- --...--.......--...-... -............. 2, 251.21
tal--.................-----------------..........................-----17 251.21
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
weBulletins 78-81, Circular 1, and the Annual Reort for 1899.






70 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

Bulletin 78, 7pp. 8, figs. 3.-The San Jose Scale and Other Scale
Insects, and the Indiana Nursery-Inspection Law.-Brief notes on the
San Jose scale, the oyster-shell bark louse, the scurfy bark louse, and
the Putnam scale, with suggestions for their treatment, and the full
text of the nursery-inspection law of Indiana.
Bulletin 79, pp. 10.-Roots as Foodfor Pigs.-A detailed report of
an experiment made with 12 pigs and lasting from February 1 to June
7 to test the feeding value of mangel-wurzels.
Bulletin 80, pp. 14, figs.8.-Sheep Scalb.-A general account of the
nature of sheep scab and a description of the parasitic mite which
causes the disease; brief notes on the dips to be used for the destruc-
tion of the scab mite and on the method of applying such dips,
together with a description of dipping tanks; a summary of reports
from sheep owners concerning the prevalence of the disease in the
State; the live-stock law of Indiana affecting the spread of sheep scab;
and the regulations of this Department concerning the dipping of
sheep which are affected with scab.
Bulletin 81, pp. 16.--Field Tests with Fertilizers on Heavy Clay
Lands.-An account of fertilizer experiments on tenth and twentieth
acre plats on three farms in the State, in which a number of fertiliz-
ing materials in different combinations were applied to corn and wheat,
with a discussion of the results as illustrating how field tests may be
conducted.
Circular 1, pp. 8.-List of Reports and Bulletins Published up to
December 31, 1898.-Subject list of publications of the school of agri-
culture from 1885 to 1887 and of the station since 1888.
Annual Report, 1899, pp. 150, pis. 14, figs. 3.-This includes the
organization list of the station; a report by the director on the station
work, staff, publications, and mailing list; a detailed report of exten-
sive pot experiments, covering a period of three years, made to study
the relative effects of different forms of phosphoric acid alone and
conjointly with nitrate of soda and muriate of potash on roses; an
account of the anatomy and physiology of the mammary gland and
its development in different types of mammalia, particular attention
being paid to the form, structure, and vascular supply of the cow's
udder; notes on pseudo-scabies of sheep due to the awns of Stipa
sprtea,; results of a study of the effects on horses of the organisms
found in moldy corn; yields of corn grown continuously since 1880
on plats fertilized with either horse manure, gas lime, or ammoniated
phosphate to study the residual effects of these fertilizers; conclusions
as to the relative value of a number of different makes of cultivators
for corn tested at the station continuously for eleven seasons; data
showing the average yield and the characteristics of the grain and
straw of 189 varieties of wheat tested at the station during nineteen
years; notes on the culture and yield of a number of forage plants






INIAA. 71

rown at the station and by farmers in different parts of the State;
analses a number of feeding stuff; composition of a substance
used for packing horses' hofs; composition of the bones of a normal
horse and of the bones of a horse suffering with osteoporosis; analyses
of several saples of maple suar; notes on the results of tests of
seve~al methods for determining the strength of solutions of formal-
dehyde; a determination of the reducing power of taka diastae;
notes on 43 varieties of Russian apples which fruited at the station
during the sason; data for subwatering surface-watering experi-
ments with tomatoes and lettuce and of fertilizing experiments with
lettuce and peas; a detailed report on corn smut, including an histor-
ical resum of the subject, results of original investigations, a descrip-
tion of the life history of the smut fungus, a discussion of the
influence of weather and maturity on infection, means of infection,
and on prevention by spraying and destroying smut masses, notes on
the effect of smut on animals, and an extensive bibliography of the
subject; a list of trees and shrubs on the grounds of the university;
description and plan of a piggev at the station: a list of acknowledg-
nents; and a financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30,
1899.
The work of the Indiana Station is in a number of ways directly
related to the pressing needs of the agriculture of the State. By its
studies of soils aid staple crops it has done much to improve general
farm practice in the State, as regards especially the culture and rota-
tion of crops and the use of farm and conmnercial fertilizers. Recently
it has shown in a comprehensive way the relative adaptaility of dif-
ferent parts of the State to the successful growing of eet for suar.
It has paid much attetion t physiological and pathological investia-
tions of inmediate economic application. Among these may be men-
tioned inve tigations on hog cholera and those regarding sex and
fecundit of domestic animals. The forcing-house industry is coming
into considerable prominence, and much capital is already invested in
the commercial growing of flowers, as chrysanthemums and roses.
This fat has led the station to emphasize fertilizer experiments with
these classes of crops. The stations systematic investigations into
method of watering tomatoes have yielded original and practical
reslts. Its thorough studies of corn smut have shown that the disease
may be in a great measure prevented by the use of Bordeaux mixture.
The operations of the station as related to the great agricultural
intersts of the State are of neesity comparatively limited in extent,
owing to lack of State funds to supplement those received from the
nited States. The staion needs better equipment and larger resources
t enable it to extend its work in animal industry and other lines.






72 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.
IOWA.
Agricultural Experiment Station, Ames.
-DEPARTMENT OF IOWA STATE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND MECHANIC ARTS.
The work of the Iowa Station during the past year has been along
the same lines as heretofore, and has included studies in the application
of the Babcock test in measuring the fat in cream where the gathered
cream" or farm separator system is used; horticulture, especially
investigations on the cause of the winterkilling of fruit trees and
remedies for the same, studies of plums growing in the State, and
experiments with garden vegetables; experiments with cereals, grasses,
forage crops, and sugar beets; entomological investigations; botanical
investigations, especially along lines of plant pathology; investigations
in veterinary science, and chemical analyses of sugar beets, feeding
stuffs, and forage crops and grasses.
The station has recently published a bulletin which contains the
results of three years' investigation with various breeds of hogs, espe-
cially with reference to determining the merits of the British bacon
breeds as compared with the popular American breeds of the agricul-
tural States. This investigation covered all the various points in pork
production from the selection and breeding of the sows to the curing
of the product for the home and foreign markets, and in cooperation
with this Department about 1,200 analyses of the different parts of the
carcasses were made. Another investigation completed during the
year was one in growing and maturing skim-milk calves, which were
put on the market and their final value determined in competition with
other beef cattle. It was clearly demonstrated that properly raised
skim-milk calves can be finished and put on the market at an early age
and command a price well up to the highest quotations in its class. At
present the station is paying much attention to a series of investiga-
tions now in progress in the selection and development of Western
horses bred on the great ranges. Results already obtained demon-
strate the desirability of good blood on the range as well as on higher-
priced farming lands. The station has now carried on investigations
for nearly four years to determine the cost of producing butter from
dairy cows of five breeds and to make comparisons in other respects.
The college has recently purchased imported stock of different kinds
and breeds to the amount of about $10,000. A new horse barn and
stock-judging lecture room, which will accommodate 500 students, has
recently been erected. The entomologist continues to conduct the
inspection of nurseries for San Jos4 scale under State laws.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
United States appropriation. ...................- ........ $15, 000. 00
Fees. ................................................. 7.00
Farm products ......................................... 2, 678. 35
Miscellaneous ......................................... 144. 70
Total....................................... 17,830.05






IOWA. 73

A report of the receips and expenditure for the United States fund
hs been rendered in accordance with te schedules prescribed by this
epartment, and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 41-47 and the biennial report for 1898 and 1899.
Bulletin 41, pp. 65.-Some Report8 from Trial Stathes Won iM
Orchard Fruits aid Sru.-A report in the form of replies to a
circular of inquiry sent out by the station on the value of a number of
varieties of fruits, ornamental trees, and shrubs which were obtained
from Central Northwest China, and Mongolia and the steppes
of Eastern Europe and plantedat the station and distributed for trial.
Bulltn pp. flys. 3, waps 2.-Hrse ettle a a ulwae
id in owa-To Other 7oublesome Wed&-Potato &ab.-Notes
are given on the horse nettle, which is rapidly spreading throughout the
State and becoming one of the most troublesome perennial weeds, and
on the European bind weed or morning-glory and ~ibuluts tn'rtrie,
with discussion of eans for the extermination of these weeds. A
brief report is also given on some experiments with corrosive sublimate,
formalin, and potassium sulphide for the prevention of potato scb.
BIletin 43 3,. 81 i.- m Injuris ale h s.-Brief
descriptions and an account of the life history, habits, and economic
importance of about species of scale insects, with formulas and sug-
gestions concerning the making and application of the more commonly
used insecticides against scale insects.
Bulletin 4, pp. 3 9.-O vatin and m on the Rot
ing of Frzit Te-A review of the root killing of fruit trees in
the State and the work of the station thern, supplemented wi notes
from nurserymen and others, and including a table of information from
60 leading fruit growers of the Stte on the subject of root killing by
cold.
B lletin 45,pp. 16, pl. fg. .-Fed er nts.--A prelimi-
nary report on a series of experhnents with corn, oats, barley, wheat,
brome grass, rape, sorghum, soy beans, cowpeas, and sugar beets,
devoted largely to testing methods of culture and varieties, together
with an experiment to deter the shrinkage of ear corn.
Bullet 6, pp. 74, s. 31, map 1.-Fact and Opinions About
ius and Plum Growing in Io.-This includes a classification of
plums, with the characteristics of different types; notes on self-
'rility; blossoming record for 1899; table showing relative hardi-
ness of varieties; data obtained from correspondents concerning
varieties best adapted to the State; descriptve notes on 122 varieties;
and cultural notes on soil, planting, cultivation, pruning, spraying,
inning, stocks, and top grafting.
Blletin 47, pp. 30, f.gs. 18.-Note on egetables.-Notes on the
st of riety tests of cucumbers, eggplants, peppers, Lima beans,

0






74 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

sweet potatoes, and tomatoes; directions for the culture of each of
these vegetables, and methods employed in combating injurious insects
and diseases.
Biennial Report, 1898 and 1899, pp. 7.-Notes on the work of the
station, abstracts of Bulletins 37-43 of the station, and a financial state-
ment for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1899.
The Iowa Station is making investigations in animal industry, includ-
ing dairying, the most prominent feature of its work, and continues to
develop lines of investigation already started in preference to begin-
ning new lines. The results of its comparative study of the various
breeds of hogs have yielded a large amount of data of scientific inter-
est and practical value to the pork producers of America. The results
are especially of interest in indicating that the British bacon breeds
may be grown successfully and profitably under the agricultural con-
ditions of the Mississippi Valley States. In a State where dairying is
well developed, an incidental question of importance is the most profit-
able methods of rearing calves for veal. The station has studied
methods of rearing calves on separator skim milk, and has shown just
what results can be obtained with calves handled in this manner.
This investigation has excited much popular interest, and inquiries for
the bulletins have come from many States.
In the station's investigations of grains and forage plants some
varieties introduced by the station have been almost universally
adopted by the farmers of the State. The work of the horticultural
division has been materially extended and strengthened, especially
along the lines of breeding varieties of fruits suited to the Northwest
and investigations on the prevention of winterkilling of fruit trees.
Both of these problems are of the most fundamental importance to
local horticulture. Substantial progress has been made along all lines,
but the station is seriously hampered by reason of insufficient funds-
the result of increasing popular interest in the station's work, of a
rapidly growing bulletin list, and of the extension of investigations to
new and important lines of work. The State has dealt liberally with
its agricultural college, and now that the need of special funds for the
further development of the station is clearly demonstrated will doubt-
less make suitable provision to meet its requirements in the near
future.
KANSAS.
Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, Manhattan.
DEPARTMENT OF KANSAS STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE.
The work of the Kansas Station during the past year has included
field and feeding experiments with drought-resisting crops, especially
soy beans, Kafir corn, and cowpeas; feeding experiments with calves;
trials of soiling dairy cows; investigations on diseases of animals,
especially swine plague and blackleg; experiments in plant breeding,







House 0C, Na 33;6 PLATE II,



































F G. 1 .-KANSAS COLLEGE AND STATION-AGRICULTURAL HALL.




































FIG. 2.-LOUISIANA STATE STATION-LABORATORY,






KANSAS. 75

especially with wheat, corn soy beans, Kafir corn, and alfalfa: seed
lection of soy beans, Kafir corn, and alfalfa; variety tests with
wheat, arley emer, rye, broom-corn millet, and timothy: tests of
a large number of kinds of native and cultivated grasses and other
forage plantshemical tudies of the effect of continuou cropping
with wheat on soil exhaustion; hemical selection of corn diestion
experiments; variety tests of orcha fruits, especially plums. and of
severa hundred selected seedlings of the sand plum (CP ,i wa tx;)
on sandy lns and on clay loa; experiments in the improvement of
other native fruit; experiments with foreign vegetables:; experiments
in the imrovement of esculent roots by selection; cultural tests;
experiments in foresty; studies of the scale isects ating grass,
together with extended collections of specimens from various locali-
; investigatios on the life history of the grain aphis: tests of
arios proprietary isecticides: and expri men s in the destruction
of the codling moth and in the protection of cabbae from insets.
The botanical division has continued and much extended its g
n. Experiments in the culture of sugar beets are being carrid
on by the chemical division in cooperation with this Department.
The station suffered te los by fire May 31 10, of its chemical
rator. A new agricultur building for the collee and station
been comple during the past year at a cost of $31, (Pi. II,
fig. 1.)
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was is follows:
United appropriation .............................. $15, .
Farm product ................................... 7. 002.05
T tl............................................. 22 05
A report of the receipt and expenditures for the United States
nd has ben rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed
by this Deparent, and has een approved.
The publications of this station received during the past iscal year
ere Bulletins 86-98 and the Annua Reports for 198 and 1899.
Blletin 86, 6G.-Pres Bu in.-This is ade up of reprints
ofeekly Press Bulletins Nos. 4-34 on miscellaneous subjects, issued
the station from A ust 2, 1898, to April 7, 1899, and based larly"
onthe results of experiments at the station.
Bulletin 87, pp. 29 1, ma 9.- ative Agicultural Graes
of Kana*.-Notes on the grass regions of Kansas and illustrated
ptions of 29 species of the more important grasses, with note on
their relative economic value, and maps shoing their ditribution

Bulletin 88, qh. 7, fgs. 7.-eing ifilk in Sum mer.-An account
_g f a unt
a method of handling milk employed at the ion during the s -
mer for keeping milk i good condition for fy to fifty-two hours
without the use of ice and at a very small cost.





76 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

Bulletin 89, pp. 22, charts 5.-Soil Moisture.-An account of box
and field experiments to test the effect of various fertilizers and of
field experiments to test the influence of different methods of tillage
on soil moisture.
Bulletin 90, pp. 4.-Alfalfa in Eastern Kansas.-A popular bulle-
tin calling the attention of farmers in the eastern part of the State to
the value of alfalfa as a farm crop and giving brief directions for its
culture.
Bulletin 91, pp. 18, figs. 5.-Swine Plague.-An account of experi-
ments in protective inoculation against swine plague made at the
station with 434 pigs; a discussion of the possibility of the virus used
for protective inoculation against swine plague being the cause of an
outbreak of the disease, and notes on the results obtained in protective
inoculation by farmers in the State.
Bulletin 92, pp. 10, figs. 3.-A New Drought-resisting Crop.-Soy
Beans.-A description of the soy bean, with directions for planting,
cultivating, and harvesting; a discussion of the feeding value of the
plant, and the results of 5 tests comparing soy beans and Kafir corn
for pigs.
Bulletin 93, pp. 39, figs. 4, maps 2.-Kafir Corn.-A popular bulle-
tin summarizing the results of cultural and feeding experiments with
this crop at the station.
Bulletin 94, pp. 22.-Sugar Beets, 1899.-Station Publications.-
Analyses of samples of sugar beets sent to the station by 40 growers
throughout the State; plans for growing sugar beets in 1900 in given
localities; directions for growing sugar beets, and a complete list of
station publications with an index of the principal subjects treated.
Bulletin 95, pp. 29, figs. 10.-Fattening fHogs with Drought-resist-
ing Crops.-A detailed report of 8 series of feeding experiments to
determine the value of Kafir corn, soy beans, and alfalfa for fattening
hogs.
Bulletin 96, pp. 20, pls. 6, dgms. 2.-Soil Inoculation for So
Beans.-Reprint from a previous publication of the station of a report
of preliminary experiments on root tubercles and their production by
inoculation, and a report of a series of experiments in inoculating soy
beans under field conditions.
Bulletin 97, pp. 16, figs. 7.-Skim Miilk Calves.-A discussion ol
the possibility of raising calves on skim milk suitably supplemented
by other foods, and a report of such a test with 13 calves..
Bulletin 98, pp. 16, pls. 6.-Some Scale Insects upon Kans a c asses.-
Descriptions and brief notes on 8 species of Coccide occurring upon
the native grasses of Kansas, with a table for the determination of thi
different genera.
An, uial Report, 1898, pp. AVIl.-Financial reports of the treasure
and secretary for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1898; a summary o






I KANSAS. 77

Bulletins 780 of the station; a brief review of sttion work in prog-
r; the organization list of the station, and a subject list of previous
publications.
S ot, 1 pp. XX-The organization list of the station,
reports of the treasurer and secretary on the receipts and expenditures
the station for the fiscal yr ended June 30, 1899; summaries of
ulletins 81-89 of the station, with an index to the bulletins; subject
tof regular and press bulletins issued by the station, and a general
eview of work in the different departents.
The great need of Kansas farers is plants that will withstand the
miarid conditions of large portions of the State. To supply this
eed the larger part of the station's effort is being directed, espcially
of the ricultural, botanical, and chemical divisions. The work is
aturally taking the for of tests of introduced plants, experiments in
eeding or selection, and the improvement of native species. Scale
sects inhabiting grasses, the grain aphis, and the codling moth work
large aount of destruction in the State, and these insects have been
vestigated b the division of entomology. The station's demonstra-
Siof the practicability of soil inoculation to promote the growth of
y beans and the introduction of this method among the farmers of
SState is a notable feature of the station's recent work.
Following the resignation of the president of the college in June,
899, the station haeen reorganized. The chemist wa made director
nd charged with general executive duties relating to the station.
is is a movement in the right direction, and has already led to
iprovements iti the busines management of the station. The State
kes an appropriation for farmers' institutes, the work being in
arge of the agriculturist. A large number of meetings has been
ld throughout the State, in which station officers have largely
egaged. This work is proving to be too heavy a drain on the
nergies of the station force. The work in which the Kansas Station
engaged is so important to the agricultural interests of the State
at it is not a wise or economical policy to divert the energies of
tion officers in any large measure to duties in the class room or
ture hl. The State can well afford to support the farmers' insti-
te in such a manner that the investigations of the station may pro-
ce without interruption and be most thoroughly and efficiently
cnducted. The State should ls fully provide for the distribution of
es or other remedies for animal diseases as far as sound public
olcy make such distribution under State auices desirable.





78 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.
KENTUCKY.
Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station,Lexington.
DEPARTMENT OF THE AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF KENTUCKY.
The work of the Kentucky Station during the past year has been in
the same lines as heretofore, including field experiments with tobacco,
hemp, potatoes, cereals, etc.; variety tests of grasses and other forage
plants; horticultural investigations; studies of plant diseases; entomo-
logical and botanical investigations; dairying, especially studies in the
variation in butter fat in the milk of cows; meteorological observations;
inspection of fertilizers, foods, and nursery stock.
During the year the station has reported on the composition of a
number of native grasses and on diseases of elms and methods of
treatment. Especial attention is being given to experiments in the
culture and curing of tobacco and the growing of hemp, and the
station has recently erected a barn for curing tobacco.
The income of the station for the past fiscal year was as follows:
United States appropriation -.---..---....----. .....- -..--- $15,000.00
State appropriation, including balance from previous year.. 2,455.26
Fees, including balance from previous year ----............ 20,866. 29
Farm products, including balance from previous year...... 3, 334. 34
Miscellaneous, including balance from previous year....... 105. 30
Total--- ...--.------------........--------------... 41,761.19
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 82-85.
Bulletin 82, pp. 32.- Commercial Fertilizers.-A summary of the
provisions of the fertilizer law, notes on the selections of fertilizers,
and a list of all the fertilizers entered for sale in the State up to the
time of the publication of the bulletin, July, 1899, with guaranteed
analyses.
Bulletin 83, pp. 16, pl. 2.- Wheat.-Results of cooperative fertil-
izer experiments with wheat and of tests of 33 varieties grown in
1899, with descriptive notes on 13 varieties.
Bulletin 84, pp. 25, pls. 13.-The Elms and Their Dieasess.-Brief
notes on the appearance and distribution throughout the State of 6
species of elms and descriptions of different injurious insects, includ-
ing the imported elm-leaf beetle, elm-leaf skeletonizer, and the elm-
bark beetle, with a discussion of remedial measures.
'Bulleti/ 85, pp. 51.-Commercial Fertilizers.-A brief account o
the inspection of fertilizers in Kentucky during 1899, with a list of
fertilizer dealers complying with the law; and analyses and valuations
of 406 samples of fertilizers.






LOUISIANA. 79

The important agricultural products of Kentucky are tobacco and
hemp, investigations in the culture of which the station has recently
undertaken with renewed energy. At the ame time the other staple
crops of the State, as potatoes, cerals, and grasses, are not being
neglected. In recent years dairying has received increased attention,
and the station is doing much to popularize this business and establish
it on a scientific basis. Inspection service continues to hold a large
place in the work of this station and has the cordial support of its
constituency. The facilities for investigations in curing toacco have
been materially improved, and in view of the large tobacco interests of
the State, this line of work is especially appropriate for this station.
LOLSIIANA.
No. 1. Sugar xperiment Station, Audubon Park, New Orleans.
No. 2. State Exprient Station, Baton Rouge.
No. 3. North Louisiana Experiment Station, Calhoun.
DEPARTMENT OF LOUISIANA Ts'ATE UNIVERITY AND AND AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL
COLLE(E.
The work of the three Louisiana stations during the past year has
hbee mainly along the same lines as heretofore, some of the principal
subjects of investigation being as follows:
Sugar Statio. -Studies have been made with a view to describing
scientifically the effect of severe frost on cane and stubbles, and val-
able information of a physiological cha:acter has been obtained.
Experiments with fertilizers to determine the most desirable form and
quantity of each fertilizer element for the growing of cane have boen
continued, as also cultural and variety tests, the latter of which espe-
cly have yielded results of great practical value. Studies have been
continued on the ferments of the sugarhouse and on special processes
y which sterilization of juices, sirups, and molasses can be obtained.
A considerable number of field crops is under observation and experi-
ent, such as ramie, jute, grasses, clovers, alfalfa, and other forage
crops, Egyptian and Indian varieties of cotton, and sea-island cotton.
Experiments in hybridizing cotton have been continued, and tests are
bing made of the tensile strength of a large number of varieties as
ginned on the roller gin and by the saw gin. In cooperation with this
Department experiments have been undertaken in tea culture. The
fertilizer and Paris-green inspection has been continued as heretofore.
State Stati.-The geological survey which is carried on by this
s with a special State appropriation has been actively prosecuted,
and at the same time the soil survey in cooperation with this Depart-
ment has also been continued. Culture experiments with a consider-
able variety of field crops have been continued. Tobacco has been a
prominent subject of investigation, especially with reference to high-
rade Sumatra and Haban wrappers. The seed of many varieties






80 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

was obtained and various cultural tests were made, as, for instance, the
use of shade and the amount of it, and fermentation experiments were
carried on from the standpoints of common practice, of bacteriology,
and of chemistry. The experiments in the immunization of imported
cattle to Texas fever have been continued as heretofore. Experiments
have been made with various ticks and investigations are being made
into their life histories and on the power of different ticks to produce
the fever. Considerable attention has been given to investigations of
outbreaks of anthrax. Investigations have been made on methods of
eradicating red rice and other weeds from rice fields. A new station
building (P1. II, fig. 2) has been erected.
NVorth Louisiana Station.-A wide range of field crops has been
experimented with, as heretofore. Much attention has been given to
methods of harvesting and utilizing the corn crop. Feeding experi-
ments with beef cattle and the work in dairying are being continued.
In cooperation with this Department a model road, three-fourths of a
mile in length, has been built through the station grounds. The work
was in progress while the annual fair was being held in the town and
thus many had an opportunity to observe the methods used. The
barn, tool shed, carriage house, and horse stable were destroyed by
fire. The loss was partly covered by insurance. Since then a large
barn and a combined stable and tool house, both 40 by 60 feet, two
stories high, and covered with galvanized iron, have been erected.
The income of the stations during the past fiscal year was as follows:
United States appropriation ........-----.-----..--..-- .. $15, 000.00
State ---.....-- ...... ..-----.. ..--...-. .-....------- ...- 18,000.00
Individuals and communities ---..---------------------- 2, 005. 00
Fees......----------------..----..--------------------.................... 5, 514.25
Farm products -----..--...-------.........------..--.... 1,669.90
Miscellaneous, including balance from previous year...--.. 12,974.84
Total ---------------------------------------... 55, 163. 99
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States
fund has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed
by this Department, and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal yea
were Bulletins 56-59; Report on Geology and Agriculture, Part V,
and the Annual Report for 1899.
Bulletin 56, pp. 15, pls. 9.-Ticks and Texas Fever.-This bulletin
discusses from an anatomical and biological standpoint the ctle tick,
the lone star tick, the wood tick, and Ixode ricinus, and gives th
results of a number of experiments to determine whether the differen
species of ticks transmit the germs of Texas fever.
Bulletin 57, pp. 4S, figs. 6.-Immunization Againt exaFever
Blood Ifrctulation.-A detailed account of experiments in blood inocu-
lation made with 9 heifers; a description of the method to be used i






LOUISIANA. 81

securing the blood for inoculation, and in making the inoculation in
animals to be immunized; and a report on experiments conducted for
the purpose of determining whether the blood in ticks could be used
for inoculation purposes, and on an experiment in preerving blood for
inoculation purposes.
Bulletin 8, pp. 86.-A nalyss of Co ercial Frtili and P
een.-This contains the text of the State fertilizer law, a discussion
of the various commercial sources of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and
potash, and the aluation of fertilizers, analyses of 528 samples of
fertilizing materials text of the State law providing for the inspection
of Pais green, and analyses of 38 sample of Paris green.
Bulletin 59, pp. 54.-Sugar ne .-This gives cultural directions,
ncluding preparation of lnd, drainage, planting, and selection of
varieties; report of a est comparing different methods of propaga-
tion; results of trials to determine the influence of planting large,
medium, and small canes selected continuously from plantings of large,
medium, and small canes, respectively; a report of an investition of
the composition of roots, stlks, leves, and tips of Louisiana sugar
cane, with a brief review of the reported composition of cane grown
in'different countries; a discussion of the fertilizer requirements of
sugar cane; detailed results of extended nitrogen, potash, and phos-
Sphoric-acid experiments with sugar cane; results of a comparison of
deep and shallow oltivation; and a summary of meteorological obser-
ations during 1897, 1898, and 1899.
Geology and Agridture, Part Vpp. 4, pl. 53, 3, mp 12.-
S relimiy Rport on e gy of L ia.This report s um-
marizes previous work and gives an account of additional investigations
Sthe gology of Louisiana. The report is divided into three parts.
Part I is an historical review of investigations from the earliest times
up to and including those of the Louisiana Experiment Stations.
Part II deals with the general eology of the State, including strati-
graphic and economic geology. Part III contains reports of investi-
gations of th topography and geology of the Shreveport and Natchi-
toches areas and of the Five Islands, and reports on Louisiana clay
samples, a collection of fossil plants from northwestern Louisiana,,
Creaceou and Lower Eocene faun of Louisiana, establishment of
meridian lines, road making, and on some wood-destroying fungi.
Annual Report, 1899p. 16.-A report of the director on the work
Sthe Sugar Station, State Station, and the North Louisiana Station;
Soutline of the report on the geological survey of Lousiana; notes
the soil survey of the State; the staff of each station; and a financial
statement for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1899.
The most important agricultural product of southern Louisiana is
and the sugar industry is receiving most valuable assistance
the sugar experiment station. The work of this station is widely
H. Do 336- 6





82 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

known both in this country and abroad. At the same time other
crops of possible value locally are not being neglected. Especial men-
tion may be made of ramie, jute, and foreign and sea-island cottons.
With respect to the last named, the station is endeavoring to show
that it may be successfully cultivated all along the Gulf coast, whereas
the region in which it is now grown is very restricted. The work of
the State experiment station on Sumatra and Habana tobaccos gives
promise of valuable practical results. Several boxes of cigars made
from tobacco grown by the station were rated by New Orleans manu-
facturers with good imported Habana stock. The station has met
with success in inoculating cattle for Texas fever. The North Louis-
iana Station is endeavoring to introduce among the farmers better
methods of general farming, and is meeting with much success.
The work of the Louisiana stations is very actively prosecuted, and
has cordial support in the State. Station officers continue to take an
active part in farmers' institute work.
MAINE.
Maine Agricultural Experiment Station, Orono.
DEPARTMENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MAINE.
The work of the Maine Station during the past year has been along
the same lines as heretofore, including investigations on the food and
nutrition of man and domestic animals, poultry experiments, breeding
experiments with sheep, box and field experiments with fertilizers,
horticultural investigations, botanical and entomological investiga-
tions, and work in veterinary science and practice. Digestion experi-
ments with sheep have been continued. The poultry work is being
developed. Experiments in sheep breeding have been undertaken,
the work consisting specifically of crossing Dorsets to get earliness of
lambing combined with other qualities. The experiments in crossing
blueberries and huckleberries are proceeding hopefully.
The station has made studies of the nutritive value of nuts and of
breakfast foods offered for sale in Maine, and in cooperation with this
Department is continuing studies on the nutritive value and digesti-
bility of cereals and bread, with special attention to methods of diges-
tion experiments. Chemical analyses have been made of certain other
foods, particularly concentrated army rations, and investigations on
the effect of climate on varieties of wheat and potatoes have been car-
ried on as heretofore. The station continues to cooperate with mers
in Aroostook County in experiments in apple growing. To these have
been added cooperative experiments in manuring and spraying pota-
toes. The inspection of fertilizers, creamery glassware, feeding stuffs,
and seed has been continued under State laws.
During the year a two-story brick addition, 22 by 26 feet, with base-
ment, has been made to the office and laboratory building at a cost of







ose oc. No 336. PLATE III.































FiG. 1.-MAINE STATION-DIRECTOR'S OFFICE.

































FIG. 2.-MINNESOTA COLLEGE AND STATION-HORTICULTURAL BUILDING.






MAINE. 83

$e new labortory is used as a food laboratory, the base-
ment being used for work with the bomb calorimeter and for feeding
e rimnt with men, and the second story as the director's ofice.
(Pl. IIf, fig. 1.)
The income of the station during the past isal year was follow:
United States appropriation ............................ $15,000.00
Sfr i r ........................... 4, 970.53
Farm p ducs ......................................... 3, 950.10
Balance from previous ye......... 177.74
Total ............................................. 24, 098. 37
A report of the receip and expenditures for the United States
fund has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed
by this Department, and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Buletins 53-5 and the Annual Repor for 1898 and 1899.
Bi53. p 14. -FetilI- n tim.-Analyses of 163 samples
of fertilizers collected by representatives of the station, nots on the
valuation of fertilizers and a discussionof of t alit fertilizers
offered for sale in Maine.
Bu in 4, pp. S .- t as F d.-Statistic of the amount of
nuts imported into the United States, coposition of a number of
nuts analyzed at the station, analyses of nuts made by other investi-
ators, and a discission of the characteristics of the different nuts and
their preparation and use as articles of diet.
Buetin 5, 14.-t Bref Pods.-Analyses of a consid-
rable number of commercial cereal breakfast foods, it a dicussion
of their nutritive value and cost.
Blltin 56, 40, p. 8-A e of fine.-Notes on the
appearance, life history, etc., of 21 insects injuious to the apple,
with a discussion of remedial measures.
Buletin 57, P. 14.-iets it Potato.-An account of an
nvestigation undertaken tetethe effect on the starch content
of the tubers of spraying potato vines with Bordeaux mixture, includ-
ing analyses of samples of potatoes from sprayed and unspraed fields;
es on ash analses at the station of the amount of fertil
izing constituents removed by a crop of potatoes, and a summary of
e literature on fertilizing potatoes.
Bulletin 58, pp. .- nace, eteoroogy, Index.--A list of
acd ents, summary of meteorologicalbservations during
Sstatement for the fiscl year ended June 30, 1899,
index to the annual report, the organization list of the station, and
notes on the work and publications of the station.
Bulletin9, pp. 16.-Feeding tu Inspection.-Notes on the Maine
For the year ended December 31, 1899.






84 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

law regarding the sale of feeding stuffs, and analyses of a large num-
ber of samples.
Atulletin 60, pp. 8.-Fertilizer Inspection.-A statement of the chief
provisions of the State fertilizer law, and analyses of 131 samples of
fertilizing materials.
Bulletin 61, pp. 16, figs. 2-- otes on Insects and Plants.-Brief bio-
logic and economic notes on the more important species of injurious
insects observed during the year, and notes on 12 weeds and other
plants sent to the station for identification.
Bulletin 62, pp. 30.-The Maine Experiment Station.-A brief his-
torical and descriptive account of the station from its establishment
in 1885, a summary of the more important experimental work under-
taken, and lists of the subjects treated in the 15 annual reports and 61
bulletins issued by the station since its organization.
Bulletin 63, pp. 14.---Feeding Stuff Inspection.-Analyses of a large
number of samples of feeding stuffs made in accordance with the
State law, with a statement of the chief requirements of the law and
notes on its violation.
Bulletin 64, pp. 16.-Poultry Experiments in 1899.-An account of
experiments in fattening chickens for market undertaken to compare
the rapidity of growth of chickens confined in small coops and chick-
ens kept in sheds or yards, to compare the gains made by chickens of
different ages, and to test the value of green food for fattening chick-
ens; a discussion of breeding hens for egg production, and a tabulated
record of the egg production of 238 hens during fourteen months.
Bulletin 65, _pp. 16.-Cofee Substitutes, Tut Oils, Testing Seeds,
Potato Pomace. -Analyses of 8 sorts of cereal coffee, with a discussion of
their food value; analyses of the oils of a large number of nuts; notes
on the examination of 103 samples of clover and grass seed, and 2
analyses of the residue from the manufacture of starch from potatoes.
Annual Rcport, 1898, pp. 242, pls. 17, fig. 1.-This contains the
organization list of the station; a brief report by the director; list of
acknowledgments, abstracts or reprints of Bulletins 41-47 of the sta-
tion; a summary of the results of the inspection of feeding stuffs during
1898 and analyses of a number of fodders and feeding stuffs analyzed
in connection with station work; tabulated results of the examination
with regard to the purity of 134 samples of clover and grass seeds; a
summary account of box experiments extending over a number of
years to determine the relative value of acid Florida rock, crude fnely
ground Florida rock, and a phosphate of iron and alumina; data and
summarized results of a number of digestion experiments with sheep;
a study of the composition of oat hay harvested at different stages of
maturity; a report of experiments carried on during three winters to
study the effect of gluten meals varying greatly in fat content on the
texture of butter and the composition of butter fat; the results of an






MAINE. 85

experiment conducted to study the effect of food on the fat content of
milk; brief descriptions of a number of species of millipeds brief
notes on an injurious addice fly; brief notes on a number of insects
reported as injurious during the year; notes on some 30 species of
weeds sent to the station for identiatio; a renew of the hitory of
tuberculosis in the station herd; description of a nest hox for keeping
individual eg records data; for a test to determine the number of
ens that can profitably be kept in one pn; a monthly record of 24
cows for 898; the comparative ields of radishes grown from large
and sml se ; an account of experiments in comparing subwater-
ing and surfae watering for radishes; an account of the blueberry
industry in Maine, with botanical descriptions of smveral secies
of blueberries and notes on culturl experiments with blueberries; a
detailed tabular report on a number of exeriments with men to deter-
mine the digestibility of different kinds of bread; results of expri-
ments with different kinds of Nitrain cultures; a discussion of the
use of skim milk in making bread and other articles of diet; a technical
discussion of the more salient in concerning fertilization in plants;
a summary of meteorological observations during 1898; and a financial
statement for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1898
Annual R rt 1899, 171, p. ,i.q. .-The organiztion list
of te station, brief announcements concerning the work and publia-
tions of the station, summary of meteorological observations during
the year, acknowledgments, a financial statement for the fiscal yar
ended June 30, 1899, and reprints of Bulletins 48-57 of the station.
While in selecting lines of work the station has regard at all
times for the needs of the agricultre of the State, much of the work,
notabl the nutrition investigations, is of general importance. The
requirements of the intensive and diversified ariculture of the
State make problems of the nutrition and breeding of animals and
plant of immediate importance, and along these lines lies much of
the work of the station. In horticulture te work ha nostly to do
with fruit culture. The blueberry industry is a large one, and much
attention is being given to it, both along lines of management of
the blueberry barrens as well as those of culture under domestication.
Apple growing in the central portions of the State and the growing
of small fruits in the neighborhood of the summer resorts are indus-
of importance, and the stat is making investigations along
these lines.
The cooperative experiments with farmers and fruit growers, espe-
cially in Kennebec and Aroostook counties, have been carefully
planned and are thoroughly supervised by the station officers. They
S the influence the station among practical men and
to the introduction of improved agricultural practices. The
insection service maintained by the station is growing in extent and






86 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

importance. It is fully supported by State funds and is conducted
as far as practicable during such definite and limited periods as not
to interfere with the experimental work. Farmers' institutes, in
which some members of the station staff participate, are held under
the direction of the State Board of Agriculture. A four-day institute
was held at the college during the past summer.
MABRYLAND.
Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station, College Park.
DEPARTMENT OF MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE.
The work of the Maryland Station during the past year has included
chemical investigations, feeding and digestion experiments with cows
and pigs, breeding experiments with dairy cattle, field experiments
with staple crops, experiments in curing tobacco, horticultural inves-
tigations, studies in vegetable pathology, entomological investigations,
studies of animal diseases, work in dairying, investigations in plant
breeding, experiments with forcing crops with special reference to
soil preparation and manuring, and bacteriological work in connection
with the preservation of milk and butter, and on diseases of horses.
During the year the station has published the results of its investi-
gations in cooperation with the State geological survey on the occur-
rence and composition of lime in Maryland, together with a report on
experiments on its agricultural uses. Investigations on the cause of
mottled butter have also been reported in which this condition is shown
to be due to the uneven distribution of salt.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
United States appropriation ------........-.........----------------- $15,000.00
Farm products -..------.....-- ..-..------......--------. 2,830.94
Miscellaneous -------------------..................----........................ 5.69
Total ..--.....-- ..----.---.. ----....--- ----------- 17,836. 63
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States
fund has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by
this Department, and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 61-64 and the Annual Report for 1899.
Bulletin 61, pp. 18.-The Sugar Beet in Maryland.-A detailed his-
torical account of the sugar beet in Maryland, notes on the possibility
of its successful culture in some portions of the State, and tabulated
analyses showing the sugar content and percentage of purity of the
crop grown in the State in cooperative tests during 1898.
BIulleti 612, pp. 19.-Eperi xents with Wheat, Corn, and Potatoes.-
Results of a test of 30 varieties of wheat in 1898, and the maximum,
miinmum, and average yields of 80 varieties tested since 1889; results
of culture experiments with corn from 1883 to 1898, to determine the






1 MARYLAND. 87

ative alue of deep and shallow cultivation, different number of
cultivation, wide ad narrow rows, and planting in drills and checks;
results of tests of about 50 varieties of potatoes in 1897 and 1898;
notes on the effect of spraying potatoes with Bordeaux mixture for
the prevention of blight; and the results of comparative tests of early
late cultivation of potatoes, deep shallow cultivation, ridge f. flat
culture, and planting in wide v. narrow rows.
Bliletmn 63, p. 41, plh. 10, dm. S.-Eding Pigs
for the Prducon of P .-A detailed report of experiments with
pigs, conducted to compare sepator skim milk with a quantity of
green clover furising approximately the same amount of protein;
to compare separator skim milk with gluten and linseed meal for
balacing a grain ratio; to test the value of ground corn shives fed
s a partial substitute for hominy chop, s a substitute for part of a
mixed-grain ration, as an addition to grain and skim milk, and as a
partial substitute for hominy chop with linseed meal and gluten meal;
nd to test the value of cowpea pasture, artichoke pasture, and sweet
potate, in addition to a ration of grain and skim milk, with and with-
out corn shives.
letin64, 1t.-A Study ofthe e ruofifittled Butter. -An
account of experiments conducted to test various theories as to the
use of mottled butter including tests of the effect of using cold
ter, and of the effect of the uneven distribution of slt on the
ce of the butter, together with a discussion on the prevention
mottles on the result of the expriments.
A Re t, 1899, p. f1i, pl. 9, fs. 51.-Brief notes on the
work of the station, a eteorological summary for 18s9, a financial
tement for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1899, and reprints of Bul-
letins 57-62 of the station.
In the early years of the State, tobacco was one of the most important
ney crops, but in more recent years the production has greatly
eclined. It is natural that the station should be endeavoring to rees-
blis this industry as far as possible. One cause of the decline has
shown by the physicist to be due to a change in the mechanical
dition of the soil. Starting out from this point, a comparative
Swas made of the adaptability of the soils of the State for tobacco
i, and this work has later, in cooperation with various other
intitutions, ncluding this Department, been broadened in its scope to
incu a csive and 8ystematic survey of all soils of the State
from both scientific and economic standpoints. Other branches of
agriculture of mch importance locally are fruit growing and truck
gardening, and these are receiving increased and systematic attention.
The station is also doing what it can to promote the dairy interests of
the State and to aid in the development of animal industry. The busi-
the station farm has been put on a more efficient basis, and is






88 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

made to directly promote the work of investigation. The inspection
of commercial fertilizers and nursery stock has been continued under
the direction of the college, as well as the system of farmers' institutes.
Through these agencies, as well as through the publications of the
station, the farmers of the State are being aroused to the importance
of the work of the college and station, and are more fully appreciating
its direct relation to their practical affairs.
MASSACHUSETTS.
Hatch Experiment Station of the Massachusetts Agricultural College,
Amherst.
DEPARTMENT OF THE MASSACHUSETTS AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE.
The work of the Massachusetts Hatch Station during the past year
has been along the same lines as heretofore, and has included investi-
gations on the clover-leaf beetle, grass thrips, chrysanthemum fly, the
common scale insects of Massachusetts, the Pyralida of North America,
and cranberry insects, variety tests and fertilizer experiments in hor-
ticulture; tests of seedling strawberries, raspberries, currants, plums,
and weeping silver maple; tests of stocks for fruit trees; comparisons
of methods of grafting and of varieties of grafting wax; experiments
with cover and green-manuring crops for orchards; experiments in
pruning, protection of fruit and vegetable crops from insect and fungus
pests, together with practical tests of insecticides and fungicides;
investigations on drop of lettuce and on diseases of violets and cucum-
bers, the investigations in the last case including tests of the suscepti-
bility of the principal varieties to disease, and to methods of pruning;
investigations to determine why certain varieties of roses can be grown
in New Jersey and New York but not in Massachusetts; investigations
on soils and their water-retaining properties as related to greenhouse
crops and asparagus rust; experiments in breeding asters and studies
of aster diseases; seed testing; field experiments with fertilizers on
different crops; soil tests; comparisons of winter and spring applications
of barnyard manure for corn; experiments in growing alfalfa; Nitragin
experiments; experiments with forage plants, including the cowpea;
pot experiments; feeding experiments with milch cows and poultry;
investigations in dairying; meteorology, and studies of soil moisture.
The card catalogue of literature of all described species of scale insects
has been continued. Exhaustive investigations on butter fat have
been carried on in conjunction with the feeding experiments -t ascer-
tain the effect on butter of feeding ground flaxseed meal containing 36
per cent of oil as compared with a normal linseed ration. In the work
on cucumbers the botanist is investigating the use of different kinds of
glass and their effects on the foliage, etc. The discovery of the botan-
ist and his assistant that sterilizing the surface soil is a complete pre-
ventive for the drop and Rhizoctonia of lettuce is now being applie






MASSACHUSETTS. 89

by large lettuce growers. The investigations on the effect of elec-
tricity on lettuce out of doors have been continued, and the botanit
has a rtained the amount of current which will give a maximum
yield. The entomologist has worked out a remedy for the leaf miner
of he Marguerite flower and chrysanthemum. The station continues
the inspection of fertilizers and feeding stuffs under State law, and to
t e h been a d during the past year, the inspection of nursries
for San Jos6 scale, which was taken up voluntarily as a college matter.
The income of the station during the ast fiscal year was as follows:
United States ap..propriation.....-.... B5, 000.
Stateappropriations..................................... 11,200.00
Fees fro inspection service............................ 3, 600.00
Farm product ......................................... 1, 7 .
M cellneous .......-............................... 1,979. 82
Total ........................................ ... 33, .
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
hasbeen rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 6-67; Special Bulletin, August 10, 1899; Meteorolog-
i1 Bulletins 126-137; and the Annual Report for 189L .
Bulletin 6, pp. 0, and 63, pp. 6.-Ana1yes rtze -Tab-
lted analyses of 467 samples of fertilizing materials.
Bulletin 64, pp. 31.- (kcentrated ed Sl .-A detailed report
on the examination of a large number of samples of concentrated
feeing stuffs in accordance with the law in Massiahusetts, with a
classification of feeding stuffs and notes on their comparative value.
ueti 65, p. 14.-A f iliTabulated analyses
of 59 samples of fertilizing materials, directions for taking and ship-
ing samples for analysis, and trade values of fertilizing ingredients
in 1900.
Bulletin 66, pp. 19.-Summary qf the Work of the Iforticultural
Di~ion for the ear 1899.-Summarized results of variety and fer-
ilizer tests with orchard and small fruits and grapes, together with
estions on thinning fruits and the pruning of fruit trees and
lants, and a spraying calendar.
Bu67, pp. 1P, pl. 1.-Te Gt for
in Green.-A brief account of the life history, feeding
at, food plants, etc., of the grass thrips, with the results of exper-
inents on the destruction of this insect in greenhouses.
Specia B llin, August 10, 1 pp. 67, ps. 9.-The Coccid
enera Chionapi and Hemichionai.-A monographic account of
these genera with synoptic tables for the identification of species, and
brief biological notes and bibliographies in connection with the
ceaecies.






90 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

Mieteorological Bulletins 126-137, pp. 4 each.-Notes on the weather
and monthly summaries of meterological observations for the year
ended May 31, 1900, with an annual summary for 1899 in Meterological
Bulletin 132.
Annual Report, 1899, pp. 125, map 1.-A brief summary of the
work during the year, including a list of officers of the station and a
list of station publications now available for distribution; a financial
statement for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1899; and reports of the
heads of departments reviewing in detail the different lines of station
work during the year and giving in addition an account of soil tests
with corn and onions, a comparison of barnyard manure alone and
barnyard manure and sulphate of potash for corn, a comparison of a
special fertilizer and a fertilizer containing a larger amount of potash
for corn, a comparison of sulphate and muriate of potash for a num-
ber of crops, a test of seven different forms of potash for soy beans,
experiments with leguminous crops as nitrogen gatherers, a test of 94
varieties of potatoes, experiments in manuring grass lands, a test of
the value for egg production of rations with wide and narrow nutri-
tive ratios, investigations on a number of plant diseases, experiments
in growing violets in sterilized soil, a study of the relationship exist-
ing between the asparagus rust and the physical properties of the soil,
a general summary of meteorological observations from 1889 to 1898,
notes on various injurious insects, and a summary of the results of
fertilizer inspection during the year.
Massachusetts being a thickly populated State, with an intensive
and diversified agriculture, the economical feeding of plants and
animals is a problem of prime importance. Dairying, market gar-
dening, the growing of crops under glass, fruit growing, and poultry
raising are important industries, and along these lines the station has
concentrated most of its energies. The station continues to carry on
a large amount of scientific investigation, and results of great prac-
tical value have been obtained. The inspection service performed by
the station is an important part of its work. The farmers' institutes
are under the direction of the State Board of Agriculture and the
demand on station officers for this kind of service is not excessive.
MICHIGAN.
Experiment Station of Michigan Agricultural College, Agricultural College.
DEPARTMENT OF MICHIGAN AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE.
The work of the Michigan Station during the past year has bee
along much the same lines as heretofore, and has included experiments
in reclaiming muck lands, with tests of the effects of different fertiliz
ors, lime, barnyard manure, etc., on various crops on such land; ferti
lizer experiments with sugar beets; experiments with sand lucern
other forage crops; rotation and fertilizer experiments; studies o






MIIAN. 91

; non on ro on of anitary milk studies
Svariety tests of strawberries, fruits, and potatoes fer-
zer experiments with potatoes; spraying experiments with apples;
parsons of different methods of trellising tomatoes; tests of cover
ps f ohas; experiment-s in improving very light worn land;
lizer experiments with greenhouse crops; studies of strongylus in
e nd of a new sheep disease; entomological investigtions; the
bution of San Jos scale in the State; investigations on plant dis-
; foresty; tests of cover seed, and chemica studies of suar
ts, especially to ascertain the relation of weather conditions to the
elopment of sugar.
The station is giving considerale attention to testing varieties of
es new to the State and some of them are coming into cnsider-
pl rominence locally. The station continues to conduct the ferti-
r inspectio under State laws. During the year a large general
Sa dairy building have been erec the latter with a State
ropriation of $15,000. The airy building will afford offices for
director and the agriculturist. There hae been sveral changes
e stat durin the year. The director has been relieved of
imenting, and his duties are now confined to the executive
nnected with the station, farmers institute and extension work,
to special courses in agriculture Th horticulturist has ben
ieved of all teaching duties, and will confine his attention almost
to station work. The cteriologist has been made a mem-

Work at the suttn at Grayling has been abandoned. Another
tation has been established by the State on 16 acres of timber
dat Chatham in the Upper Peninsula, and work was begun with a
appropriation of $2,500 a year. About 25 or 30 acres have
and experiments begun to determine what crops can be
ftably rown in that section. Work at South Haven substation
been continued much as in previous years. Heretofore this work
een carried on by the late Mr. TT. Lyon, but after his death,
occurred recently, an assistant was placed in charge.
e income of the station dring the past fiscal year was as follows:
United tatesappropriation.............................. $15,000.00
appropriation for substation ........................ 2,500.00
tiizer inpection..........-.................... 1,620.00
Sprod c ....-.....................----------.....-- ...--- 438. 43
405. 73
............................................ 895.66
Tota................. -------------------20859.82
reportof the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
beerendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
tmentand has been approved.






92 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

The publications of this station received during the past fiscal yea
were Bulletins 174-178, Special Bulletins 9, 10, and 13, and the An
nual Reports for 1898 and 1899.
Bulletin 174, pp. 13.-Fertilizer Analyses.-This bulletin gives the
text of the State fertilizer law; a discussion of the objects and result
of inspection and the composition and character of different classes o
fertilizers; a schedule of commercial prices, with notes on the valua
tion of fertilizers; explanation of terms used in fertilizer analysis
and tabulated analyses of 68 samples of commercial fertilizers inspected
during 1899.
Bulletin 175, pp. 33, figs. 20.-Some Insects of the Year 1898.-Brie
economic notes on 19 species of insects, and formulas and directions
for the use of various insecticides.
Bulletin 176, pp. 14.-Strawberry Notes for 1899.-Tabulated dat
as to the blooming period, productiveness, yield, quality of fruit, etc.
for 160 varieties of strawberries grown at the station in 1899, witl
descriptive notes on 103 of these varieties.
Bulletin 177, pp. 40.-South Haven Report for 1899.--Results of
tests of a large number of varieties of small and orchard fruits, with
descriptions of a number of varieties, and brief notes on a number of
varieties of nuts; and a brief account of experiments in pruning bac~
peach trees which had been injured by frost, and on spraying experi-
ments.
Bulletin 178, pp. 32, figs. 8.-The Production and Marketing o
IWol.-This bulletin deals with the production of wool in Michigan
and the best methods of improving this industry, the discussion being
based in part on replies received to questions addressed to a number of
wool dealers in different parts of the United States.
Special Bulletin 9, pp. 12.-Suggestions on Farm Accounts.-Prac-
tical methods of keeping farm accounts are described and examples
given.
Special Bulletin 10, pp. 4.-Sugar Beets.-Brief cultural directions
for the growing of sugar beets.
Special Bulletin 13, pp. 8.-Review of Professor Bang's Work witk
Contagious Abortion.-An abstract of the work of Professor Bang
bearing on this subject. ,
Annual Report, 1898, pp. 492, figs. 40, dgms. 2.-This includes thn
organization list of the station; a financial statement for the fiscal yeai
ended June 30, 1898; a report of the director on the publications, per
sonnel, and work of the station; a report of the agriculturist reviewing
the work of the year with wheat, oats, corn, and certain forage crop
and giving a plan of some fertilizer experiments under way on muc
land; a report of the horticulturist giving notes on the different line
of experiments undertaken and the progress made, and an account
a series of spraying experiments undertaken for the prevention of ti






MINNESOTA. 93

Sleaf of the pach; a brief report of the chemist; a report of the
teriologist covering the subjects of tuberculosis, crown-gall in
e e, gassy cheese, hog cholera, and cleanliness in milking; a re-
rt of the apiarist on a number of experiments, including wintering
, testing kinds of foundations, etc.; a tabulated summary of
eteorologicl observations during 1897, and reprints of Bulletins
45-160 of the station.
Annual Reqrt, 1899, 1pp. 312, 14, .utps N2.-Contains the
nization list of the station; a report of the secretary and treasurer
r the fiscal year ended June 30, 1899; a report of the director, and
partmental reports reviewing the different lines of station work
uring the year; daily and monthly summaries of meteorological
servations during 1898, and reprints of Bulletins 161-174 of the
ation.
The Michigan Station has work in progress on a variety of questions
immediate importance to the agriculture of the State. Its experi-
ents in reclaiming muck lands, of which there are large tracts, have
monstrated the great value of arnyard nanure for this purpose.
h. entomologist has studied the various injurious insects of the year,
as worked out the life history of certain new insects, and has sug-
ted methods of repression. The work of this station on sugr beets
aseen instrumental in leading to the establishment of nine sugar
ctories in the Stte, besides three others in course of erection.
orage plants new to the State, such as cowpeas and soy beans, are
ing brought into considerable prominence by the work of the station.
ation oficers continue to take part actively in farmers' institutes,
bich are carried on under the supervision of the director with the
d of a State appropriation of $5,500. In this way the work of the
aion is brought prominently before the farmers and is gaining much
upport.
MINNESOTA.
cultural Experiment Station of the University of Minnesota, St.
Anthony Park.
DEPARTMEN OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA.

The work of the Minnesota Station during the past year has been
g the same lines as heretofore, including field experiments with
n and forage crops, flax grown for fiber and for seed, sugar beets,
on of crops, etc.; horticultural and forestry investigations; ento-
ogical investigations, especially with reference to the repression
shoppers; chemical studies of soils, foods, etc.; investigations
Siry farming and dairying; studies in veterinary science and prac-
Sfeeding experiments with cattle, sheep, and pigs; pasturage
perments with sheep, and breeding experiments with sheep and






94 THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

pigs. A large amount of work is being done in the breeding o
important varieties of cereals, grasses, millet, field peas, etc. Alon
this line, wheat has received especial attention, and the investigations
have already resulted in the origination of superior varieties. Simila
experiments with soy beans and cowpeas are engaging some attention,
the object being to secure early maturing varieties. Improved recordQ
of plant-breeding experiments are being kept on slips with printed
beadings, which are ultimately bound together. In the experiments
with forage plants for sheep, pigs, etc., especial attention has bee
given to cowpeas and soy beans. Breeding experiments with sheep
and with pigs have already yielded promising results. The chemist i
continuing nutrition investigations with cereals in cooperation wit
this Department. His work on soils has been enlarged by an arrange
ment with the State geological survey, by which he will have $1,20
a year for four years for work in this line. The entomologist con
tinues to act as State entomologist, and the veterinarian continues t<
be a member of the State board of health, but has been relieved o
details hitherto imposed on him.
A new horticultural building (P1. III, fig. 2) for the use of the col
lege and station has recently been completed at a cost of $35,000
The substations at Crookston and Grand Rapids are being maintained
as heretofore with State funds. During the year an extensive repor
of the work of these substations for several years, as also of the work
of Coteau Farm, has been published.
The income of the station (including substations) during the pas
fiscal year was as follows:
United States appropriation ..............- --..----- -$15, 000.00
State appropriation..--....-- ...............----------.-----... 32,033.09
Farm products -----------..... ---------...-------------- 9,333.31
Total..................................------------..--....--------. 56,366.40
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United State
fund has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribe
by this Department, and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal yea
were Bulletins 62-67 and the Annual Report for 1899.
BullJetin 62, pp. 174, fgs. 51, charts 4.- Wheat- Variiees, JBreeding
0dlti',tion.-This bulletin contains a history, with detailed record
of variety, selection, and breeding experiments carried on by th
station and substations through a series of years; a discussion of t
botanical characteristics of wheat and of the methods employed b
the station in breeding wheat; and suggestions regarding field manag
ment of wheat in rotations.
BRlletn. 63, pp. 41, fig. 1.- iscellaneot Analyseus..- Copositi
of omato.--I ited of Wheat Floaur.-Analyses of various fo






SINNEOTA. 95

food preservatives, feeding stuffs, fertilizing materials, and miscella-
s; a report on an investigation of the composition and
value of and a somewhat exhaustive review of the
ubject of the chemistry of wheat proteids and a report on a study of
th proteids of a number of samples of wheat flour and other milling

B ti64, ]. 35, p4. fg. 6.-Te Bla Rust or Su a r
Ruat.-The leesim Fly.-Xigratory -Locoit or Grshoppr.-A
dcriptive account of the fngus causing the black or summer rust
wheat a summary of the present knowledge cncerning the life
stor and habits of the Hessian fly, with sug tions as to reedies
d a popular account of the habits and of the devastation caused by
migratory locusts, with recommendations as to remedial measures.
6Bl p. 8, 8.- l ~e tigtio -Chemical analyses
f 124 samples of soil from 4 different localiti in Minnesota with
riptions of samples, explanations of terms, and interpretation of
l, mecanical analyses of 28 amples with a discussion (ith illus-
ons) o the inealoical character of the soil particles. and the
ce of lime, hums, and alkali on the teture of ils; an acrount
of d inti of nse of aa few agricultural plants; a
parson of the Dyer and Goss methods for determining available
t food in soil, and experients in growing wheat in soils extracted
ith acids; and a dicussion on the average composition of Minnesota
ils, the influence of continuou grain cropping and summer fallow-
g on the nitrogen of soil, the reaction of soils, the amount of plant
ood in soils, the adaptability of soils to a variety of crops, reserve
ertility of soils, and the importance of farm rotations and the use of
am manures.
Blletin 66, pp. 50 f`g. 49.-Beetks Injwrious tQ F uit-prod udag
.-A brief classification of the various families of beetles and a
enerl account of a large number of species known to be injurious to
uit trees and small fruits, with suggestions as to remedies.
Blli 67, 30, cart 3.-In iatiin in ik Pro-
on.-Fe g Dairy Cw.-Illustrations of the system of keep-
dairy records employed at the station; tabulated records of the
herd for 1894, 1895, and 1896, with a discussion of the data;
naccount of experiments with dairy cows, comparing wheat with
ley and corn and prairie hay with timothy; a discussion based on
rds of the station herd of the production of cows durng one period
n, the variation in productive capacity of cows, the compar-
e cost of butter and meat production, and variations in the yield
Squality of milk; and a consideration with reference to dairy cows
principles of feeding and the composition and use of feeding stuffs.
SReort, 1899, pp. 630, plp. 4, gs. 0, charts 4.-The
tin list of the station, financial satement for the fiscal year