A Report on the work and expenditures of the agricultural experiment stations for the year ended ...

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A Report on the work and expenditures of the agricultural experiment stations for the year ended ...
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United States -- Office of Experiment Stations
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BULLETIN No. 61. 280
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS.








ON '"ri


WORK AND EXPENDITURES


OF TIIHE


SAGRICULTURAL EXPERIMlENT STATIONS




STHE YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1898.

I1 Y

A. C. TRU.E,
O)r'Fit T o I1 -,n OFFr i E 4W Ioff E Nf l MENT ',I A IfuI S.














WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1899.




















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013














http://archive.org/details/reportagric00unit














CONTENTS.



Pagve
Letterof the resident ...........................................
Leterof of icture....................................... I
Letter of the Director of the Oice of Experiment Stations .................. 2
Work and expenditures of the agricultural experiment stations.... .. 3
The financial business of the tations................................... 3
The bstations......................................................... 3
Relaions of collegesand taions............. ........................ 4
The original investigatious of the stations ............................... 4
Demonstration experiments .. .......... ...... ....................... 5
Police duties of the stations.............................................. 5
Dissemintion of information........................................... 6
iber y of the States ................................................. 8
Political interference, and the injury to some stations thereby 9
Agrcultural investgations in Alaska.................................. 9
Experiment station in Hawaii. ........................................ 9
TheAssocation of Colege and Stations............... ................. 10
The O e of Experiment Stations............................... 10
Statstiof e stations............................................... 11
Alabama College Station............................................... 12
AlabamaCanebrake Station............................................. 14
Alaska investigatons................................................... 15
Arizona Station. .................................................... 15
A ansas Station........................................................ 17
r ia Station .......................... ....... .................... 19
SColrad.. a..ti.......... .................................. 21
Cnnecticut State on ..... ................................... 2
ConnectitStorrs Station ............................................. 25
elawaretation ....................................................... 26
loridaStaton ......................................................... 28
GeorgiaStation......................................................... 29
Idahotation........................................................... 30
inois ation.......................................................... 31
Indiana Station.-------------------------------------------. 32
Ioa Station........................................................... 34
Kansa Statio .......................................................... 37
Kentucky Station....................................................... 39
ouian Station...................................................... 41
Maine Station..............................................--........... 43
Maryland Station..... ............................................... 45
Massachusett Station................................................. 6
MichiganStatio.................................................... -----------49
esota Statio ....................................................... 52
Mississippi Station ...................................................... 53
Missouri Station ................................-- ....................... 55---- --- -------
Montana Station--....-- ------------------------.--------.--------. 56
ebraskatatio....................................................... 57
adaStation ......................................................... 59
SStation----------V---- ---- ----- ----------
Vii






VI CONTENTS.

Work and expenditures of the agricultural experiment stations-Continued. Page.
New Hampshire Station-....................................------------.......-----------------------------... 60
New Jersey Stations ..-..---------..---..------.......--....-...-..------------.......--........------.... 61
New Mexico Station ....................................................------------------------------------------ 64
New York State Station.................--------------------------------------- 65
New York Cornell Station ----------..........................-----------------..........--------.......... 68
North Carolina Station................-..-...-.......--..................... -----------71
North Dakota Station ..---..--------------.....----------..---.....-----.......................... 73
Ohio Station.---------....------....------.........-----..--.......-----.....-----------------..............--..... 75
Oklahoma Station.......-................................................ 77
Oregon Station --------.........---....--------------.............---------......--......--------............ 79
Pennsylvania Station ---..----.......-------..........-..---...--......................... 81
Rhode Island Station.............................-------------------------------......---------................ 83
South Carolina Station..........................------------------..............------...... 84
South Dakota Station .---..--------------............................................------------------------.. 86
Tennessee Station........................................---------------------------------------............ 87
Texas Station........................................................... 88
Utah Station........................................................... 90
Vermont Station..........-.............................................. 92
Virginia Station ........................................................ 94
Washington Station ...................................................... 95
West Virginia Station ............----------------...................................... 96
Wisconsin Station ......................--............................... 99
Wyoming Station..---.-----------......--.....................----------------...-....----...--............. 101
The Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations.. 103
Table 1.-General statistics of the stations, 1898...... .......-............. 105
Table 2.-Revenue of the stations, 1898.-----...-.--......--------.....---.---------..........--..--.-... 110
Table 3.-Expenditures of the stations, 1898 ....................--...--........ 112




ILLUSTRATIONS.



Page.
PLATE I. Agricultural Building, University of California .................. 18
II. Chemical Laboratory, Agricultural College of Colorado........... 22
III. Horticultural Building, University of Idaho...-.............'..... 30
IV. Poultry House, Maine Agricultural Experiment Station.......... 42
V. Horticultural Building, Maryland Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion ........................ ................................---- ..- 45
VI. Chemical Laboratory, Montana Agricultural College............. 56
VII. Dairy Building, University of Nebraska.-----....-..--..........-------..-.. 58
VIII. Biological-Dairy Building, New York State Agricultural Experi-
ment Station........................-.......................... 66
IX. Horticultural Laboratory, Biological-Dairy Building, New York
State Agricultural Experiment Station ........................ ,-66
X. Butter Room, Biological-Dairy Building, New York State Agricul-
tural Experiment Station ..................................... 66
XI. Botanical Laboratory, Biological-Dairy Building, New York State
Agricultural Experiment Station .............................. 66
XII. Poultry Building, Utah Agricultural Experiment Station.------..... 90
XIII. Dairy Barn, University of Wisconsin............................. 100
XIV. Greenhouse, Wyoming Agricultural Experiment Station----........ 102






5THOS, HOUSE OF BEPRESENTATIVES. I DOCUMENT
3d es5ion. No. 121.





WORK AND EXPENDITURES OF THE AGRICULTURAL
EXPERIMENT STATIONS.




MESSAGE
FROM TIE


PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES,
TRANSMITTING
.A RPORT OF T SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE ON THE WORK
AND EXPENDITURES OF TE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT
STATION FOR TE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1898.



JANUARY 5, 1899.-Referred to the Committee on Agriculture and ordered to be
printed.


To the Senate and House of Representatives:
I transmit herewith a report of the Secretary of Agriculture on the
work and expenditures of the agricultural experiment stations estab-
lished under the act of Congress of March 2, 1887, for the fiscal year
ended June 30, 1898, in accordance with the act making appropriations
for the Department of Agriculture for the said fiscal year.
WILLIAM McKINLEY.
EXEOUTIVE MANSION, January 5, 1899.



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY,
Washington, D. C., January 3, 1899.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith a report on the work and
expenditures of the agricultural experiment stations established under
the act of Congress of March 2, 1887, for the fiscal year ended June 30,
1898, in compliance with the following provision of the act making
appropriations for this Department for the said fiscal year:
The Secretary of Agriculture shall prescribe the form of the annual financial state-
Ient required by section three of the said act of March second, eighteen hundred
ad eighty-seven; shall ascertain whether the expenditures under the appropriation






2 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

hereby made are in accordance with the provisions of the said act, and shall make
report thereon to Congress.
I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,
JAMES WILSON, Secretary.
The PRESIDENT.


UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS,
Washington, D. C., December 28, 1898.
SIR: I have the honor to present herewith a report on the work and
expenditures of the agricultural experiment stations for the fiscal year
ended June 30, 1898.
Very respectfully,
A. C. TRUE, Director.
Hon. JAMES WILSON,
Secretary of Agriculture.













WORK AND EXPENDITURES OF THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERI-
SMNT STATIONS FOR THE YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1898.


This is the fourth annual report on the work and expenditures of the
agricultural experiment stations in the United States, made by the
Director of the Office of Experiment Stations, under instructions from
the Secretary of Agriculture. As heretofore, the report is based on
three sources of information, viz, the annual financial statements of
the stations, rendered on the schedules prescribwd by the Secretary of
Agriculture, in accordance with the act of Congress; the printed
reportsand bulletins of the stations, and the reports of personal exami-
nations of the work and expenditures of the stations made during the
past year by the Director, Assistant Director, and one other expert offi-
cer of the Office of Experiment Stations. The stations in all the States
and Territories were visited since the previous report was transmitted
to Congress.
During the past year the stations have as a rule steadily pursued
their investigations. There have been a smaller number of changes in
the workers, the general management has been less subject to radical
and unwise changes, much useful work has been ac omplished, and the
facilities for investigations have been increased.

THE FINANCIAL BUSINESS OF THE STATIONS.
The views of this Department, representing the interests of the
United States, have been more strictly followed than ever before in the
conduct of the financial business of the stations. The account of
the Hatch fund is quite generally kept distinct from that of other funds
controlled by the station or the college of which the station is a depart-
ment. Proper vouchers have in most cases been filed and the form of
accounting recommended by this Department has been more generally
followed. One point on which the Department has laid considerable
emphasis is that the bills for expenditures under the Hatch Act shall
be indorsed by the director or other executive officer of the station
who is thoroughly familiar with the work of the station, as well aa, with
the requirements of the Hatch Act. The adoption of this plan has not
only made the accounts more regular, but has also led, in a number of
instances, to a wiser expenditure of funds. The more fully the business
of the stations is brought under the immediate direction of its expert
officers the more surely will the operations of the stations be conducted
in accordance with the spirit and intent of the law.

THE SUBSTATIONS.
In Wyoming and Arkansas the substations have been abandoned.
Only in Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona have regularly organized
substations been maintained with the aid of the Hatch fund, and in
3






4 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

these places the expenditures for this purpose have been diminished.
These substations are of comparatively little value, since they are not
manned by expert officers, and have not sufficient funds for their proper
maintenance on the plan under which they are organized. Substations
are maintained, as formerly, in California, Minnesota, and Texas, where
State funds have been provided to supplement the Hatch fund. In
Connecticut, New York, and Alabama two separate stations are main-
tained with the aid of State funds, and in a similar way three stations
are maintained in Louisiana.

RELATIONS OF COLLEGES AND STATIONS.

There has been much activity during the past year in the developing
and strengthening of courses of instruction in agriculture in the land-
grant colleges with which the stations are connected. This has been to
the advantage of the stations in a number of ways. The buildings and
equipment of the colleges have been materially increased, and this has
given the stations better facilities for their work. The instruction in
agriculture has been specialized, which has necessitated the employ-
ment of a larger number of well-trained officers, many of whom have
devoted a portion of their time to station work. The governing boards
and general officers of the colleges are coming to see more clearly the
real significance and importance of experiment station work. They
have, therefore, been more willing to make proper arrangements for the
efficient conduct of this work and to pursue a more liberal policy toward
the stations. In a number of instances there has been a more definite
separation of the operations on the farms and in the barns, creameries,
laboratories, etc., so that a definite place has been made for original
investigations in agriculture, and these have been clearly differentiated
from the work and facilities connected with instruction. It is coming
also to be more clearly seen that care must be taken lest the routine
duties connected with instruction shall so exhaust the energies of the
officer employed in both college and station that he will not be able to
devote his best energies to the more difficult task of originating and
conducting successful investigations in agricultural science. The out-
look is, therefore, more hopeful for the building up, in connection with
these institutions, of strong departments of original investigation on
behalf of agriculture, which shall not only accomplish great good by the
practical results of the investigations disseminated among the farmers,
but shall also materially aid in the proper development of courses of
instruction in agriculture in the land-grant institutions.

THE ORIGINAL INVESTIGATIONS OF THE STATIONS.

The past year has shown considerable progress in the importance
and thoroughness of the original investigations pursued at our stations.
The number of officers competent to undertake such investigations has
been increased. There has been greater specialization of the work
assigned to these officers. There have also been encouraging indica-
tions that cooperation between the officers engaged in different lines of
investigation is being more efficiently secured. More attention is being
given to the consideration of problems which affect in a general way
important agricultural interests in the several States or are of funda-
mental importance in different branches of agriculture wherever pur-
sued. It is becoming more clear that it is much better for an individual
station to undertake thorough original investigations in a few lines and






AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 5

hold steadily to thee until definite results are secured than to scatter
the work among a variety of small operations. If a station can make
itself preeminent for original work in even one or two lines, it gains
strength in its own State and elsewhere which it could get in no other
way; and now that general informAtion regarding the work of all the
stations is more widely disseminated, there is less reason why any one
station should attempt very many lines of work. The success of those
stations which have devoted themselves most largely to original inves-
tigations has, without doubt, been a powerful factor in stimulating the
general adoption of such a policy. The wisdom of the framers of the
Hatch Act in limitig the work of the stations organized under that
act to original and scientific investigations which shall either attack
agricultura problems in a new way or have reference to the application
of ned facts or principles to particular or local phases of these
problems is more and more apparent. Every dollar of the fund thus
given from the National Treasury is needed for thorough original inves-
tigations on behalf of the vast and varied interests of agriculture in
this country and the dissemination of the results of such investiga-
tions. The more strictly this fund is applied to these purposes the
more rapid development will our agriculture have along the lines of
permanent success.
DEMONSTRATION EXPER IMNTS.
As the work of the stations develops it is seen that more adequate
provision should be made for the application of the results obtained
by the stations in actual practice in different localities in order that the
best methods of local application of these results may be worked out
and that the farmers may be taught how to make the best use of the
work of the stations. It is in this direction that there is the greatest
need for a generous policy on the part of the States toward the sta-
tions. By supplementing the Hatch fund for work of this kind the
St in a number of cases have greatly hastened the direct application
of the results of original investigations to actual ftrm practice, and
have done much toward arousing the farmers to a keener sense of the
practical value of station work. With the aid of funds furnished by
the States and by this Department thousands of the more simple experi-
ments in the growing of different crops, such as sugar beets, and the
use of fertilizers have been made by farmers in different parts of the
country. It is much to be hoped that the States will more fully take
up this work, and that it will be more thoroughly organized, as is being
done, for example, in the State of New York, where special appropria-
tions have been made for experiments of this character under the direc-
tion of the stations. A great deal of the work of the testing of varieties
of agricultural and horticultural plants to be of any practical Value
needs to be carried on in a number of different localities in each State,
and this can probably be most economically and efficiently done with
the cooperation of intelligent practical farmers and horticulturists.
While cooperative experiments may often be of value in connection
with original investigations, they will most often be of use in deter-
mining the extent to which the results of such investigations may be
applied in actual practice.
POLICE DUTIES OF THE STATIONS.
The early work of our stations consisted largely in the determination
of the chemical composition of commercial fertilizers with a view to






6 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

protecting the farmer against fraud in the sale of such fertilizers. Out
of this has grown the system of State inspection of commercial ferti-
lizers, which has been generally adopted where the fertilizer trade has
assumed any importance. The stations have from the first had a large
share in the work connected with this inspection, and in a number of
States the task involved in this inspection has grown to be very oner-
ous. In a number of States the fees for fertilizer analyses have been
sufficient to leave something of a balance which could be devoted to
the more original work of the stations. More recently the investiga-
tions of the stations in other lines have shown the need of further
inspection and control by the State of agricultural and horticultural
industries. Laws have, therefore, been passed providing more or less
fully for the control of the sale of foods, feeding stuffs, dairy products,
and nursery stock. In many cases the station or one or more of its
officers have been named in these laws as agents for conducting the
inspection in whole or in part. In some cases this has led to the use of
a portion of the Hatch fund to pay the expenses of inspection work
required by State laws. This is obviously a diversion of that fund
from its proper use. The inspection of any agricultural commodity
with reference to its sale is wholly a routine matter, and the exercise
of the control of its sale is a police duty belonging entirely to the State,
or, in the case of interstate commerce, to the United States. The State
should in all cases provide sufficient funds for the enforcement of its
laws on this subject, and the governing boards of the.stations should
see to it that this routine work does not in any way interfere with the
successful conduct of the original investigations called for by the Hatch
Act.
In some cases already without doubt the energies of officers well
qualified to conduct important original investigations have been too
largely devoted to the lower grade of work involved in the making of
numerous routine analyses and pursuing the details of a State control
of the sale of commodities. The number of competent investigators
of agricultural problems is as yet so small that it is a thing much to
be regretted when their services are employed in arduous routine duties
instead of being utilized for the advancement of the highest and best
interests of the agriculture of this country. This matter needs serious
attention just at this time, and a united effort on the part of the friends
of agricultural progress to prevent the imposition of unreasonable
burdens upon the stations in this direction.
DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION.

The Hatch Act expressly provides that a portion of the funds granted
the stations by the United States shall be expended for printing and
distributing reports and bulletins, but limits the scope of the informa-
tion to be thus published to the "results" of their investigations. The
act further grants the stations the franking privilege for the distri-
bution of their publications. Circumstances have compelled the sta-
tions to go far beyond the limit set by the act of Congress as regardsthe
character of the information which they have disseminated. A number
of causes have contributed to make a very heavy demand upon the sta-
tions for information regarding every detail of farm theory and practice.
The successful issue of many of the investigations of the stations has
been a very important factor in creating this demand. There has also
been the necessity of giving the farmers preliminary information along
the line of many investigations, in order that they might clearly under-






AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 7

stand the pratica application of the new results which the stations had
obtained. But beyond this there has been during the last decade a
remarkable awakening of our farmers to the desirability of having more
definite information regarding all matters connected with their business.
The result has been that the stations and this Department have been
led to publish a vast amount of information, both old and new, which
has ben freely distributed to farmers in every county of the Union.
Nothing like it has ever been seen before. No country has ever before
attempted so systematic and thorough a distribution of information to
it agricultural population, and no masses of farmers have ever so
eagerly sought for information as have our own within the past few
years; and not only has the free information furnished by the stations
and the Department been eagerly sought for, but this period has also
been remarkable for the amount of accurate information distributed to
the farmers through the agricultural press and other newspapers and
the number of good books on farming which have been published.
Besides this, the agricultural societies, granges, farmers' institutes, and
other associations have been more active than ever before in discussing
theproblems of agriculture and in securing the services of experts and
successful practical men to lay before them the fruits of science and
experience for the more successful conduct of the art of agriculture.
Such an intellectual awakening must have most important results, and
there is every indication that it will go on increasing in volume and
force until it has thoroughly permeated the entire agricultural popula-
tion of the country.
Tosecure the best results such a movement needs the wisest leader-
ship to guide its aspirations in the best directions. Fortunately the
facilities for agricultural education of a high order have been greatly
increased witin a few years, and there is to-day a much larger number
of well-trained men who are competent to give the farmers the infor-
mation which they demand than was the case ten years ago. What is
especially needed now is the more thorough organization of the agen-
cies for the diffusion of information among the farmers. Thus far the
officers of our agricultural colleges and experiment stations have had
to bear the heaviest portion of this burden, and it is much to be won-
dered at that they have so well discharged the great variety of duties
imposed upon them; but the time has come when there must be a
specialization of work in this as in other directions if we are to have
the most efficient agencies fir the securing as well as for the dissemi-
nating of agricultural information.
Everybody now admits that much may be done to advance agricul-
ture by scientific investigations, but the absorbing character of this
work, if it is to be well done, is not as yet thoroughly appreciated.
The discovery of new truth is the chief function of our experiment sta-
tions, but the amount of new truth which they will discover will be
very largely determined by the extent to which the investigators are
left to pursue their investigatiou s without interruption. The same is
true regarding the teacher in our agricultural colleges. He must have
time to keep pace with the increasing volume of new information which
is being published, and be able to give his best energies to the planning
of courses of study, and come before his pupils with an active mind, in
order that he may not only impart knowledge to them, but may inspire
them with something of his own enthusiasm regarding the subjects of
which he teaches. The writer of popular bulletins and books for farm-
ers must not only have ample knowledge, but he must have had time
to acquire the most complete sympathy with his readers and a style of






8 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

composition which is confessedly the most difficult to attain. The
farmers' institute worker should not only have wide familiarity with
the science and practice of agriculture, but he should also have a
ready wit and the fine art of putting things in a clear light and chang-
ing his point of view according to his audience, which can only come
through natural aptitude combined with much experience in public
speech. Many of our best investigators and teachers have a wonder-
ful versatility, so that they succeed pretty well in a number of differ-
ent lines of work, but after all there is some oie direction in which
they excel, and one or the other feature of their work is almost sure to
suffer if they attempt a great variety of performances. We must in
the future leave the investigators more fully to their investigating, the
teachers to their teaching, the writers of agricultural publications to
their writing, and the farmers' institute workers to their speaking.
Already the movement in this direction has begun. In our colleges
changes are being made by which the experiment station officers are
given more time for their investigations, and additional teachers are
being employed. One of our stations has recently employed an officer
whose chief business it is to edit the station publications and prepare
popular bulletins for the farmers. At another institution the superin-
tendent of farmers' institutes is a separate officer, and in a few States
a corps of institute workers, exclusive of the college and station officers,
has been organized. This movement should be encouraged, and the
governing boards should see to it that the officers of stations are pro-
tected against unreasonable demands on their time, which would take
them away from the planning and conducting of thorough original
investigations.
We do not urge this because we wish to limit the dissemination of
compiled information to our farmers. We fully recognize the importance
of this, and we would have the States and the National Government
make ample provision for compiling and publishing all the information
which our farmers ought to have. But we would insist more strongly
than ever that original investigations by our experiment stations should
be made more thorough and increased in number, in order that the stream
of new information may increase in purity and volume with every year.
LIBERALITY OF THE STATES.
One of the most encouraging things connected with the progress of
our experiment stations has been the disposition of the State legisla-
tures to deal more liberally with them as the importance of their work
has become more apparent." This liberality has manifested itself in a
number of ways. There have been large grants of money directly for
experiment-station purposes. 'In the erection of buildings for the col-
leges provision has often been made for increasing the facilities for
experiment-station work. The printing of station publications is regu-
larly done in a number of States at the public expense. The laws
relating to inspection of agricultural commodities have been so framed
that a considerable revenue has accrued to the stations for purposes of
investigation. The increased means thus acquired have enabled the
stations in a number of States to push their work far beyond what
could have been accomplished with the Hatch fund alone. In compar-
ing the work of different stations this factor should always be taken
into account, and communities in which a more narrow policy has been
pursued must not expect that their stations will be able to do as much
for their agriculture as is accomplished by stations receiving more
liberal treatment.






AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 9

We believe that under our American system nothing can be more
promotive of the highest interests of the stations than that the States
should take a just pride in strengthening and developing their opera-
tions, and thus prove to the world that scientific institutions based upon
the support of the people can be made as strong and efficient as those
which are directly maintained under the centralized authority of the
General Government.

POLITICAL INTERFERENCE AND THE INJURY TO SOME STATIONS
THEREBY.
While as a rule our stations have been free from the baneful influence
of the introduction of political considerations into their management,
there are still some States and Territories in which politics have been
a disturbing element in the affairs of the stations during the past year.
This has resulted in unreasonable changes in the membership of the
governing boards, the removal of efficient officers without cause or on
inconsequential pretexts, and in a few cases in the appointment of
notoriously incompetent men as station officers. This Department has
consiste eld that where such an unsettled state of affairs exists
the real ects of the Hatch Act can not be attained, since these
involve first of all a corps of competent specialists working under a
well-defined policy outlined to cover a series of years of uninterrupted
investigation and having an assurance that their work will be judged
on its merits. It has not hesitated to protest against the action of
governing boards wherever there was a plain case of violation of the
proper principles of station management. The communities which
permit such things of course reap their reward in the weakness or
inefciency of the operations pf the stations. The remedy lies very
largey with the people, and every effort should be made to form intel-
ligent public sentiment on this subject

AGRICULTURAL INVESTIGATIONS IN ALASKA.
For the past two years Congress has included in the appropriation
for agricultural experiment stations an item for investigations regard-
ing the agricultural capabilities of Alaska, with the special object of
determining the desirability and feasibility of establishing agricultural
experiment stations in that Territory. With the first year's appropria-
tion a preliminary agricultural and botanical survey of Alaska was
made, a report on which was transmitted to Congress. The results of
this reconnoissance were so encouraging that the appropriation for this
work was doubled, and during the present year not only has the survey
been continued, but reservations of land have been made at Sitka,
Kadiak, and Kenai in Cook Inlet, and some successful experiments in
growing and maturing barley, oats, flax, potatoes, and other vegetables
have been made, and excellent clover and grasses have been grown
under cultivation. The detailed report of this work will soon be trans-
mitted to Congress, and it is hoped that hereafter Alaska will receive
at least the same financial support for experiments in agriculture as
is given to the other portions of the United States by the National
Government.
EXPERIMENT STATION IN HAWAII.

The Hawaiian Islands having been annexed to the United States, the
question of the development of their agriculture through experimental






10 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

inquiries, conducted on the same plan as in other parts of the United
States, has become an important one. It seems proper, therefore, in
this connection to call attention to the fact that an experiment station
has been in successful operation at Honolulu since 1895. This station
is under the direction of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association,
which supplies the funds for its maintenance. The director and chief
chemist is Dr. Walter Maxwell, formerly an assistant in the Division
of Chemistry of this Department, and later one of the chemists of the
Louisiana Experiment Stations. The other members of the staff are
two chemists and a field assistant. This station has studied especially
the problems relating to the culture of sugar cane and the manufacture
of cane sugar, but there have also been experiments with fertilizers and
a comprehensive investigation of the soils of the islands. The results
of the station's work have been published in the Hawaiian Planters'
Monthly and in bulletin form. The station is ably directed, and its
work has been systematically and successfully pursued.

THE ASSOCIATION OF COLLEGES AND STATIONS.

The Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment
Stations has recently had a successful meeting at the National capital,
which was attended by representatives from all parts of the country.
The college and station officers were thus brought together to discuss
important matters regarding the general policy and details of their
work. As expressed in the able address of the president of the asso-
ciation, these institutions are coming to see more clearly that they form
parts of a great national system of instruction and research in agri-
culture. The association is therefore laboring more earnestly to secure
cooperation of effort where that is desirable, and to set a high standard
for the management and work of the experiment stations as well as of
the colleges with which they are connected. A brief report of the
Washington meeting is given further on in this report.

THE OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

Besides the work done in the supervision of expenditures of the
stations and in conferences and correspondence with station officers,
this office has continued to collect and disseminate information regard-
ing the progress of agricultural investigations throughout the world.
Not only has this feature of its work been made more thorough, as
regards the review of the literature of agricultural science for the bene-
fit of our station workers, but the preparation of popular r(sumds of
station work has been more systematically pursued. A series of such
publications, denominated experiment station work, has been begun in
connection with the Farmers' Bulletins issued by the Department.
During the year the office issued about 43 documents, aggregating
2,920 pages. These include 13 numbers of the Experiment Station
Record, with detailed index, 12 bulletins, 7 Farmers' Bulletins (inclugdig
4 numbers of the subseries entitled Experiment Station Work), 1 circu-
lar, 4 articles for the Yearbook of the Department, the annual report of
the director, a report to Congress on the work and expenditures of the
experiment stations, and 4 special articles published as separates.
The ninth volume of the Experiment Station Record comprises 1,214
pages, and contains abstracts of 317 bulletins and 56 annual reports of
53 experiment stations in the United States, 201 publications of the






AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 11

Department of Agriculture, and 842 reports of foreign investigations.
The total number of pages in these publications is 56,569. The total
number of articles abstracted is 1,810, classified as follows: Chemistry,
121; botany, 86; fermentation and bacteriology, 28; zoology, 31; meteor-
ology, 57; water and soils, 72; fertilizers, 85; field crops, 153; horti-
culture, 138; forestry, 16; seeds and weeds, 41; diseases of plants, 107;
entomology,252; foods and animal production, 186; dairy farming and
dairying, 151; veterinary science, 134; technology, 11; agricultural
engineering, 38; statistics, 103. Classified lists of articles, in some
cases with brief abstracts, are also given in each number. The aggre-
gate number of titles thus reported is 2,471.
STATISTICS OF THE STATIONS.
Agricultural experiment stations are now in operation, under the
act of Congress of March 2, 1887, in all the States and Territories.
As stated above, agricultural experiments have been begun in Alaska
with the aid of national funds, and an experiment station is in opera-
tion in Hawaii under private auspices. In each of the States of Ala-
bama, Connecticut, New Jersey, and New York a separate station is
maintained wholly or in part by State funds, and in Louisiana a station
for sugar experiments is maintained partly by funds contributed by
sugaI planters. Excluding the branch stations established in several
States, the total number of stations in the United tates is 54. Of
these 52 receive the appropriation provided for in the act ot Congress
above mentioned. The total income of the stations during 1898 was
$1,210,921.17, of which $720,000 was received from the National Govern-
ment, the remainder, $490,921.17, coming from the following sources:
State governments, $341,897.94; individuals and communities, $177.20;
fees for analyses of fertilizers, $93,677; sales of farm products,
$65,356.25; miscellaneous, $20,312.48. In addition to this the Office
of Experiment Stations had an appropriation of $35,000 for the past
fiscal year, including *5,000 for the Alaskan investigation. The value
of additions to equipment of the stations in 1898 is estimated as follows:
Buildings, $109,851.65; libraries, $11,700.73; apparatus, $19,195.43;
farm implements, $10,800.27; live stock, $13,151.33; miscellaneous,
$11,972.97; total, $176,469.41.
The stations employ 669 persons in the work of administration and
inquiry. The number of officers engaged in the different lines of work
is as follows: Directors, 75; chemists, 148; agriculturists, 71; experts
in animal husbandry, 10; horticulturists, 77; farm foremen, 29; dairy-
men, 21; botanists, 50; entomologists, 46; veterinarians, 26; meteorolo-
gists, 20; biologists, 11; physicists, 11; geologists, 6; mycologists and
bacteriologists, 19; irrigation engineers, 7; in charge of substations; 15;
secretaries and treasurers, 23; librarians, 10, and clerks, 46. There
are also 21 persons classified under the head of "miscellaneous," includ-
ing superintendents of gardens, grounds, and buildings, apiarists,
herdsmen, etc. Three hundred and five station officers do more or less
teaching in the colleges with which the stations are connected.
During 1898 the stations published 406 annual reports and bulletins.
Besides regular reports and bulletins, a number of the stations issued
press bulletins, which were widely reproduced in the agricultural and
county papers. The mailing lists of the stations now aggregate half
a million names. Correspondence with farmers steadily increases and
calls upon station officers for public addresses at institutes and other
meetings of farmers are more numerous each year. The station officers
II. Doec. 121-- 2






12 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

continue to contribute many articles on special topics to agricultural
and scientific journals. A number of books on agricultural subjects,
written by station officers, have been published during the past year.

ALABAMA.

Agricultural Experiment Station of the Agricultural and Mechanical College
of Alabama, Auburn.

DEPARTMENT OF THE AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF ALABAMA.

The work of the Alabama Station during the past year has included
investigations on cotton, pot and field experiments with fertilizers, cul-
ture and seeding experiments, and studies on diseases; field experi-
ments with hairy vetch, crimson clover, cowpeas, velvet beans, and
other leguminous plants, and grasses; methods of soil improvement by
green manuring with legumes, using the stubble and the entire plant;
experiments in the growing of peanuts, chufas, sweet potatoes, and
other crops for hogs, and feeding experiments with hogs; experiments
in the inoculation of soil with nitragin for leguminous crops; experi-
ments in the acclimation of Egyptian cotton and other foreign seeds
and plants; studies of native forest trees; chemical studies on the
composition of food materials with reference to their adulteration, the
influence of the presence-of formalin in foods, particularly milk, upon
the digestion of animals, the nature and characteristics of the fat of
pigs fed on different foods, the available plant food in soil, the sources
of nitrogen for leguminous plants, and the availability of phosphoric
acid from different sources; studies of animal diseases., including the
feeding of cotton seed and cotton-seed meal to pigs with reference to
their poisonous effects; horticultural experiments with vegetables for
the home supply during the fall and early winter, celery, and Hungarian
apples, Japanese persimmons, and other orchard and small fruits;
studies of plant diseases, especially the black rust of cotton and dis-
eases of cowpeas; and entomological investigations. The station has
continued the analysis and inspection of fertilizers under State laws,
and has aided in the repression of tuberculosis by distributing large
amounts of tuberculin. Some work has been done on milk inspection,
which has led to an improved milk supply in several of the cities in
the State. The station has maintained a small dairy herd, with which
it is proposed to undertake experimental investigations this winter.
The organization of the station has been changed during the past
year by the appointment of a director in the place of the former presi-
dent of the station council, who was also president of the college.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
United States appropriation..............................--............ $15,000.00
State fertilizer tax (including balance from previous year)..-------........--. 10,481.93
Farm products-...-- -......... ..-...................................... 619.42
Miscellaneous .......................................................... 794.56
Total ............................................................ 26,895.91
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 80-90 and the Annual Reports for 1895 and 1896.
Bulletin 80, pp. 190.-A Preliminary List of Alabama Fungi.-An






AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 13

historical sketch of the study of fungi in Alabama, a list of works and
papers treating of Alabama fungi, and a preliminary list of the known
species of Alabama fungi. The list gives the fungus with its host plants
and the county wherein the fungus was collected, the date of the collec-
tion, and the name of the cllector. Suggestions to collectors of fleshy
fungi, a synopsis of Agaricaceae, and a host index are appended.
Bulletin 81, pp. 67, pls. figs. 19.- eat Inspection.-Popular descrip-
tion of the symptoms and post-orte appearances in acute and chronic
cases of hog cholera, swine plague, tuberculosis of cattle, pigs, and
birds; actinomycosis; anthrax; Texas fever, and malignant catarrh
of cattle, and of a nuber of animal parasites of domestic animals,
together with suggestions on various bacilli and on the recognition of
putrefying meats. The text of an ordinance regulating the slaughter
and sale of cattle in the city of Montgomery, Ala., is appended.
Bulleti 82, 21, 2.-Corn, Cowpeas, and Wheat Biran for Fat-
r ning Pigs.-Results of experiments made to determine the relative
value of these foods for growing pigs, including a discussion of the
financial returns in each case, the effect of the different foods on the
inteal organs of the pigs, and the chemical analysis (fertilizing con-
stituents) of the solid and liquid excrement from each lot.
Bulletin 83, pp. 30 figs. 9, pl4. .-Hybridsfrom American and Foreign
ottns-Tabulated details and results of experiments in crossing
American and foreign varieties of cotton, with a special study of 47 of
the most promising hybrids. The botanical characteristics of American
cottons are note and technical descriptions given of some of the foreign
varieties. The conditions under which successful hybridization can be
accomplished are also discused.
ulletin 84, pp. .- Turnips.-Directions for planting and culture
and a note oi the use of turnips are given, together with descriptive
notes and comments on 7 of the most promising varieties.
Bulletin 85, pp. 26 fis, .-lapanese Plums.-Popular discussion of
the culture of Japanese plums, including notes on soils, fertilizers, propa-
gation, plant cultivation, pruning, thinning, marketing, insect enemies,
diseases, and varieties
Bulletin 86I, p. 6,figs. 2-(1) More about the San Jos( Scale; (2) A
Sweet Potato Pet; (3) Regarding Carbon Bisuiphid; (4) Insecticides and
Pu in General.-A popular discussion of these subjects, including
notes on certain observations made during the spring while inspecting
nurseries for the San Jos(, scale.
Bulletin 87, pp. 30,figs. 12.-Soil Inoculation for Leguminos Plants.-
A discussion of nitrogen-collecting plants, the function of root tuber-
es, methods of soil inoculation, and the value of winter-growing
legumes, with the results of inoculation experiments with a number of
legumes on various soils in the field and greenhouse. A commercial
germ fertilizer-nitragin-and soils from fields which had previously
grown leguminous crops furnished the inoculating material used in
the experiments.
Bulletin 88, pp. 12.-Experiments with Corn.-These include variety
tests, experiments with seed corn from different latitudes, and with butt,
middle, and tip kernels for seed, distance experiments, tests of methods
of harvesting, and fertilizer experiments.
Bulletin 89, pp. 24.-Eperients with Cotton.-Details and results of
variety, fertilizer and seed tests, and of culture and distance experi-
ments.
Bulletin 90, pp. 11, figs. 8.-(1) The Peach Tree Borer; (2) The Fruit
rk Beetle.-Popular notes on the nature, habits, appearance, and






14 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

control of these insects, with a brief account of experiments at Auburn
against the peach tree borer.
Bulletin 91, pp. 61.-Cooperatire Fertilizer Experiments with Cotton in
1897.-The details and tabulated results are given of cooperative fer-
tilizer experiments, or soil tests, with cotton carried on in 30 localities
in the State.
Bulletin 92, pp. 6, fig. 1.-Experiments with Lime on Acid Soils.-
Results of field experiments with different amounts of lime on a num-
ber of garden and field crops at Deer Park, and of box experiments in
the greenhouse with three typical coast soils.
Bulletin 93, pp. 20.-Peanuts, Cowpeas, and Sweet Potatoes for Pigs.-
Details and results of experiments to determine the value of the fol-
lowing foods for pigs: Peanut pasturage, peanut pasturage v. corn
meal, peanuts v. corn meal, cowpea pasturage, ground cowpeas and
corn v. ground corn alone, and sweet potatoes v. corn meal. The
quality of the pork and lard as affected by the different foods was also
determined.
Annual Report, 1895, pp. 32.-A financial report for the fiscal year
ending June 30, 1895, together with brief reports by the heads of
departments on the work of the year and an index of the bulletins and
report of the station for the year 1895. The report of the botanist con-
tains, in addition to other matter, extracts of letters from planters in
regard to the growth and value of certain varieties of cotton seeds sent
out by the station, and a table showing similar data for the same
varieties planted at the station.
Annual Report, 1896, pp. 30.-An outline review of the year's work
by the heads of the departments, and a financial statement for the fis-
cal year ending June 30, 1896.
The Alabama Station is doing a considerable amount of work on
investigations which are of direct practical interest to the farmers of
the State. The station is getting into closer touch with the farmers,
and is increasing in strength and influence in the State. A good deal
of attention is being given to work at farmers' institutes, in which the
station is cooperating with the State board of agriculture. The station
is also doing useful work in pointing out the directions in which inspec-
tion is needed for the protection of agricultural interests of the State
and the health of the people. In fact, the station has been so success-
ful in this work, and in the dissemination of popular information, that
it is becoming too heavily burdened with matters outside of the range
of experimental investigation. It is necessary to urge, therefore, that
the State should supply funds for dairy, food, veterinary, and other
inspection, and for the support of farmers' institutes, in order that the
station may devote itself more fully to original investigations on behalf
of agriculture.

Canebrake Agricultural Experiment Station, Uniontown.
The Alabama Canebrake Station has confined its operations during
the past year to field tests of varieties of corn, cotton, watermelons and
cantaloupes, strawberries and vegetables, and to studies on diseases of
animals.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
State appropriation ..................................................... $2,500.00
Farm products.......................................................... 277.40
Balance from previous year ............................................. 1,257. 11
Total .............................. ...... .. ................. .4,034.51






AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 15

The only publication issued during the year wa the annual report
for the calendar year 1897, which includes a financial statement and
brief accounts of the experiments at the station
ALASKA.
icultual Investigations in charge of Office of Experiment Stations.
The work in Alaska during the past year has included an agricultural
and botanical survey, chiely confined to the coast and island region
from the southern boundary as far north and west as Unalaska, and
experiments in growing oats, baley, flax, potatoes, clover, grasses, and
numerous varieties of vegetables in Sitka and vicinity. Considerable
information was also obtained rearding the aricultural capabilities of
the Yukon Valley, largelywith the aid of the Depart ment of the Interior.
Numerousvarieties of native seeds and plants, especially berries, grasses,
and forage plants, have been collected. The moisture and temperature
of the soil at Sitka have bee recorded. Chemical analyses of a num-
ber of grasses and forage plants were made by the Division of Chem-
istry, and examinations of soil samlles were made by the Division of
oils of this Department. Meteorologcal observations at Sitka and
other places were begun by the Weather Bureau, which has undertaken
a secial climate and crop service for Alaska.
The appropriation for the Alaska investitigions for the past fiscal
year was $5,000.
A report of a portion of the work of the past year was published as
House Doc. No. 160, Fift-fift Congress, second session, and afterwards
as Bulletin 48 of the Offce of Experiment Stations.
The appropriation for this work having been continued for the pres-
ent fiscal year and increased to $10,000, a special agent in charge has
been appointed, with headquarters at Sitka. Reservations of land for
experimental purposes have been made at Sitka, Kaiak, and Keai in
Cook Inlet. Oats, barley, flax, potatoes, and many kinds of vegetables
have been successfully grown to maturity at Sitka, and an excellent
growth of cultivated cover and grasses has been obtained in a single
season. A number of the native grasses and forage plants have been
shown to be very nutritious. A second report on these investigations
will be transmitted to Congress at an early day.

ARIZONA.
Agricultural Experiment Station of the University of Arizona, Tucson.
DEPARTMENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA.
The Arizona station has continued during the past year to make
experiments with a considerable number of varieties of semitropical
and other fruits, canaigre, sugar beets, and crops for green manuring,
especially sour clover (Melilotus indica); chemical investigations of
canaigre, sugar beets, soils, milk, etc., and botanical studies of the
date palm, and diseases of plants, especially sunburn, crown knot, and
alfalfa root rot. The results of investigations on the date palm and of
a very thorough study of the soils of the Salt River Valley, the most
important agricultural region in Arizona, have been published in bul-
letin form. Experiments with sugar beets and with a number of vari-
eties of foreign seeds have been carried on in cooperation with this
department. Cooperative experiments on several private farms were






16 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

inaugurated, and proved a success where supervision was exercised by
the station, demonstrating the practicability of such work, even under
the conditions existing, and thus weakening the argument for continu-
ing to maintain a substation.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
United States appropriation ---.---...............--------------.... $15, 000,00
Fees.........................-------------------.......................................... 36.63
Farm products..------... --------....--------.............--.................. 230.24
Miscellaneous.----.. ..-------.----......---- .....---..--.-.......... .... 110.11
Total .--- ........................................ ................ 15, 376.98
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 24-28.
Bulletin 24, pp. 10-Seventh Annual Report, 1896.-A financial state-
ment for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1896, with a list of bulletins
published by the station since its organization, acknowledgments,
exchanges, and a report by the director giving the results of the year's
work.
Bulletin 25, pp..9-Eighth Annual Report, 1897.-This contains a
financial report for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1897, a list of bul-
letins published by the station since its organization, and brief reports
by the botanist and entomologist and chemist on the work covering the
period from January 1 to June 30, 1897. A list of nearly 100 varieties
of seeds, grasses, and forage plants sown at the station is included in
the director's report.
Bulletin 26, pp. 15-Sugar Beet Experiments.-A report on about 300
cooperative experiments with sugar beets in 1897, including tabulated
analyses of the beets with reference to sugar content and percentage
purity, cultural data, and a discussion of the tables.
Bulletin 27, pp. 50-Arizona Weather and Climate.-A revised edi-
tion of Bulletin 20 of the station, with additional data relating princi-
pally to temperature.
Bulletin 28, pp. 34-Salt River Valler Soils.-General remarks on the
object and value of soil investigations with the results of chemical and
physical analyses of a number of samples of typical soils of Salt River
Valley and of drainage and capillary water tests of the same, and a
discussion of the results.
The affairs of the Arizona Station during the past year have in many
respects been in a very unsatisfactory condition. A change in the politi-
cal administration of the Territory was followed by the removal of the
director, agriculturist, and horticulturist of the station and the fore-
man and laborers of the substation at Phoenix. The new foreman of
the substation was "wholly incompetent," and it was therefore found
necessary to appoint an expert agriculturist and horticulturist to be
located at Phenix in order that the substation work might not be
entirely spoiled. The president of the university resigned during the
year, as well as the irrigation engineer and meteorologist, whose place
was filled by two different persons during the year. The institution
has a new president and a director and irrigation engineer, who began
his duties July 1, 1898. Sufficient care had not been taken to secure
an adequate supply of water for irrigating the piece of land used for
experimental purposes at Tucson, so that the experiments there were
not very successful. The burden of the work of the station fell upon






SAGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 17

the botanist and entomologist, who was appointed acting director, the
chemist, and the agriculturist and horticulturist. Thes expert offi-
cers labored with great energy and accomplished considerable useful
work. The station was brought into closer touch with the farmers
through cooperative exeriments, and the work was concentrated in a
few lines and the investigations were made as thorough as circum-
stances would permit.
The history of this station during the past year has therefore shown
in marked contrast the baneful etcts of political inte:ference and the
good results of the services of well-trainedd a experienced officers.
Under present conditions the work at the substation at Phtenix is so
superficial and so poorly managed that expenditures from the Hatch
fund for its maintenance can not be justified and in general there has
not been a proper return made for the funds given the Territory from
the United States Treasury for experimental purposes. No part of our
country has greater need of thorough investigations in agriculture
than the rritory of Arizona, but little will be accomplished by this
station until the spirit of its management is changed.

ARKANSAS.

Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station, Payetteville.
DEPART.NNT OF ARKANSAS INDUSTRIAL UNIVERSITY.

The work of the Arkansas Station during the past year has included
feeding experiments with steers and pigs, chemical investigations of
wheat and its,.ill products, horticultural studies of orchard and small
fruits and vegetables, investigations of animal diseases, and field
experiments with forage plants, corn, and wheat.
A systematic chemical study of the composition of the wheat kernel
at ditlerent stages of its growth has been in progress for several years.
During the past year both the proteids and the carbohydrates have
been included in the investigation. A small flour mill has been erected
at the station as an aid to studies of the milling qualities of wheat.
The growing of seedling apples and strawberries and the testing of
Kafir corn and cowpeas as a mulch for strawberry fields have been
special ftures of the horticultural work. The station land, consist-
ing of about 40 acres, located near the college, is not well adapted for
field work. It is being used at present for testing varieties of grasses,
forage plants, and corn, and experiments with corn grown from seed
brought from different parts of the country and on the improvement of
land for wheat by leguminous crops. The veterinarian has worked
especially on tuberculosis, studying the problem of the identity of
human and bovine tuberculosis and the possibility of transmission of
this disease from m to animals.
The substation at Camden has been discontinued. That at Newport
is still in operation, but no new work is undertaken there, and the
intention is t close this ubstations soon as n a the experiments now in
progress there can be brought to a satisfactory conclusion. At this
substation the comparative value of cotton-seed meal and cotton seed
as feeding stuffs has been tested in an experiment with steers, and pigs
have been pastured on chufas, Spanish peanuts, and soy beans with
reference to the effect of these foods on pork and lard and their value
to suply food for hogs in succession and to improve worn cotton soils.






18 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
United States appropriation......-....----........------.......-------.. $15, ).00
Farm products .........................-....-. .....-----. -....... ..-.... 57.89
Total .....--.----.------------------..--------................--- 15,057.89
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 45-51 and the Annual Report for 1897.
Bulletin 45, pp. 29, pls. 3, figs. 3.-Milk: Its Decomposition and Preser-
vation.-A discussion of the spontaneous changes which occur in milk;
sources of bacterial infection, including data on the number of bacteria
in milk based on observations by the author; and methods of preserv-
ing milk; together with the results of investigations on the species of
bacteria more commonly concerned in the souring of milk in the
locality.
Bulletin 46, pp. 22, fig. 1.-Experiments with Manures and Rotation
for Improving Worn Cotton Soils.-The results of experiments during
the past six years on the improvement of worn cotton soil and the best
form and manner in which to apply fertilizers are summarized, and the
results of experiments during 1896 with green manures and crops in
rotation at the northeast substation at Newport and the southern sub-
station at Camden are reported. The weather report for 1896 at the
northeast substation is also given.
Bulletin 47, pp. 18.-Concerning Fertilizers and Manures.-A popular
bulletin on the subject, a special feature of which is the discussion of
the future effects of manure based on the experimental work at Roth-
amsted, England.
Bulletin 48, pp. 22, figs 4.-Strawberries.-Comparative and descrip-
tive notes on 43 varieties grown at the station and on 23 varieties
grown in other parts of the State, with summaries of the results with
strawberries reported in Bulletins 13, 17, 39, and 43 of the station; and
a popular discussion of strawberry culture, preparation of the soil, set-
ting plants, perfect and imperfect varieties, mulching, renewing old
beds, crops for marketing, etc., being considered.
Bulletin 49, pp. 20, figs. 13.-A Preliminary Report on Arkansas Seed-
ling Apples.-Historical and illustrated descriptive notes on 20 of the
most important of the seedling apples of Arkansas origin.
Bulletin 50, pp. 14.-Some Irish Potato Experiments.-Data are given
for the following lines of experiments: Northern grown v. second crop
seed; large v. small second crop seed; level v. ridge culture; tests of
32 varieties, and the value of paris green for potato beetles.
Bulletin 51, pp. 12.-Methods of Combating Communicable Diseases of
Farm Animals.-A popular discussion of the cause and origin of com-
municable diseases; general methods of prevention and control; inocu-
lation against anthrax or charbon; prevention and control of Texas
fever; and on the limitations of experiment station aid in this work.
Annual Report, 1897, pp. 5, Appendix, pp. 135.-Organization li,
brief report by the director on the bulletins issued and the general
work of the year, and a financial statement for the fiscal year ending
June 30, 1897. The Appendix is made up of bulletins 44-48 of the
station.
The work of the Arkansas station continues to be managed on the
same conservative policy as heretofore. The station is accomplishing
considerable work along lines of much usefulness to the agriculture of










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AGRICULTURAM BUILDING, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.






AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 19

the State. Its publicaions are being more generally distributed as the
result of the requests of the farmers to be put on the mailing list.
There is still need that the State should provide the station with more
suitable lad for its field work at Fayetteville.

CALIFORNIA.
Aiutural Experiment Station of the University of California, Berkeley
DEPARTMENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.
The work of the California station during the past year has been
along the same lines as heretofore, including chemical and physical
investigations of soils, especially of alkali lands, with reference to recla-
mation; analyses of fruits, forage plants, feeding stufs, sugar beets,
etc.; invesigtig ons on the culture of olives and the making of olive oil,
and in iticulture and wine making; entomological investigations;
studies in botany, horticulture, and firestry; and culture experimeuts
with a great variety of forage plants, cereals, vegetables, fruits, and
forest tes at the central station and at the six outlying stations with
special reference t the varied climatic and soil conditions of the State.
The experiments with grasses and forage plants have been extended
with special reference to securing varieties for the green manuring of
orchards. This must be accomplished by plants making their growth
in winter, as the growing of a green crop in summer in the climate of
Califrnia would deplete the orchard of moisture to a dangerous degree.
The plant hitherto found most available for this purpose was bur clover
(Medicago denticulata), but this yields only a small amountof green mate-
rial. The experiments at the station indicate that the cultivated blue
lupine of Europe is better for this purpose, provided it is sown early in
the autumn. Studies of apple roots resistant to the woolly aphis have
been continued with good success. Food investigations have been con-
tinued in cooperation with this Department, and it is proposed to make
special studies of the use of fruits in dietaries. A severe drought dur-
ing the past season gave the station an opportunity for observing the
liits of endurance of various culture plants, and making extended
studies of soil moisture and of root penetration of both wild and
cultivated plants on different soils.
During the year much attention has necessarily been given to the
rebuildingand equipment of the university building (Plate I), containing
station ofces and laboratories. The new building is considerably larger
than the old one, the additional space being devoted to the entomolog-
ical and bacteriological laboratories. The printing office of the univer-
sity has been enlarged and the printing of the station report is now
done there.
The university, through its college of agriculture and experiment
station, is carrying on work in forestry and is conducting farmers' insti-
tutes, so far as its means will permit.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
United tates appropriation............................................ $15,000.00
State appropriation ................................................... 38,412.00
Farm products. ................... ............... ................. 348.12
Total ............ .........-....... ............ ....... .....-.. 53,760.12
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.






20 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 116-120 and the Biennial Report for 1895-96 and
1896-97.
.Bulletin 116, pp. 14, figs. 4.-California Vine Hopper.-Popular notes
on the nature, habits, and injury of this insect, with suggestions as to
means of control.
Bulletin 117, pp. 19, figs. 4.-Control of the Temperature in Wine Fer-
mentation.-The factors contributing to rise of temperature in ferment-
ing musts and the means of controlling the temperatures are discussed,
and descriptions and illustrations given of a French apparatus for cool-
ing must, of the apparatus devised and used by the station, and a modi-
fied form of the same, with the results obtained in the use of the last two.
Bulletin 118, pp. 8.-Distribution of Seeds and Plants.-Brief reports
of the seeds and plants distributed by the station and descriptions and
lists of those offered for distribution during the coming season.
Bulletin 119, pp. 16,figs. 11.- Vine Pruning.-This bulletin states
eight physiological principles connected with pruning and training,
describes a typical vine, and gives the names of the different parts; dis-
cusses pruning for wood and fruit, shows the method of making the
cut in pruning; describes and illustrates several systems of pruning
and training, and gives a list of varieties adapted to each system; dis-
cusses various kinds of summer pruning, and the like.
Bulletin 120, pp. 11, pls. 3, figs. 2.-The Olive Knot.-Notes on the
name, distribution, nature, symptoms, bibliography, and history of
this disease, an account of its discovery and spread in California, and
of inoculation experiments in culture media.
Biennial Report for the years 1895-96, 1896-97, pp. 455, pis. 19, figs.
6.-This contains the report of the treasurer for the fiscal year ending
June 30, 1896 and 1897, explanatory notes on the work of the College of
Agriculture and Experiment Station, Minnesota plan for teaching agri-
culture, farmers' institute work; results of the examination and analysis
of soils, alkali, waters, feeding stuffs, fruits, dairy products, sugar beets,
nuts, canaigre, and miscellaneous substances; results of investigations
on the tolerance of various crops for alkali, on the natural vegetation of
alkali lands, and on the alkali salts in soils upon which various plants
grow; notes on economy in fertilization; brief directions for bleaching
nuts by dipping; results of investigations on the food value of Califor-
nia eggs, the effects of fertilization on citrus fruits and on the acidity
of the root sap of citrus trees; notes on the olive industry in California,
with a description of a new apparatus for crushing olives; a discussion
of remedies for insects and fungi; details of investigations of some of
the diseases of olives, with drawings; list of diseased plants received
for determination; list of acknowledgments; memoranda on the wine,
table, and raisin grapes grown at the several substations; reprint of
Bulletin 114 of the station on the Causes of Frogging and Bloating of
Prunes; reports of investigations on various economic plants; notes
on shade trees for planting in the region around San Francisco Bay;
University Botanic Garden; valuable grasses and other forage plats,
including illustrated descriptions in some cases; plants for alkali soils;
garden vegetables; various trees, and on the distribution of seeds,
plants, cuttings, etc.; ten-year synopsis of meteorological observations,
1887-1897; reports on the orchard and small fruits, nuts, trees, plants,
vineyards, meteorology, vegetables, etc., growing at the Foot Hill,
Southern Coast Range, San Joaquin Valley, and southern California
culture substations, a(nd on the 10-acre tract at Berkeley; and reports
of the Chico and Santa Meonica forestry substations dealing with forest






AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 21

culture, local climatic conditions, tree measurements and descrip-
tions, etc.
While the California Station has necessarily given much attention
during the past year to repairing the losses caused by the burning of its
laboratories, it has accomplished much useful work on behalf of the
ariclture of the State. It continues to be managed in the same way
as for may years past. Thorough and scientific investigations are
carried on regarding matters of fundamental importance to the agri-
culture of Cifornia, and at the same time much effort is made to aid
the farmers and horticulturists by field and other eperiments giving
promise of direct and speedy practical results.


Agricultural Experiment Station, Fort Collins.
DEPARTMENT OF THE STATE AGR1CULT1RAL COLLEGE OF COLORADO.

The work of the Colorado Station during the pat year has included
studiesof irrigation problems, meteorology, field crops, feeding of animals,
large and sml fruits, eeds, entomology, botany, and chemistry. The
irrigation engineer has continued his studies of the duty of water, meas-
uring the water actually used by farmers in different localities. He
has also ade an irrigation survey in the Arkansas Valley, studying
the aount of sediment brought down by the Arkansas River, the
seepage from cnals and reservoirs, and the return of the seepage to
the Rio Grande River. The flow of water in soils and the effect of irri-
gation on the temperature of the soil have also been amog the prob-
les studied. The entomologist is working principally on rasshoppers
and plant lice Studies are also being made on the life historie of
various economic insects common to the State. Investigations on bees
are also in progress, and experiments in bee culture are being ade in
an apiary containing about a dozen colonies of bees. lesides making
variety tests the horticulturist and botanist has begun pollination
studies with plums. Investigations on the native grasses and on weeds
arelso in progress. The chemist is making investigations on sugar
beets with special reference to the changes in the sugar due to keeping
and to evaporation of water from te beets lying in the sun after pull-
ing. The tops and roots of bets have been analyzed to determine the
amount of alkali removed from the soil. The chemist is also studying
the problems of the alkali soils of the State. The agriculturist has con-
ducted feeding experiments with sbeep and pigs, and field experiments
with forage plants, especially Bromus in is, and with cereals and
sugar beets. He has also conducted cooperative experiments With
sugar beets in many localities in the State. The station has carried
on work in forestry and with suga beets in cooperation with this
Department.
Investigatns have been made in a small way at the substation at
Cheyenne Wells, and on a larger scale at the substation at Rockyford.
The expenses for this work, paid out of the Hatch fund, have been some-
what reduced. At Rockyford the variety and usefulness of the experi-
ments have been somewhat increased, but the conditions under which
the work is conducted are far from satisfactory. Three different super-
intendents have been in charge during the year. The records of the
substations are veryincomplete and largely unintelligible. For example,
the record of the orchard has been so poorly kept that it is with some






22 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

difficulty that the present superintendent has been able to locate the
different varieties.
The new chemical laboratory (Plate II) of the college, completed dur-
ing the year at a cost of about $26,000, has given the station greatly
improved facilities for its chemical investigations.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
United States appropriation ........................................... $15, 000.00
Farm products.........-- ..-- ----.. -----.. ---.--------....--............ 730.69
Miscellaneous..-------....---......---.......------..............-------------......---.. 1,938.89
Total------....----....................--------......----..........--.................... 17,669.58
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The publications of the station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 39-44 and the Annual Report for 1897.
Bulletin 39, pp. 34.-A Study of Alfalfa and Some Other Hays.-
Chemical study of the composition of alfalfa (cut at different stages of
growth and sown under different climatic and soil conditions), clover,
peas, and other hays; with the results of artificial digestion experi-
ments with alfalfa hay of different cuttings kept for different lengths
of time; analyses made to determine the change in composition of old
hay and a comparison of the composition of alfalfa grown in different
years in Colorado and Utah.
Bulletin 40, pp. 40.-Barley.-Notes on the culture of barley; tabu-
lated data showing the yield, number of days ripening, etc., of a num-
ber of varieties of barley grown at the station and substation for each
of the years 1887 to 1896; and the results of feeding experiments with
pigs, steers, and sheep, to compare barley with corn, and bald barley
with common barley and with corn; and to learn the value of grinding
common and bald barley. Analyses are given of the feeding stuffs
used in the experiment.
Bulletin 41, pp. 21.-Blight and Other Plant .Diseases.-Popular dis-
cussion of the various theories as to the cause of apple blight and
"frost crack" or "sun scald," with notes on certain fungus diseases,
and suggestions as to remedies.
Bulletin 42, pp. 64.-Sugar Beets in Colorado in 1897.-Cultural data
and analyses with reference to sugar content and percentage purity
are given for 125 samples of sugar beets grown in upward of 50 locali-
ties in the State in 1897. Results are also given of investigations made
to determine the effect on the sugar content and percentage purity of
freezing and drying beets, and of harvesting at different stages of
maturity. A paper on growing sugar beets for factories is appended.
Bulletin 43 (Technical Series No. 3), pp. 31, figs. 4.-Colorado Lepidop-
tera.-A Few New Species of Deltocephalus and Althysanus from Colo-
rado-A List of Original Types, etc., in Collection.-List of species of
Colorado Lepidoptera, with their accessions, catalogue number, notes,
and remarks; technical descriptions of five new species of Deltocepha-
lus and one of Althysanus, and a list of original types of species in the
superfamtily Jassoidea now in the station collection.
Bulletin44,pp. 30.-Further Notes on the Birds of Colorado.-An appen-
dix to Bulletin 37 of the station on the "Birds of Colorado," containing
corrections, additional notes, etc.
Tenth Annual Report, 1897, pp. 110.-This contains a financial state-
ment for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1897; the station organization
list; inventory of station property; text of 'the Hatch Act; brief






















Ith





0-





C
0














40
S












CHEMICAL LABORATORY? AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE OF COLORADO.
ir





ini


CHMIA LOr:rRY AGIUL"A COLEG OF COLORADO






AGRICULTUR.AL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 23

extracts from Circular 29 of the Office of Experiment Stations, and
fro the report of the Secretary of Agriculture for 1897; subject list of
station bulletins 1-40; a report by the director dealing largely with the
status of the station and substations, financially and otherwise, and the
interrelationship of the college and station; and short reports by
the heads of departments and by the superintendents of the substations
at Arkansas Valley and Cheee e ell report of the irrigation
engineer summarizes the work of this department during the year in
the measurement of return waters from irrigation, evaporation from
reservoirs, water available for irrigation in different streams, the use
and fall of water in streams, with fluctuation in rainfall and tempera-
ture, duty of water on farms, observations on ground water, duration
of sunshine, measurements of solar energy, soil temperatures, atmos-
pheric pressure, etc. The reports of the substation deal priiipally
with tests of various crops and varieties of fruits, vegetables, etc. A
brief note is also given on the use of cornstalks as wind-breaks for crop
protection.
On the whole the Colorado Station has enjoyed a prosperous year.
Its equipment has been increased and much useful work has been
accomplished. The substations, however, continue to be a drain upon
the resources of the station, without results commensurate with their
cost. Either the State should provide funds for the maintenance of
these substations, so that their work may be developed in a permanent
and systematic way, or else they should be wholly abandoned.

CONNECTicTr.

The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven.

The Connecticut State Station has continued its work during the
past year along the same lines as heretofore. The chemical and experi-
mental studies of fertilizers are a leading feature of the wfrk of this
station. The station conducts a fertilizer control under State laws,
which involves the analyses of several hundred brands of fertilizers.
Cooperative experiments on fertilizers for peach trees have been con-
ducted at three different places in the State. Greenhouse experiments
on the manuring of tomatoes, radishes, carnations, etc., have been con-
ducted. The relative availability of organic nitrogen in different forms
has been studied by vegetation experiments with rye, oats, and Hun-
gariangrass grown in pots, and similar experiments on the comparative
availability of nitrogen in bone of different degrees of fineness have
been made in cylinders sunk in the ground. The study of the proteids
inthe seeds of leguminous plants has been continued. The investiga-
tions of plant diseases have included the mildew of Lima beans, celery
and melon blight, "sooty spot" of apples, etc. At the grass garden,
maintained at South Manchester with the aid of station funds, some
2,500 distinct grasses have been grown. The experiments on the cur-
ing of tobacco on the stalk by artificial heat, conducted in cooperation
with the Tobacco Growers' Association, which were interrupted last
year by the destruction of the crop by fire, have been continued. A
barn, 60 by 32 feet, was erected in which a crop of 2 acres of tobacco
was very successfully cured by the use of artificial heat. This work
promises to be of great value to the tobacco growers in showing the
way of escape from the disastrous pole sweat, w-hich has been one of the
greatest drawbacks to their success in past years. Experiments on the
fermentation of tobacco are being planned. Considerable work has






24 AGRICULT-URAL EXPERIME'T STATIONS.

been done in testing vegetable seeds with reference to their vitality and
purity. Work in forestry has been conducted in cooperation with this
Department. Entomological investigations are also made. Several
hundred samples of food products have been examined with reference
to adulteration, the station being charged with the inspection of foods
under the State law. This work, which has been carried on for three
years, meets with the approval of the people of the State and seems to
be firmly established.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
United States appropriation ............................................ $7, 500.00
State appropriations .................................................... 12, 500. 00
Fees............... -.......-............................................. 6,049.19
Miscellaneous........................................................... 83. 17
Total ............................................................. 26, 132.36
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 123-127 and the Annual Report for 1897.
Bulletin 123, pp. 79.-Examination of Food Products Sold in Connecti-
cut.-Test of the State pure-food laws and of the laws regarding the
adulteration of food and drugs, with the results of the examination
and analyses of 848 samples of food of 13 different kinds. The
methods of testing sugars and sirups, pepper, mustard, cheese, and
coffee, and of detecting lard adulterations are given at length, and the
results of the various investigations discussed in detail.
Bulletin 124, pp. 11.-The Cost of Plant Food in Connecticut, Spring
Months of 1897.-A discussion of the cost of plant food in a number of
commercial fertilizers and of the comparative availability and cost of
the various forms of nitrogen, together with a schedule of the trade
values of fertilizing materials in Connecticut for the spring of 1897.
Bulletin 125, pp. 16.-Preparation and Application of Fungicides.-
Directions are given for the preparation and application of 9 fungi-
cides, with brief descriptions of various kinds of spraying apparatus,
and notes on the cost of spraying materials and on the time to spray.
Bulletin 126, pp. 12,figs. 3.-Insecticides: Their Preparation and Use.-
A popular bulletin on this subject, with a short list of cultivated
plants and the insects that most commonly attack them.
Bulletinl 127, pp. 10.-The Cost of Plant Food in Connecticut, Spring
Months of 1898.-Schedule of trade values adopted for use in 1898,
popular notes on the purchase of fertilizers, and a summary containing
a general statement of the cost of plant food in the raw materials
during the spring of 1898, with the results of the analyses of 7 sam-
ples of fertilizing materials, and of tests of the availability of organic
nitrogen in 5 of these samples.
A nnual Report, 1897, pp. XVI + 423, pls. 2.-This report embraces
the organization list of the station for 1897; an announcement as to the
scope of station work; report of the board of control giving a general
summary of the work of the year; report on certain changes in the
experiment station grounds necessitated by the laying out of new streets;
second report on food products, including the text of the Connecticut
food laws with comments, and the results of the physical and chemical
examination of 756 samples of food products (methods of examination
bein)g given in some instances); text of the State fertilizer 1,w, with
comments; list of licensed fertilizers for the year ending May, 1898;






AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 25

clasification, description, analyses, and valuation of more than 500
samples of fertilizing materials; review of the fertilizer market for the
year ending October 31, 1897; a comprehensive discussion of the mildew
of Lima beas and on the results of experiments for its control; results
of experiments for the prevention of leaf blight and leaf spot of celery;
a paper on the cause and prevention of a fungus disease of the apple;
results of preliminary investigations on a disease of carnations; pro-
visional bibliography on the more important works published by the
United States Department of Agriculture and the agricultural experi-
iment stations of the United States from 1887 to 1897, inclusive, on
fungus and bacterial diseases of economic plants; results of experi-
ments on the fertilization and curing of tobacco for the season of 1897;
report of the expert on the fermented tobacco crops of 1896 as to qual-
ity, fire-holding capacity, etc.; results of experiments with tobacco fer-
tiliers for the five years, 1892-1896, of vegetation experiments on the
availability of the nitrogen in a number of fertilizers to oats and Hun-
garian grass,and of experiments oi the use of commercial fertilizers and
artificial soils for forcing house crops, with analyses of the crops grown;
brief description of a steam sterilizer for soils; results of analyses of
the roots, leaves, and flowers of violets grown under glass; notes on
the injurious insects of thQ season; analyses of a number of samples
of feeds, milk, and butter; results of comprehensive investigations on
leguin and other proteids of the pea, lentil, horse bean, and vetch,
and on the prteids he y of te behe vitality of a number
of varieties of vegetable seeds; an index; and a financial statement for
the year ending September 30, 1897.
The Connecticut State Station is stedily pursuing its work along
lines of great usefulness, and is each year securing more fully the con-
fidence and sulport of the farmers of the State.

Storr Agricultural Experiment Station, Storrs.
DEPARITMENT OF STORR8 AGRICULTURAL CULLEGE.
The Conntcut Storrs Station has continued during the past year
to conduct investigations on the food and nutrition of men and of
domestic animals, dairy bacteriology,field experiments with fertilizers
and forage plants, rotation experiments, and meteorological observa-
tions. Digestion experiments with sheep have been continued to
determine the relative amounts of digestible material obtained from dif-
ferent kinds of forage crops, grain feeds, and concentrated by-products.
Feeding experiments with dairy herds in different parts of the State
have also been conducted. During the past five years some 45 tests
have been made with 453 cows in 32 herds in different parts of the
State." Considerable attention has been given to the study of tuber-
culosis in dairy cattle, including bacteriological investigations. Special
studies of the bacteria of milk and butter have been made, and the
bacteriologist of the station has broadened his knowledge of this sub-
ject by a personal examination of work in this line in Holland, Germany,
Denmark, and Sweden.
The investigations on the food and nutrition of man have continued
to be the most important line of work carried on by this station, and,
as heretofore, have been aided by Wesleyan University and by a special
State appropriation, and have been carried on in cooperation with this
Department. They include dietary studies, investigations in the
improvement of apparatus, especially the respiration calorimeter, and
metabolism experiments in which the income and outgo of matter and


... 4






26 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

energy in the human body are determined. The respiration calorimeter
has now been so far perfected that the results of the metabolism experi-
ments made last year show a close agreement in the income and outgo
of energy. This not only affords a demonstration of the conservation
of energy in the living organism, but shows that an apparatus has
been devised for accurate researches on some of the fundamental prob-
lems of metabolism and nutrition. This marks a distinct advance in
this most important field of research.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
United States appropriation ................................................ $7, 500
State appropriation ---......----............... .............................. 1, 800
Miscellaneous-...---- ----- .-.----.---------------------- 400
Total ................................................................ 9,700
Total ---------------------------------------------------------------- 9,700
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The publication of this station received during the past fiscal year
was the Annual Report for 1897, Part I.
Annual Report, 1897, Part I, pp. 128.-This contains the report of the
treasurer for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1897; a report by the
director on the work of the year; details of a study of rations fed to
milch cows in Connecticut, involving 32 distinct herds; and a paper on
nitrogenous feeding stuffs and on standard rations and formulas for
feeding dairy cows.
The Connecticut Storrs Station continues to concentrate its efforts on
a few lines of work and to make its principal investigations thoroughly
scientific in method, while having a distinctly practical aim. The
investigations on the nutrition of man, while of great importance as
increasing our knowledge of some of the most fundamental problems
of human nutrition, have also been very valuable as pointing a way to
the application of similar methods and apparatus to studies on the
nutrition of domestic animals. This Department has already under-
taken to utilize the results obtained at the Storrs Station in investiga-
tions with animals in cooperation with another station.

DELAWARE.
The Delaware College Agricultural Experiment Station, Newark.
DEPARTMENT OF DELAWARE COLLEGE.
The work of the Delaware Station during the past year has included
investigations on animal diseases, especially cerebro-spinal meningitis;
chemical studies of milk; horticultural investigations; studies of plant
diseases; entomological investigations; soil, fertilizer, and culture
experiments with special reference to the use of leguminous plants for
maintaining fertility and promoting the dairy interests of the State;
and the breeding of varieties of sorghum with reference to the produc-
tion of sugar. Meteorological observations are regularly made in five
different localities in the State. Special studies are being made on the
bacteria in the soil. The station continues to make vaccine for anthrax
inoculation, but the inoculation is done at State expense. Chemical
studies have been made of the milk of a herd of 80 cows through one
period of lactation. The horticultural work of the station has been
developed iii some new lines. Among the subjects being studied are
the improvenent of fruits by bud variation, principles governing the






AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 27

rmation of fruit buds, adaptation of varieties of apples to the climate
of the State, and root pruning of nursery stock.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
nited Stat appropriation............................................... $15,000
iscellneou .. -.-.-... -..... .-... ... ...-..- ...-- .. ..........-- ...... 63
Total-- --- --......................-........................... 15, 063
A report of the reeits and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 35-39 and the Annual Report for 1897.
Bulletin pp. 23, figs. 9.-Th e C r in Delarare.-A popular bulle-
tin treating of the extent of the cherry industry in Delaware, the classi-
fication of the cherry, and such practical considerations as soil, location,
propagation, plating, cultivation, handling the crop, profits, varieties,
dis and injurious insects.
Bulletin 3 pp. igs. 3,-Potash: Its Commrcial and Agrciultural
Relations and a Chemical Method for its Accurate Estimation in Soil.-
A paper on the economy of using potash fertilizers; report of experi-
ments with different fertilizer mixtures during the years 1894-1897 on
sweet corn, crimson clover, cowpeas, oats, and red clover, and the details
of achemical method for the accurate estimation of potash in soils, with
the results of analyses with reference to potash of a number of samples
of soils.
Bulletin 37, pp, 15.-Anthrar: A Study of National and of State Legis-
lation on this Subject.-Contains the enatments of Congress and the
rulings of the.United States Treasury Department relative to anthrax
and the text of the State laws of 1)elaware on the same subject.
Bulletin 38, pp. 20, fig. 9.-Some Principles in Delaware Apple Cul-
re-A popular bulletin discussing the staistics of the apple industry
in Delaware and giving practical suggestions on apple growing in the
tate. Illustrated descriptions are given of several varieties.
Bulltin 39, pp. 23, 3.-Sorhum: Its Develop ment as a Com-
mercial Source of gar.-A discussion of the results of experiment s in
sorghum growing in 1897 froh an agricultural and chemical standpoint
ad of the developmentof the sorghum plant during the past 10 years,
as shown by analtical data; results of culture experiments in 1897;
results obtained at other experiment stations within the last 10 years,
and a discussion of the principles of selective propagation.
Annual Report, 1897, pp. 232,jigs. 21, dgms. 5.-This contains a finan-
cial statemet for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1897; reprints of
Bulletins 33-37 of the station; notes on the preparation of anthrax vac-
cines and on the history of three viruses; results of bacteriological
examinations of 10 anthrax cases in Delaware; a bacteriological exam-
ination of drinking water, with diagrams showing the character of cer-
tain water bacteria; preliminary arrangement of the species of the
genus Bacterium; miscellaneous notes on herd testing and the propa-
gation of sorghum; outlines of the future policy of the horticultural
and entomological departments; results of observations on peach yel-
lows in nursery stock; notes on inconclusive experiments for the control
of tmato blight; notes aditional to Bulletin 33 of the station on the
San Jos6 scale; a brief report by the agriculturist on the work of the
year, dealing more especially wh the results of fertilizer experiments
upon rops rotation; and report by a meteorologist showing monthly
H. Doe. 121- 3






28 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

summaries of temperatures and rainfall for the year ending June 30,
1897, and an annual summary of similar data for the calendar year 1896.
The work of the Delaware Station has been systematically and suc-
cessfully prosecuted during the past year. The scientific basis of the
work has been strengthened, but at the same time the main operations
of the station are along lines of great practical importance to the
agriculture of the State.
FLORIDA.

Agricultural Experiment Station of Florida, Lake City.

DEPARTMENT OF FLORIDA STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE.

The work of the Florida Station during the past year has included
culture and fertilizer experiments with potatoes, sweet potatoes, cas-
sava, and various forage plants; experiments with fruits and vegetables;
studies of plant diseases and insect pests; and chemical investigations,
especially on forage plants. The experiments in tobacco growing and
curing have been continued, and a new tobacco barn has recently been
built. Investigations have been made on cane sirup and its preserva-
tion. Fertilizer experiments with pineapples are being conducted on a
farm on the east coast of Florida, and the diseases of the pineapple are
being studied in the greenhouse at the station.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
United States appropriation ..---.-----..---........------....----..... $15, 000. 00
Farm products ...--------------------.----------- --------------... 1, 050. 18
Total----.............. .....--.....--- ...--------..---...........-- 16,050. 18
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 39-45.
Bulletin 39, pp. 41.-Strawberry Culture for the Market and the Home.-
A popular bulletin dealing with the details of strawberry culture, includ-
ing notes on insects and diseases, packing, shipping, marketing, etc.
Bulletin 40, pp. 6, figs. 3.-The Fall Army Worm: Southern Grass
Worm.-Notes on the appearance, life history, habits, food plants, natu-
ral enemies, and treatment of this insect.
Bulletin 41, pp. 27, pls. 2.-A Fungus Disease of the San Jose Scale.-
An account is given of the discovery, artificial culture, and biology of
the fungus Sphwerostilbe coccophila, which is parasitic upon the San Jos6
scale, with results of a number of experiments with the disease in scale
infested orchards.
Bulletin 42, pp. 54, figs. 23.-Some Strawberry Insects.-Thirteen of
the more injurious insects of strawberries are noted in a popular way,
treatment based on the results of experiments at the station being sug-
gested in some instances. The strawberry thrips (Thrips tritici) iid
strawberry pamera (Pamera vincta) are considered at some length, the
life history, habits, depredations, appearances, and technical descrip-
tions of the insects being given. Brief notes are also given on spray-
ing apparatus.
Bulletin 43, pp. 158.-A Chemical Study of Some Typical Soils of Flor-
ida Peninsula.-Notes on the muck deposits of Florida, nature and
origin of soils and subsoils, their classification, cultivation, cropping,






AGRICULTURAL EXPERIENT STATIONS. 29

l on, etc., with the results of analyses of a large number of sam-
ples of soils and mucks fom all portions of the State with reference to
coarse earth, fine earth, humus, nitrogen, moisture at 1000 C., and
mineral constituents. Explanatory notes with reference to the vegeta-
tion growing on the soils from which the different samples were taken,
physical character of the soils, etc., accompany the tables of analyses.
Buletin 44, pp. 47, figs. 5.-Cne.- irup.-ugar.-The culture of
sugar cane-soil conditions, fertilization, planting, cultivation, seed
preservation, and harvesting, including the results of experiments
made to determine the effect of time of harvesting upon the yield of
sugaris discussed, and directions based on experimenets made at the
station during the season in boiling and clarifying cane juice for niak-
ing sirup and sugar are given. A simple form of tester devised for use
in the production of a uniform grade of sirup is described.
Bullti 45, pp. 2, pis. 3.-Three Injurious Irl sects.-The life history,
habit, appearance, and technical description of the eggs and different
stages of growth are given for the beau leaf roller, corn delphax, and
canna leaf roller, with suggestions in each instance as to methods of
treatment.
The work of the Florida Station has been considerably strengthened
during ithe pastyear, and the abandonment of the substations has made
it possible to cncentrate the work more fully on investigations of
importance to the agriculture of the State. The station has, however,
been unfortunate in having a considerable number of changes in its
staff during the past two years. The diretor and agriculturist have
been at this station only a little over a year, and the chemist and biolo-
gist were changed during the past fiscal year. There is therefore still
need of increased efforts to hold the work and staff of this station
steady, if it is to accomplish the best results for the agriculture of the
State. The station should also have land better suited to experi-
mental purposes than that which it now controls.

GEORGIA.
Georgia Experiment Station, Experiment.
DEPARTENT OF GEO STATE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND MECHANIC ARTS.

The work of the Georgia Station during the past year has included
variety, fertilizer, and culture experiments with corn and cotton; hor-
ticultural investigations, especially on melons, peaches, figs, strawber-
ries, and Japanese fruit; feeding experiments; and work in dairying.
The income of the station duing the past fiscal year wab as follows:
U itd States appropriation.....--................................... $15,000.00
State .............................--...........-- ....--- -----........ 650.00
Farm products.............. -.............-.... .....-.. .. ....-....... 2,05397
Miscella eous ...... ............ ....... .................. ................. 2, 049. 10
Total............................................................ 19, 753.07
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been redered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 36-39 and the Annual Report for 1897.
Buetin 36, pp. 31, figs. 20, map 1.-an Jose and Other Scales in
Georgia.-A popular account of the San Jose scale in Georgia, its dis-
tribution, appearance life history, food plants, natural enemies, and






30 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

methods of treatment; with brief popular and descriptive notes on 13
other scales, and a chart whereby the identity of the different scales
noted may'be determined.
Bulletin 37, pp. 29.-Corn Culture.-Results of fertilizer, culture, and
variety tests, with a reprint of some advance sheets of Bulletin 39 of
the station, giving the results of a test of varieties of cotton.
Bulletin 38, pp. 37, pis. 3, figs. 5.- Watermelons.-A popular discussion
on watermelon culture, soils, fertilizers, planting, forcing, cultivation,
gathering, marketing, seed saving, insect enemies, and other topics, with
results of fertilizer and variety tests in 1895 and 1897, and brief descrip-
tive notes on 40 varieties.
Bulletin 39, pp. 29, pl. 1.-Cotton Culture.-Results of variety, fer-
tilizer, and cultural tests. A number of fertilizer formulas recom-
mended for various garden and field crops in Georgia are appended.
Annual Report, 1897, pp. 6.-An account of the operations of the sta-
tion for the year ending December 31, 1897, with notes on the station
organization, mailing list, buildings and repairs, publications, etc., and
a financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1897.
The work of the Georgia Station has been steadily pursued during
the past year, and its investigations have been along practical lines
which have received increasing support from the farmers of the State.

IDAHO.
Agricultural Experiment Station of the University of Idaho, Moscow.
DEPARTMENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF IDAHO.
The work of the Idaho Station during the past year has included
field tests of forage plants, cereals, and vegetables, including especially
sugar beets; chemical studies of sugar beets, soils, strawberries, and
orchard fruits; entomological investigations; botanical studies on dis-
eases of plants, weeds, and economic plants; meteorological observa-
tions; physical studies of soils. Experiments with sugar beets have
been carried on in a number of localities in the State in cooperation
with this Department. Much work was done in preparing the newly
acquired farm of about 85 acres at Moscow for experimental uses. The
farm was badly overrun with wild oats, the eradication of which is one
of the practical problems connected with agriculture in this region.
Two barns and other buildings were erected at the farm, and a horti-
cultural building and greenhouse, largely for station purposes, were
built on the university grounds. (Plate III.)
Changes were made in the governing board of the station apparently
on a politicl basis. Near the end of the year the president of the uni-
versity and director of the station was removed by the board, though
no charges were preferred. The office of horticulturist and agricul-
turist has recently been divided and an agriculturist has been chosen
as an additional member of the staff. Provision has also been made
for an assistant chemist who will devote himself to station work.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as llows:
United States appropriation ............................................ $15 000. 00
Farm prod(ucts................... ............... ..................... 525.32
Total ............................................................ 15,525. 32
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.












U. S. Dept. of Agn.r Bul. 61., Office of Expt. Stations. PLATE III.


































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AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 31

The publications of this station received during the past fscal year
were Bulletin 10 and the Annul Report for 189. Four bulletins were,
however, received soon after the close of the year.
lti 10, pp. 131, fg. 63.-Idaho Agriculture, Decriptie and
rimena-Aonideration of the physical, climatic, and soil con-
ditions of the different counties of Idaho, and of the culture and prepa-
ration for the table of nearly garden vegetables. In some cases
tables are given comparing the yields of the diferent varieties tested.
nual Rort, 1896,pp. 19.-This includes the financial report of
the treasurer for the fiscal years ending June 30, 1895 and 1896; an
account of the actions of the board of regents in curtailing the work
and expenditures of the substations; a record t the acceptance by
the board of deeds for 83 acres of land presented to the station by the
citizens of Moscow and Latah counties for exprimental purposes; and
a reprint of Office of Experiment Stations Circular 29.
The work of the Idaho Station during the past year was pursued
under many difficulties. The advantage gained by the abandonment
of thesubstations was argely offset by financial strait caused by
irregularities on the pat of a former member of the statin staff. The
sudden removal of the diretor near the end of the year, under circum-
staces which indicate that no settled policy for the management of the
institution has yet been attained, makes the future of the station full
of uncertainties. In sme ways, however, the outlook of the station is
more encournagig than formerly. Its work has been more flly concen-
trated in the hands of its expert officers, its equipment has been mate-
rially enlarged, and its lines of work have been more fully diferentiated.
With a wise, economical, and permanent policy of management this
station should accomplish much useful work.

ILLI NOIS.

tura Experiment Station of the University of Illinois, Urbana.

DEPARTMENT OF THE UNIVERSIITY OF ILLINOIS.

The work of the Illinois Station during the past year has included
field expeiments with corn, grasses, orage plants. and sugar beets;
variety, culture, and other experiments with orchard and small fruits
and vegetables; feeding experiments; studies of bacterial and fungus
diseases of plants, especially the smuts of maize, broom corn, and
sorghum; entomological investigations; studies of the variations in
milk due to individuality of cws or to food; soil studies; and chemical
investigations, especially on sugar beets. The investigations on Indian
cor have contined to be a leading feature of the station's work. The
station has continued to conduct the dairy on a commercial basis. It
is claimed that this dairy is self-supporting, but there is apparently
no good reason why it should be continued on this basis as a station
enterprise. The department of soil physics has been much developed
during the year. It is engaed in efforts to devise a rapid method of
mechanical analysis of soils and in investigations on peculiarsoils found
Sdifferent parts of the State. The station has continued to cooperate
with this Department in experiments with sugar beets, and it has
given much attention to this line of work with a view to the early settle-
nt of the roblem of successful sugar beet growing in the State.





32 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
United States appropriation ............. ..... .......- ................ $15, 000.00
Individuals............................................................ 77. 20
Fees----------------------------------------------------- 150. 00
Fees..a... r -....................................................... ... 150. 00
Farm products......................................................... 3,269.92
Total--------............------------------------.........------........------.... 18, 497.12
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the U nited States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 49 and 50 and the Annual Report for 1896-97.
Bulletin 49, pp. 52, figs. 13.-The Sugar Beet in Illinois.-This bulletin
discusses the methods of growing sugar beets, the necessary climatic
conditions, factory requirements, and the results of cultural experi-
ments made at the station. Meteorological data and analyses of beets
grown in 35 counties are tabulated.
Bulletin 50, pp. 24 -The Cost of Production of Corn and Oats in
Illinois in 1896.-Details of a statistical investigation made to secure
accurate information on the expense of raising the corn and oat crops
of 1896 in the State of Illinois, with an analysis of the results.
Annual Report, 1896-97, pp. 18.-Lists of the bulletins published by
the station and of experiments in hand during the year, and a detailed
financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1897.
The Illinois Station made considerable progress during the past year
in strengthening and concentrating its work. It is now in a better
position than ever before to render useful service to the agriculture of
the itate. It can not, however, do its best work until it is more fully
relieved of the burden of the management of farm and dairy enter-
prises which are essentially commercial and educational rather than
experimental. A policy has recently been adopted which ought to lead
to a more definite separation of the college and station enterprises. It
is also encouraging to observe the growth of interest in the agricultural
college of the university. Without doubt the great agricultural inter-
ests of Illinois demand that the funds given to the State for original
investigations in agriculture shall be strictly applied to that purpose,
and that the State shall liberally supplement these funds for experi-
mental and educational purposes in the interest of agriculture.

INDIANA.
Agricultural Experiment Station of Indiana, Lafayette.
DEPARTMENT OF PURDUE UNIVERSITY.
The work of the Indiana Station during the past year has included
chemical investigations on sugar beets, soils, feeding stuffs, etc.; pot
experiments with roses grown in different soils and with different fer-
tilizers; studies on corn smut and potato scab and a bacterial disease
of sugar beets; greenhouse experiments in subwatering and in lettuce
and mushroom culture; studies of animal diseases, especially hog
cholera and tuberculosis, and special investigations on the mammary
glands of different animals as related to milk secretion; horticultural
investigations, including the testing of varieties, pruning, grafting, and
greenhouse culture; field experiments with wheat, corn, oats, and for-
age plants, with fertilizers, and on rotation of crops and methods of
tillage; and feeding experiments with pigs, sheep, steers, and dairy
COW8.






AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 33

The chemist of the station continues to act as State chemist and to
make fertilizer analyses with funds furnished by the State. The chem-
ical department has been moved to new and enlarged quarters, where
it has more complete facilities for its work. Special attention has been
given to the experiments with sugar bts, which have been carried on
in cooperation with this Department. Sugar beets have been grown
on some 800 difrent farms throughout the State. Cooperative experi-
ents with different soils and fertilizers have been continued in a num-
ber of localities.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
United S t ates aropratio ....... ........ .................. $15,000.00

Total.... .......... ........ -............................... .. 16,789.11
A report of the receipts and expenditur for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 65-69 and the Annual Report for 1897.
Bulletin 65, pp. 36, pl1. 2.-Formalin for Prerention of Potato Scab.-
Details and results of greenhouse and field experiments with formalin
and in one instance with corrosive sublimate for the prevention of
potato scab, with a discussion of the relation of soil to the increase of
scab. A bibliography of some of the literature on the germicidal, thera-
peutic, and physiological action of frmin is appended.
Bulletin 66, pp. S0, pis. 2, dg.1.-Indoor Lettuce Culture.-Results
of a test of conmercial fertilizers alone and in various combinations in
forcing lettuce in the greenhouse; of investigations made to determine
whether the percentages of moisture and ash in the plants had any rela-
tion the weight of the plants or to the fertilizers used; of two tests
made to determine the effect on yield of restricting the root growth of
lettuce by forcing in pots; of a test of planting lettuce at different dis-
tances; and of investigations made to determine whether lettuce plants
lose weight by bleeding when cut from the roots in marketing. The
history of subwatering in grenhouses is briefly reported, and a modifi-
cation of the method reported in the Annual Report of the Wisconsin
Station for 1896 and used at the station is described.
Bulletin 67, pp. 10.- W heat and Corn as Food for Pigs.-Contains the
results of tests of the value of wheat and corn alone and in various
combinations for pigs. The effect of the different foods on the bone
and internal organs, the proportion of whole grain which passed through
the pigs undigested when fed dry and when soaked, and the period in
life when pigs can be most economically fattened were studied in addi-
tion to the usual studies made in such tests.
Bulletin f8, pp. 32,figs. 13.- The Sugar Beet in Indiana.-This bulletin
reports the results of culture experiments with sugar beets carried on
at the station and throughout the State; gives instructions for sugar-
beet culture; and notes the cost of production, manufacture of beets
into sugar, and the adaptation of Indiana to the sugar-beet industry.
The results of experiments with beets in other States, meteorological
data from 1889 to 1897, inclusive, and statistics for various sugar-pro-
ducing countries are also given.
ulletin 69, pp. 6.-Insecticides, Fungicides, and Spraying.-Directions
are given for the preparation and application of several of the more
comon fungicides and insecticides, and a sort of spray calendar is also






34 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

given in which the directions for the prevention of fungus and insect
attacks are arranged under the names of the host plants.
Annual Report, 1897, pp. 67, figs. 2.-Reports of the director and heads
of departments on the work of the year, including a list of the principal
subjects under investigation at the station; subject list of pamphlet
and newspaper bulletins published in 1897; inventory of station live
stock; results of analyses of a number of feeding materials and of one
sample of marl; description of a cheap outside storage cellar; and
results of tests of 10 varieties of potatoes and of methods of cutting,
of investigations on the fecundity of swine, of tests with varieties of
farm crops, and of experiments with fertilizers and corn cultivators;
monthly summary of the diseases of live stock as reported by 15 vet-
erinarians in Indiana; list of acknowledgments; and the treasurer's
report for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1897.
The work of the Indiana Station has been actively pursued during
the past year and a number of thorough investigations have been con-
ducted. The station is coming into close touch with the farmers through
cooperative work carried on in a number of different places. The uni-
versity with which it is connected is also making increased efforts to
improve the training which is given in the common schools of the State
by tne introduction of nature studies, which include subjects directly
relating to agriculture.
IOWA.
Agricultural Experiment Station, Ames.
DEPARTMENT OF IOWA STATE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND MECHANIC ARTS.
The work of the Iowa Station during the past year has been largely
in continuation of that previously planned and in progress, including
feeding experiments with pigs, steers, sheep, calves, and dairy cows;
breeding experiments with pigs; culture and variety experiments with
sugar beets, cereals, grasses, and other forage crops; studies of soil
moisture; dairy experiments on butter and cheese; chemical analyses
of sugar beets, grasses, feeding stuffs, and dairy products; bacterio-
logical studies, especially of dairy products; horticultural investiga-
tions, especially in hybridizing native and imported fruits and shrubs;
entomological investigations with special reference to grass-feeding
insects and chinch bugs; investigations of the diseases of sheep and
pigs; and botanical studies of grasses, forage plants, and weeds, and
the fungus diseases of forage plants and cereals.
An experiment designed to cover the relative cost of producing pork
from six breeds of swine was completed during the year. The breeds
included in the experiment were the Poland China, Berkshire, Chester
White, Duroc Jersey, Yorkshire, and Tamworth. The primary object
of the experiment was to compare the feeding qualities, economy of
production, and market value of hogs of the lard and bacon types. In
connection with this investigation two lots of the Duroc Jersey breed
were finished for market, one on a highly nitrogenous ration and the
other on a carbonaceous ration. At the conclusion of the feeding test
the hogs were marketed, and careful slaughter and block tests were
made at Chicago. Representative carcasses of each lot were forwarded
to the Division of Chemistry of this Department for analysis, and the
cured product of other carcasses was placed on the English market for
con mparison with the pork ordinarily sold there. A duplicate experiment
covering the same grounds is now in progress.






AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 35

A carload of pure bred and high grade Shorthorn steers has been
raised as skim milk calves, and when finished for market was put on
exhibition at the Trans-ssssippi Exhibition at Omaha, after which
they were sold in Chicago for Christmas beef.
The experiment in feeding lambs from the ranges, previously reported,
has been duplicated during the past year. An experiment in feeding
calves bred on ranges is also in progress.
The college dairy herd, including good representatives of five breeds,
viz, Shorthorn, Jersey, Holstein, Angus, and Red Polled, is being util-
ized by the station to keep a daily record of all the feed consumed by
each cow during her milking period. The milk is weighed atnd sampled
daily, and a coposite sample is tested at the end of each week. All
the feed is debited and all the products creditd at prevailing prices.
Numerous photographs re being nmae to illustrate various breeds and
types, and it is expected that an extensive illustrated report of this
investigation will be published after it has contined several years.
Investigations have bn cntinued on the control of butter flavors,
the methods of curing and ripening cheese, and the comparative quality
of butter made from milkro fresh ad stripper" cows. This has
involved much bacteriological work.
The carefl practical work done in the college creamery, combined
with the investigations by the station experts, has enabled the college
to produce dairy products of high quality, which have been very suc-
cessflly exhibited and sold both at home and abroad. The cllege has
furished this Department with weekly shipments of butter for export
to foreign markets during the past two sumniers.
The imediate supervision of the field experiments has been asigned
to a separate oficer added to the station staff. This has made it pos-
sible to more illy systematize and increase experiments in this line.
An extensive investigation of sugar beets has been ade by the station
in cooperation with this Department, including field trials in numerous
localities and cemincal analyses of the product. Numerous domestic
and imported varieties of grasses, fora plants, and cereas are being
grown and culture tests are being made, and experiments in the improve-
ment of varieties will be undertaken. Studies of the conservation of
soil moisture are being made in connection with the growing of various
field crops. A botanical investigation of the germination of corn has
been made which has included tests of over 350 samples of seed from
various parts of the country, with special reference to soil and atmos-
eric temperature and moisture conditions as affecting germination.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
United States appropriation............................................ $15,000.00
Fees .................................. ............................ -23.00
Farm roduct........................ ........................... 2, 521:38
SMicellaneous................................,.... ...... ............w. 87.48
Tota ... ............ ....... ................................ 17, 631.86
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 35-37 and the Biennia Report for 1896 and 1897.
et 35, pp. 27, figs. 37-Lamb Feeding-Fattenin Rang
Lmb-Raiing Calves on Sparator Milk-f og Cholera and Swine
Plague-Ts of Sheep as Observed in lowa-Quick and Slow Ripening
Seam.-A feeding record for 106 days of 91 lambs embracing 10






36 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

breeds, with block and slaughter tests, and a discussion of the results;
results of a feeding experiment with 252 range lambs representing 4
distinct types; results of experiments in feeding separator milk sup-
plemented by (1) oil meal, (2) corn meal, (3) oatmeal, and (4) corn meal
and flaxseed to calves; popular discussion of the nature of hog cholera
and swine plague, with suggestions regarding their control; a paper
on the principal parasitic diseases of sheep, with suggestions as to pre-
vention and curative treatment; and the results of butter making
experiments with quick-ripened and slow-ripened cream.
Bulletin 36, pp. 615, figs. 19-Soil Moisture--Some Botanical Studies
on Corn-Seed Testing-Leaf Spot Disease of Alfalfa-San Jose
Scale-Fresh v. Stripper Cow Butter-Our Hybrid Roses, Gooseberries,
and Stra wberries.-Results of moisture determinations in different por-
tions of the soil to depths of 4 feet on fall plowed, spring plowed, and
subsoiled plats cultivated and planted to different farm crops; brief
notes on the origin, botanical characteristics, diseases, and enemies of
corn, with results of germination tests of 6 varieties; a brief paper on
seed testing, summarizing the results of the year's work at the station
along this line; notes on the history and character of the alfalfa leaf
spot disease (Pseudopeziza medicaginis) and on the San Jose scale;
results of an experiment to determine the effect of period of lactation
on milk and quality of butter; results of crossing experiments at the
station with roses, gooseberries, and strawberries, and an index to
Bulletins 25-36.
Bulletin 37, pp. 20, fig. 1.-Sugar-Beet Investigations, 1897.-Sum-
marized results of analyses of 1,200 samples of beets grown throughout
the State, with a discussion of the same and suggestions as to methods
of sugar-beet culture.
Biennial Report, 1896 and 1897, pp. 74, pls. 5, figs. 4.-This report is
included in the Seventeenth Biennial Report of the Iowa State College
of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts (pp. 102-175), and includes a report
by the director on the work of the year; reprint of part of the
data which appeared in Bulletin 37 of the station on sugar-beet inves-
tigations; study of the nature, habits, appearance, and life histories
of leaf hoppers; report of the horticulture and forestry section on the
growth of certain forest and fruit trees and on hybrid fruits and shrubs;
a paper on bovine tuberculosis and one on swine plague; report of the
treasurer for the fiscal years ending June 30, 1896 and 1897; an illus-
trated paper on the alfalfa leaf spot disease, and a paper on seed test-
ing, its importance, history, and some results obtained in seed testing
at the station daring 1897, with a partial bibliography on American
seed testing and selection.
The work of the Iowa Station has been increased and strengthened
during the past year. The different lines of work have been further
differentiated and specialized. The liberal policy of the college toward
the station has enabled it to carry on some of its investigations, espe-
cially those in animal husbandry and dairying, on a much larger scale
than the funds given the station under the Hatch Act would otherwise
permit. While the more technical side of the station work is being
strengthened, the investigations having a direct practical bearing are
being conducted with special reference to the development of the agri-
culture of the State along the most profitable lines. In its.work the
station is considering the future as well as the present needs of the
agriculture of the State.





AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 37

KANSAS.
Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, Manhattan.

DEPARTME OF KANSAS STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE.

The work of the Kansa Station during the past year has included
investigations on the diseases of animals, chemical studies on soils,
sugar beets, and corn; horticultural and entomological investigations;
botanical studies of weeds, grasses, forage plants, and seed breeding,
and field and feeding experiments.
Among the investigations on the diseases of animals have been those
on bovine tuberculosis, swine plague, infetious iseases of calves, and
roup in chickens. Black-leg virus is being prepared at the station and
distributed to stockmen. Bacterioloical investigations have been made
on milk with special reference to garget. The veterinarian also actsas
State veterinarian. While this work is very useful, it necessarily
detracts fro the amount of original investigations which the veteri-
narian can perform, and it is therefore hoped that the State may
appoint a separate otcer for this service.
The chemical department has continued studies on soil moisture,
including field and pot experiments on the effect of fertilizers on mois-
ture. Analyses of corn in connection with seed-breeding experiments
have shown great differences in the protein content, not only in differ-
ent varieties, but in different ears and kernels of the same variety.
Experiments with sugar beets have been carried on in cooperation with
this Department on about 400 farms in the State.
The horticultural work has included the testing of varieties of orchard
and small fruits; experiments in the improvement of varieties by selec-
tion, tillage, and crossing; trials of various kinds of cover crops for
orchards as compared with soil mulches; and experients in root
grafting, the wintering of cabbages in cold frames, and spraying for
fungus diseases Investigations on the races of peach trees have been
carried on in cooperation with a committee of the Association of
American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Sttions, and work in
forestry has been continued in cooperation with this Department. The
market methods and facilities of the State have also been investigated.
The entomological investigations have included studies of insects
injurious to flour and stored grain, potato stalk weevil, and scale
insects and other orchard sts. A collection of insects of economic
importance is being made.
The botanist has been giving special attention to studies of Kansas
weeds, and two bulletins on this subject have been published. He has
also made quite extensive microscopic studies on the germ of corn, and
has aided in the conduct of seed breeding experiments. Studies bf
native grasses, especially in the southwestern part of the State, have
been made, and a grass garden is maintained at the station.
"The agricultural department closed out the old line of experiments
and entered upon work entirely new. In the field, experiments are in
progress upon the conservatio of soil moisture, seed breeding, and the
inoculation of the soil with microbes forming tubercles upon the roots
of legumes. All of this work must be pursued for years before results
of value can be secured." Feeding experiments were made with pigs
to test the value of corn, Kafir corn, and soy beans in pork production.
A fay and Kafir corn were also used in feeding experiments with
cows. The discovery of tuberculosis in the station herd neces-






38 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

sarily restricted the amount of feeding experiments which could be
safely conducted during the past year.
The station has recently undertaken to publish weekly press bulle-
tins, which are sent to newspapers throughout the State.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
United States appropriation --..---..--...---....---.----...---- ...--.. $15,000. 00
Farm products ........--.---....... -...-- ..--...... .............-...... 528.04
Total ............................................ .............. 15, 528.04
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 65-78 and the Annual Report for 1897.
Bulletin 65, pp. 18, pis. 5-Grafting the Apple.-A discussion of
the objections usually urged against grafting, with the results of a
series of experiments conducted since 1889 to determine the relative
values of various lengths of stock and scion, and of various positions
of the graft on the stock. A study was also made of the root charac-
teristics of the different lots of grafts. The results of similar experi-
ments by nurserymen in the State are also given.
Bulletin 66, pp. 36, pls. 17-Kansas Weeds, IV.-Fruits and Seeds.-
A catalogue briefly describing 209 species of weeds occurring in Kan-
sas, and giving illustrations of their fruits and seeds.
Bulletin 67, pp. 19-Steer-Feeding Experiments, VI.-Details and results
of feeding experiments made to determine the comparative value of
corn and red and white Kafir corn for steers. A determination of the
percentage of feed passing through the alimentary canal undigested
and of the value of the droppings for pig feeding, as determined by
experiments with shoats, formed part of the experiments.
Bulletin 68, pp. 27, dgms. 9-Soil Moisture.-An account of observa-
tions on the moisture content of different soils treated in different ways-
plowed, plowed and subsoiled, cultivated, fertilized, mulched, surface
raked, etc.-and on evaporation from soils similarly treated in pots.
The results of the experiments are shown in tables and diagrams.
Bulletin 69, pp. 32, figs. 2-Some Diseases of Cattle: Texas Itch, Black
Leg, Tuberculosis, Texas Fever.-A popular account of the causes, symp-
toms, post-mortem appearances, and treatment of these diseases, with
detailed results of a number of tests with tuberculin and a discussion
of the reliability of tuberculin as a diagnostic agent; results of experi-
ments with southern cattle ticks in the production of Texas fever, and
an account of several outbreaks of Texas fever.
Bulletin 70, pp. 28, pis. 5-Vegetable Growing.-Detailed directions
for the construction and use of hotbeds and cold frames and the results
of culture and fertilizer experiments and variety tests with cauliflowers,
early cabbage, asparagus, early potatoes, and onions, and of forcing
experiments in the greenhouse with lettuce and tomatoes.
Bulletin 71, pp. 12.- Experiments with Wheat.-Results of experiments
in growing vwheat continuously without manure, growing it in rotation,
comliparing subsoiled with surface plowed land, seeding at different
dates; and a test of a number of varieties.
Bulletin 72, pp. 6.-Data on the Growth of Young Stock.-A record of
the food eaten and of gains made each day during given periods by
young stock in the station herd during the winter of 1896-97.
Bulletin 73, pp. 13.-7Miscellaneous Fruit Notes.-Comparative notes
on 20 varieties of Munson's hybrid grapes, and notes on the use of the






AGRICULTURAL EXPERLMENT STATIONS. 39

Mariana plum s stock, on peach. plum stocks for peach trees, on
Russian fruits, with descriptive notes on 7 varieties of apples and 10 of
heries, on 11 varieties of plums and 3 of peaches, and on the injurious
results following the use of Dendrolene on peach trees
Buletin 7, pp. 16.- perients with Oat.-Results of culture
perents, variety tests, and tests of light, conon, and heavy oats
for seed, with comparisons of the results in each instance with simila
experiments made at the station for each of the years 189-1897. A test
was also ade of a commercial fngicide, Ceres Pulver," as a remedy
for oat smut.
leti 75, pp. 11, p. 6.-nvestigations of the Root De~elopmnt of
SForage Plants.-The lateral and vertical penetration of the roots
of a number of forage plas as grown in the field and on especially
prepared plats were studied and the results are reported.
Buletin 76, pp. 23, pi. 12.- asas Weeds, V- Veetative Propaga-
tin of Perennial eeds.-A disussion of the methods of vegetative
propagation of prennial weeds and of methods for their destruction,
and the esults of investigations to determine the ability of root cut-
tings to produce adventitious roots. The underground parts of the
various weeds noted are figured and described in considerable detail.
Bulletin 77, pp. 36, jigs. -32.-ome Insects Injurious to the Orchard,-
Popular descptive life history and remedial notes on 10 injurious
orchard insects.
Bulletin 78, pp. 16.- gar Beet.-Report on cooperative culture
experiments with sugar beets, with tabulated results of analyses and a
discussion n te relation to the State of the beet-sugar industry.
Brief directions are also given for the culture of sugar beets.
Anm al Report, 1897, pp. .-his contains a financial report for the
fiscal ye endng June 30, 1897, the station organization list, and the
report of he council, giving an outline of Bulletins 5-74 published by
the station during the year, and an account of the work in progress in
the dierent departments.
The work of the Kansas Station has been actively pursued uring
the past year, and its affairs have been managed in an orderly and
energetic way. There has necessarily been considerable reorganization
in the lines of work. A number of the more important investigations
carried on under the former administration have, however, been con-
tinued, aId the new inquiries undertaken are along lines which are of
much importace to the agriculture of the State. Very much will of
course depend upon the establishment and ontinuance of a permanent
policy in the management of the station, and we hope that nothing
will occur to prevent the successful carrying out of whatever useful
work has been undertaken.
KENTUCKY.
Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station, Lexington.
DEPARTMENT OF THE AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF KENTUCKY.
The work of the Kentucky Station has continued during the past year
mainly along the same lines as heretofore, including field experiments
with cereals, tobacco, hemp, potatoes, et.; variety tests of grasses and
other forage plants: analysis and inspection of commercial fertilizers;
horticultural investigations; studies of plant diseases; entomological
and botanical investigations; daiying, especially studies of the varia
tion in btter fat in the milk of cows; and meteorological observations.






40 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

The entomologist is making a special study of the life history, habits,
and methods of repression of tobacco worms, and is investigating
gapes in chickens. He is also, under the State law, charged with the
inspection of nursery stock to prevent the dissemination of injurious
insects and fungi.
At its session in March, 1898, the State legislature passed a pure-
food law which makes the station responsible for the analysis and
inspection of foods exposed for sale in the State. "The term food as
used in this act shall include every article used for food or drink by
man, horses, or cattle, except spirituous, vinous, and malt liquors." The
expenses of this work are provided for by the State.
The analysis and inspection of commercial fertilizers is also conducted
by the station under the State laws as heretofore, and continues to yield
a considerable net revenue, which is devoted to agricultural investiga-
tions. The station is carrying on field and chemical investigations on
sugar beets in cooperation with this Department.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
United States appropriation ............................................ $15,000.00
Fees for analysis of fertilizers, foods, etc----.....-.....----.........-.... 8, 776.62
Farm products .................--....--..-----.........---- ........--.. 2, 023. 62
Miscellaneous .............. ............................................. 267. 38
Total ......... ..................................-................ 26, 067. 62
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 69-73 and the Annual Report for 1896.
Bulletin 69, pp. 18, pls. 3.- Wheat.-Tabulated results of a test of 17
varieties, with notes on the milling qualities and a synopsis and descrip-
tion of each variety. Brief directions for the preparation and use of
copper sulphate solution for smut in wheat are also given.
Bulletin 70, pp. 14, pls. 4, dgm. 1.-The Woolly Mullein.-The Gape
Disease of Poultry.-Notes on the history and distribution of the
woolly mullein in Kentucky, with an illustrated description of the plant;
and on the nature and common remedies for gapes, with results of
investigations on the source of gapes and on methods for the control
of the disease.
Bulletin 71, pp. 9.-Analyses of Commercial Fertilizers.-Tabulated
analyses and valuations of 34 samples of fertilizers, with the trade
values for essential fertilizer ingredients for 1898.
Bulletin 72, pp. 23, pi. 1.-Potatoes.-Results of fertilizer tests and of
experiments with corrosive sublimate and with sulphur for the control
of potato scab.
Bulletin 73, pp. 15.-Strawberries.-Directions for the culture of
strawberries and descriptive notes on 65 varieties, based on work at the
station and on the experience of some 130 strawberry growers'of the
State.
Annual Report, 1896, pp. 43, Appendix, pp. 114, pis. 4.-Reports of
the heads of the different departments, including the results of analyses
of a number of samples of sugar beets, tobacco, mineral waters, and
miscellaneous substances; notes on the artificial culture and distribu-
tion of the chinch bug fungus and on the nature and distribution of
the woolly mullein; results of experiments with Bordeaux mixture for
the prevention of apple rot; and a meteorological summary for 1896.






AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 41

prnts of Bulletins 61- of the station and an index to the bulletins
and report make up the appendix.
The Kentucky Station has steadily pursued its work during the past
year in accordance with the same policy which has characterized its
operations hitherto. The influence of the station in the State is evi-
denlincreasing, as is indicated by the passage of State laws giving
the station more work to perform for the beneit of the agriculture of
Kentucky.
LOUISIANA.
No. 1. Sugar Experiment Station, Audubon Park, New Orleans.
No. 2. State Experiment Station, Baton Rouge.
No. 3. North Louisiana Experiment Station, Calhoun.
DEPARTMENT OF OUIANA STATEA UNIVERSITY AND AGRICULTURAL AND MECIIAN-
ICAL COLLEG.E.
The work of the three Louisiana stations during the past year has
been mainly along the same lines as heretolbre, some of the principal
lines of investigation being the following:
Supar -tatio.-L nvestigations on the breeding, ertilizing, culture,
and improvement of sugar cane aid the imanu'acture of cane sugar;
chemical, microscopical, and biological studies of sugar cane and its
prodtucts; field experiments with alfalfa, sorghum, velvet bean, and
other forage plants; chemical and other studies of soils; horticultural
investigations, especially on citrus fruits; and drainage and irrigation
experiments.
Xrate tation.-Field experiments with tobacco, corn, cotton, and
other crops; horticultural investigations, including greenhouse experi-
ments; investigations il entomology and veterinary science, especially
on a new fruit bud inset and Texas fever; bacteriological studies on
sugar cane and composts; and experiments in feeding animals with

orth Losiaa Statin.-Irrigation experiments with special refer-
ence to the amounts of water required by different kinds of plants;
experimets in the use of cowpes for green manuring, accoitml) ied by
analyses of the soil; field experiments with tobacco, alfalfa, clovers,
and other crops; rotation experiments; work in dairying; and experi-
ments with poultry.
Special success has attended the experiments of the stations with
alfalfa, velvet bean, and tobacco. Trials are being made of growing
sugar beets in the winter. If this can be successfully done it will mean
an extension of the time during which the sugar house can be operated.
The director has published the first volume of a treatise on the history,
botany, and agriculture of sugar cane and the chemistry and manu-
facture of its juices into sugar and other products. Work in connectioh
with the State geological survey has been continued by the station at
New Orleans under State laws. Analyses of commercial fertilizers and
par green are made by the State station for the State commissioner
of agriculture The Sugar Planters' Association continues to render
fiancial aid to the station at New Orleans.
The income of the stations during the past fiscal year was as follows:
UntedState appropriation............. .... ................ .. $15, 000. 00
State appropriation --...... ........... ......... ......... ......... 18,000.00
es for analyses of fertilizers and paris green.......................... 6,580.38
Farm product ......................................................... 747.69
lla eo s........................................ .............. 6, 450. 72
I Totl............................................................ 46,778.79






42 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The publications of these stations received during the past fiscal
year were Bulletins 47-51, Report on Geology and Agriculture, Part
IV, and the Annual Report for 1897.
Bulletin 47, pp. 21.-Results of Experiments with Corn, Cotton, Forage
Crops, Tobacco, etc.-Variety and fertilizer tests.
Bulletin 48, pp. 32, pls. 5, figs. 18.-Report of the Entomologist.-Report
on the life histories, habits, appearances, and control of a number of
injurious insects, with a list of parasites, bred from insects, at the sta-
tion and the text of the State law relative to the importation and distri-
bution in the State of fruit trees, cuttings, shrubs, etc., affected with
infectious diseases or with insects.
Bulletin 49, pp. 42.-Analyses of Commercial Fertilizers and Paris
Green.-This bulletin gives the text of the State fertilizer and paris
green law; discusses the nature and sources of the various fertilizing
materials supplying nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potash in fertilizers,
and the valuation of fertilizers; gives a list of guaranteed analyses of
fertilizers licensed for sale during the seasons of 1896 and 1897, and
reports analyses of 171 samples of fertilizing materials and 39 samples
of paris green.
Bulletin 50, pp. 20, figs. 2.-Red Rice.-Results of investigations to
determine the origin and botanical relations of red rice and of tests of
17 varieties. The plant is described and the natural provision for the
preservation of its seed is discussed. Suggestions are also given as to
means of preventing red-rice seed from maturing or being sown in the
field.
Bulletin 51, pp. 53, pis. 5, figs. 2.-Cattle Tick and Texas Fever.- A
discussion of the distribution, symptoms, and control of the disease,
with an account of the life history of the Southern cattle tick and the
results of a number of experiments to determine the condition of devel-
opment of the tick and the efficiency of serum treatment for cattle.
Geology and Agriculture, Part IV, pp. 31.-A Preliminary Report
upon the Bluff and Mississippi Alluvial Lands of Louisiana.-Geo-
graphical and geological descriptions of these regions, with notes on
the origin and history of rivers and suggestions as to means of pro-
tection against Mississippi floods.
Annual Report, 1897, pp. 12.-A report on the operations of the
Sugar Experiment Station at Audubon Park, New Orleans, the State
Station at Baton Rouge, and the North Louisiana Station at Calhoun,
with a list of the bulletins published during the year and the organi-
zation of each station. A financial statement is given for the fiscal
year ending July 1, 1897, together with a subject list of the first
and second series of station publications and of special bulletins
issued. The results of culture experiments with sugar cane and forage
crops are briefly reported.
The work of the Louisiana stations has been actively and success-
fully prosecuted during the past year in accordance with the same
general policy as heretofore. Its investigations are increasing in
thoroughness and efficiency and opening up new lines of progress for
the agriculture of the State.












































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AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 43

MAINE.
Maine Agricultural Experiment Station, Orono.
DEPARTMENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MAINE.

The work of the Maine Station during the past year has included
investigations on the food and nutrition of man and domestic animals;
poultry experiments; box and field experiments with fertilizers; horti-
cultural investigations; botanical and entomological investigations;
and work in veterinary science and practice. The digestion experi-
ments with shep have been continued. The fertilizer experiments
have had special reference to the availability of phosphoric acid. In
horticulture much attention is being given to studies in plant breeding.
The experiments with poultry are a comparatively new line of work for
this station. The poultry house, completed near the end of 1897, was
burned the following May, but has since been replaced by a new and
improved house (Plate IV). Specially devised nests have been con-
structed by which a complete record is kept of the eggs laid by eah hen.
Feeding experiments and other investigations with poultry will be made.
The work on the nutrition of man has continued to be in cooperation with
this Department, and includes especially studies on the nutritive value
and digestibility of cereals ad bread and investigations with the bomb
calorimeter. Under State laws the station has the inspection of fer-
tilizers, cra ry glassware, feeding stuffs, and seeds. The laws relat-
ing to feeding stuffs and seeds, which have bee in operation only one
year, are giving quite satisactory resuls.
The income of the station during the past fiscal yer was as follows:
United p.................................... $15,00.00
Fees nspection service .... .............. ...................... .... 4, 249. 87
Horticultural products................................................. 1,132.59
ell eo ..................... ............................... 1, 708. 49

Total............................................................ 22,090.95
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
as been rendered in accodance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 33-44 and the Annual Report for 1896.
Bulletin 33, pp. 16.-Fertilizer Inspection.-The text of the State fer-
tilizer law, a schedule of trade values of fertilizing ingredients for 1896,
with notes on valuation, and tabulated analyses of 105 samples of fer-
tilizing materials.
Bulletin 34, pp. 8, fig. 1, dgm. 1.-Box Eperiments ith Phosphates.--
A brief popular summary of results of experiments given in detail in
the Annual Report of the Station for 1895.
Bletin 35, pp. 8, pl. 1.-The Currant Fly.-Notes on the history,
distribution, appearance and life history of this insect, with sugges-
tions as to methods of ontrol.
B etin 36 pp. 8.-Tein Seeds.-The text of the State law regu-
lating the sale of agricultral seeds in Maine, and rules for testing the
purity of seeds. Standards of purity and germination of agricultural
seeds are quoted.
Blletin 37, pp. 8.-Feeding-stuff Inspection.-The text of the State
eedng-stuff law, with comments on its chief provisions.
,H Doc. 121 -






44 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

Bulletin 38, pp. 32.-Fertilizer Inspection.-A summary of the provi-
sions of the State fertilizer law, list of manufacturers complying with
the law in 1897, and tabulated analyses of 172 samples of fertilizers.
Bulletin 39, pp. 8.-Stock-feeding Suggestions.-General remarks on
feeding, with table showing digestible nutrients in various feeding
stuffs, and rations for milch cows, work cattle, growing cattle, and
horses.
Bulletin 40, pp. 8.-Gelery.-A popular article on celery culture,
including notes on soil, fertilizers, starting plants, cultivation, blanch-
ing, storage, etc.
Bulletin 41, pp. 8.-Dehorning.-A popular discussion of the subject,
with notes on the results of dehorning a part of the station herd.
Bulletin 42, pp. 8.-Ornamenting Home Grounds.-Popular notes on
lawns, flower gardens, what to plant, and arrangement of trees and
shrubs, with a list of native trees and shrubs valuable for planting in
Maine.
Bulletin 43, pp. 8.-Fertilizer Inspection.-Tabulated analyses of 128
samples of fertilizers, with a synopsis of the chief provisions of the
State fertilizer law.
Bulletin 44, pp. 16.-Feeding-stuff Inspection.-Tabulated analyses
(food constituents) of 142 samples of feeding stuffs, with notes on the
preparation of some of the feeds and on the chief requirements and
beneficial operation of the State feeding-stuff law.
Annual Report, 1896, pp. 227, pls. 6, figs. 7.-This embraces the report
of the director, giving a general summary of the operations of the sta-
tion during the year; list of reports of the station still available for
distribution; list of acknowledgments; illustrated descriptions of new
fittings of the station cow stable; results of analyses of 25 miscellane-
ous fodders and feeding stuffs and of experiments to determine the most
profitable amount of seed per acre for corn; results of investigations
on the value of sunflowers and English horse beans as silage crops, of
tests of separators, and of feeding experiments with milch cows to test
the relative values of different foods and the effect of temperature and
of a condiment (Nutriotone) on the production of milk; tests of the
effect of tuberculin on tuberculous cows; comparative and descriptive
notes on a large number of fruits in the station orchard; notes on
the construction, care, and management of forcing houses and the
growing of winter vegetables; notes on plants, seeds, and weeds, and
on the injurious insects of the year, including descriptions of a new
garden Smynthurid (Smynthurus albamaculata); meteorological sum-
mary for the six months ending December 31, 1896; brief abstract of
Bulletin 37 of this office, on Dietary Studies at the Maine State Col-
lege;" abstracts and reprints of station bulletins 23-31; text of the
State inspection laws, and an index.
The work of tle Maine Station has been actively and successfully
prosecuted during the past year. The inspection work of the station
has materially increased. The policy has been adopted of issuing fre-
quent bulletins of a popular character, and special efforts have been
made in this and other directions to bring the station into closer touch
with the farmers. At the same time the original investigations have
been steadily and energetically pursued, and the work in this direction
continues to be concentrated on a few important subjects.



































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AGRICULTURAL EXPERIENT STATINS. 45

MARYLAND.
Maryland Agricultural xperiment Station, College Park.
DEPARTMENT OF MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE.

The work of the Maryland Station during the past year has been
mainly along the sam lines as heretofore, including chemical investi-
gations, especially of feeding stuffs; feeding and digestion experiments
with cows, pig, and horses; breeding experimen with dairy cattle;
field experiments with corn, tobaco, otatoes, cereals, forage plants,
lie and fertilizers; horticultural experiments, including culture tests
with cantaloupe and spraying experiments for tomato blight; entomo-
logical investigations, especially on a new peach mite; studies of plant
and aunial diseases, and work in dairying. Studies of soils have been
carried on in cooperation with this Department. Special experiments
with reference to the more complete utilization of corn fodder have been
continued. A valuable report on feeding and digestion expriments
with horses was published during the year.
At the end of the year the director of the station resigned, and the
chemist was elected to fill this vacancy. Under his direction an office
building for the horticulturist and agriculturist, greenhouses for horti-
cultural work (Plate V), and a tobacco barn for air curing have been
erected. Plans are being ade for experiments in soil physics and irri-
gtio with special reerence to the trucking interests of the State.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
Unit~d~t tsapropriatieu----------It 1 ---------l------------ II-----$15,000.0

Total ............................. ...... ...... .......... 16,858.12
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been redered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 47-56 and the Annual Report for 1897.
Blletin 47, pp. 12.-Dairy Farmng.-A popular bulletin on this
subject.
ulleti 4, pp. 1, gs. 7.- me Common Injurious Plant Lice, with
uggestions for their Destruction.-A popular bulletin on this subject,
including descriptive notes on spraying apparatus.
Bulletin 49, pp. 56.-Coposition of Commercial Fertilizers.-A sched-
ule of the trade values of fertilizing materials; list of fertilizers
licensed for sale in Maryland for the year ending February 1, 1898;
and tabulated analyses and valuations of 390 samples of fertilizers'
examined during the perio from February to July, 1897.
Bulletin 50, pp. 6, pl. 1.- ust and Leopard pot-Two Dangerous Dis-
eases of Aparagus- otes on the general appearance and nature of
these di s, with suggestions as to remedies.
Bulletin 51 pp. 25.-Horse Feedig.-Details and tabulated results of
te with horses of the digestibili of whole and ground oats, shell
r and corn meal, timothy hay, and a new corn product; also of a
l of some rations in which the new corn product was used as a sub-
titute for hay.
Bullein 52, pp. 57, fi. 1.-Composition of Commercial Fertilizers-
bulated analyses and valuations of 393 samples of fertilizing mate-
s used during the period from August, 1897, to January, 1898; a






46 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

list of fertilizers licensed for sale in Maryland for the year ending Feb-
ruary 1, 1898; and the text of the State fertilizer law.
Bulletin 53, pp. 5.-Special Investigation of the so-called New" Horse
Disease in Maryland.-This disease was identified by the station vet-
erinarian as cerebro-spinal meningitis. The disease is described and
information relative to its cause, treatment, and prevention summarized.
Bulletin 54, pp. 17.-Tomatoes.-Results of variety tests and of spray-
ing experiments with Bordeaux mixture for the prevention of tomato-
leaf blight for the two years 1886 and 1887.
Bulletin 55, pp. 13.-The Black Peach Aphis.-Cutworms in Young
Tobacco.-Law Providing for the Suppression and Control of Insect Pests
and Plant Diseases in Maryland.-Popular illustrated notes on these
insects, with remarks on spraying apparatus, and the text of the State
law relative to the control of insect pests and plant diseases.
Bulletin 56, pp. 14.--Wheat, Winter Oats, Barley, and Lime Experi-
ments.-The experiments consisted of variety tests of wheat and win-
ter oats; a study of the effects of lime on the production of wheat, hay,
and corn; a test of lime and cowpeas as a preparation for wheat; trials
of seeding winter oats at different times, and a test of the hot water
treatment of barley seed for the prevention of smut.
Annual Report, 1897, pp. 5.-A brief report by the director on the
station staff and publications and outlining the general experimental
work for the six months ending June 30, 1897, and a financial report
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1897.
The Maryland Station has accomplished considerable useful work
during the past year, and the outlook for the further development of
its operations is promising. There has been of late a rapidly increas-
ing sentiment in the State in favor of a more liberal policy regarding
enterprises for the benefit of agriculture. It is believed that much of
this sentiment is due to the work of the experiment station. Besides
the regular courses in agriculture, several enterprises affecting the
agricultural interests of the State are now in charge of the college
with which the station is connected. The inspection of commercial
fertilizers has for some time been conducted by the college, and at its
last session the legislature passed a horticultural bill providing $10,000
for the first year and $8,000 per annum thereafter for the inspection of
insects and plant diseases of nursery stock and orchards. This work
will be in charge of the college. A system of farmers' institutes is
also in operation under the college, and this work is being actively
prosecuted. Plans are being made for the strengthening of the horti-
cultural work of the station, and the appointment of a special officer
to have charge of the station creamery has recently been provided for.
It is hoped that in this way it may be possible to develop the dairy
work of the station along experimental lines.

MASSACHUSETTS.
Hatch Experiment Station of the Massachusetts Agricultural College,
Amherst.
DEPARTMENT OF TIE MASSACHUSETTS AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE.
The work of the Massachusetts Station during the past year has
included soil tests with corn and potatoes grown in several localities,
and field experiments with different kinds of fertilizers; variety, ferti-
lizer, and culture experiments with corn, potatoes, grasses, clover,
m1illets, etc.; analysis and inspection of fertilizers; chemical studies






AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 47

of tobacco grown with different fertilizers; investigation of the nutri-
tie value of salt marsh hay; botanical investigations on the brown rot
of stone fruit, chrysanthemum rust, and leaf blights of native trees;
horticultural experiments, including tests of varieties of fruits and
seeds of vegetables, and an investigation of the use of hydrocyanic
acid as an insecticide; entomological investigations, especially on the
brown-tail moth and plume moths, and experiments with insecticides
for the canker worm and gypsy moth; studies on the economic value
of the American toad and on nemiat4les; meteorological observations
and studies of soil moisture; feeding experiments with pigs, dairy
cows, and poultry.
The important investigations on nematodes which this station has
been carrying on for three yeas have resulted in the discovery of a
cheap and effetual means of rrpessing this pest, which ha caused
great destruction among crops grown under glass. The life history of
the nematode has also been thoroughly worLed out. Special investi-
gations on the use of nitragin for the inoculation of soil in which
clovers and alfalf were grown gave negative results. In experiments
in which corn meal, homiiy, and cerealie feeds were compared fr or pork
production, when fed in combination with skiim milk the pigs did quite
as well on the hominy and cerealineas on an equal amount of corn meal.
Salt marsh hay when combined with grain and silage produced nearly
as much milk and butter as an equal amount of English hay thus
combined. Experiments with cotton seed feed for milch cows indicated
that this material had no advantage over hay. The entomologist has
continued to cooperate with the State Gypsy Moth Commission in
efforts for the repression of the gypsy minoth. Under the State law the
station has undertaken the inspection of commercial feeding stuffs, and
:te results of its work in this direction have already attracted wide
attention.
The college is erecting a veterinary laboratory and hospital, for which
a State appropriation of $25,000 was mde, together with an annual
appropriation of $1,000 for a maintenance flind. These buildings will
be used in part by the station for investigations in veterinary science.
A dairy building for experimental work is also being erected, which
will include rooms for pasteurizing and cream ripening and for the milk-
receiving vat, selpaator, churn, and butter worker.
The income of the station during the past tiscal year was as follows:
United Statesappropriation .. ......... ........ ............ ........ ..... $15,000. 00
tate appopratons ................................................... 11,200.00
Fees--........----....--........---............................................... 3,278.75
Farm products ........................................................ 1,763.86
Micellaneous..... .................................................... 1,683.18

Total................ ............ ................................ 32, 925.79
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 45-53, a special bulletin on The Brown tail Moth, Mete-
orological Bulletins 102-113, and the Annual Report for 1897.
ulletin 45,pp.16.-Commercial Fertilizers.-Brief general remarks on
the use of barnyard manure and commercial fertilizers; a schedule of
rae values of fertilizing materials for 1897, with notes on valuation;
t of the State fertilizer law; a list of instructions to dealers in fer
s and tabulated analyses of 43 samples of fertilizing materials"






48 AGRICULTURAL ELPERIMENT STATIONS.

Bull3tin 46, pp. 30, figs. 25.-Habits, Food, and Economic Value of the
American Toad.-A general discussion on the life history and habits of
toads, with details and results of a study on the stomach contents of
149 toads; notes on natural enemies; and a brief bibliography.
Bulletin 47,pp. 31.-Field Experiments with Tobacco in Massachusetts.-
Results of cooperative fertilizer and culture experiments at Hatfield,
Agawam, and Westfield for the three years 1893-1896, with a summary
of results for the whole period, including data on the yield, quality of
ash, fire-holding capacity, and relative rank of the tobaccos grown on
plats differently fertilized. Analyses of the fertilizers used are also
given.
Bulletin 48, pp. 24.-Analyses of Fertilizers.-Tabulated analyses of 177
samples of fertilizing materials, with a discussion of the composition of
ashes, and comments on the fertilizing value of some of the other fertil-
izing materials analyzed.
Bulletin 49, pp.24.-Analyses of Commercial Fertilizers and other Manu-
rial Substances. Tabulated analyses of 259 samples of fertilizing
materials.
Bulletin 50, pp. 48, figs. 6.-Feeding Value of Salt Marsh Hay.--llus-
trated descriptions of six salt marsh grasses, notes on methods of har-
vesting salt marsh hay, analyses of salt hays, and the results of feeding
experiments with salt grasses to determine their value as compared with
English hay for milk production, with notes on the effect of the hays on
the flavor of the butter and on the composition of the milk.
Bulletin 51, pp. 12.-Analyses of Fertilizers.-Trade values of fertil-
izing ingredients in 1897, and tabulated analyses of 94 samples of fertil.
izing materials.
Bulletin 52, pp. 19.-Variety Tests of Fruits-Spray Calendar.-A
report on the most promising varieties of orchard and small fruits
growing at the station, tabulated data being given in some instances;
on the treatment given each fruit; on the results of summer v. winter
pruning of plums; and on cold-storage tests with different varieties of
apples. Notes on spraying and a spray calendar are appended.
Bulletin 53, pp. 24, figs. 3.-Concentrated Feed Stuffs.-A popular
discussion on the nature, classification, and preparation of concen-
trated feeds, with the text of the State law relative to concentrated
feeds, and the results of analyses of 261 samples of such feeds.
Special Bulletin, pp. 15, pls. 3, fig. 1.-The Brown-tail Moth.-The
discovery of this new pest in Massachusetts and in the United States
is briefly related, its synonym discussed, and the adult, larval, and
pupal stages described. A list is given of its food plants, with notes
on its natural enemies and means of control. The text of the Massa-
chusetts State law relative to this insect is also given.
Meteorological Bulletins 102-113, pp. 4 each.-Notes on the weather
and monthly summaries of meteorological observations for the year
ending May 31, 1898, with an annual summary in the December number.
Annual Report, 1897, pp. 138, pls. 2 -This embraces a brief summary
of the work of the year, including the station organization; report of
the treasurer for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1897; report'of the
agriculturist on soil tests with corn and potatoes, tests with different
forms and combinations of commercial fertilizers on field and garden
crops, and a test of a special corn fertilizer v. a fertilizer richer in pot-
ash, studies on leguminous crops as nitrogen gatherers, experiments
with nitrogen, variety tests with miscellaneous field crops, the worth-
lessness of a reported method for destroying stumps, and on feeding
experiments with laying hens; brief report of the meteorologist; report






AGRICULTURAL EXPERINT STATIONS. 49

of the botanist on the work of the year, with a popular discusion of
the causes of the failure of the poto crop in Massachusetts in 1897,
and extended notes on the nature, appearance, treatment, etc., of a
number of plant diseases; port of the horticulturist on various seed-
ng fruits growing at the station and on the miscellaneous work of the
department; report of the chemist (division of food and feeding) on the
general work of the department with the details and results of feeding
experiments to determine the value of cottn-seed feed as a hay sub-
stitute for milch cows; report of the entomologist on some of the more
injurious insects of the seson; report of the chemist (department of
fertilizers) on the official inspection of commercial fertilizers and agri-
cultural chemicals in 1897, the general work of the chemical laboratory,
including analyse of a number of miscellaneous substances, and field
experiments with various fertilizers on tobacco; and an ndex.
The Massachusetts Station continues to perform a large amount of
useful work Its investigations in a number of lines are increasing in
thoroughness, and its facilities for original research are being extended.



xperment tation of Michigan Agricultural College, Agricultural College.
DEPARTM ZNT OF MICHIGAN AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE,

The work of the Michigan Station during the past year has included
variety, culture, and rotation experiments with wheat, forage plants,
sugar beets, and other crops; feeding experiments, especially with
dairy cattle, sheep, and pigs; horticultural experiments; fertilizer anal-
ysis and inspection; chemical studies of wheat and flour with special
reference to the detection and prevention of adulteration of flour;
entomological investigations; work in apiculture; botanical and bac-
teriological studies; and invetigations on animal diseases, especially
tuberculosis.
In horticulture, besides the testing of a large number of varieties,
experimens were made in irrigation, spraying for plant diseases, com-
parison of races of peaches, and culture and fertilizer tests of fruits
and vegetables. The equipment of this department has been improved
by the building of a cld-storae house. A book on greenhouse man-
agement by the horticulturist was published during the year. Arrange-
ments have been made for the further development and specialization
of the field work by the appointment of an agriculturist and a soil
physicist. Special experiments have been made on the rotation of
forage crops for sheep and the reclamation of swamp soils. The station
has also carried on, in cooperation with this Department, numerous
tests of sugar beets in different parts of the State, the results of which
indicate that a large part of Michigan is well adapted to the production
of sugar beets of a high quality. Sixty acres of woodland on the
statio farm are to be devoted in the future to forestry investigations.
There is a pressing demand for information on forestry subjects in the
8tate, and the station has met this to some extent by the preparation
of bulletins of information on this subject. The results of several
years experiments on the effect of different conditions of care and
feing on the yield and composition of milk are being summarized for
blication. The equipment of the station for work with domestic
als has been increased by the construction of a new barn.






50 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
United States appropriation .--....---....--........----......--------.................... $15, 000. 00
Fees for fertilizer inspection ---...--------------.- -- --........ -........ 1, 380. 00
Farm products ..--.--...-..---...-- --..----.......----..---........... 267.04
Miscellaneous..--..---...-------------------------------------........... 2,893.74
Total .--------------......-------------------..................... 19,440.78
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 145-156; Special Bulletins 2, 4-6, and 8, and the Annual
Report for 1896.
Bulletin 145, pp. 23.-Fertilizer Analyses.-This bulletin reports the
analyses of 55 samples of fertilizers examined during 1897, with a
schedule of trade values of fertilizing ingredients and a popular dis-
cussion on the nature, value, and use of fertilizers.
Bulletin 146, pp. 19.-Bacteria and the Dairy.-A popular bulletin on
this subject, treating of the fermentations of milk, means of infection,
use of pure cultures, etc.
Bulletin 147, pp. 28, figs. 3.-Pasteurization of Mlilk.-Results of inves-
tigations along the following lines: The isolation of species of bacteria
from pasteurized milk, determination of the source and thermal death
point of such bacteria, a study of their actions upon milk, and a study
of the effects of sudden cooling after pasteurization and of the restrain-
ing influence of heat, cold, and of heat followed by low temperatures
upon the species of bacteria isolated, together with notes on the value
of pasteurization. The histories of 19 of the 39 varieties of bacteria
isolated are given in detail.
Bulletin 148, pp. 13.-Strawberries.-Results of a test of 90 varieties,
with descriptive notes on 42 varieties fruited for the first time at the
station in 1897, and on 54 new varieties of 1896.
Bulletin 149, pp. 53, figs. 2.-Feeding Dairy Cows.-A popular discus-
sion on concentrated feeds, the principles of feeding, calculation of
rations, etc., with remarks on feeding the station herd, a summarized
record of which is given for three winters. Analyses are given of the
feeding stuffs used, with notes on the new dairy barn at the station,
and on the culture, yield, and value of different silage crops, hays,
root crops, etc., grown at the station, and suggestions for standard
rations for Michigan conditions. The effect of potatoes on the digesti-
bility of rations and on the quality of butter was also determined
experimentally, and the results are recorded.
Bulletin 150, pp. 36, figs. 6, map 1.-Sugar Beets in Michigan.-Reports
of experiments with sugar beets at the station and of cooperative
experiments made by farmers throughout the State. Results of numer-
ous analyses are tabulated, notes on the soil and climatic conditions for
sugar beets are given, and a number of varieties of beets are described.
The mean weekly temperature and rainfall for the beet season is given
in a table, together with the text of the State law for the encourage-
ment of the manufacture of beet sugar.
Bulletin 151, pp. 7.-Raspberries, Blackberries, and Grapes.-Results of
tests of varieties, with descriptive notes on some of the varieties tested.
Bulletin 152, pp. 50.-Report of South Haven Substation, 1897.-Results
of tests of varieties of a large number of orchard and small fruits, nuts,
etc., with comparative notes on some of the varieties tested.
Bulletin 153, pp. 27.- Vegetable Tests of 1897.-Results of variety tests






AGRICULTURAL EXPERINT STATIONS. 51

of a large number of new and standard varieties of vegetables, with
descriptive notes on some of the varieties tested.
Bulletin 154, pp. 30, dgm. .-Some Eperiments in Corn Raising.-
This bulletin gives a report of the work with selection of seed, thick-
ess of planting, and cultivation of corn, and on the study of the rela-
tivevalue of the leaves, stalks, and ears; the loss in the silo of corn cut
at different stages of growth, and the stage of growth when the crop
contas the largest amount of nutriment. The results are tabulated
and discussed.
Buletin 155, pp. 17.-Spraying Calendar for 1895.-Directions for the
preparation and use of a number of insecticides and fungicides, with
notes on several of the more important insects and plant diseases.
Bulletin 156, pp. 11.-Preliminary Report of State Inspector of Nurs-
ries and Orchards and Laws Relating to the Same.-The report consists
of brief notes on the general result of the inspection, and gives a list
of the nurserymen and dealers who have taken out licenses under the
law up to March 25, 1898.
Specia Bulletin 2, pp. 43, figs. 3.-ests of ouse and Ornamental
Plats.-Directions for the preparatio of a large number of insecti-
cides, with illustrated descriptions ad notes on the habits and treat-
ment of some*24classes and species of insects. Original dawings are
given of a number of the insects described.
Special Bulletin 4, pp. 19.-The Aple Orchard.-praying: Why and
o .-A popular bulletin, giving suggestions for the culture of apples
d formulas for the preparation and use of insecticides and fungicides.
Special Bulletin 5, pp. 10.-Forecats o Frots.-A popular discussion
of the means of orecasting frosts and protecting plants from injury.
Special Bulletin6,pp. 17, figs. 10.-Building ilos.-General considera-
tions in the constirction of silos are discussed, and methods of construc-
tion of stave silos, round silos with horizontal lining, and rectangular
and square silos are explained, with plans and specifications.
pecial Bletin 8, pp. 4.-Plantg uar Beets.-Brief cultural direc-
tions.
Annual Report, 1896,pp. 93-469, dgm. 3, figs. 33.-This embraces the
report of the treasurer for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1896; brief
report by the director sumarizing the work of the year; report of the
agriculturist, including a record of the college dairy herd, with a dis-
cussion of e same, notes on the feeding value of potatoes for milch
cows results of culture experiments with corn and sorghum for silage,
notes on the results of feeding experiments with hens and of experi-
ments to test the best relation between the size of the poultry house
and the area of glass, field experiments with various fertilizers and
farm crops, records of dynamometer tests with wide and narrow tired
wagons, and results of experiments to determine the shrinkage of cord
wood in seasoning; report of the horticulturist on the work of the
department, with diagrams of the orchard at the station and at the
South Haven Substation, and notes on various insects and diseases,
etc.; brief reports of the chemist and of the veterinarian, summarizing
the work of their respective departments for the year; report of the
botanist on a number of weeds, etc.; report of the entomologist on the
urious insects of the season; report of the apiarist, including the
results of a number of experiments with natural and artificial swarms,
foundation comb, foul brood, extracting candied honey, feeding back,
winter storing of hives, etc.; reprints of Bulletins 125-133 of the sta-
i; and a meteorological record for the year 1895.
The work of the Michigan Station has been very industriously car-






52 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

ried on during the past year and has made a healthy growth in a num-
ber of useful lines. The provision which has been made for the division
and specialization of the work in soils, plant production, and animal
husbandry promises to increase the efficiency of the station's opera-
tions. The greatly increased demand which has of late been made
upon the station for information in different lines is a good indication
of the growing interest in its work. The station has evidently reached
a point where it should receive financial assistance from the State for
its more general work, in order that the Hatch fund may be strictly
applied to original investigations.

MINNESOTA.
Agricultural Experiment Station of the University of Minnesota, St. Anthony
Park.
DEPARTMENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA.
The work of the Minnesota Station during the past year has included
field experiments with grain and forage crops, flax grown for fiber and
for seed, rotation of crops, etc.; horticultural and forestry investiga-
tions; entomological investigations, especially with reference to the
repression of the chinch bug and grasshoppers; chemical studies of
soils, foods, etc.; investigations in dairy farming and dairying; studies
in veterinary science and practice, especially on hog cholera, tuberculo-
sis, and the use of cathartics; feeding experiments with cattle, sheep,
and swine; pasturage experiments with sheep; and breeding experi-
ments with sheep and swine. The work on the breeding of varieties of
grain and forage and root crops has been continued. The experiments
in growing summer forage for sheep have been very successful, and
attention is now being given to the problem of raising and preserving
forage for the winter feeding of sheep. The studies on the nutritive
value and digestibility of flour and bread have been continued in coop-
eration with this Department. The station has also cooperated with
this Department in experiments in forestry and with sugar beets. An
important treatise on forestry with special reference to Minnesota con-
ditions has recently been published by the horticulturist of the station.
The substations at Crookston and Grand Rapids have been continued
in the same way as heretofore, the State providing funds for their main-
tenance.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
United States appropriation ..................-----....---........--..-- $15, 000.00
State -----......--------- ..------------------.....-----------------.. 11, 086. 57
Farm products ...........-.... ---.... .. ................-- ....---......... 5,013. 06
Total..............................------------------------------------.........--.................... 31, 099.63
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 53-56 and the Annual Report for 1896.
Bulletin 53, pp. 31, chart 1.-Effect of the Rotationof Crops upon Huuus
Conntt and the Fertility of Soils-Production of Humus from Manures.-
Results of experiments during 4 years to determine the relative effect
on humus content of growing wheat, corn, oats, and barley continu-
ously on the same soil and of growing these same crops in rotation with






AGRICULTURAL EXPERIM1ENT STATIONS. 53

over and manure; and of experiments to study the variation in the
composition of humus and humates of different origin.
Bulletin 54,pp. 54, figs. 5.-Human Food Investigations-The Rational
Feeding of e esuts of investigations to determine the composi-
tion and value of gluten in wheat, the digestibilit and composition of
bread, the loss of food value by prolonging fermentation in bread
making, and the digestibility of potatoes and the loss of food value
when potatoes o,o and cabbage are boiled in different ways
(reported in Bulletin 43 of this office); and a general discussion on the
ratioal feeding of men, including tables on the composition and cost
of foods.
Bulletin 55, pp. 296, figs. 187.- Grasshoppr,, Crickets, Cock-
roachest, e of Minesota.-This contains descriptions of the habits of
the most destructive species of lcausts, with suggestions as to methods
of combating them; an anatomica description of one species; classifi-
cation of Orthoptera; and illustrated descriptions of nearly all of the
orthopterous insects known to exist in Minnesota.
Blletin 56, pp. 40, figs. 4.-Suar Beets.-A summary of the sugar-
beet investigations in Minnesota from 188 to 198, a report on the work
fr 1897, and an outlie of the proposed experiments for 1898.
Annual R port, 96, pp. 498.-This embraces financial statements for
the 18 months ending June 30, 1897; report of the director, giving an
outline of the work of the period and including records and data rela-
tive to the establishment of a substation at Grand Rapids, Itasca
County; reprints of Bulletins 47-52 of the station; technical data on
tubercuin experiments; and a record of meteorological observations.
The Minnesota Station is well managed and is successfully prosecut-
ing a large atoulit of useful work. The State continues to liberally
supplement the national funds for its maintenance.

MISSISSIPPI.
Mspp Agricultural Experiment Station, Agricultural College.
DEPARTMNT OF MISSISIPPI AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE.
he work of the Mississippi Station during the past year has included
chemical and physical stuies of soils; botanical studies on leguminous
plants and grasses; feeding experiments with dairy and beef cattle;
field experiments with cotton, corn, grasses, forage plants, and perma-
nent pastures; horticultural investigations, including variety tests of
peaches, plums, and strawberries; experiments with fertilizers, and on
rrigation problems; and studies of animal diseases, especially South-
er cattle fever and tuberculosis. Owing to a change in the director
of the station the work has been somewhat reorganized during the year.
The most prominent features of the work of this station are now the
soil investigations, pot experiments with fertilizers, and studies on the
value of cotton products and leguminous plants for milk and butter
production inte South. The work on soils includes a soil survey of
the tate and investigations on the conservation of moisture and the
improvement of the yellow clay hillsides (now largely waste lands) by
the growth of hairy vetch and by physical treatment. Feeding and
breeding experiments will be carried on with reference to improving
the quality of the beef grown in the State. The production of beef on
pastures, supplented with Southern feeding stuffs, will be a
al feature of this investiation. Cooperative field experiments






54 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

are continued in a few places. A vegetation house has been erected for
use in pot experiments, in which the fertilizer requirements of different
soils of the State will be studied.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
United States appropriation-----------------.........- ---...... .......$15, 000.00
Farm products-...--- ...-..-- ..----....---..----------...---..----.... ... 1,203.63
Miscellaneous.--...--.---..... --. -------- ----.................. ............ 327.03
Total......------......-----..........---....... ........ .............. 16,530.66
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 40, 42, 44, 46, and 48; Special Bulletins 42, 43, 45, and
47, and the Annual Report for 1897.
Bulletin 40, pp. 14.-The Cowpea.-Popular directions for planting,
fertilizing, and using a crop of cowpeas and for saving the seed, together
with a classification of varieties and notes on varieties adapted to spe-
cial purposes.
Bulletin 42, pp. 32, figs. 4.-Acclimation Fever or Texas Fever.-The
Texas fever cattle tick is described and notes are given on the United
States quarantine regulations, symptoms of Texas fever, and post-
mortem appearances, together with the tabulated results of a number
of experiments with blood serum as a preventive and cure for Texas
fever, including post-mortem notes.
Bulletin 44, pp. 4.- Winter Pasture.-Notes on crops of hairy vetch,
turf oats and hairy vetch, and alfalfa grown at the station, giving direc-
tions for their culture and use.
Bulletin 46, pp. 8.-Cooperative Experiments with Small Fruit.-Cul-
tural notes on strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, and grapes, with
the results of tests of varieties of each.
Bulletin 48, pp. 7.-Analyses of Commercial Fertilizers.-Tabulated
analyses and valuations of 39 samples of fertilizing materials.
Special Bulletin 42, pp. 15; 45, pp. 18.-Analyses of Commercial Ferti-
lizers.-These bulletins include statements regarding the fertilizer con-
trol in Mississippi, explanations of terms used in reporting analyses of
fertilizers, notes on valuation of fertilizers, lists of brands licensed for
sale in the State with guaranteed analyses, and tabulated analyses and
valuations of 93 samples of fertilizing materials.
Special Bulletin 43, pp. 4.-"Natural Plant Food;" Claims Made for
It and Its Value.-Results of analyses of this material, with comments.
The opinions of a number of farmers as to the value of the material
are also given.
Special Bulletin 47, pp. 23.-Analyses of Commercial Fertilizers.-A
report of analyses and valuations of 102 samples of fertilizing materials.
Annual Report, 1897, pp. 23.-A brief report by the director and
heads of departments on the work of the year, with a financial state-
ment for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1897. Bulletins 39-42 of the
station are bound up with the report.
The work of the Mississippi Station has been actively and success-
fully prosecuted during the past year. Some investigations which had
been carried on for a number of years under the supervision of the
former director have been abandoned as having been successfully corn-
pleted. Other lines of work of equally great importance to the agri-
culture of the State have been substituted, and the station is wisely
concentrating its work on a few investigations of general importance.






AGRICULTURAL EXPERENT STATIONS. 55

MISSOJURI.

Missouri Agricultural College Experiment Station, Columbia.
DEPARTMENT OF THE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND MECIANIC ARTS OF THE
UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI.
The work of the Missouri Station during the past year has included
field experiments with corn, oats, potatoes, forage crops, fertilizers,
rotation of crops, etc.; feeding experiments with beef cattle and pigs;
sheep raising, with microscopical studies of the wool; field, greenhouse,
and laboratory experiments in horticulture; investigations of animal
diseases, especially Texas fever; entomological studies, especially on
insects affecting fruits; analysis and inspection of fertilizers and dairy
products under State laws and chemical studies, especially on natural
and artificial digestion. Investigations in forestry and experiments
with sugar beets in different parts of the State are being carried on in
cooperation with this Department.
The investigations of the station in animal husbandry are being con-
centrated on problems relatig to the production of beef and pork and
the breeding of sheep, and digestion experiments have been made with
steers for two years on timothy cut at different stages of growth. An
extensive experiment in fattening steers has been conducted, in which
the nutritive and economical value of corn, cotton-seed meal, and lin-
seed meal was compared. In connection with this investigation the
effects of feeding with an without shelter were tested.
The comparative value of the seed oats and potatoes grown in the
State and in other parts of the country is being tested on a cmpara-
tively large scale with a view to determining what is the best source of
seed of these crops and how often it should be changed.
The experiments with wide and narrow tires for farn wagons have
been concluded, and tests are now being made of the effect of different
sized wheels upon draft.
Much attention is being given to work in horticulture, including
studies in entomology affecting the horticultural interests. Among the
investigations being conducted by the horticulturist are those on the
preservation of peach buds by whitewashing, crossing strawberries,
orchard fruits, and te self-pollination of grapes. Experiments in forc-
ing asparagus in the field in winter by means of steam introduced
through tunnels between the rows have been very successful and profit-
able. Asparagus was raised in this way every month during the past
winter. Cooperative experiments with fertilizers are being made in a
number of commercial orchards, in connection with which the botanist
has made a study of the buds of the fertilized and unfertilized trees.
The veterinarian is making special studies of the ticks which are
believed to cause Texas fever. The immunizing of cattle by placing
the ticks on very young calves has been tried with promising results.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
United States appropriation.......................................-- .... $15, 000.00
S................... .. ................................... ...--....... 282. 50
Farm oduct......................................................... 1,974.14
i1cell0 n eU I --o.us...-..... ... ......-...... -.. ---....-........ 1, 511.63
Total ............ ............ ................ .................... 18,768.27
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
ent and has been approved.






56 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 38-43 and the Annual Report for 1897.
Bulletin 38, pp. 25, figs. 6.-Winter Protection of the Peach.-Peach-
Growing in Missouri.-Results of experiments to determine the value
of whitewashing peach trees, shading with board sheds, and of baling
or drawing the branches into a bundle, tying them in a line with the
central trunk of the tree, and covering them with course grass or corn-
stalks as a means of winter protection of the fruit buds, followed by
a popular paper on the cultivation and management of peach orchards.
Bulletin 39, pp. 42, figs. 14.-Influence of Width of Tire on Draft of
Wagons.-Details and results of dynamometer tests with wide and
narrow tired wagons on macadam, gravel, and dirt roads; on meadows
and pastures, and on stubble and plowed lands.
Bulletin 40, pp. 16, fig. 1.-The Sugar Beet.-This bulletin contains a
tabulated report of cooperative experiments with sugar beets in 1897,
including tables of analyses and notes on previous experiments in this
line at the station and on the weather conditions of the season of 1897.
Bulletin 41, pp. 19, figs. 8.-The San Jose Scale in Missouri.-A dis-
cussion of the results of orchard and nursery inspection in Missouri
during the past two years, with popular notes on the occurrence, appear-
ance, food plants, life history, and treatment of the San Jose scale.
Bulletin 42, pp. 18 figs. 10.-A New Orchard Pest: The Fringed Wing
Apple Bud Moth.-A description, illustrated by original drawings, is
given of this insect, together with notes on its life history, habits, work,
and methods of. control. An illustrated description is also given of a
new breeding cage.
Bulletin 43, pp. 16, figs. 5.-Winter Forcing of Asparagus in the Open
Field.-Asparagus Culture for Missouri.-Results of experiments in forc-
ing asparagus by means of steam forced through tunnels running
between the rows of heavily mulched asparagus beds, with popular
notes on general asparagus culture.
Annual Report, 1897, pp. 224.-Contains the financial report for the
fiscal year ending June 30, 1897; report by the director reviewing in
in considerable detail the work of the station during the year, with
notes on the station staff; list of the publications of the station issued
in 1897; and an appendix made up of reprints of Bulletins 34-39 of the
station.
The operations of the Missouri Station are increasing in importance,
and the farmers and horticulturists of the State are showing much
interest in its work. The State board of agriculture and the university
are pursuing a liberal policy toward the station. The station pays
only such expenses connected with the farm as are incurred in its
experiments, and the herd belongs to the college. The station has had
material financial assistance from the State board of agriculture in
its work on Texas fever.
MONTANA.
Montana Agricultural Experiment Station, Bozeman.
DEPARTMENT OF MONTANA AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE.
The work of the Montana Station during the past year has been
mainly on the same lines as heretofore, including field experiments
with cereals, forage plants, sugar beets, and root crops; feeding experi-
ments with sheep and pigs; horticultural investigations, especially
with apples, strawberries, and vegetables; irrigation investigations;








U. .Dept. of Ag Bul 61, Offce of Expt. Stattns PLATE VI.







































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AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 57

of alkali soils; nd chemical and biological studies of poison-
ous plants and native forage plants. A special effort is being made to
promote the interests of animal husbandry in the State by studying
questions relating to the utilization of the ranges and the preparation
of animal products for the market with the aid of forage crops grown
on irrigated lands A study of poisonous plants as related to the
heep industry has been a prominent feature of the station work during
the pst year. Besides chemical and biological investigations of these
plants direct experiments have been made in feeding various kinds of
lants to sheep with a view to determining what species are really
detrimental to these animals. The station continues to cooperate with
the United States Geological Survey in irrigation work, especially the
gauging of streams. Cooperative work with this Deprtment is being
carried on in forestry, il studies, and experimen with sugar beets.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
United States appropriation.......... $15., 00.00
State appropriation ..7 .... .................. -.. ..... 409. 70
Farm produ ................................. ............... 1 6.22
Total .................. .............. .................. .... 17, .92
A report of the reeipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The publications of this station receive during the past fical year
were Bulletins 14 and 15.
Bulletin 14, pp. 16, pis. 2.-Moitana Swine Feeding.-s esults of feed-
ng experiments to determine the value of wheat, harley, peas, and
pasture in Montana for pigs.
Bulletin 15, pp. 17, pe. 3.-Larkspur Poisoning of Shp.-An illus-
ted description is given of this plant, with an account of the poison-
'g of a fock of sheep by feeding upon it, and the results of experiments
with various drugs in ounteracting the poison.
The erection of commodious and well-equipped buildings for the
college with which the Montana Sttion is connected has given the
station greatly improved facilities for its work, especially in chemistry
(PlateVI). The greenhouses have alsobeen enlaged. A considerable
amount of meteorological and other scientific apparatus has bee added
o the equipment of the station. The State has provided a small appro-
priation to aid in paying the traveling expenses of the station staff.
The station in better condition than ever before for thorough and
successf work on behalf of the agriculture of the State.

NEBRASKA.
Agricultural Experiment Station of Nebraska, Lincoln.
DEPARTMENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA.

The work of the- Nebraska Station during the past year has been
ainly along the same lines as heretofore, including field experiments
th sugar beets, cereals, and forage plants; feeding experiments with
e and sheep; horticultural and forestry investigations; botanical
ies of grasses, forage plants, fungi, and weeds; chemical investi-
tions, especially of sugar beets, grains, and corn; veterinary inves-
ons, especially of hog cholera; entomological investigations,
y of the infection f locusts with contagious diseases, and the






58 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

use of carbon disalphid as an insecticide; studies on soils and iriiga-
gation, and meteorological observations.
In its field work the station is giving especial consideration to the
relation of rainfall and soil moisture to the production of cereals,
grasses, and forage plants under the climatic conditions existing in the
State. A series of experiments on the pasturing of cattle on different
forage plants has been undertaken. The investigations on hog cholera
have been made a prominent feature of the work of the station during
the past year and have been conducted in cooperation with this
Department. There has also been cooperative work with, this Depart-
ment in a study of rusts which affect farm crops, experiments with
sugar beets, and forestry and soil investigations. And there has been
in cooperation with the United States Geological Survey a soil survey
and irrigation investigation.
The farm and dairy school building (Plate VII) on the university farm
has been materially enlarged. The station has rooms in this building
for botanical, horticultural, and soil physics laboratories. The station
barn has also been enlarged with a view to undertaking experiments in
feeding. A department of animal husbandry will be added to the sta-
tion. The station library will be housed in the new mechanic arts build-
ing on the university grounds, which will also afford enlarged facilities
for the college of agriculture and the station.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
United States appropriation.... ........................................ $15,000.00
Farm products .......................................... ........ .. 858.50
Miscellaneous ............................................. ............. 338.18

Total ....--..---..........-- .. --...--..... ... ....... --........ 16, 196. 68
A report of the receipts and expeinditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 50 to 52, and the Annual Report for 1897.
Bulletin 50, pp. 10, dgms. 2.-- otes on Pruning.-Results of pruning
experiments begun in 1895 to determine the best time to prune apple
trees, the best way of making the wounds, and the best treatment.
Bulletin 51, pp. 40, figs. 5.-Observations on the Codling Moth.-
Detailed results of observations on the egg-laying habits and life his-
tory of the codling moth, with an account of field and laboratory
experiments with sprays, bands, torchlight, etc., for its repression.
Bulletin 52, pp. 13, map 1.-Cornstalk disease.-A popular review of
the various theories thus far advanced as to the cause of this disease,
with suggestions as to methods of control, and answers by 13 stockmen
to a circular of inquiry giving statistics of the disease in their respec-
tive localities.
Annual Report, 1897, pp. 39.-A somewhat extended review and sum-
marization of the results of the work of the station during the yearwith
a financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1897.
The operations of the Nebraska Station have been actively prose-
cuted during the past year and a considerable amount of useful work
has been accomplished. Interest in experimental investigations on
behalf of agriculture, as well as in the courses of instruction in agricul-
ture, is growing at the university and in the State. With its present
resources it is believed that the station is attempting more farm work
than can be thoroughly and efficiently conducted along experimental








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Mies. It is much to be desired that the State shall supplement the
Hatch fund so as either to enable the station to successfully carry on
more extensive operations or else to relieve the station of a considera-
ble amount of farm work which might very properly be carried on in
connection with the college of aiculture.

NE A DA.

Nevada Agricultual Experiment Station.
D)EPARTMENT IF NE1.ADA SLATE NI VERSITY.

The work of the Nevada Station during the lpast year has included
field experiments with cornl, portates, wheat, oats, sugar beets, alfulfil,
peas, and otlher crps: hIorticultural investigations; studies in botany
and entomology; chemical analyses and studies of soils, antd investiga-
tions of animal diseases. Exiperinents with sugar beets in cooperation
with this )epartmient have been carlied aon in different localities.
Studies have beein mde of the weeds and grasses and forage plants of
the State.
The ineome of the sation dri the past tiscal year was as follows:
United States approriation ........................................... $15, 000). 00
Fkrin pro ucts .................................................. .. 62 1.41

Total .... ....... ... ... ...... ... ......... ......... .. .. 15, 621.44
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approveid.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 32 to 30.
Bulletin 32, pp. 47.-suar Bts.-A review of the sugar-beet experi-
ments conducted at the station since 1S91 and already largely reported
in Bulletins 13, 19, and 23 of the statio(n.
Bulletin 33, pp. 13-.-Feld Notes on -ome Nerada firasses.-Popular
descriptions of 9 Nevada grasses, with comments.
Bulletin 3, pp. r16.-Prinkin~ lS~tr.-Tabulated analyses with refer-
ence to sanitary conditions of 79T samles of drinking water fronm ditfer-
ent parts of the State, accompanied by explanation of terms used in
discussing water analysis and remarks on the dissemination of disease
through drinking water.
Bulletin.35, pp.21.-Hops.-A popular bulletin on hop culture, giving
general directions for the cultivation, harvesting, curing, packing, and
marketing of the crop.
Blletin 36, pp. 39.-Some Common Injurious Insects of Western
aerada.-A popular descriptive list of 39 injurious insects, including a
brief key for their identification. The habits of each are brought out
and in most cases the most practical remedies.
The work of the Nevada Station is along useful lines and has been
somewhat strengthened during the past year. Plans are being made
togive special attention to investigations relating to the cattle industry,
and it is hoped that arrangements may be made for actively taking up
this work in the near future. The station still needs to have land
which is conveniently located and permanently under its control.
IH. Doc. 121- 5





60 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

NEW HAMPSHIRE.
New Hampshire College Agricultural Experiment Station, Durham.
DEPARTMENT OF NEW HAMPSHIRE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND THE MECHANIC
ARTS.
The work of the New Hampshire Station during the past year has
been mainly along the same lines as heretofore, including variety, fer-
tilizer, and culture experiments with corn, potatoes, grasses, and legu-
minous plants; soil tests; feeding experiments; horticultural investi-
gations, including especially variety and culture experiments with sweet
corn, muskmelons, and strawberries, and greenhouse experiments; fer-
tilizer analysis and inspection; entomological investigations; studies
of the food habits of birds; bacteriological studies, especially on tuber-
culosis, creamery cultures, and silage. The station has continued to
cooperate with the State board of agriculture in the inspection of fer-
tilizers.
The station staff has recently been increased by the addition of an
agriculturist.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
United States appropriation .............................................. $15, 000
Fees for fertilizer analysis ............ .----- ------.......-................ 627
Total...... .... .........................--------------------------- 15,627
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordanee with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 46-52.
Bulletin 46, pp. 30, pls. 6.-An Experiment with a Steam Drill.-Meth-
ods of Road Maintenance.-Results of experiments in road making in
which it was necessary to reduce a hill 510 feet in length to a uniform
grade, to make several fills, and to remove the masses of rock which
encroached upon the roadway. For the latter purpose a steam drill was
used. The comparative cost of moving different road materials and the
question of a standard grade are briefly discussed, with a report of a
critical study of the work of the highway agents of the town of Durham
during the year ending in March, 1897, and comments on the keeping
of accounts and general management, road surfacing, road machines,
highway laws, and public opinion on highway maintenance.
Bulletin 47, pp. 24, figs. 8.-Strawberries in New Hampshire.-Results
of a test of 54 varieties of strawberries, with descriptive notes on 12
varieties, and suggestions as to methods of strawberry culture.
Bulletin 48, pp. 33, figs. 16.-Annual Report, 1897.-Includes the
treasurer's report for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1897; report of the
vice-director and chemist on the work of the year, including the college
herd record from November 1, 1896, to October 30, 1897; report of the
department of agriculture and horticulture, giving the results of
variety tests with potatoes and statistics on the various orchard and
small fruits of the season; report of the department of entomology,
giving the insect record for 1897; and brief reports on the work of the
year by the departments of bacteriology and meteorology and of agri-
cultural engineering.
Bulletin 49, pp. 18.-The Inspection of Fertilizers in 1897.-This is an
account of the inspection of fertilizers in New Hampshire in 1897 by
the experiment station in cooperation with the State board of agricul-





AGRICriULTRAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 61

ture, and includes the public statutes of New Hampshire relating to
fertilizers, trade values of fertilizing ingredients for 1897, and tabu-
lated analyses of 112 different brands of mixed fertilizers and 8 samples
of fertilizing chemicals
Bulleti 50, pp.9, gs. 3.-Deornig Cttle.-Concise directions for
dehorning cattle and for the use of caustic potash in preventing the
growth of horns on calves, with the results of experiments in dehorn-
ing he station herd and in the use of caustic potash for preventing the
growth of the horns of 8 calves.
Bulletin pp. 1, fi..-Sreet Cor for New Hampshire.-Detailed
data showing the results of tests of 41 varieties, with illustrations and
comparative notes.
Bulleti 52, pp. 22, ig. G.-Growing Muskmelons in the orth,.-Sug-
gests concering the culture of muskmelons in New Hampshire,
with results of the tests of 72 varieties. The different varieties are
illustrated and described and their characteristics as compiled from
various catalogues tabulated.
An important change was made in the administration of the New
Hampshire Station during the past year by which the college asumed
the manageent of the farm creamery, and garden, thus relievin the
station of a heavy burden. The station now has the use of the farm
and its facilities, as far as the are actually needed for experimental
work. The station work in some lines is being strengthened, and the
amount of useful infomation disseminated by the sttion hs been
increased.
N-EW JERSEY.
New Jersey tae and College Agricultural Experiment Stations, New
Brunswick.
CONNECTED WITH RUTGERS COLLEGE.

The New Jersey State and College Stations continueto be under the
supervision of the same director, and to issue their publications in one
series. he work of these stations during the past year has included
analysis and inspection of fertilizers; chemical studies on fertilizers,
feeding stuffs, and dairy product investigationson the food andnutri-
tion of man; investigations in dairying and dairy husbandry; field
experiments; irrigation experiments; biological studies, especially on
milk and tuberculosis horticultural and botanicalinvestigtiions, includ-
ing stdies of plant diseases; entomological investigations, especially
on the San Jos scale, peach borer, and insects injuring maple trees.
The farm is managed as a dairy farm on a commercial basis, the milk
being sold at retail. A profit is derived from the farm, and it is so con-
ducted as to promote the station investigations. An accurate account
is kept of the yield and quality of the milk, the cost of growing different
kinds of forage on measured plats, and all the expenses of handling the
milk. There are on the farm numerous trials of growing forage crops,
such as field peas and oats, alfalfa, soy beans, and cowpeas, and experi-
ments in the use of farm manures, commercial fertilizers, and green
manuring for corn. The irrigation experiments have indicated that
profitable returns may often be obtained with this method of farming
in New Jersey. The most striking results this year were obtained from
rrigating blackberries. Much attention is being given to experiments
with asparagus and tomatoes, including varieties, culture, irrigation,
use of fertilizers and the nature and treatment of diseases. Experi-





62 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

ments are being made in cylinders sunk in the ground to study the
availability of different fertilizers and the effect on nitrification of
adding barnyard manure, the crop being corn.
A State law. passed in March, 1898, created the office of State ento-
mologist, who has authority to inspect nurseries with a view to pre-
venting the spread of injurious insects. The entomologist of the station
has been made State entomologist, funds being provided by the State
to pay the expenses of inspection work.
The investigations on the food and nutrition of man have continued
to be in cooperation with this Department. A treatise on fertilizers by
the director of the stations has recently been published.
The income of the stations during the past fiscal year was as follows:
State Station:
State appropriations (fiscal year ending October 31, 1898).............. $15, 000
College Station:
United States appropriation................-............ ...--.......--. 15,000
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The publications of these stations ereceived during the past fiscal
year were bulletins 122-128, Special Bulletin R, and the Annual Report
for 1897.
Bulletin 122, pp. 16.-Cost and Feeding Value of the Dry 1Matter of
Dried Corn Fodder and of Silage.-Results of experiments to determine
the relative cost of curing the crop and preparing it for food in the
form of dried fodder and in the form of silage, the changes that occur
in the composition of the fodder when dried and when made into silage,
and the relative feeding value to milch cows of the actual dry matter
in the fodder and in the silage.
Bulletin 123, pp. 19.-Milk: Its Value as a Food and Studies which
Suggest a Different Method of Sale.-The value of milk as a nutritious
food of moderate cost is pointed out, and the results are given of inves-
tigations on the variation in the composition of the mixed milk of dairy
herds, and of a study of the conditions which influence the composition
of milk, the details of a number of feeding experiments for this purpose
being given.
Bulletin 124, pp. 18.-Analyses and Valuations of Fertilizers.-This
bulletin gives the trade values of fertilizing constituents in 1897 and
the results of examinations of the standard materials supplying them
as well as of home mixtures, factory-mixed fertilizers, and miscellaneous
fertilizing substances, including the analyses of 463 samples of ferti-
lizing materials.
Bulletin 125, pp. 16, fig. 1.-The San Jose Scale and How It May Be
Controlled.-A summary of observations on the distribution of this
insect in New Jersey, its habits and treatment, with notes on legislation.
Bulletin 126, pp.32.-Small Fruits.-Popular directions for the culture
of strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, currants, and gooseberries,
based on a statistical survey of the State made in 1895.
Bulletin 127, pp. 2.- The Preralence, Cause, and Treatment of Bovine
Abortion, Milk Fever, and Garget.-A popular bulletin on these subjects,
with a bibliography of recent literature.
Bulletin 128, pp. 28, pis.4, figs. 3.-The Peach Borer.-Experiments with
Hydraulic Cement.-A study of the life history of the peach borer, with
numerous original drawings, and results of cooperative experiments in
testing the value of wrapping the trees with newspapers, wrapping






AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 63

paper, and tar paper, wooden ox protectors, hydraulic cement mixed
with milk and with water, Bordeaux mixture with an excess of lime,
etc., as means of protection against the pest.
Special uletin R, pp. 44.-Catalogue of Report and Bulletins.-Index
to reports, 1880-1897.
Annual Report, 1897, pp. 536, figs. 65.-This embraces the report
of the treasurer; director's report summarizing the work of the year;
statistics on the quantity and value of the fertilizers used in New Jer
sey during the year 1896, with -a comnparison of the fertilizer trade of
1896 with that of the preceding year adl data on the market price of
fertilizers; trade values of fertilizing ingledients for 1897 and the exam-
ination of the standar materials supplying them and analyses and
valuations of 4153 samples of fertilizing materials; results of investiga-
tions to determine the cost, character, and composition of 100 samples
of different kinds of breaktf-t foods; results of a study of the changes
which the nutrients undergo in baking bread: descriptions of 2 irriga-
tion plants in New Jersey; notes o the treatment of various permanent
experimental plats; yield of 4 va: ities each of currants and goose-
berries grown on irrigatel and unirrigated plats; tests of the String-
fellow method of setting peach trees; a table showing the weight of
the leaves and total length of growth o* branches of various fruit trees
for 1896 and 1897; tests of the effect of irrigation, the relative effect
.of fertilizers with ad without irrigation, and the effect of different
fertilizers on strawberries; tests of 31 varieties of strawberries and of
the hill and matted row methods of culture; reprint of Bulletin 1246 of
the station on small fruits and of a part of Bulletin 119 relative to
apple growing in New Jersey; a study of soiling crops and rotations for
dairy animals; 'esults of tests of varieis of field peas and of culture
experiments with the same; data on the kind, amount, and cost of food
for 23 cows for one year; a discussion of the dairy industry in relation
to soil exhaustion; college herd record tfr one year, with comments;
description of the new dairy hous; results of experiments in seeding
grass without grain; studies of the germs of milk quantitatively con-
sidered, relative to the sources of contamination; notes on the use of
the cooler as a pasteurizing apparatus; extended study of the foremilk
of cows; temperature record of tuberculin tests; reprint of Bulletin
127 of the station; results of extended experiments with fungicides on
various gardeii, orchard, and field crops and ornamental plants; results
of experiments in shading a large number of crops and in growing lawn
grasses; notes on the ifluence of drought upon vegetation; a general
review of the more injurious insects of the season; results of a study
of paris green a aan insecticide including the analyses of a number of
samples from different manufacturers; descriptions of kerosene emul-
sion sprayers; notes on kerosene as an insecticide, with the results of
experiments to deterine its effect on a number of different plants;
results of experimets in the use of Dendrolene and whale oil soap; an
account of experiments with pure kerosene and with a fungus disease,
iShkrrostilbe coccophila, for the destruction of the San Jos& scale; sub-
ject list of the bulletins published by the station; and an index.
The work of the New Jersey stations has been actively and success-
fully prosuted during the past year. The stations continue to keep
in close touch with the farmers of the State. A large amount of work
directly bearing on practical problems is carefully planned and thor-
ougly conducted, while at the same time the more scientific inquiries
are by no means nelected.






64 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

NEW MEXICO.
Agricultural Experiment Station of New Mexico, Mesilla Park.
DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND MECHANIC ARTS.
The work of the New Mexico Station during the past year has included
chemical studies, especially on sugar beets and soils; field experiments
with sugar beets, sweet potatoes, wheat, corn, and forage crops; horti-
cultural experiments with orchard fruits and vegetables; experiments
in irrigation; entomological investigations; studies in systematic and
physiological botany. Much attention has been given to experiments
with sugar beets, which have been carried on in cooperation with this
Department, and several divisions of the station have shared in this
work. The new laboratory building, completed during the year, affords
greatly improved quarters for the chemical and biological divisions of
the station. There has also been a considerable addition to the equip-
ment for work in these lines. The entomological and botanical collec-
tions have been materially enlarged during the year. Field experi-
ments have been continued at the substations at Las Vegas and Aztec,
and a small amount of work has also been done at Roswell.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
United States appropriation -........................................... $15, 000.00
State ................ .................................................. 10, 000.00
Fees...............--.................................................... 198.83
Farm products..................................................-....... 127.20
Total............................-................................ 25, 326. (3
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 21-25.
Bulletin 21, pp. 18.-Results of Experiments at the San Juan Substa-
tion.-Popular notes on the fertilization of sandy soils by leguminous
plants, giving the results of growing several varieties of legumes at
the substation; results of a successful test of potassium sulphid for the
prevention of the loose smut of oats; a verification of the use of co rro-
sive sublimate for the prevention of potato scab; popular and remedial
notes on the squash bug, Colorado potato beetle, tomato worm, and
New Mexico bean bug; and notes on tomato blight and on the use of
Bordeaux mixture for its prevention.
Bulletin 22, pp. 32, pl. 1.-Alkali in the Rio Grande and Animas Val-
leys.-This bulletin discusses the formation, kinds, and composition of
alkali; surface accumulation of alkali; injurious effects of alkali and
remedies; and includes the results of analyses of 4 samples of alkali, 1
sample of water from Animas River, the chico plant, and the Australian
salt bush; and an account of experiments with gypsum as a corrective
of alkali.
Bulletin 23, pp. 13.-Sugar Beets.-A popular bulletin on sugar-beet
culture, with instructions for sampling and shipping.
Bulletin 24, pp. 41.-Life Zones in New Mexico.-A discussion of the
practical value of a knowledge of life zones, with notes on the life
zones of New Mexico and on the value of insects for defining life zones,
and lists of the distribution of 5 families of insects in New Mexico so
far as at present known. Records of a few new bees are given in an
appendix.






AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 65

ulletin 25, pp. SS-Preliminary Notes on the Codling Moth.-Life
history notes on the codling moth in New Mexico, with an account of
the varieties of apples most jured by the insect and notes on its his-
tory, hiding s of the worm, abit, and natural enemies, and sug-
gestions as to means of control.
The New Mexico Station has accomplished a considerable amount of
usel work during the past year. Its facilities and equipment have
en enlarged. The work at the substations has continued to be
expensive and unsatisfactory Very little attempt has been made to
keep records of the work done at these substations. The work of the
station needs strengthenin g the lines of experiments with field
ps, horticultural plants, and irrigation. Well-trained experts are
required for efficient work in these as in other lines, and, in general, all
the work of the station, wherever carried on, should be carefully super-
vised by its xpert oicers.
NEW YORK.
New York Agricutural Experiment Station, Geneva.
The work of the New York State Station during the past year has
included a study of the source of ilk fat; feeding and digestion experi-
ments with commercial feeding stus and different rations; investiga-
tio of the foraging power of different plants for phosphoric acid; fer-
tilizer experiments with potatoes and onions; comparison of barnyard
manure and commercial fertilizers o corn; variety, fertilizer, and cul-
ture tests of sugar beets; analysis and inspection of commercial fertili-
zers study of progressive changes in composition of cider from differ-
ent sources; forcing-house experiments upon the influence of plant
food on the quality and yied of strawberries, and similar work in the
eld on grapes, raspberries, and gooseberries; analyses of sugar beets;
tudy of methods for the determination of casein and albumin in milk;
variety tests of fruits; tests of melons from foreign sd; brding
experiments with tomatoes; forcing-house work in the culture of rad-
ishes; tests of varieties of tomatoes from domestic and foreign seed,
and the raising of lettuce on difterent soils and with difterent fertilizers;
extensie experiments on the effects of thinning upon apples, apricots,
peaches, and plums; tests of commercial fertilizers on young apple
trees; tudy of e effects of treatment with wood ahes on apple scab;
comparison of different treatments for cherry-lea blight; field treat-
ment of gooseberry mildew; laboratory and field work on apple canker;
tests of the relative eiciency of animal and vegetable protein in poul-
try feeding; a continuation of breedin experiments with poultry; and
studies of the life history, ravages, and treatment of sawfies, tent
caterpillars, grapevine flea beetle, and cabbage worm.
The amount of work involved in the inspection of fertilizers con-
tinues to be very large. Cooperative sugar-bt experiments have been
conducted in different parts of the State. The work done on Long
Island and elsewhere in the State in accordance with the terms of State
appropriations will hereafter be more immediately under the supervi-
sion of the station, and the officers conducting this work will form a
pa of the staff of the station, with their headquartes at Geneva. A
dairy expert and a bacteriologist have been added to the station staff
and the mycologist has been appointed botanist. The station has con-
tiued the plan of issuing carefully prepared popular editions of its
bulletins for general distribution, reserving the details and more tech-
n matters for its regular series of bulletins.






66 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

A handsome new biological and dairy building (Plate VIII) has been
completed, at a cost of over $40,000. It consists of a main building, 88
by 38 feet, and two wings 33 feet wide and extending 30 feet to the rear.
It is two stories in height, with a basement extending under the entire
building. The basement contains the machinery and boiler rooms,
several large coal and storage rooms, and one large room for curing
Brie, cream, and similar cheeses which require moisture and darkness.
On the first floor are offices and laboratories for the work in horticul-
ture (Plate IX), a museum, fireproof vaults for the preservation of rec-
ords, office of the dairy expert, milk-receiving room, pasteurizing room,
cheese room, butter room (Plate X), and cold-storage room. On the
second floor are the office, laboratory (Plate XI), and museum of the bot-
anist; office and laboratory of the entomologist; cheese-curing rooms;
office, laboratory, and culture and incubator room for the bacteriologist;
and a storage and workroom. There are also rooms for photographic
work in the attic. A novel feature of the building is an automatic
heating and cooling apparatus for controlling the temperature of the
cheese rooms and bacteriological laboratory. Other buildings erected
at this station during the past year are a poultry house thoroughly
equipped for experimental work; a piggery, 60 by 24 feet, containing
11 pens and a feed room; a substantial frame shed, 100 by 36 feet, built
over the manure pits; and a forcing house. A convenient insectary has
been fitted up and the soil-mixing and pottingroom has been enlarged.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
United States appropriation--.............--......----------------............. $1,500.00
State .-----....----.....-- ........---...... --..........-- ----... .. .. --.... 90,281.28
Farm products....----..----....-- ....-- ......---........-......--------. 2,521. 18
Total ...... ....---........... ....................... ............... 94, 302.46
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 125-143 and the Annual Report for 1896.
Bulletin 125 pp. 32, pls. 8.-Popular edition, pp. 4, pls. 4.-Forcing
Tomatoes.-Results of extended tests of different methods of benching
and training tomatoes in forcing houses, with a note on a tomato disease.
Bulletin 126, pp. 19, pi. 1, figs. 2.-Popular edition, pp. 3, pls. 2.-Feed-
ing Experiments with Chicks and Capons.-Details and results are given
of tests with chickens and capons fed on whole v. ground grains.
Bulletin 127, pp. 12.-l-opular edition, pp. 3.-Strawberries in 1897.-
Results of tests of early and later varieties in one and two year old beds,
with descriptive notes on some of the varieties tested.
Bulletin 128, pp. 11.-Popular edition, pp. 3.- Variety Tests with Rasp-
berries, Blackberries, and Dewberries.-A record of tests, with notes.
Bulletin 129, pp 71.-Report of Analyses of Commercial lertilizers for
the Hpring of 1897.-Tabulated analyses of 735 samples of fertilizers.
BIulletin 130, pp. 19, p1s. 4.-Popular edition, pp. 5, pls. 2.-A Bacrial
Disease of Sweet Corn.-Results of investigations as to the cause of
this disease, including notes on the symptoms of the disease and the
identification of bacteria as its cause.
Bulletin 131, pp. 14.-Popular edition, pp. 6.-Results of Oat Smut in
1897.-A report upon a series of experiments with various materials for
the prevention of oat 1smut.
Bulletin 132, pp. 31, dgms. 2.-Popular edition, pp. 6.-The Source of
Milk Fat.-Details of an experiment in feeding a milch cow for 95 days
















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ARICULTURAL EXPERIENT TATIOS. 67

on foods from which the fat ad been extracted, including analyses of
the foods fed, of the milk for 102 days, and of the urine and feces for 66
days, and a study of the results. Data are also given on the compara-
tive results of tie extraction of fat with sulphuric and petroleum ethers
and the effet of drying up the nitrogen content of cows' feces.
Bulletin 1331 pp. 12, dym. 1.- ASraying in 1897 to Prerent Gooseberry
Mildew.-The results of tests of potassium sulphid, Bordeaux mixture,
lysol, and formalin to determine their value tfr the prevention of goose-
berry mildew.
Bulletin 134, pp. 39.-Rcort of Analyses of Commercial Frtilizers
for the Fall of l-7.Y Results of analyRses of 248 dillerent brands of fer-
tilizers are reported and the compositioln and quality o' the fertilizers
offered for sale in the State during the fall of 1897 are discussed.
Bulletin 135, pp. 3.- Copositwl and Production of iugar Beets.-
A discussion of the conditions reluired for the successful growth of
sugar beets and the outlook of the sugar-beet industry in New York,
with a report of the culture experiments with sugar beets at the station
and elsewhere in the State.
Bulletin 136, pp. *30, pl3 I.-PopIlamr edition, pp. 9, pl8. I.-Inspection
of urseries and Treatmant of I fested Nursery Stock.--Brief illustrated
descriptive and life-history notes on a number of nursery-stock insect
pests, with notes on nursery inspection in New York and the results of
experiimits in treating intfsted nursery stock.
Bulletin 17;, pp. 22.-Popular edition, p. 5.-L omercial Fertilizers
for Potatoes.-Resul ts of experiments in the application of commercial
fertilizers to potato growing, with a discussion of the effect of potash
Salts upon the composition of the pottoes. The tsts were made on 8
acres of land, including 80 plats. Four fertilizer formulas were used.
Bulletin 13, pp. 18.-Popular edition, pp. 6.-lrperimCnts and Obser-
vations on Some Disees of Plants.Results of experiments to test the
value of green manuring with rye as a means of preventing potato
scab, to communicate the potato-stem blight by means of diseased
seed, to test the value of common salt as a l)reventive of carnation rust,
and to determine the value of spraying in the culture of cucumbers.
Bulletin 139, pp. 20, pls. .-Popular edition, pp. 5A, pis. i-Plant Lice:
Descriptions, Enemies, and Treatment.-A popular bulletin, including
the results of spraying experiments with whale-oil soap as a substitute
for kerosene emulsion for the repression of plant lice, with technical
descriptions of some of the lice under observation.
Bulletin 140, pp. 26, d lm. 1.-Popular edition, pp. 6.- Wood Ashes
and Apple cab.-Details and results of an experiment continued for
five years to determine the value of wood ashes applied to trees as a
preventive of apple scab.
Blletin 141, pp. 30.-Popular edition, pp. 6.-Digestion and Feeding
Experiments.-Report on experiments made to determine the digesti-
bility of the new corn product, the agreenlent between the calculated
value of a ration and its value as shown by actual experiment, and the
relative nutritive effect of ratios from unlike sources.
Bulletin 142, pp. 20.-Directors Report for 1897.-A somewhat
extended review of the work of the different departments of the sta-
tion during the year, giving results in some instances, with a subject
list of the bulletins published by the station in 1897.
Bulletin 143, pp. 23, pis. 6.-Popular edition, pp. 8, p1s. 3.-Cotton-
wood-Leaf Beetle.-Green Arsenite.-General notes on the cottonwood-
leaf beetle, its history, distribution, injuries caused by it, appearance,
life histoiy, natural enemies, and a partial bibliography, with the
results of exeriments with machines for catching the beetle and with






68 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

insecticides for controlling it. Notes are also given on green arsenite,
with the results of experiments in its use.
Annual Report, 1896, pp. 752, pls. 68.-This embraces the station
organization list; report of the treasurer; results of tests of varieties
of orchard and small fruits, with illustrated descriptive notes on a num-
ber of varieties of apples and grapes; notes on the nature and appear-
ance of plum-leaf spot, with an account of spraying experiments for
its repression in 1895 (being in part a revised edition of Bulletin 98 of
the station) and 1896; results of experiments for the prevention of
fungus diseases in cherry orchards; report on the injuries to fruit trees
during the winter of 1895-96 in New York; results of tests of several
cover crops for orchards; miscellaneous notes on a number of plant
diseases; notes on the station collection of insects and on some of the
more important injurious insects of the year; results of experiments
with green arsenite to determine its value as an insecticide, and with
dendrolene; tests of the value of green arsenite and arsenate of lead
in combating the cottonwood-leaf beetle; bibliography of the cutworm;
brief report on nursery-stock inspection in New York; notes on the
history, distribution, appearance, nature, preventive and remedial
measures, etc., of the peach-tree borer and woolly louse of the apple,
including a bibliography; tests of spraying mixtures for the striped
cucumber beetle and Colorado potato beetle; tests of cultural methods
for the control of the squash bug; notes on the cabbage plusia and
remedies for the same, and on remedies for cutworms; notes on the
general system of feeding the dairy herd; results of feeding experi-
ments with cross-bred swine; lists of acknowledgments; meteorolog-
ical records for 1896, and reprints of Bulletins 100-114 and 122 of the
station, with detailed data additional to that recorded in Bulletins 105,
106, and 110.
The past year has been a period of great activity at the New York
State Station. The facilities for experimental work have been greatly
enlarged by the erection of new buildings and additions to the equip-
ment. The force of thoroughly trained expert investigators has been
enlarged. Thorough and scientific investigations in a number of
important lines have been undertaken. The more practical inquiries,
involving in many instances cooperation with farmers and horticultur-
ists in different parts of the State, have been increased in number and
variety. The large task of inspecting the numerous brands of ferti*
lizers sold in the State has been actively prosecuted. Great attention
has been paid to putting the practical results of investigations into
readable form and distributing them thoroughly among the farmers of
the State. The station continues to receive generous financial support
from the State, and was never stronger in the support of the agricul-
tural community or in better condition for effective work.

Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station, Ithaca.
DEPARTMENT OF CORNELL UNIVERSITY. <
The work of the New York Cornell Station during the past year has
included horticultural investigations, especially experiments with fer-
tilizers for chrysanthemums; studies of the genus Pelargonium in cul-
tivation; experiments in the forcing of strawberries and in spraying
for the San Jose scale and other insect pests; studies on plant diseases
and remedies, especially onion blight, diseases of sugar beets, celery





4
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 69

blight, and rot of tomatoes, and spraying experiments with Bordeaux
mixture; investigations on musrooms; entomological investigations;
culture, fertilizer, and variety experiments with potatoes, sugar beets,
wheat, and forage crops; feeing experiments with cattle, sheep, and
swine; studies in milk secretion and investigations in butter and cheese
making; bacteriological investigations of poisoned cheese; studies of
contagious abortion of cows; chemical investigations of the nitrogen
of the celer plant, butter colors with special reference to aniline dyes,
condimental foods, and acid soils, and fodder analyses.
The college of agriculture, with which the station is connected, has
continued special work under a State appropriation of $25,000 which
provided for university extenson instruction in agriculture and also
for cooperative experients with farmers in difrent parts of the State.
The university extension work has taken the form of an organized effort
to secure the introduction of nature teaching ito the common schools of
the State. This has been very successful, and simple lessons on natural
objects and phenomena, many of which are directly cnnected with agri-
cultue, are now being given in the schools of the State. This movement
has attracted much attention throughout the country and has led to the
introduction of nature studies in the schools of other States. A large
amount of experimenta work is also being conducted on numerous
farms throughout the State. Much attention has been given to coop-
erative experients with sugar beets, but there have also been many
experiments with fertilizers, potatoes, etc. The nuber of popular
bulletins has also been increased Books on garden making, pruning,
and the evolution of cultivated fruits, by the horticulturist of the
station, were published during the past year.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
United Sttes appropriation.......... ............................... $13,500.00
tate appropriation1 ................................................... 25, 000.00
Far p du ............................................. ........... 824.60
... ............ ........................................... 39, 324.60
A report of the receip and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 137-147 and the Annual Reports for 1896 and 1897.
Blletin 137,pp. 9.Agricultural Extension Work: Sketch of its Origin
and Progre-This bulletin gives a review of the university extension
work since its inception in western New York in 1893 and of the State
legislation since affecting it; points out the purpose and general scope
of the work and gives an account of its growth, and discusses the
results secured by each of the different methods for the dissemination
of agricultural knowledge thus far tried.
Bulletin 138, pp. igs. 26.-tudies and Illustrations of fMushrooms.-
A discussion of the need of a more general knowledge of the more
common mushrooms, with illustrated descriptions of Agaricus campes-
tri, Lapiot nacina, and Amanita phalloides, showing the peculiarities
of theplants at various stages of growth. The life history of mush-
rooms is also given in a popular way.
Bulletin 139, pp. 14, figs. 9.-Third Report upon Japanese Plums.-Com-
parative and descriptive notes on the Japanese plums fruiting at the
station during the season of 1897.
Part of this appropriation is spent for university extension work under the direo-
tion of the college of agriculture.






70 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

Bulletin 140, pp. 22,figs. 4.-Second Report on Potato Culture.--Results
of culture experiments and variety tests, with notes on insects and dis-
eases and the results of spraying experiments for their control. .
Bulletin 141, pp. 10.-Powdered Soap as a Cause of Death among
Swill-Fed Pigs.-Results of experiments in feeding powdered soap to
pigs, with notes on post-mortem examinations and chemical analyses of
the soap powders used.
Bulletin 142, pp. 69, figs. 23.-The Codling Moth.-A comprehensive
bulletin on the codling moth, including notes on the history, distribu-
tion, injury, food plants, enemies, appearance, life history, habits, etc.,
of the insect, with suggestions as to methods of control and a bibli-
ography.
Bulletin 143, pp. 82, figs. 9.-Sugar Beet Investigations.-General
remarks on sugar-beet culture, preparation of the soil, seeding, tillage
and harvesting of crops, and reports of fertilizer experiments and coop-
erative culture tests, including analyses with reference to sugar content
and percentage purity of the juice of a large number of samples of
beets.
Bulletin 144, pp. 14, fig. 1.-Notes on Spraying and on the San Jose
Scale.-Popular notes on insects and when and how to spray, with an
account of spraying experiments with whale-oil soap and pure kerosene
for the San Jose scale.
Bulletin 145, pp. 31, figs. 6.-Some Important Pear Diseases.-A gen-
eral account of leaf spot, leaf blight, pear scab, and pear blight, and
notes on their distribution, microscopic characters, occurrence in the
nursery and orchard, treatment, etc., with a bibliography, and the
details of spraying experiments in the orchard for the control of the
leaf spot.
Bulletin 146, pp. 22, maps 3.-Fourth Report of Progress on Extension
Work.-Summary of the university extension work in its different
departments for the period from May 1, 1897, to February 1, 1898, with
a discussion of the results.
Bulletin 147, pp. 31, figs. 12.-Fourth Report upon Chrysanthemums.-
A discussion of the economic status of the chrysanthemum in New
York, of controlling the color of chrysanthemums, and of the use of
crown and terminal buds in the production of exhibition flowers, sug-
gestions regarding the growing of chrysanthemums at home, and the
results of a test of a number of varieties. Remarks r are also given on
tests of the effect on color of shading the flower beds and of giving a
liberal supply of nitrogen.
Annual Report, 1896, pp. 622.-Brief reports by the director and heads
of departments on the work of the year, subject list of bulletins pub-
lished since the organization of the station, text of the Federal law
under which the station was organized, reprints of Bulletins 106-123
of the station, indexes of illustrations and text, and a detailed state-
ment of receipts and expenditures for the fiscal year ending June 30,
1896.
Annual Report, 1897, pp. XXI, maps 2; Appendix I, pp. 352; IT, pp.
3:1-374; III, pp. 67, figs. 46.-The report proper consists of a review
of the work of the station by the director and heads of departments
for the six months ending June 30, 1897. Appendix I is made up of
reprints of Bulletins 124-136 of the station, and Circulars 5 and 6,
whlich give suggestions concerning cooperative tillage experiments with
potatoes, sugar beets, and fertilizers. Appendix II contains a detailed
statementt of the receipts and expenditures of the station for the six
months ending June 30,1897, and an index of illustrations and text of the






AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 71

above noted bulletins. Appendix III is a reprint of Teachers' Leaflets
on Nature Study, 1-7, dealing with the following subjects, respectively:
How a squash plant gets out of the seed, how a candle burns, four apple
twigs, a child's garden, some tent makers, what is nature study, and
hints on making collections of insets.
The work of the New York Cornell Station has been actively and suc-
cesfully prosecuted during the past year. The station is more thor-
oughly in touch with the farmers of the State than ever before, and the
results of its work are very thoroughly disseminated.

NORTH (CAROLINA.

North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, Raleigh.

DEPARTMENT OF NORTH CAROLINA COLLEGI OF AGRICULTURE AND MECHANIC ARTS.

The work of the North Carolina Station during the past year has
included fertilizer analysis and inspection; feeding experilments with
dairy cattle, sheep, and pigs; poultry experiments; field experiments
with potatoes and firage crops; botanical investigations, especially on
mushrooms and the medicinal plants of the state; entomological inves-
tigations; horticultural experiments: studies of diseases of animals,
especially tuberculosis; and chemical examinations of foods with refer-
ence to adulteration. Experiments with sugar beets in cooperation
with this Department have been conducted in different localities of the
State.
A large amount of attention was given during the past year to the
cooperative hlorticultural experiments at Southern Pines, with special
reference to the fertilizer requirements of orchard and small fruits and
vegetables. Recently, however, it has seemed best for the station to
withdraw from these experiments in order to avoid any possible entan-
glement with commercial interests. The entomologist of the station
has made an inspection of the nurseries of the State under the direc-
tion of the State commission for Controlling Crop Pests, of which the
director of the station is chairman. A separat division of the station
has been created for the carrying on of chemical work connected with
the fertilizer control. This should enable the chemical division'of the
tation to devote itself exclusively to experimental work. A veteri-
nary division has been added and a veterinarian appointed. The poul-
try work has been put in chat ge of the agriculturist. The appropria-
tion made by the State department of agriculture to the station for
the analysis of fertilizers has been increased by $5,000. The chemical
laboratories have been enlarged and made mote convenient.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
United States appropriation ............................................ $15,000.00
State department ofagriculture ........................................ 9,999.96
Farm products..........-- ............ ... .......... .................... 837.78
iscelaneous................. ...... .................................. 420.52
Total-.. ....... ..................................-----------... 26,258.26
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
ere Bulletins 141-146, Special Bulletin 47, the Annual Report for 1896,
ad the Biennial Report of the Director for 1896 and 1897.





72 AGRICTULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

Bulletin 141, pp. 5, figs. 2.-A New Tobacco Pest.-A description is
given of the tobacco-leaf miner (Gelechia picipeles), with an account of
its occurrence in North Carolina, and suggestions as to remedies.
Bulletin 142, pp. 16, figs. 9.-Comfortable Low-Cost Barns.-Plans and
specifications are given of two cheap small barns, a barn constructed
by the State geological survey, a circular barn and yards for 30 cows, and
the North Carolina Station farm barn. In addition, some conveniences in
feeding boxes, and safe fastenings for doors are figured and described;
and homemade cattle fastenings aro illustrated and described.
Bulletin 143, pp. 30.-Feeding Experiments, Milk Records, Etc.-Results
of feeding experiments with milch cows and with pigs, and a summary
of the records of milk and butter production of the station herd in 1895
and 1896, with notes on the records of the cows for 1896.
Bulletin 144, pp. 31, dgm. 1.-Ornithology of North Carolina.-An
annotated list of 303 species which are known to occur within the State,
and of 22 more which probably occur, with notes on each species and
on the geographical and physical characters of the State.
Bulletin 145, pp. 17.-Crimson Clover.-Results of culture experi-
ments at the station and of cooperative experiments throughout the
State, with notes on precautions to be observed in feeding over-ripe
crimson clover hay to horses and on the introduction of crimson clover
into North Carolina.
Bulletin 146,pp. 13.-Miscellaneous Farm Bulletin.-Results of variety
tests of cowpeas and cotton, a test of the effect of chemical manure and
cotton-seed meal on the germination of wheat, and culture experiments
with potatoes.
Special Bulletin 47, pp. 8.-Fertilizer Analyses, of the Fertilizer Con-
trol.-Tabulated analyses and valuations at the seaboard of 103 samples
of fertilizin g materials.
Annual Report, 1896, pp. LXXXVIII+364.-This embraces reports
by the director and heads of departments on the work of the year;
lists of station publications; acknowledgments; legislation relative to
crop diseases; opinions of nearly 1,000 North Carolina farmers, repre-
senting 95 counties, in regard to the work of the station; reprints of
station Bulletins 124-133; a financial statement for the fiscal year end-
ing June 30, 1896; and the report of the fertilizer control station, includ-
ing statements relative to the number and source of fertilizers examined
during the year, extent of the fertilizer trade in the State during 1894-
1896, digest of fertilizer laws now in force, increase in number of brands
and the difficulty in a proper control, the valuation of fertilizers, and a
list of bulletins containing fertilizer analyses.
Biennial Report of the Director, 1896 and 1897, pp. 157.-This includes
data reprinted from the. Annual Reports of the station for 1895 and
1896.
The past year has necessarily been a period of reorganization in the
affairs of the North Carolina Station. The station has become more
definitely a department of the State College of Agriculture. An effort
has been made to more clearly distinguish the experimental work of
the station from that connected with the fertilizer control. The expert
officers of the station have actively prosecuted their work. The sta-
tion continues to issue numerous publications. In other ways also, the
station has sought to keep in close touch with the farmers of the State.
The suits regarding the validity of the State fertilizer law having been
decided favorably to the State, the station has received increased reve-
nue from this source. The work connected with the fertilizer control
and other routine analytical work which the station performs has, how.
:1






AGRICULTURAL EPERIMENT STATION 73

ever, grown until it absorbs nearly all the funds, leavifig the station
little incoe beyond the atch fund for experimental work. This will
make it necessary for the station to concentrate its original investiga-
tions in comparatively few lines if they are to be effectively conducted.
The future of this station will very largely depend upon the elimina-
ion of political influences from its management and operations, the
steady employment of thoroughly trained exerts to conduct its inves-
tigations, and the maintenance of a permanent and consistent policy.

NORTH DAKOTA.
North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station, Fargo.
DEPARTET OF NORTH DAKOTA AGRICULTUAI. COLLElE.
The work of the North akota Staion during the past fiscal year has
been mainly along the same lines as heretofore, including soil investi-
gations; chemical studies of humus, artsian waters, sugar beets, and
the proteids in crea; investigations on plant diseases, especially rusts,
smuts, and blight; botanical studies of native plants, especially grasses
and forage plants; bacteriological studies of milk, butter, and water
with special reference to infection with typhoid germs; experiments in
horticulture, especially tests of fertilizers and differently prepared soils
and manures on seedlings grown under glass and plants growln in the
field; field experiments with wheat, oats, barley, corn, Kafir corn, rape,
and other forage crops and potatoes, in rotation, on the use of barnyard
manure, and on methods of cultivation; studies of the root systems of
cereals and other plants feeding experiments with horses, ules, and
range steers; veterinary investigtions, especially on glan ders in horses;
and exeriments in the repression of locusts and gophers. Studies in
soil physics have been undertaken and some special observations of
air and soil temperatures, moisture, etc., in the wheat field have been
begun. The dairy herd and creamery have been maintained by the
station on a commercial basis, with a view to promoting the dairy indus-
try in the State. A new chemical laboratory has been erected, which
gives the station greatly improved facilities for chemical investigation.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
United tts appropritio .........................................-----------. $15, 000.00
Farm prod ts .................................... .................... 2, 648.46
Total........................ ...... .............................. 17,6418.46
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The publications ofthis station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 28-2, and the Annual Reports for 1896 and 1897.
Bulleti pp. 20.-Grain Rations for Fattening Sheep; Value of
Straw in a Ration, and the Gains Made After Twelve Weeks' Feeding.-
Dis s of Sheep.-Results of feeding experiments with sheep in which
the value of straw as a ration and the gains made after 12 weeks'
feeding were studied. A reprint of Bulletin 3 of the station on diseases
of sheep is appended.
lletin 29, pp. 22.-A Study o Methods of ultivation.-An account
ofone year's experiments on 52 quarter-acre and 8 fifth-acre plats at the
ation to test the relative merits of deep and shallow and fall and
pring plowing, subsoiling to different depths, subsurface packing,






74 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

harrowing after plowing, disking, and the ordinary and Campbell
methods of cultivation, and of similar experiments at 3 other places
in the State.
Bulletin 30, pp. 21, figs. 17.-Preliminary Report upon the Selection of
Potatoes for Planting.-The present status of the question regarding the
form, part, and weight of the tuber piece to be planted is pointed out
by citing from conclusions drawn from experiments made at a number
of stations. The influence of variations of varieties upon potato cul-
ture is discussed, and the author's work during 3 seasons in the selec-
tion of potatoes from the vine and the preparation of the seed are
reported and conclusions drawn from the results.
Bulletin 31, pp. 15.-Experiment Station Notes on Miscellaneous Sub-
jects.-Popular notes on the following topics: Maintaining soil fertility,
treatment of diseases of field crops, seed grain and methods of culti-
vation, trees and shrubbery for ornamental purposes, cultivation of
small fruits, and organization of cooperative dairy associations.
Bulletin 32, pp. 13.-Chemical Studies.-Results of analyses of a num-
ber of samples of drinking water, feeding stuffs, and vinegar, and of
investigations on the loss in 3 samples of wool from scouring; with
notes on the value of humus in the soil.
Annual Report, 1S96, pp. 51, figs. 5.-This embraces the station organi-
zation list and the reports of the heads of the different departments on
the work of the year, including the results of moisture determinations
in soil taken at different depths and subjected to different methods of
cultivation; a meteorological record with reference to temperature and
rainfall; summary of investigations on the nature and injury of wheat
smut; analyses of artesian well waters; results of feeding experiments
with poultry and of a test of the value of heating the poultry house;
notes on the work of the department of horticulture and forestry, with
a brief account of the more injurious insects of the season; notes on
tumbling mustard, rusts of cereal crops, and potato diseases and their
treatment under natural and under alkaline conditions; results of
variety tests of wheat, barley, corn, and Kafir corn, with notes on the
growth of Dwarf Essex rape and grasses; data on rotation experiments;
results of experiments in making bread with different grades of flour;
and a financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30,1896.
Annual Report, 1897, pp. 83, fig. 1.-This embraces the station organi-
zation list and the reports of the heads of departments on the work of
the year, including a summary of the temperature and rainfall for each
month of the year; notes on the sanitary analyses of 2 samples of
water; results of analyses of 7 samples of baking powder and 4 of
fodder corn, and of the physical and chemical analyses of 8 samples
of soils; results of tests with mallein, tuberculin, and black-leg vaccine
as diagnostic agents, including tabulated data; a.paper on the typhoid
serum-diagnosis, involving the results of original work; results of a
study of the bacteria in milk of normal udders; results of investiga-
tions as to the value of the Pasteur-Chamberland filter in furnishing
germ-free water, and on the growth of germs of typhoid fever in butter;
notes on the identification of a fungus as the cause of the blighting of
wheat; results of tests of fungicides for the prevention of smut of
wheat, oats, and millet; data and notes on tests of varieties of wheat,
oats, barley, corn, and Kafir corn; notes on the value and growth of
Dwarf Essex rape, timothy and clover, and Austrian brome grass;
results of experiments to determine the effect of cultivation on the
yield of crops and on the moisture content of the soil; data on rotation






AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 75

ee ent and fertilizer tests; and a finaial tateet for the fiscal
year endig June 30, 1897.
The work of the North Dakota Station has been conducted in an
energetic and orderlyway during the pst year. Its investigations are
becoming settled in the lines which promise useful results to the agri-
culture of the State, and in general its operations are increasing in
efficiency. More experimental features should, however, be introduced
into its dairy oerations. At present thee are almost entirely educa-
tional, ad as such should be maintained by the college rather than
thestation.


Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, Wooster.

The work of the Ohio Station during the past year has been mainly
along the same lines as heretofore, including variety, fertilizer, culture,
and rotation experiments with field crops, especially grin and forage
crops; feeding experiments with dairy cattle, steers, and sheep; dairy
experiments; horticultural investigations; studis of plant diseases and
weeds; and entomological investigations. The experiments on prob-
lems relating to the maintenance of the fertility of soil carried on at
the station and the two substations have already given results which
promise to be of great value. Experiments with fertilizers have been
made in vrious parts of the State in cooperation with the Ohio Agri-
cultural Students' Union. Experiments with sugar beets have been
conducted in numerous localities in the State in cooperation with this
Department.
Among the investigations which the horticultnral department is car-
rying on is an important investigation of the effects of spraying on
apple orchards. This has shown that apple scab is the chief factor in
the destruction of the apple crops in Ohio, and that by proper manage-
ment this fungus may be kept under control. Special attention has
been given to the study of diseases aecting each trees, and very
successful results have been obtained from spraying experiments, espe-
cially during the season just pased, when this disease was very-preva-
lent in the State.
Under the State law the entomologist of the station has been called
upon to do considerable work in inspecting nursery stock. At first this
work was done without charge, but it has been found necessary to charge
the beneficiaries the actual cost of inspection. The State should make
definite provision for this work, which is in the nature of police duty,
and it should not be allowed to encroach upon the time of the station
officers which should be given to original investigations.
Feeding experiments with cattle have been materially interfered
with by an outbreak of tuberculosis. This has, however, been taken
advanta of to make investigations on this disease with special refer-
ence t tohe probability of the transmission of the disease through milk
to other animal, and the effect of the frequent use of tuberculin on
Sthe p of the disease.
hincome of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
ited States appropriation .----.......................... .......--- .... $15,000.00
State (including balance from previous year) .......................... 34,563.27
Far products .................................... ...... ............ 7, 20. 44
Total .............................. ................ ........ 56, 843.71
H. Doe. 121- 6





76 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, a.nd has been approved.
The publications of this station received during tlie past fiscal year
were Bulletins 80-92, including the Annual Report for 1897.
Bulletin 80, pp. 33, fig. 1.-The Maintenance of Fertility.-This bulletin
reports in tabular form the results obtained in 1896, and the average
results for 3 years of fertilizer tests with crops grown continuously on
the same land and in 5 and 3 year rotations. The results are discussed
a 1ad conclusions drawn.
Bulletin 81, pp. 38, figs. 13.-The San Jose Scale in Ohio.-A discus-
sion of the introduction, spread, and present status of the scale in Ohio;
the text of proposed national legislation; and notes on the danger,
habits, appearance, etc., of the scale, with the results of experiments
with whale-oil soap and pure kerosene oil for its control.
Bulletin 82, pp. 23, fig. 1.-Field Experiments with Wheat.-Results
of variety tests and culture experiments, with comparisons of the
results of similar experiments at the station in preceding years. Notes
are also given on copper sulphate and hot-water treatment of seed for
the prevention of smut.
Bulletin &3, pp. 152, figs. 71.-A First Ohio Weed Manual.-A discus-
sion of the nature of weeds, methods of introduction and spread, the
vitality of weed seeds, principal methods of weed destruction, legisla-
tion needed for weed suppression, occurrence of weed seeds as impuri-
ties of grass and other seeds, and the necessity of weed inspection, with
an illustrated descriptive list of various weeds arranged in sequence of
families, and a list of roadside weeds compiled from information received
in response to a request in Bulletin 59 of the station.
Bulletin 84, pp. 64,fig. 1, dgm. 1.-Annual Report, 1897.-This contains
the report of the director on the work of the station for the six months
ending June 30, 1897; subject list of Bulletins 75-84 of the station;
acknowledgments; treasurer's report for the fiscal year ending June 30,
1897; text of the addresses delivered at the dedication of the station
administration building, June 3,1897, and a general index covering the
publications included in the tenth volume of the station work.
Bulletin 85, pp. 24, pls. 3.-Strawberries.-Brief cultural directions,
with comparative and descriptive notes on 70 varieties.
Bulletin 86, pp. 9, figs. 6.--tory of the Lives of a Butterfly and a
Moth.-A popular bulletin intended more especially for the young.
Bulletin 87, pp. 33, figs. 15.- The Periodical Cicada or so-called Seven-
teen- Year Locust in Ohio.-Notes on the broods, prevalence, and distri-
bution of this insect in Ohio and on its nature, appearance, life history,
natural enemies, injuries caused by it, etc.
Bulletin 88, pp. 29.-Cooperative Experiments Made by the Ohio Agri-
cultural Students' Union in 1896.-A discussion of the purpose of this
organization, with the results of experiments with fertilizers on corn
and potatoes, and of corrosive sublimate and flowers of sulphur for the
prevention of potato scab, and of culture experiments and varietytests
with potatoes.
Bulletin 89, pp. 24, pls. 3, map 1.-Prevalent Diseases of Cucumbers,
Melons, and Tomatoes.-Notes on the pickle industry in Ohio and on
the appearance, nature, history, and distribution of the downy mildew
(Plasmopara cubensis), melon-leaf blights, and tomato-leaf blight, with
the results of spraying experiments for their prevention.
Bulletin 90, pp. 40, maps 6.--ugar-Beet Investigations in 1897.-De-
tailed tabular data giving the results of cooperative culture experi






AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 77

ments with sugar beets in 1897, including analyses, with reference to
sugar content and percentage purity, of the difterent samples; a general
discussion of the results with reference to soils, climate, time of har-
vesting, etc., and notes o sugar-beet factories and cultural methods.
Bulletin 91, pp. 16, fig. 1.-Lung and tomach Worms f Sheep.-A
popular bulletin giving descriptive notes, etc.
Bulletin 92, pp. 90, pls, 12, figs. 12, nmps 3, dyms. 2.-Preliminary
port upon Diseases of the Peach.-Eperiments in Sprayingq Peach
Tres.-A discussion of peach diseases due to mechanical injuries or
unfavorable soil conditionls, atmospheric conditions, tngi, animal organ-
isms other thani insects, and to unknown or doubtful causes, with the
details and results of spraying experiments upon a commercial scale
with Bordeaux mixture. Descriptions of the spraying outfit and con-
veniences used are given, and a table showing certain meteorological
data is appended.
The Ohio Station continues to perform a large amount of useful work.
The completion and equipment of its buildings and the improved con-
dition of its experimental fields have enabled the station to organize its
work more thoroughly in a number of lines. There has been no change
in the policy of the station during the past year, and it eljoys the
increasing confidence and respect of the farmers of the State.

OK JIAl OMA.
Oklahoma Agicultural xperiment Station, Stillwater.
DEPAlRTMENT OF OKMLAIOM AGRICULTIURAL AND MECANICAI CtLLEGE.
The work of the Oklahoma Station during the past year has included
field experiments with wheat, corn, Kafir corn, sugar beets, cotton,
castor beais, grasses, and forage plants; rotation experiments; feeding
expe iments with steers, pigs, and sheep, with special reference to the
utilization of Katir corn; horticultural investigations with large and
small fruits, grapes, and vegetables; chemical investigations, especially
on the composition and digestibility of different parts of the Kafir-corn
plant and the castor-oil plant; studies of animal diseases with special
reference to bacteria from milk as related to pasteurizing; entomolog-
ical and botanical investigations, and soil investigations. Digestion
experiments have been male with steers fed on Kafir corn. Special
attention is being given to studies on soil moisture, including the effects
of culture and manuring on the moisture content. A box experiment
has been begun with a view to determining the amount of water
required per pound of dry matter for the growth of Kafir corn, cow-
peas, cotto corn, and alfalfa. Cooperative experiments in connection
with this Department have been qonducted with sugar beets and in for-
estry. Analyses of waters from different parts of the Territory have
been made with reference to their use for irrigation.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
United Stte appropriation ............----...... .........---....---- ...... $15,000.00
Far products...----...------.......----------.. --.... -.... -------------... 1,836.95
Total ............................................................ 16,836.95
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Deartment, and has been approved.






78 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 26-34 and the Annual Report for 1897.
Bulletin 26, pp. 23, figs. 18.-Some Injurious Orchard Insects.-Direc-
tions for the preparation of kerosene emulsion and Bordeaux mixture,
with brief popular notes on spraying apparatus and on 16 of the more
injurious insects of orchards.
Bulletin 27, pp. 18, map 1.-Glanders.-Texas Fever.-Symptomatic
Anthrax.-Popular descriptions of these 3 diseases and suggestions for
their proper treatment, with tables showing the temperature records of
horses diseased with glanders and treated at the station, and notes on
the national and Oklahoma quarantine lines.
Bulletin 28, pp. 8.-Experiments with Wheat, 1896-97.-Tabulated
results of experiments conducted to ascertain the effects of time and
rate of seeding and the effect of subsoiling, with a comparison of 64
varieties.
Bulletin 29, pp. 14.-A Study of Waters for Irrigation.-The Irriga-
tion Plant.-Results of analyses with reference to mineral constituents
of 11 samples of river water, 12 of well water, and 3 of pond water,
with a discussion of the adaptability of the different waters to irriga-
tion purposes. Various suggestions are also made regarding the con-
struction of an irrigation plant, including dimensions of the reservoir
and the capacity of pumps and windmills. Analyses with reference to
sanitary condition of 12 samples of water are appended.
Bulletin 30, pp. 12.-Oklahoma Weather and Crops for 1897.-A gen-
eral account of the soil and meteorological conditions and agricultural
products of Oklahoma, with a record of temperature and rainfall in
1897 as compared with previous years at a number of places in the
Territory.
Bulletin 31, pp. 18, figs. 5.-Strawberries.-Grapes.-Stimulating and
Holding Fruit Buds.-Cultural notes and variety tests of strawberries
and grapes, with notes based on station work on retarding the early
development of fruit buds by root pruning.
Bulletin 32, pp. 15.-Practical Chemistry of Soils and Crops.-A Study
of the Castor-Oil Plant.-General suggestions on crops and soils, giving
the amount of the elements of fertility removed from the soil by a num-
ber of farm crops, and the results of analyses of the stalks, roots,
leaves, beans, and pods of the castor-oil plant and of the determination
of the oil in 4 samples of castor beans.
Bulletin 33, pp. 18, figs. 3.-Experiments with Field Crops, 1897.-
Results of variety tests and culture experiments with a large number
of field crops.
Bulletin 34, pp. 6 figs. 3.-The San Jose Scale in Oklahoma.-A popular
account of the scale, its life history, appearance, etc., and noting that
the scale has been fbund in the Territory.
Annual Report, 1897, pp. 11.-A report by the director on the station
personnel and work of the year, with a list of the bulletins published
since the organization of the station, and a financial statement for the
fiscal year ending June 30, 1897.
The work of the Oklahoma Station has been prosecuted during the
past year in an orderly and active way, and a consistent policy has
been pursued in developing the thoroughness and efficiency of the sta-
tion operations. It is undertaking a number of lines of work, the results
of which promise to be of much benefit to the agriculture of the Terri-
tory. The farm and garden operations continue to be more extensive
than the station can well afford, and might'well be restricted in orde
that more funds may be available for those operations which affct the






AGRICULTRAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 79

nel agricultural intere of the Territory. Here, as elsewhere, the
college should assume the burden of eduational work on behalf of
agriculture, and the Territory should provide funds for the enterprises
which are deemed useful for the advancement of agricultural interests,
but which are devoid of thoroughly experimental features.

OREGON.

Oregon Experiment Station, Corvallis.
DEPARTMENT (OF OREGON OTATF AGRICULTI'RAL COLiEGE.

The work of the Orego Station during the past ear has included
field experiments with cereals, grasses, forage plants, flax, hemp, sugar
e, etc.; feeding experiments; horticultural and entonological inves-
tations; and chemical studies, epecially on soils, frage plants, drying
of prunes, analyses of fruits, especially prunes, cherries, and strawber-
ries, the use of lime and potash as fertilizers, and alkali problems in
eastern Oregon and cooperative experiments with sugar beets in south-
ern and eatern Oregon. Important bulletins on the fertility of Oregon
soils, prune culture, and sugar beets were issued during the year.
The income of the station during the pat fiscal year was as follows:
nitedStates appropiation .. .................................... $15, 000. 00
Farm product .......-.................................................. 1, 237.31
To l ... ........ ........ ...................... ...... ............ 16,237. 31
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 5-54, Circular 1, and the Annual Report for 1897.
Bulltin 45, pp. 17, pls. 7, figs. 18.-Prunes in OreYon.-Includes a
discussion of the following topics: Is there a permanent prosperity for
the Oregon prune indu-stry -application of the law of value to the
problem; general culture of prunes-soils, stock, setting trees, cultiva-
tion, pruning, thinning the fruit, etc.; varieties of prunes, including
descriptive notes; curing prunes-picking and grading, dipping and
pricking; evaporators; diseases of prunes; fruit soils of Oregon,
including analyses of a number of samples: composition of Oregon
prunes, including analyses of fresh and dried samples; and insects of
the prune, including descriptive life history and remedial notes on 13
different species.
Bulletin 46, pp. 12, pl. 4.-Cicuta, a Plant that Poisons Cattle.-A.
description of this plant, with notes on its habits, distribution, and
poisonous effects; and an account of feeding small portions of the
bulb to young cttle and of attempts to counteract the poison, with
notes on post-morte examinations.
Bulletin 47, pp. 8.-The Relative Digestibility of Cheat and Clover.-
Details and results of digestion experiments with a 3-year-old steer,
including the analyses of foods and feces.
Bulletin 48, pp. 19, pli. 2.-8praying.-Compiled and original notes
on the efficiency of spraying for the prevention of fungus and insect
enemies of fruits, etc., with formulas and directions for the preparation
and alication of fngicides and insecticides, and a spray calendar.






80 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

Bulletin 49, pp. 4.-Paris Green.-Notes on pure paris green, with
the results of analyses of 18 commercial samples and suggestions regard-
ing the detection of adulterants in paris green.
Bulletin 50, pp. 56, pl. 1.-The Fertility of Oregon Soils.-A popular
discussion of some of the fundamental facts concerning the properties
of soils and the function of their critical elements," with descriptive
notes and the results of analyses of a large number of samples of
Oregon soils, and a discussion of the results.
Bulletin 51, pp. 8.-Marketing Fruit.-Popular directions for picking,
packing, and marketing fruit.
Bulletin 52, pp. 16, figs. 16.-The Cultivation of the Hazelnut, also
Notes on Varieties of Pears and Peaches.-Notes on a number of varie-
ties of pears, including outline drawings of each variety; suggestions
for the propagation and culture of hazelnuts, with descriptions of 4
varieties; and brief notes on 3 varieties of peaches grown in the green-
house for the purpose of determining more fully the influence of climate
on peach leaf curl.
Bulletin 53, pp. 21, figs. 2, dgms. 3.-Sugar Beets, 1897.-Results of
cooperative culture tests of sugar beets throughout the State, including
analyses of the beets with reference to sugar content and percentage
purity, with a discussion of factory requirements and suggestions as to
methods of sugar-beet culture.
Bulletin 54, pp. 28, pl. 1, figs. 2.-- otes on Flax and lemp.-Dairy
Rations.-Fresh v. Stripper Cow Butter.-Feeding Pumpkins and Arti-
chokes to Pigs.-Results of culture and variety tests with flax; notes on
the growth of hemp at the station; results of a test of rations for milch
cows, including experiments in root feeding; comparative tests of the
churnability and quality of butter from fresh and stripper cows; and
the results of tests of the feeding value of pumpkins and artichokes for
pigs.
Circular 1, pp. 32, pls. 3.-Dairying in Oregon.-This is a popular
article treating of grasses and forage plants, principles of cattle feeding,
chemistry of milk, milk testing, practical butter making, etc.
Annual Report, 1897.-This includes reports by the director and heads
of departments reviewing the work of the year and offering suggestions
as to future work; a financial report for the fiscal year ending June 30,
1897; and the subject list of Bulletins 1-47 of the station.
The Oregon Station has made some progress during the past year in
increasing the thoroughness .of its work, bringing its publications up
to date, and adjusting the relations of the college and station. The
station is, however, still having difficulties in establishing a settled
policy. The horticulturist, botanist, and agriculturist have been
changed. Work in dairying has been undertaken, but this has thus far
been almost entirely educational, though the expense of the work has
been largely borne by the station. Plans are being made to divide the
work in agriculture into divisions of animal husbandry and plant
production. A vice-director, who is especially familiar with animal
husbandry, has been recently appointed, and it is hoped that an agri-
culturist who will have charge of plant production will also be secured.
This is a step in the right direction, and if properly managed will
strengthen the station. There seems to be growing interest in the
State in the college and station, and the outlook of the institution for
the future is better than ever before.






AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 81

PENNSYLVAXIA.
The Pennylvana State College Agricultural Experiment Station, State
College.
DEPARTMENT OF THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE COLLEGE.
The Pennsylvania Station during the past year has continued its
operations mainly along the same lines as heretofore, including chemi-
cal investigations of feeding stufls and fertilizers; feeding experiments,
especially with dairy cows and calves; investiations ill dairying;
variety, culture, fertilizer, and rotation expriments with field crops;
horticultural investigations; and meteorological observations.
The work of the station on commercial fertilizers and experiments in
different localities in the culture of tobacco have bee continued in
cooperation with the State department of agriculture. Exl)-riimelnts
with sugar beets in cooperation with this (delartment have been car-
ried out the past season on a larger scale than frmerly, reaching
all parts of the State. The horticultural work during the past year
has consisted mainly of an investigation of the apple industry of the
State similar to the study of the peach industry previously made. The
results of a iour year's experiment on the maintenance feeding of
mature steers have been published during the year, and experiments
to compare the relative value of "narrow" and "wide" rationis tor
dairycows have also been conducte. The work in dairying has included
tests of hand separators and investigations regarding the keeping
qualities of milk, the use of pure cultures in commercial butter mak-
ing, and the pasteurizing of cream for buttr making. The relative
ecnomy of using whole milk for veal production or for butter making
has been investigated. Arrangements have been made in cooperation
with this Department for the construction of a respiration calorimeter
of sutficient size for use in investigations with the larger domestic
animals, and it is oped to carry out a series of thoroughly scientific
studies on the physiological problems connected with the feeding of
farm live stock.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
Uni d St ata ppropriation .... .................... ... ............. ... $15, 000.00
Fees for fertilizer analyses ............................................. 9,500). 50
Farm pr ct ........................ .... ...... ....................... 5, 132. 76
Total ............................................ ................ -29, 633.26
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rendered in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletins 37-41, Bulletin of Information 1, and the Annual Report
for 1896.
Bulletin 37,pp. 29, figs. 15.-Peach Industry in Pennsylvrania.-This
bulletin deals in a popular way with the status of the peach industry
in Pennsylvania; the fators of success and failure and the profits in
peach growing; the selection of soil and location; the planting, culti-
vation, and manurning of orchards; the pruning of trees; the thinning,
picking, and marketing of fruit; the selection of varieties; and the
diseases and enemies of the peach.
Bulletin 38, pp. 25.-Test of Hand Separators.-Details and results






82 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

are given of a test of 7 hand separators, with the results of 18 trials in
churning cream from the different separators.
Bulletin 39, pp. 15.- Wheat, Oats, and Potatoes.-Results of the tests
of 31 varieties of wheat, 17 of oats, and 39 of potatoes, with notes on
the preparation and manuring of the soil and the seeding and cultiva-
tion of the different plats.
Bulletin 40, pp. 21.--The Sugar Beet in Pennsylvania.-This bulletin
contains a report on cooperative culture experiments with the sugar
beet in different counties in 1897, with notes and suggestions of a gen-
eral character on the beet crop, requirements for manufacturing beet
sugar, and the adaptability of the industry to the State. The results
of the experiments and the meteorological data for the season are given
in tables.
Bulletin 41, pp. 16, dgm. 1.-Tests of Dairy Feeds.-Results of feeding
experiments with milch cows to compare the value of buckwheat, mid-
dlings, dried brewers' grains, and cerealine for milk and butter pro-
duction.
Bulletin of Information 1, pp. 39.-The Computation of Rations for
Farm Animals.-This is a popular bulletin explaining the general prin-
ciples of feeding, feeding standards, computation of rations, and fertil-
izing value of feeding stuffs, and showing the composition of feeding
stuffs with reference to food and fertilizing constituents.
Annual Report, 1896, pp. 297, pis. 16, figs. 17, dgms. 3.-Embraces the
report of the Director, summarizing the work of the station for the year;
fin ancial report; reprint of Bulletin of Information 1 (see above); notes
on the feeding value of dried brewers' grains, includiug the analyses of
two samples; an account of the spontaneous combustion of hay in the
station barn; popular directions for making Gouda cheese and for cal-
culating the total solids of milk by the formula of Hehner and Rich-
mond; notes on the care of woodlands; results of the general fertilizer
experiments carried on since 1881, and of variety tests with wheat and
potatoes; notes on the appearance, life history, habits, natural enemies,
etc., of the army worm, with an account of its outbreak during the sea-
son in Pennsylvania; notes on the appearance and food habits of a
number of birds, including the results of stomach examinations in a
number of cases; results of experiments with a double-necked Babcock
bottle for testing skim milk and buttermilk; meteorological record for *
1896, including a summary of soil temperatures and weekly crop reports
for the same period; list of acknowledgments; and reprints of Bulle-
tins 35-38 of the station.
The Pennsylvania Station has steadily pursued its work during the
past year and its influence is extending among the farmers of the State,
as is indicated by the addition of at least 5,000 names to the mailing
list. Its routine operations connected with the analysis of commercial
fertilizers have been thoroughly performed, so that the farmers of the
State are well protected against fraud in the manufacture and sale of
commercial fertilizers. This station 'has already made a number of
important contributions to the literature of the science and practice of
feeding farm animals, and it is very encouraging to observe that it is
about to undertake still more thorough investigations on the funda-
mental questions which lie at the basis of rational feeding. Compara-
tively little work of this character has as yet been done by the American
stations, and it is hoped that the Pennsylvania Station will be well
supported in its present undertaking and will be able to achieve impor-
tant results in a field where there is every year a more pressing demand
for exact information.






AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 83

RHODE ISLAND.
Rhodr Island Agricultural Experiment Station, Kingston.
EPARTMNT OF RHODE ISLAND COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND MECHANIC ARTS.

The work of the hode Island Station during the past year has been
mainly along the same lines as heretofore, including chemical and agri-
cultural investigations on the use of fertilizers; variety, fertilizer,
culture, and rotation experiments with grain and forage plants; hor-
ticultural investigations, and experiments in oyster culture and with
poult. The fertilizer experiments have specal reference to the use
of lie and the substitution of soda for potash, and include cooperative
experiments in different parts of the Sate. The effects of lime are
being tested on vegetables, small and orchard fruits, and shade trees,
evergreens, etc. The analysis and inspection of fertilizers has been
restored the station under a State law passed March 1, 1898. The
director and horticulturist were changed during the year. The main
building used by the station has been materially enlarged. A arge
college barn containing a round silo ha also been erected with State
funds, which will be partly used for station purposes. The chemist of
the station visited a considerable number of European experiment sta-
.tions wih th e specil object of studying their methods of pot experi-
ments. Work in thi line will be carried on more largely at the station
hereafter. A book on bush fruits by the horticulturist has recently
been published.
The income of the station during the past fiscal year was as follows:
UnitedStates appropriation......................... ......... $15, 00000
State ................................................. ........ ..... 774. 83
Farm odu t...... ...... .......... ...... ......................... 106. 78
Mis ell us....................................................... .. 1, 203 38
Total............................................................ 18, 08 9
A report of the receipts and expenditures for the United States fund
has been rende in accordance with the schedules prescribed by this
Department, and has been approved.
The publications of this station received during the past fiscal year
were Bulletin 46 and the Annual Report for 1896.
Bulletin 46, pp. 25.-Lime and Liming.-This bulletin reports the
results of experiments conducted at the station during the last four
years to ascertain the effects of liming upon the growth of various
plants, including field, garden, and forage crops. The recent experi-
ences of practical farmers who used lime as a fertilizer and soil
improver are given, and the chemical and physical effects of lime
when applied to the soil are discussed. The different forms of lime
for fertilizing purposes are noted and methods for their application
recommended.
Annual Report, 1896, pp. 246, pl. 31, figs. 6, dgms. 9.-This embraces
the repor of the treaser; port by the director, reviewing in detail
the conduct of the station during the year; notes on oyster culture,
with results of investigations t determine the value of Point Judith
Pond for the purpose of oyster culture; notes on the use of fungicides
and insecticides, green crops in orchards, and on plum rot and its effect
on plum culture in Rhode Island; critical notes on varieties of fruits,
vegetables, etc., in the station garden; results of germination tests of
arden seed in soil and in bare earthen cups; results of investigations