Proceedings of the ... annual convention of the Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations

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Proceedings of the ... annual convention of the Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations
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DIVISION
DIVISION
DIVISION
DIVISION
DIVISION
DIVISION
DIVISION

DIVISION
DIVISION


OF ENTOMOLOGY-L. 0. Howard, Entomnologist.
OF CHEMISTRY-H. W. Wiley, Chemist.
OF BOTANY-F. V. Coville, Botanist.
OF FORESTRY-B. E. Fernow, Chief.
OF ORNITHOLOGY AND MAMMALOGY-C. Hart Merriam, Of
OF 'POMOLOGY-S. B. Heiges, Pomnologist.
OF VEGETABLE PATHOLOGY-B. T. Galloway, Chief.
OF MICROSCOPY-T. Taylor, Microscopist.
OF AGRICULTURAL SOILS-M. Whitney, Chief.

OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS-A. C. True, Director.


THE AGRICULTURAL E


ALABAMA-Auburn: College Station; W. L.
Broun.t Uniontown: Canebrake Station; H.
Benton.
ARIZONA--Tucson: T. B. Comstock.
ARKANSAS-Fayetteville: R. L. Bennett.*
CALIFORNIA-Berkeley: E. W. Hilgard.*
COLORADO-Fort Collins: Alston Ellis.*
CONNECTICUT-New Haven: State Station; S. WV.
Johnson.* Storrs: Storrs Station; W. 0. At-
water.*
DELAWARE--Newark: A. T. Neaole.*
FLORIDA-Lake City: 0. Clute.* -
GEoLGIA-Experiment: R.J. Redding.*
IDAHO-MOsCOW: C. P. Fox.*
ILLINOIS-Urbana: T. J. Burrill.t
INDIANA- Lafayette: C. S. Plumb.*
IOWA-Ames: James Wilson.*
KANSAs--Manhattan: G. T. Fairchild.
KENTUCKY- Lexington: M. A. Scovell.*
LOUISLANA-Audubon Park, New Orleans: Sugar
Station. Baton Rouge: State Station. Calhoun:
North Louisiana Station. W. C. Stubbs.*
MAINE-Orono: W. H. Jordan.*
MARYLAN-D-College Park: 'R. H. Miller.*
MASSACHUSETTS-A mherit: Hatch Station; H. H.
Goodell.*
MICHIGAN-Agricultural College: C. D. Smith.*
MINNESOTA--St. Anthony Park: W.M. Liggett.
MississxiPPi-Agricultural College: S. M. Tracy.*
MIsSOUI- Columbia: P. Schweitzer. f


* Director.
tPresident of board of direction.
t Assistant director in charge.


EXPERIMENT STATIONS. "

MONTANA-Bozeman: S. X. Emeryv
NEBRASKA-Lincoln: C. L. Ingersoll.* "
NEVADA-Reno: J. E. Stubba.*
NEW HAMPSHIRE-Durham: C. S.Murkland..- ::..]
NEW JERSEY-New Brunswick: State I t....n
E. B. Voorhees.* New Brunswiek: Collegeta.i |
tion; A. Scott.*t
NEW MExICO-- Mesila Park: S. P. MoOrea.*
NEW YORKx-Geneva: State Station; P. CGl3j-er314
Ithaca: Cornell University Station; I. P. .-o'bi:|,:
erts.
NORTH CAROLINA-Raleigh: H.B. Battle .* .
NORTH DAKOTA-Fargo: 3. B. Power.*.......
OHIO-- Wooster: C. E. Thorne.* t :::|:
OKLAHOMA-Stillwater: J. C. Neal.*
OREGON- CorvaUis: 3. M. Bloss.* ..'i'
PENNSYLVANIA-State College: H. P.Arbsby
RHODE ISLAND-Kingston: C. 0. Flagg.*-:".. :! I
SOUTH CAROLINA-Clemi son College.: E. B .iti.l.i......
head.*
SOUTH DAKOTA-Broolkings: J.H.Sbepaxdi *' .
TENNESSEE-KnoZville: C. F. Vanderford.i .. .
TEXAS-College Station: J. ]. Connell.* 1 ::r::'.
UTAH-Logan: J. HI. Paul.* ...
VERMONT-Burlington: J.L. Hills.* '
VIRGINTA-Blacksburg: J.M. McBryde.* :,
WASHINGTON-Pullman: E. A. Bryan.*- .:.l.
WEST VIRGINIA-Morgantown: J. A. My.. ,;-|i^
WIscONSrI-Madison: W. A. Henry.* .r
WYOMING-Laramie: A. A. Johnson.* : I

Chairman of council. '
II Secretary. '.'
f Acting dit.ctor.


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CONTENTS.



...............................................
A-6
n of the of Amerifto Agricultural Collages and Experi-
8"tums ------------- 000000 .... mft..0400 ...........
et the Association %wowwo *-&-a* -* -owo ......... 8
As attendance .................................
ege i, wi and visitars in
MUM --------- ....... ov.-.0.0-6 .................... .
.................. 0 ................
fim tm ................ 0 ---- 0 ....................... i.. 14
........ 0 a 0 00- 00-0- ............................. 0 ... 15
Bit a of the executi7e e0ramittee ...................................... 15
::., ....... ... ...... -
of the treasurer of the Associstion ................. ............ 19
........ a ........................ 25
v of the Office of Experiment stations. By A. C. True .......... 0990
I* tew&in 6f agrioultum, By W. T. Harris .......................... 43
jw$dvm of Han. J. Stieding Morgan, Secretary of Agriculture ............ 47
&Wtude of the agricultural call" toward univerility extension. By
IL & voo&6w --- ------ .................................... 49
ftwoooperation of stations with flarmeW orgauixatioin in experiment
wwk. By X H. Ja*ins ............................................. 50
'IU asientifie work of the Department of AgriculttAre. By C. W. Dab-
MYO jr ............................
Wbat is the mission of the bulletin f By H. H. Goodell ................. 69
Wfat sh&U we give to the students of our agricultural
eolleg"t By W. R. Dre ke ............................................ 71

8wUm on Agrieulture and Chemistry ................................... 77
Boodon on College Work.... 79
Faculty Jdh nmpu- By W. EL Scott ................................. 80
seetwo an :ntowdogy ............... ........... 0 .......... 85
wetk in sUtioin. By H. Osborn .......... 85
Sootiou an Kedumle Arb ..." 00 0. 0. 0.. -... 0. *. 0... 89
Booties an Roruadtwe On& Botany ............ 0 .......................... 91
Prow isiona Section on StsUan Work .................................... 93
bmw of names ............................................................. 1*
97
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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


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OFFICE OF EXPEIMENT STATIONS,.
Washington, D. C., Apr'll 25,15
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith -for publication BulleIuo
No. 24 of this Office, containing the proceedings of the Eighth AnxrnN& I
Convention of the Association of American Agricultural Colleges*a i
....... :: .:. :i
... .......i~ i




Experiment Stations, held at Washington, D. C., November 1-1i4,
1894. The stenographic report of this meeting was made by Mr. X .L NHl
Reese, of the Division of Entomology of this Department. ii
Respectfully, .


I


A. O. TRU-E, :';r|
Director. |

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Hon. J. STERLING MORTON,
Secretary of Agriculture.


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MEETINGS.

(1) This Association shall bold at least on6 meeting in every calendam,'
designated as the annual convention of the Association. specialMeet'ing's
held at other times, on the call of the executive' for pu;r#
UP 6 Com: ittee,
specified in the call.
The annual convention of the Association shall comprise general f5
meetings of the sections, and provision I shall be madetherefor in the pr
The section meetings ma'ybesimultaneousot other 'se at the diseretion of t1w-
tive committee, but at least two sections of the Association to be designattA*
year by the executive committee, shall present in general session -of each,
tion a portion of the subjects coming before them.

OFFICERS,

(1) The general officers of this Association, shall be a president, five vicepr
a bibliographer, and a secretary, who shall also be treas urer. The president,,
ex-president the secretary, and fonr persons to be chosen by -the Associfttitm 14
constitute an executive committee, which shall elect its own chairnlan.0
(2) Each section shall, by ballot, nominate to the Association in generals
for its action, a chairman and a, secretary for sueb-section.
(3) Officers shall be chosen by ballot at the annual convention of the AssociW,
and shall hold office from the close of the convention at which they are. electedal V
their successors shall be chosen.
(4) Any person being an accredited delegate to an annual meeting of the AsstWl A
tion, or an officer of an institution which is a member of the.Association, ia,
standing at the time of election shall beeligible to office.

DUTIES OF OFFICERS.

(1) The officers of the Association shall perforzn the duties which us U*ally dov1*0
upon their respective offices.
(2) The president shall deliver an address at the annual convention before' tlx*,
Association in general session.
(3) The chairman of each section shall make, at the annual convention, a report,
-the Association in general session of the progress during- the preceding year of fh6,
subject or subjects appertaining to his section, and such reports shall not occapy,
more than twenty minutes each.
(4) The executive committee shall determine the time and place of the annual "iil
ventions and other meetings of the Association, and shall, between such conventioni;
and meetings, act for the Association in all matters of business. It shall Isikao its
call for the annual conventions of the Association not less than sixty days befokethe
date on which they are to be held, and for special meetings not less than ton di",
before such date. It shall be charged with the general arrangement and condiwt of
all meetings called by it. It shall designate the two sections to present in general
session a portion of the subjects coming before them, and shall give notice. therobf
to the chairmen of such sectious at least ninety days prior to the annual conv6ntion.
It shall provide a well-prepared order of business and a programme of exercises, and',
shall make a reasonable issue of said programme, Said committee miby MI my,
vacancy in an office or committee of the Association occurrin g after the. adjournment-
of the annual convention such appointee to serve until the next annual eleetim.
FINANCES,

At every annual convention the Association, in general session, shall provlde-$r
obtaining the funds necessary for its legitimate expenses, and may, by approl4i
action call for contributions upon the several institutions eligible to memberabi
and no. institution shall be entitled to representation or participation. ju.tha bent




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President,


Vice-Pr


A. A. JOHNSON, of Wyoming;
A. Q. HOLLADAY, of North Carolina;
0. CLUTE,


............
of Oklahoma. ...i.....

residents..' ,
"'.s".:.:'.

T. B. COMSTOCK, of Arizona; :
E. B. CRAIGHEAD, of South (aro1*ii
of Florida. .. .
of Florida. T: .,.:,


Secretary and Treasurer,


J. H. WASHBURN, of Rhode Island.


Bibliographer,


S. W. JOHNSON, of Connecticut.


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P/!.ii::!'!mi:S]

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Executive Committee,


H. IH. GOODELL, of Massachusetts, Chair.; M3. A. SCOVELL, of Kentucky; ."
H. C. WHITE, of Georgia; H. P. ARMSBY, of Pennsylvania; ':
Ex officio: The PRESIDENT; the JUNIOR EX-PRESIDENT (S. D. LEE, of Mississippi)31
thO SECRETARY.


Chairmen of Sections,


Agriculture and Chemistry, E. B. VOOR-
HEES, of New Jersey;
Botany and Horticulture, S. M. TRACY,
of Mississippi;


College work, A. W. HARRIS, of Maine; ."...
Entomology, C. P. GILLETTE, of Colorado; ,
Mechanic Arts, J. K. PATTERSON, of Ken- ...
tuckyy. -


Secretaries of Sections,


Agriculture and Chemistry, C. C. GEORGE-
SON, of Kansas;
Botany and Horticulture, W. R. LAZENBY,
of Ohio;


College work, H. H. WING, of New York;
Entomology, J. M. ALDRICH, of Idaho; :
Mechanic Arts, F. P. ANDERSON, of Ken-


tucky.


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H. E. ALVORD,





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0- EEAE N ISTR NATNAC

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Stefia: U.EL Bekwit, horicultristandietomolgist
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Nebraska:
College: L. Bruner, instructor in entomology..
New Hampshire: :'
College: C. S. Murkland, president.
New Jersey: .......
College: A. Scott, president. '
Station (State): E. B. Voorhees, director.
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Station (College): B. D. Halsted. botanist and horticulturist. ..
New Mexico:
...... ?' : :.." .. .ih......ijlyj
College: S. P. McCrea, president. ".::
Station: A. E. Blount, agriculturist and horticulturist. :" ::'
New York: '
Station (Cornell): I. P. Roberts, director; H. H. Wing, deputy di
secretary. : ::',
North Carolina:. ... ....
...... ....". ::!i i3
College: A. Q. Holladay, president; B. Irby, professor of agrcalt ,ni ,':
Station : F. E. Emery, agriculturist. S
North Dakota: '"'I
College: J. B. Power, president. ....
Station : E. F. Ladd, chemist. : "
Ohio:.......
College: W. H. Scott, president; T. J. Godfrey, trustee; T. F. Huiti.
fessor of agriculture; W. R. Lazenby, professor of horticulture. .
StatiOn: W. J. Green, vice-director and horticulturist. :: .........
Oklahoma: ......
College: H. E. Alvord, president. 'Hi
Pennsylvania: .. :
College: G. W. Atherton, president. :
Station: H. P. Armsby, director; W. Frear, vice-director and chemist.,
Rhode Island: '
College: J. H. Washburn, president; W. E. Drake, professor of me un
engineering. :il
Station : C. 0. Flagg, director. .I
South Carolina: A ': .
College: E. B. Craighead, president. ..., i.i.. 1
Station: W. L. McGee, agriculturist.
Tennessee:; .71 ...
College: T. C. Karns, professor of philosophy and pedagogics. 1 -'W
Station: C. F. Vanderford, secretary.. :: .."
Vermont: 'I
College: M. H. Buckham, president.
Station: J. L. Hills, director.



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By authority of the executive committee, a delegate conveci"il
this Association is hereby called to meet in the city of Wah
D. C., on Tuesday, November 13, 1894, at 10 o'clock a. m.
[Here follow extracts from the constitution relating to memi.iJ.,,
and finances.] ..........
In accordance with the provisions of the constitution, the 8S0t10
Agriculture and Chemistry and the Section on Entomology ha...m
designated "to present in general session a portion of the maiub |
coming before them."
Upon proper application, notice is hereby given of the organiiallzq'
of a Section on Station Work which will be assigned position 1""::I
programme for this convention.
".. ..... '..
Mr. Cavitt, from the State Agricultural and Mechanical College ..
Texas, offered at the last convention the following as a proposed amei di!
ment to the constitution, and the same will therefore be subje tt
action by the convention now called, viz: Change the article entitled
"Name" so that the same shall read: : '
.... : a.
Name.-This Association shall be called The Association of American Agric.-uittrid
and Mechanical Colleges and Experiment Stations. ,
The headquarters of the Association will be at the Ebbitt House. |.
The general programme, and programmes for the sections will be d l:,..
issued, together with a circular of information as to travel, hotel rates,
and places of the meetings.
For the executive committee: .
HENRY E. ALVORBD, .*
Ohairmas. :
M. A. SCOVELL, I
Secretary.
1 2 ....




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OK agnprsumur.
V p. -Meetings of the Seetios oa College Work, on Horticulture and Botany, and
:! ms Entomology..
?:.-js-General .seMion. Nomiunatiomu and other reports from the sections.
Prexatatiao of subjeeto from the Section on Entomology.
Il :Adjournment of the convention.
- AsMp .-Social gathering at the Ebbitt House. Reception tendered by the Awno-
* eiation to the Seretary of War, the Seeretary of the Interior, and
Sthe Secretary of Agrioultun.




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1. The Scope of the Short Courses in our Agricultural Colleges.. .iscu.b.il
opened by H. H. Wing, of New York, and J. L. Hills, of Vermont."
2. Shall the Full Course in Agriculture be Specialized? H. J. Waters, of
vania, and C. C. Georgeson, of Kansas. -
3. The Attitude of the Agricultural Colleges toward University Extenslio; i':i
Latta, of Indiana, and S. M. Emery, of Montana.
4. The Office of the Station Bulletin, H. H. Goodell, of Massachusetts,*d 1:
Scovell, of Kentucky.
5. Cooperation of Experiment Stations in Field Experiments and Dairy in. U
tions, C. D. Woods, of Connecticut, and W. W. Cooke, of Colorado.
6. Cooperation of Stations with Farmers' Organizations in Experiment Wr .)
Jenkins, of Connecticut, and F. E. Emery, of North. Carolina. ".....
NOTE.-The gentlemen assigned are not expected to prepare written paapasji|J
merely to give form and character to the discussion of the topics named.
II. SECTION ON ENTOMOLOGY.
1. The Use of Arsenites on Tobacco, H. Garman of Kentucky..
2. The Entomological Work of Experiment Stations, H. Osborn, of Iowa. "
3. The Economic Value of Parasites, F. M. Webster, of Ohio.
.
III. SECTION ON'HORTICULTURE AND BOTANY. I.

1. Two Fungus Diseases of Oats Prevalent in Maine, F. L. Harvey, of Maine.
2. Fertilization of Grape Flowers, S. A. Beach, of Geneva, N. Y.
3. Proper Position of Hybrids in the Classification of American Grapes, H ii
StarueA, of Georgia. '
4. Effect of Change of Soils upon Growth of Wheat, H. L. Bolley, of North Dakot& :,,!!
5. A Contribution to the Life History of Glowosporimt fructigenum, Berkeley, ail
Sphcewropsis malorum, Peck., William B. Alwood, of Virginia.
6. What Shall Constitute a Variety from the Standpoint of the Horticulturi.tl:litI
G. W. McCluer, of Illinois. :- i
7. Position of Greenhouse Benches for Experiment Work, and Construction of Gren...!!:.,!!
house Benches for Subirrigation, W. J. Green, of Ohio.. -.
8. Determination of Sex in Shepherdia argentia by Bud Characters, L. C. CorbetU..
of South Dakota. '.
9. Field Experiments with Fungicides, B. D. Halsted, of New Jersey. :i
10. Weed Migration in the State of Iowa, and Rot of Ruta-bagas, L. H. Panm.4il, otr.
Iowa. :;
11. Plant Breeding at the Experiment Stations, E. S. Goff, of Wisconsin. ...iii
,: iii iiiiii
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iiiiiiii ne otsythtw alrgrttis rthth
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!oohmaa;i stecniino i nai ie hc















progress of legislation during the last session of Congress, to guardthe -
ests intrusted to the institutions composing this Association. :' :-
The Sayers bill, repealing all permanent appropriations from the Trneaa a-rB
ing, of course, the annuities under the Morrill Act of 1890-and substituia|iw H
of annual appropriations for all purposes, was in a doubtful state fr
has. never been reported from the committee, but may yet appear at the
sion of Congress. The subject received careful attention, and your .
confident that if the bill is reported, it will include several exceptioSiJ:.
college annuity will be among them.
During the early spring a proposition appeared very unexpectedly, W04 ,,
in the Army appropriation bill, cutting off the commutation of quarters fo
on duty at colleges and requiring every college, before receiving such deta:l,)I
vide quarters free for the officer. This measure had the almost unanimouen
of the Committee on Military Affairs, including some of the strongest men..lr
sides of the House of Representatives. For a time it seemed probable this:.eiSB.
would pass the House, but active measures secured the interest of members........
to the colleges, and the objectional features were struck from the bill whni .
mittee of the Whole House. This was a short but spirited contest and vwt*
factory in showing once more the strength which this Association can commadnri
the halls of Congress-when necessary to sustain a good cause.
This movement, combined with other circumstances, made it inexpedient toll
anything toward bringing forward the plan of having the War Department spI
uniform clothing and camp equipage to the land-grant colleges the same as to.*
Army. This plan is favored by the Inspector-General of the Army, and would noti
objected to by other high officers. But the present Quartermaster-General of i":
'Army, whose Bureau would be affected by such a law, is unalterably opposed t
project. The increase in the number of officers on college and school daty :nd
correspondingly of the young men and boys by them instructed, would maxkEt
expense of uniforms very great, if supplied to all, and for that reason the prapi
tion will be opposed by the Secretary of War. Altogether, your committee coaigiV
it unwise for the Association to agitate this subject further at present, beyond givthi"
moral support to the officials of the War Department who may declare in its .hvri
There are other points of interest in connection with the military departmentsi t
land-grant colleges which seem to need attention at the War Department. Afmii...
officers naturally favor those institutions which furnish the greatest number of pw-:
sons for drill and which give special prominence to the military feature, by requir-:?!2
iug uniforms to be worn at all times, keeping students under military regulation :Hi|
continually, and placing the entire subject of discipline in charge of the military,
professor. In the recently published report of the Adjutant-General of the Army -T:
that officer recommends the detail of officers to largely attended city high aohsd1.
rather than to land-gran t colleges offering fewer students for drill, and proplbsesthbM*::
the law be changed so that no officer shall be detailed to any institution havD iSingl,
than 150 students actually present and required to perform military duty. AlreSOA4ii7:
the Departineut has refused to detail officers to some of the smaller agricultural. ii
mechanical colleges, on the ground that they had too few students in attendadti, H
notwithstanding the legal obligation to teach military tactics at these college4 s Ii
short, despite the phraseology of the existing law, the Department reserves ther1Shtl
to refuse a detail to any college for reasons sufficient to itself, and as meniltoeinii'.
there are indications of a tendency to discriminate against land-grant colleges. & :
Since the last full conference between a representative committee of thisAudot-
tion and the War Department officials (in 1890), the latter have entirely cham i l




.:.. .. .. .. .. .
,, H i
..: I H, iii










*a Lopmtor-GoneraiL It own well, In view *It
awyeatim to owwWor whotber It wo*]A not be win W the
to poll" for "Other formal an military matters with the
st War and his MML
as wfth the aetion. of the the attention of the Secretary
A- 9 bas, bow called to the of *a provisions in the Burean of
he Axtdning suitable relstimn with tbelsind-grant, oollegea and giving
so seam proW and practieslik ou the pad of the DopartmeaL
has 16'amW as My appreciating this subject, and although
"t on" It to take deelded. action as ya4 he has declared his
Ot dolog so *4 an eady date, somwhat on the Una of the OMce of Experi-
M006sas in the of Agriculture, It seems probable that this matter
XONNITO go necessary without hrther effort on the part of thin Asso-

ur* Ow asUou of the Association at its last con"Vention, your committee
to an Agriculture of the House of Representatives an &I
0* Ow anwW Op"riatiou bil4 giving to the Secretary of Agriculture super-
JOWUN in with the expenditure of t station funds
Us" Act. The Department of Agriculture conmrred in this proposition
a* now "m- was perfoew as anuounced by Association circular. Sub-
do Pywirimp -' Invited the cooperation of this committee., as representing
of the staMons, in preparing the 11 Form of anI financial statement"
by the Secretary with accompanying schedules and regulations.
I'l 1, 0 consulted station treasurers, accountants, and other officers as far
a6d mix a M and a special and prolonged meeting was held in
4V in Ws eannection. Various opinions were developed, as was to be expected,
conclusion was reached which, in the main, accorded with the
of asody W4 mad this was subst=tially adopted by the Department. The
km of tba papers and the model report and schedules are too be credited
00 04100 of icavwimmt Stations.
mad the resultAng f6rm. of report has been regarded as a matter of
your commitNI and it is hoped that the and attaiaed will meet
v" genwal appro It could not be expected to satisfy the views of all in
moOm at detaiL It seem to be a question not yet decided whether the Depart-
xw4sbouW eonfim its supervision to & critical examination of the annual reports,
-0-1--i'l, SAW do yew has closed to which they refer, or should adopt other means
Jo, "asewtain Whetbor tM e0enditures under the (Hatch Act] appropriation
6 0 0 an in with the provinime of the said act," daring the progress
of As madve opersUous of the station year. There is certainly grave doubt as to
of the finaneial reports alone giving the Secretary of Agriculture the
W.to enable him to do J notice to the stations and their work in
ble rataired rIspoI to Congress thereon. It way be wall for the represen tatives. of
09 st tb" convention to give some expression to their views on this part of
as Mlbi"L
Tbe lestum of Sir Hoary Gilbert, LL. D., F. R. 8.1, *1 as special delegate &ani
ao 1AWM Agricultural Trust fw the YeI M, were commenced under the stmpiccs
at at its last eouvenUou, and were concluded at the Massachu"tte
hodesUaral Colkg*. lbwoo bx*ures. eoIso the only complete and authorized
mview ot dw famons inviest4ptWo of JAwas and Gilbert at Rothamsted daring a
MMsent;I lUmannoI has been revised by Dr. Gilbert, and your coinwittes
I* 9MUW to be AU to mumnes that the Department of Agrie=Uan him liberally
q*d wWl dackled to publialt dw loolures enUM as a special buUetin from the OMce
'I"-- --..t
JXal P -11 M" A statica&
A very andW IOMW bw beft reedv4 tbrough the Offise, of Experiment Station^
-**a Dr. P. Nobbo# proddent of the Twturd

















"-During the past year the executive committee has issued five circulars of dQ
tion in the interests of the Association. The last of these, dated .ovembe. .... .....
relates to procuring busts of Senator Morrill for such colleges as want th:a442
circular is distributed at this convention with a view to having action i
* which will save the executive committee much correspondence and probbi|
More satisfactory results than could be obtained by letters. ..
At the adjournment of the last convention there was a very small cash..bi
the treasury of the Association and a debt of about $1,000 existed, resulting .'.
work of the Association at the Columbian Exposition. The Chicago convention
". "!.. ..... ". .
the annual contribution at $15 for the purpose of meeting this debt. Nistr
institutions have responded to this call and your committee is pleased tord a...
that the Association is now free from debt, and the report of the treasurer :vwfrIU*
enough cash on hand to meet all the expenses of the present convention and.4
balance larger than a year ago. It is believed that a contribution of $10 from *'sftiy
college and every station eligible will be sufficient for the needs of the Asgo0040"
during the coming year. ";:
Appended is a list of the institutions eligible to membership in this Associat'fi 11;:.i:'
which, under the provisions of the constitution (title, "Finances"), are not eutittlel ji
to representation in this convention. :
Although the executive committee, after mature deliberation, deemed it unwir.:k
hold the convention of 1894 during the summer months, it is of the opinion that' t. :i
preference for a summer meeting, frequently expressed by many, should be regadad;2,4
and the time fixed accordingly for the convention of 1895. The chief difficultyowli.
be found in combining with such a time the conditions which seem essential. a s4.0. '|
place. When not meeting at Washington, there is a very general wish to visitaors*Bli2i
associate institution which is in session, and at the same time ample hoteI.a .c ...i.:.
modation and good railroad facilities are prerequisites of a successful convention, ':p:,!.
Since the programme for this convention was printed, President Lee ha6-niei. .
I compelled, by reason of illness in his family, and much to his regret, to deny h im 0 is0l
the pleasure of attending this meeting. He sends fraternal greetings, and has jonei:in |
his associates of the executive committee in requesting Vice-President Morrow tU .:
ir m4 41: #,i,
preside in his stead and deliver the annual address. "
Respectfully submitted, for the executive committee. i
HENRY E. ALVORD, Chairras0 :i
WASHINGTON, D. C., November 13, 1894. :
(Mr. Alvord then read a statement of a personal nature, setting f0rth '
his inability to continue as chairman of the executive committee&.) .
On motion of Mr. Johnson, of Wyoming, the report of the eeecuti ..n *j
committee was adopted and ordered printed in the proceedings of the..!
convention. ..:i
On motion of Mr. Armsby the programme of the executive commiit- L.::
tee and the rules of order were adopted by the convention. ,.....,
The CHAIRMAN. The next business will be the report of the treasure,,
*... .:i: f ii


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iiiiiiii i as 18iiiii -- 4 0
Tota ....... ........ *0 .* .... 104 9.6
ft w iue.. ...*.v..... p373
Baa m o ad.................... 23

Y"NIUN
a" pitni---- ..............i84
Thfyts 311ia" .............. t01
g b- 'eow dtea omo eotI-----------_- 117
Rw a e mI ihn tn.............. 80
Sk mm1 W s igo )................ 70
-- -- - - -2 .7
|o& sa o e---------------- ---- p373
1rMX TAERT
|eapa

iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii. . . $ 1 .0



























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18 9 4.iiiiiiiiiiiiii == == =
Apr.i9.iLouisianaitateiUniversityianiiiiiiiigrioniiaia
an Mehnia olee
9.Mrln giclua olge -----
9.Sae giutrlCleeo ooao ......
10 hoEpeietSato.1 0

11 Unvriyo eneseArclurlEprnct

St t o . .. . .i *
11 StrsArclua oleeEprmnSain
11.iii ]Delawar AgriculturaliiiiiiiHH Colleg ------------------ iii n
12. Iow Agiutrl xprmntto
12.iiiiiii Piiiiiuii U niiiiiiiy -- -- -- -- -- -- -
12.iCornelliUiversityi---i- --------------------------
12.iiiiiii O hioiiiiiiliiii St t n v r i y . .
12.iiiiii AgiclurliiiM ch ncaiC legioienucy..i5i
12.iPinsylva iaiStaeiCillge.i-iii.... ....i. ...ii.i1ii00
12.ii Louiiai ExpermentStaton,-fti........i..... Z.0
12.~ii Penylai Agrculura Exeimn Saio-10
18. Maine Stateii 15. J*
18. Uiniversityi SttifMsoriArclua Clee 5




WOW WK




.111010011wp ft Coutininuffa

C Ckws 86M* CoUsso at Arkulbus sad Meaboule
--%a* a.*. Samoa "Samoa 6000 $1& 00
Sa of 111@ 0 Ot Station Uht"Wdty of Illinois. 1& 00
F V & boven &&wtIfio &boat NowrJeffmy cakwo ...... I& W
lop 9a IN A&%%W tural t Station of Colorado. 1& 00
I# -
80a -Wed VkTioie Uni renAty ............. 15.00
i univormyot nueek ............. o0weav am --- 10900000 15.00
A Now jewy State Agrioultual Collor Experiment
Statiob .*&owe a a" "004FOO wow S00090 0000 00.00. 0-0000 15-00
jw"1124M.161 !not Bution.000.6 1& 00
Aega R. Aouth D&kO& Agrioultural CoNege ................. 1& 00
South Dakota Apioultvmd Experiment Station 15.00
a Wyoming univerOly .......... 15. OD
ILL Wyoming t Station ...................... 15-00
Oqv -30. WonbiuSke Agricultund College Experiment Sts-
t1014 basn" ......................... S. OD
8611k I& Uftb Agrioulland Collor and Faperiment Station,
in part pay t ................................ 20. OD
14. North Dakota Agrioultarol COW,; 0 a., 0 15.00
14. Worth Dakeft t station ...... 15.00
14. North Dakota Station, dues lft-W ................. 10.00
1IL 15.00
College ---------------------------------
OeL L Taxas Agriadtand and Mechanical College ....... 0 15-00
& Ommon Agrioultond College. -: .................... 10.00
w4h saw& cuoun&.Rxperiment Station ........ ... 15.00
20. Utah grimItural College and Station, balance due. 10.00
2L Oklaboma Rxperiment Station .................... 15-00
39. of Teelinology-........- 15.00
Imly 1L Flurklo Offiege and Station, on dam 180-ft ........ 20.00
Jkw. 12S Soutbum University Louisiana ..................... 15.00
TGWP-P-*"&O-awaw* am,- we 0. -0 a 0,0 a me. a.. 0. 0. 0 .......... 4440.00


ISOL
Aft. 2L Sorah Ga Jebmou, rent of room at 932 New York
aveaae WaWkingto% for use of extentive commit-
too for throo m u am* --- $42.00
21. Dr. H. P. Arowby, expenses dairy committee ........ 142,05
21. L Mo Riabee*t ezpeu* dairy committee ........... 111.31
23. L P. Roberta, expenses dairy committee ............ 15& 26
2L JWU & Detweileot,, printing and stationery ........ 30-00
2L L M. Babea614 expenses dairy test committee to
Odaborl .................................. & ... 60-00
IL MS A. Sorrell, expenses dairy twt oommittee ....... W. 40
Aw IL .1"Marmi"Am Printiog Company, printing bAter-
bmWoh bfflov, ou ............... 10.90
JWr S. IL P. Armeby, babmwe expenses dairy emaittes... $4.70
ar & 6. X. boboed4 babom ezpovo daby eommftsee. 9LOO
21. L P. Robsnm UWiese ezp & asiry 100.00
SL 1OL72
21. Sarab L Jobsoom, rmt of e w, WashixXtn@4 ior N e @
exomtIve oommittes *m April 30 to Jose 3D. S& 00
j
SL LW t Boom% baud oze" ro tommItUm.. 0 0.000,00 AGO
















5. Express on programmes and circulars ........ -
18. M. E. Olcott, stenographic work.................... .
18. Judd &Detweiler, printing--..---------...... ........
Postage and stationery. --------"-------... ..- ....'i
Nov. 13. Paid H. E. Alvord, sundry expenses----.. --.........-.....
13. Paid Judd & Detweiler, printing --...................
"Total ......" .. .....................
Total-----..-...----------
,,. ....i......
On motion of Mr. Vanderford, the report was referred to a..A;.'..
ing committee of three, appointed by the chair, consisting of;..
Yanderford, Buckham, and Godfrey. ;:'
.. :: ] .d.! .. ..... ..
The CHAIRMAN. I will call now for the report of the Section. ...i..
culture and Chemistry, to be presented by Mr. Henry, of Wisbi.
Mr. HENRY. The Section on Agriculture and Chemistry oepiut!
large a part of the proceedings of this body that I have no..:.-.1
report to make, believing that the time can be better occupied b
general session. Tliere was no special work before the section....
There were no reports from the sections on College Work, ".ot.l.
and Horticulture, and Entomology. .
The CHAIRMAN. The remaining section is that on Mechanic ..Art. ,;"
Mr. WASHBURN, of Rhode Island. I have no special report to miUi.
for the Section on Mechanic Arts. I do not know why this sectioa. i
not included on the regular programme. I presume the report w".iS
received in time, for which I am sorry. I did not know but that it. i.,
because a section on mechanic arts has no business in an assodatiobA
of American agricultural colleges, and I do not suppose that it has. IS
think it really ought to be an association of American agricultural adl#,
mechanical colleges. I will say, however, that we have a very ggo&IE
programme, and I invite all who are interested in the mechanic arts t.i
attend our session. '
The CHAIRMAN. This report will be received without formal motie'y
The reports have been surprisingly brief. r
Mr. ARMSBY, of Pennsylvania. I dislike to appear in the r6le ot
critic, but with your permission I wish to read a short section from: t
constitution on the duties of officers:
"" ":.:" ':':liliiiil
(3) The chairman of each section shall make, at the annual convention, a. pif
to the Association in general session of the progress during the preceding year off"
subject or subjects appertaining to his section, and such reports shall not .ip
more than twenty minutes each. "

.*
AP



. ..... .... ...... ... .... ...
i":"iii
5k. : .!. iiiii:




7 !r1PQe__, 7 "7_



I vrM to may, Mr. Presidenti we not dictated by any
but simply for the good ot the AmuWation. When
wan It was sdopW4 an I understand it with the
omb reporin of pen on jrhat had beau going on in
durinx thepast yew would be'of great value
A In helping to weld together the seetionis into which
tu A
ation would alumt inevitably split up. It seems
mforWastep at less4 that this ides4 underlying this provision of
-MIAtatioul am not in the fature be carried out. Irepeatthatl
M simply in the interests of the Association, and
i apy desire to And fault.
Amxtw,, 1. desire to add my word to what has been so well
I hewWy believe in the great value and wisdom of the course
014t t" A
in dividing into sections,, but I should also consider
*'great mish ir t tine if the failure to make these reports should tend to
A iqs souxatall our work except pw*ly formal work in general
be done in isectiona.
Xr. ALvojw. I move that those portions of the report of the execu-
refbrring to military department matters and to the
4r of the Morrill bust be referred bodfly to the Section on
Work for consideration.

'Mr. ALvomm I now move that the portions of the report of the exec,
k*th* eemnittee relating to new legislation regsrding station funds
T.ImA to the invitation from the German Association of Experuinent Sta-
be reNtred to the new al section on station work for its

A
Mr. ALvolm. For t&e executive comniitt4x I now ask leave to read
two paragraphs of the constitation, relating to membership:
he= other institutions engaged In educational or experimental work
to go inhermt of agriculture or mechanic arft may, by a maj ori ty vote, be admid tted
to aftWWWWRO !I- of as AsKo6ation, with &H privileges except the right to vote.
(4) In like manner, any person engaged or directly interested in aViculture or'
imm6ank arts who shall &Uend any emyention of this Amoeiation may be admitted

I am Instructed to move that the chiefs of the several divisions and
'bureans of the Department of Agrieultare be admitted to the floor of
anvention with all privileges under We provision of the consti.
tudmm od that all vinitors, who have re istered and come under the
of membership be also admitted to the floor of this
ventim during fte pwamdings.

Mr. Iluezz&m. I nwe thA the personal statement made to us by
VM ehairman of the ezeentive committee be relerred to a emmittee of
tUee to be appohiW by the chair, with Instructions to report at a
,,$dum of this geaelw MGM*%



















tare Willits is in the city, and as he has been of such greati........
this Association, I move that the secretary of this body be.
to extend him an invitation to attend ourmeetings.
". ". :. ::. .....
Ordered........
Mr. BUCKHAM. I am sure the Association will understan&di1::....
make this motion, which is, that the Association appoint a:1M
of three to wait upon Senator Morrill, who, I understand, is' in
and express to him the respect of this Association and in ..t|...
attend our meetings.
Adopted.
The CHAIRMAN. Will the convention kindly designatethfs:t
tee? There may be personal reasons for selecting certain mem....M"
Mr. KOONS. I would name as chairman of the committ"
Buckham.
... ... ... ..........0
Mr. Harris named the chairman of the Association.
The CHAIRMAN. I will name Mr. Broun, of Alabama. The'elafr.nei4"*
announces as the committee on the personal statement made bt.:14.
chairman of the executive committee, Mr. Buckham, of Vetnnot:'.. il
made the motion; Mr. Harris, of Maine, who is peculiarly fitted ,...
of his intimate association with that work, and, that the oft:rlM
of the Association may be represented, the chair will nommiat!::'.....
Plumb, of Indiana.. .
Adjourned at 11.50 a. m. ." .i
... ."* ::.., ..Y"'."il
EVENING SESSION, TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 13; 1894. ,, ':"
*~~: .E ... "; *^

The convention was called to order at 7.45 p. m. by Vice-PrO4 :.dS
Frear. '.'
Mr. JOHNSON. I offer the following resolution: "'
Resolved, That the executive committee of this Association be requested t*q :ei$
Denver, Colo., as the place for the next annual meeting in 1895, if in harmony 'rl
the best interests of the Association, and that we suggest August 15 to Octotr.IM
the most suitable season of the year. : !:
.. ....,." .
.. ...... : .:..
If this resolution is seconded, I desire to present some very i....p
tant matters from the city of Denver. (Mr. Johnson then read Nw,.
munications from the Denver Chamber of Commerce, the mayor .fot$
city, the Mining Exchange, and the Manufacturers' Exchange, in&*it
ing the invitation to meet at Denver in 1895. He vouched for their f....
est of Senators Teller and Wolcott in the work of the land-griant:'%ii

i. ., ...L.,. ....
K ,K
.:.. .. ..........::.......:..:
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J* V


at hrtb the advantages %M attmedom of Denver as a
eity.)
to the "ftudveOO=mjtte&
Thm we reasons this yftt why we sbould give unusual
t" of officers of the Association, and although
awly point in the convention, I'thinkit wise to appoint a
xow to in a nomination& 11 theretbre move that the chair
6 e0maittee of thm on nominatiom
sugge" that wamittee had usually consisted of

Umb acespW the suggestkni and the motion as amended was

I would like to. say something regarding an Invitation
#I&* WoOmp for the AuKKdation to meet in Minnesota. We are
and soxious to entertain you at Minneapolis. The invitation
"ry beartily sad cornea, ftom the two cities of St. Paul and
Regarding railroad rabu4 I am authorized to say by the
of the fines centering at Minneapolis that we shall be
got for rates of one or possibly one and one-half for the

I have no desire to enter Ohio in opposition to Colorado
but the Association haa once or twice expressed a will.
to eme to OWA3 and circumstances. have intervened which Inade
to most elisewhere in both cases. We are ready to receive
Amm.iztion whenever it deeires to come, and will give it a cordial

Zdwin VHIW4 ex-AaWstant Beezetary of Agriculture, who
lo On a _1 at Usk.. mommuti was *invited by the coha'air to address the con-
He responded very briefly, dedUning to make a speech, but
i- g b* pleasure at meeting the Amociation and wishing it con-
OmmA growtX
TU hisKAN. I have a letter from the secretary of the Cosmos
stating Uat the pdvfleges of the club are extended to the mem-
11,bw of this Associatiou during the present week.
A rwdution was adopted that the Association aempt with thanks
the Cosmos, Club.
36. Vanderford, chairnm. of the auditing committee, reported that
4he eammWtbw bad examined the accounts of the tre"urer aad found
Am= ewret!4 wfth proper vonchas for each item of expenditure.
Bqmt *kqte&
'The vimpresidenik G. B. Mwrow, of nlino* delivered the annual
A M
*d4ress so acting Of the.1180ociation.
ply

AnWAZY ov vim AmmxxATwx, LAvi= A" OxwrL==: WIm
of JU Id Chime I" raw t" eleetwe 0( GOOMW L"
jw the yw was wmajoadir is as oum oesurred to a* Uw ehoice


















address, and requested me to deliver an address in his stead. I there.
best I may, in his place, and will read you such words as I have been able:.
"The test of national welfare is the intelligence and prosperity of ,thim'
These words by the graceful essayist, thoughtful student, and friend of.U
and his kind, George William Curtis, may well stand at the head of.i
before this Association, which owes the possibility of its existence to thel
the people, represented by Congress, that the institutions it represents.$:
helpful to the national welfare; and this by adding directly to the inte ...h
the farmers of the country by giving them the best special education for ..-i ":i*
and thus aiding their prosperity, and by directly advancing their pro.'S
communicating to them the results of research and investigation as to ie1ih4
which they can most profitably conduct their business.I
We may not easily overestimate the extent and importance of the work th.i......
ciation represents. No longer with boastfulness and exhilaration do Jih.I..
Americans speak of the vastness of our country and the problems that c. ...N...
As a nation we have passed beyond the buoyancy of spirit and impulsive con...
of youth to the cares, anxieties, and thoughtfulness of maturity. And meo:- .
boastfully nor flippantly-perhaps almost appalled, but rather, let us hope, st:i0.44
lated to increased effort by the vastness and importance of the field of labot-4..
recognize the fact that the interest we represent is, by far, the chief material .u
est of this great nation; the one on which millions of our citizens directly dset4..
for their livelihood, and the one the prosperity or adversity'of which mostquiqik...
and most directly affects the welfare of all classes. Not more honorable #ti
needed industries, agriculture is the great basal industry of the world on' iwht:
others peculiarly depend. ...
This great industry shares the depression which has affected all the wck*ip
forces of our land. Aside from this, as we hope, temporary depression, ArjcA#6
agriculture is in a transition stage, and none of us may with certainty predict tJil
outcome in all directions. In a degree greater than ever before the Ameriean fRaiii
is feeling the effects of direct competition with a vastly increased number of 1 iiI
fellows in his own land and of many millions in many other lands. In the sale":!
his products he is made aware of the fact that whether or not modern civlzatlgml1
has made all the world more akin in kindly feeling and mutual helpfulness, it h.Mi".
brought all people closer together in the competition of trade. He realizes that moii
ern means of transportation have made the supply of an agricultural product almost
anywhere in the world an appreciable factor in supplying the demand for that"
product almost anywhere else in the world. If he be thoughtful he must rpeognitn.*]:*
the fact that in the future he must work on a narrower margin of possible peflt:
than in the past. He sees that economical methods of production are the foUoMd|...
tion essentials to success; and he is asking more earnestly than ever before how* h-iL
may most wisely dispose of and distribute the products of his farm. He isbcgli-
ning to ask not only for new or better methods of production, but whether thne"B,!
not new crops he may wisely produce, or whether there be not new uses for 14.4
crops, and thus the stress of competition in supplying tie old wants be lightened,;
As we look over the field we see the commencement or the full progress o t .npl
cultural changes, the outcome of which we await with interest if not with


S. ... ..
..... .... .........:..:....."...'









*Vallabk plotwo bob pwtiaWy exhomted. Nowhere, In all the
mW eovaidemble body ot Govemment land now available for ordi-
Coomquent upon tho alawst unparalleled drought of
as *Wuc a beekward obh of the tide of farmers that has sts"Uy Sowed
*a convietten on the part of mau'y that then are large areas which
IVhemers but which most be abandoned by them auless irrigation
-1-1cable. We have heard overmuch perhaps of the abandoned farm&
*e#W pqrtlons of the *ountry,,but it is clearly true that over large areas
lamb bave been gmtly lowered; that much land once regniarly
it now wants. kougaide thim we we other large areas, with great natural
oveeptonal artificial advautagest in which Priem for farm lands have
Qwy seem to have reached a maximum under present conditions.
!oxb pek and rapidity of the changes in our Wming population may well give
There an three great dzainW systems carrying vast numbers of our
*am $wnss. Two -of them we inevitable, and If we are wine we will not
Ow ftsvitahle. We will not only submit, but adapt.ourselves to it. The first
dndm is tba* ftom the country to the city. This will continue. The per-
at ow fWmms$, as ownpwed with those engaged In other callings, will
momMer. lNeftionolookof agricultural products. We produce much more
vs eassume. We feed our rapidly increasing population and'have an increas-
ft export. Often three-fourths of all the exports from our country in
as those of agricultural products. The second of these drainis is that from
of the older to these of the more newly settlea portions of the country.
110100414 so Ion of productive power; only change of the place where It is exer-
This movement is inevitable and clearly wise in many cAses. When the real
tages of diffierent sections of the country are more nearly equalized.,
In large degree. IMe third of these drains is in fall progress in my own
"d I witness it with regret, and protest that it is not, at leaat it ought not
how ItaW This In the removal of farmers when they have acquired a com-
or 'have. passed the prime of life.from the farms to the country towns and
Te results are offAm unfortunate for the" farmers and their families; not
desirable to the communities to wblc& they go, aud very often deplorable to
60 OMMUnities they leave. In many cases there is not only the lose of wise, ener-
jp6k experienced smW11%it the advent of a tenantry distinctly inferior as citizens
sad figumm In a multitude of farming communities there has been a marked retro-
'S i N i 11 n a during the last twenty yam in the intellectual and moral tons, as well as
fa Ow xppeamnce of and ntethods pursued on the farms.
An Increase not only in 11honumber but in the percentage of tenants on American
hammi some inevitable, usle.w there in a recasting of our system of land tenure.
Vle" each inavasie of the tenantry is to be a great misfortune will depend on
UM Obarseter of the tentantry and the terms on which they hold the land. If the
4i be one of equitable Partnerships between landowners and those who furnish
got only hbor but *kill, there mood be nothing of degradation or inj justice to either
pail If the system be ona in which wealth and intelligence dictates terms to
Jjpw*=ce and povertyp which can famish only labor without skill, the results will
bob" for the Waantsbad for our agriculture, and bad for national welfare. Emer.
"'O"ma Im suld -. 1141 That AM is bad for the" bee *an not be good for the sw 4"
Tbers we gre" changes in our land owmembip. In some parts of the country the
of enbdividen of thrms seem to be going on. It will be a gnat misfortune
it be eartied to tke extent that oball bring ne a pmeaut proprietorship. in
edw owtions thers in a *Wtestation of ','land hunger" by the rich. An Instance
oomoss to adad of a multioUllonsive of the metropolis of the aentral west, largely
Intermoted in bai* In-it)"sM in vdm In manufacturing enterprises,; the soiner
t *SW", of Oialatiqs b Civilimatiou'll, and st"dily striving to prove his cnm
by the rOwS of bis apeculadve operWons.-ft mso is t
of #no of Au= IaWbi sod Is quWy adding other



























of machinery makes necessary both intelligent direction and intelflljs
on our farms. i. .;
In many ways the ingenuity of the inventor .and the skill of ihe :4i&
adding to the productive power of our farms. Not always have we.4
equally rapidly find markets for these products& ..." ".
These are some of the conditions seen by thoughtful students of A i,,I"C
culture, and each suggests great problems not fhlly solved. :...
If we look at special conditions of the year, we are confronted by thle e.iaf
most disastrous drought ever known in our country, measured by the diit
farm products. How far can irrigation be made practicable; what .jHftq'f
methods of introducing the system where it is practicable; how can we befctm|
the rainfall where this is deficient, and how best reduce evaporation |MI
are questions which ask themselves. V ;:
We see the end, we may hope, of the reduction in price of one of our gnIN4.
a reduction which has caused wheat to cease to be used almost excluhmi'l7il
for man and led to perhaps one-seventh of the crop for the year being fed:9ta 1.
males. It would seem that efforts to induce Europeans to use maize as fo4:...
might be suspended for a time while we urge them to more largely use wa oW ie!
To the agricultural colleges and experiment stations is given the dity gj
ilege of carefully considering and trying to solve the problems suggte4io rl
hasty sketch-and others like them. .:".
.:*.::.. ......: "..i..
I closely associate the two classes of institutions here, as I always .ido:iM
thought. It is well they are linked together in the name of this Associathm'iai
are by law. In exceptional cases it has been thought best to separate t........
wish to emphasize my earnest conviction that, as a rule, an intimate imionUi|is
both; that the teacher should investigate and the investigator teach. ...
are difficulties in the proper adjustment of the work is freely admitted. ..
the attempt to make an equal division of time and thought between the t"w M
of work will be unwise. But for teacher, investigator, student, and the ...
public, I believe there should be good opportunity and good use of the oprOW
for each worker to observe, and for many of them to do work both as teaclh
investigator.
We all admit something of disappointment in the results as yet reacbedi'1
agricultural colleges in giving direct education along agricultural lines.l
have done good work and are doing more and better than ever before; bdsi
best they reach directly only a very small percentage of the farmnning popuait14
the discussions at former meetings of this Association many reasons have bee
for this condition. Perhaps-a chief reason for our disappointment is that....
us had too high hopes. It was hardly reasonable to expect that any large F|.
...... ....... ...::..
....... ... .. ..... .. .. ....
::.*... .:.. ........ ... ......."... ...."
.. ..;. .. ...~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~:. .... .. ." ... .... ...... !: i. :. .:. i~ ~: ::.. .. .:[ :: i i p i:iii :: ';i..."


h: :x ....... ... .. .. .. : .. : ..... c .:.










ahba h"On or necbmift Of 60 boaxtrrWWWU have a tau 00110916"

bdQWft49fdm**i"t:M4*wh"b"u and Impertmd and
m 111111,111W In 111111oft ilin andlndwiug hijill;her iiiiiiiiiiiiiiw
=&bA do *W4 of n,&Om and have given stimulvA and honor to
W.. was ofeciouaL Ifthe time ever was when Us scientist
vas I* Uw direatke of adeking to make discovered tmth directly unfal
tkat be was on a lower plane than woo hisfellow eagaged in the
saieww" that time has ewe &revari sad man In this In
Ndped boa" it.,
Amoci&Uon has principally emaerned Iteelf with the agri=lUa*l We
vadsgw4 I am heartily glad a section has boa eatafiliabod. devoted to the
arts sid& Not srudginkly, -but most gladly, we whom work has to do
at wbolly with ** agricultural side reeognima the remarkable development
$ODOM Of 66 i i I i of MMM&&Uio arts in many of the land-grant colleges
*vewiUes. We may not forget it we would, and we ought not if we could,
*0 very terwo of the low providing for the establishment of them iustitu-
w*U am 'by soy fair estimate of what wM be best for the national welfai%
atUare placed akegd& and on a level with agriculture. Local conditions
jaomw$ suarpactes ummlify the plans of institutions; some wisely give more
to Ow aw, others to the other side, but neither has exclusive nght to the
to pAd in the
not of any one branch of the workers of
bott of IA the industrial elawma."
sW 4,whose work has been so exclusively along severely practical lines,
t hope that.. never shall members of this AAsooiation give either
Adea]Ie to the plea that the colleges it represents shall do what they may
A" which. tends to develop what we call culture. Alongside
preetlad as descriptive of the education to be given by these inBtitu-
We word I" liberal." In even the most extended college coumm
aft do IMU* note than give starting points along a few lines. There must be
aplmm6lou, and ow ductur laws elearly indicate what must be the leading lines
66WOr. Bull we ukake. grove mistake if we needlessly strike out of the currica-
any6ing thM dh=*JyIanids to liberal culture.
to no" tbah"that only one apecific requirement in made bylaw
As JwvIM dwU ia taught Thwe fa express direction that thaw institutions dmll
mUltary tactim It Mi pitiful if student or officer ever allow himself to fed
V&S an requirement to accompany a munificent endowment
Oe madon. Poes It not jutbor suggest that it in the high privilege of these
a" to to&& young men me they may be better fitted to parsue
and bsUer fifted to deftnd their country by force of arms if ever the
mod bs but Also to At them for the best ponsible discharge of all the dutles of
400 sub" 1,
T6 kaynots of all I am trying to my in that the advancement of the national
is the mo ehW and sudkient reason. for the establishment of these oolleges
ft&AWkw& And is to be dew not alms by helping young men and women to
be WNW Am="*, aebin IN* I- scientisb but also by helping them to
be %"W etuseset lettler MOM and women.
___A Sh"Jong
new aftboom I has ban highly sueeass&l; in view of all the
am Tbay were nocessaril hastily oWnizaL The
170NMXI_ -___a y
mom of do VM%_ ju 9 1 11 1. 1 ; soine pra"A to be i t. There
Jm been. fte mawy changes. Boards of xonsgemout and workers alike have often
UM."AA swookedy SliproWLeW the Isse 64 oomes hm ft*q*=$ changes of workwo or
at work. Ibere bxwo been nk*&n awk in aboodag Dam of inv 966=
A"M MWOM Ones in Changing the Miss When on" Chasm Imporb"s interest
bs Pardy gI wW Tm has been some usedless duplication of work.
be$ mom skdome bw sot Iowa raudmWL Mmmhavebseseems


















practical farmer. Every chapter, almost every page, contains referen .h.............
stations from the bulletins of experiment stations as Worthy of higWiai.
Already agricultural practice is being affected, and for good. '
The successes of the past stimulate us for the future. Tlhe mistakes mailf..1.
of the past must never be an excuse or a reason for lessened effort. Thery"U ":ma.
us to change our methods, but can not be a reason for lessened effolt to ae o iN
work laid upon us. Some day, somehow, somewhere, the problem of ftflypQji3
izing agricultural education is to be solved, and solved for America.
I plead, then, for persistent, hopeful work in both college and stationsaiuE&>....
two lines of work in each. In the colleges let us strengthen the agricultural. *....
Let there be shorter, more elementary courses also, but in each agricultiwaiNll
whether there be few or many who seek it, let there be facilities for educatOn.l:
training in agriculture the full equal of the facilities for an education alb iil
other line. Let there be more, not less, of science; more, not less, of culturei:l' ..
permit; but in an agricultural college let us magnify the teaching of aklilifBlT
There are great difficulties. In these colleges we are seeking to give two:e 6.',.f
tions in four years-sometimes starting with only the education gained in the p ,i4
schools-a general and a professional one. A supposed or superficial famililW.'..
with agricultural subjects tends to lessen interest in their study. There has beea'" A
lack of definition of what the teacher of agriculture may properly teach tb.,j i|
one hand he has often felt obliged to teach a wider range of subjects than a hayoWl
could thoroughly master. On the other hand he has sometimes felt warned off.fi.
a full discussion of almost any part of agriculture, on the ground that he is trW&J
ing fields belonging to the "scientist." He has sometimes been expected to impgj|
only details of practice.
And, as one who has given years to this work, I may be permitted to name oas n
chief difficulty in the way of successful, popular teaching of agriculture, the Iaot'In
of knowledge of how best to teach it. I can think of no greater help to the cuinisiZ
of distinctive agricultural education than may be expected to come from syntementia":":^
perhaps long-continued, study, by some of the best men in the work, of meth-odst:.::-.-
teaching agriculture-in the broad meaning of the word-and the devising of& ap :!
rats for use in such teaching. Some of us have paid far too little attention to thi' ^!i
study of methods of teaching in general. Most of us know almost nothing of meta""'!:
ods of teaching agriculture, except what we learned from the practice of our ow .":,....
teachers or from our own experience. *
Aside from the value of a study of agriculture as a help -to more successfully rc-:
ticiug it, I believe it can be so taught as to be not only as interesting but kave us
much disciplinary value as almost any otherstudy, but this can only bedone by thpo :.Il,:
who know how. ,.
An appreciation of the importance of better systematized methods of teaching agi-;.||
culture is not new with me. Years before this Association was organized I had tl'=:i.i
honor of suggesting and aiding in the organization of a modest society of teaob4i6i:
of agriculture and horticulture, the chief object of which, in my own mind, wVaS4.6 !
help its members to better teach their specialties. The society met annually for se. :i;R`
oral years. We enjoyed much; we learned much; but little directly along i'HNIi
special line.
I am sure that all engaged in the work feel the need of which I have sp
A letter recently received from Professor Hunt, of the Ohio State University1 t" N
.
;- .
..... ... ..... .. ... *-... .. ....: .... ..-..". .: ... ...- : ., .... *"***i ** -:"*'^ -f' ^ ^ '-* *''*. *^'' '^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ S




'AT,,-T7A1' V'*1





Joscher of tocholoal agrioulture might laad as to suppose he
used low tWm many others, so weU *xpresses my thought that I

at tboaight ban been forcibly presented 4to my attention. It is better
tasU-mUou In te"eal agrioultue and the diSculty in succesaftlly
tnowledge we possess beeause our "rmation is not systematized aloug
Uses. Subjeots like mothematios, Englisb and some other sciences
so tboroughly By and graded that a student not only compre.
subject muh more speedily, but geta a much better training at the same
X*Qo& that an appropriate in language or mathematics would not be
In teaahi4 technical agriculture. Now methods must be workedout
*ww wathods must be systemaQwd. and printed for common use before any
in teaching ma be obtsine& I am thoroughly convinced that a small,
but fairly largi aggregate of students will study agriculture when they
Ima an insch in. a given t4me, sad got as much thorough scholastic tratniver in
as they now do when, they study Greek, Latin, and mathematics.
POW4 unit oonfess our deficieneiesin thin matter and try and overcome them. To
tbm some sun must devote a considerable part of their time to the devel-
of prow me4hods, and when them methods we developed there ought to
method of publication and coordinatiou, of th e methods so that each worker
lim an prdfit by the work of the different individuals. -We have at the
One a most admirable experiment station system by which every station
P"Is by the work of every other station worker. The matter is pnblishad
distribute fiw of charge and then is summarized and systematized in
of t Stations at Washington. In this matter of instruction,
_*V* have no "Stem whatever. Every instructor is a law unto himself,
'16 No law whatever,, and then in absolutely no method by which others may
Uy W good ideas which he develops. 'I know this to be a matter about
you have thought a great deal for many years and you appreciate the situation,
volts as fally an I do.
A'Codd 11wee not be sime system by which the United States Department of
eou]A help to systematize and coordinate the work of technical instruc-
agAeaturc IN
Whether or not the memo suggestAA by which this work can be beat done prove
1411 F M, 11 1 or niost desirable, I earnestly commend the subj eet to the Assoc i a ti on
especially to then directly charged with the duty of giving instruction in

Mbaftneed be so sham in =&king this full acknowledgment of the need of a well-
AMWA systain of teaching agriculture. Have not the methods of teaching almost
sekneem even of teaching language and mathematics, been greatly modified
*Min reeent 74=1 Havethen not been revolutions not only in methods of teach-
OgWt &W In the whole maw of illustrative material used in teaching some sciences I
Dow wt this valwMe report of 11 the committee of ten" seem to ab ow that we have
%fths kka of proper order and proportion in oar teach ing in the public sch ools f
Aageldle this thorough, higher, full-course teaching of agriculture which I have
bom sdvosatiag, I woulil have sborter, simpler, purely "practical ',' courses-the
Isaga the bettev. I would have them courses extend through two ears where this
Is pmetie"; one year, if this be all that seems possible; three months, where no
weas can be dow. I would tiesch In thaw tourses the beginning* of science and the
jw of Ito agricultural applications if need be, an well as have eourses designed
to 0" training in spedfic branches of farm work.
9wh Wkwt eouress can wA give a well-rounded education, and there will always
*10M.&F seed for we lest those att"&ng thein fall. into error on this point. But they
A* much good. I would bave, such courees absolutely ftw It need be. I would
go" it this is necessary.



'ft A

















orally is fragmentary in character. Gratifying results have comefrom tji3.||i"
plan of having professors from the colleges give one or more courses of
connection with the institutes, or at meetings arranged for the purpose,. :.
A. fair measure of success has come from some efforts 'to niake use ofi.,th
tauqua system of reading circles in teaching agriculture. With due rega .:
chief work, I would have college professors and station workers avail thcw
every opportunity to give instruction in the way of lectures, articles in i
tural papers, discussions at farmers' meetings, etc., not only because suohw4i$4
'. .... =:.'..."
abundantly worth doing in itself, but also because it is one of the most e
methods of arousing or increasing interest in better and fuller agricultural r-:.
I may not weary your patience with more than a brief reference to statai .....
I would have more of research and experiment along purely scientif liU ii.
restricting such work to that which gives large promise of immediate "d:::.....
practical applications, not stopping it even if good men are unable to see its
Alongside this I urge the continuance of the plain, "practical" lines of "xperi
Not many striking discoveries will be made, but that which seems unimport:
itself may be of vast importance in aggregate results. If experiments bty.. .
workers should enable the farmers of the country to increase the average .;yiqlIt
corn one peck per acre, the value of this increased yield would be far above thU.I.-
of all the stations. .
I name only two of many important lines of work-the introduction of noew,'
to secure greater variety of agricultural products, and the finding of new uses 1 986 t j
crops we already produce. There may be great possibilities in this direction. "q
d zs.... ... ....
definition of a weed as a plant the virtues of with we have not yet discovored4l!w*.
gests that there may be most important uses in plants now little regarded. TheoRP'
range of uses to which cotton seed and its products are now put suggests thatwem il..
have been content with very partial utilization of other products of our farms.
As firmly as ever do I believe there should be more of cooperation between) sitatpil
working along the same lines, and that there should be more of differentiation of V ]if
between stations. But more clearly than formerly do I see difficulty in securing t01iai
things. It is hard to resist the pressure for trial of experiments admittedly imo.I
tant. The wise rule seems to be that each station should have a very few mainly Sig|"
of work, with possibly a number of minor and incidental ones. But the fact that oine..
station has done most excellent work along one line and received deserved credit I9*
it, is often made an argument why the station in an adjacent State should dothe saiism l
'work. There is difference of opinion even among station officers as to what cAt-i`-;
tutes a too narrow or a too wide range for work. In discussing the work of ame tio
the stations, the director of another gave it praise but thought the attempt had b iej ::
made to investigate too many problems. The director of the station in an adjoinmiegiQ^
State also praised the work, but thought the station at fault in having neglectet.I,
important fields of experimentation. :,
Much as has been accomplished in making the results of the work done availliAN
to farmers, I believe much more is desirable. The bulletins of the stations reau.h
only a small minority of the farmers. Many of these bulletins are more valuable i......
station workers and to those with a fair education in science than to farmers ge..ttr-....
ally. Valuable as is the aid given by some agricultural papers in disseminating $ini i
results of station experiments, these usually give only partial results. '
I would be remiss in a duty and deny my self a pleasure if I did not bear
testimony to the admirable work done in this direction by the Office of Expt


..... ... "
..... ...: ...,...........:'









1% eed s nviu~% adItsHadbokUtb bt eay-rfeens or


-Ba-ba W mold olb tainwres eiv h I


wbo itiii sholdbemuhiiiiiiiiiiirsutsalrad otane,,an
iiiiiiii~ ~ ~ 4 ..."tr'ii~ i ...........
........us in]]]]?'] .... .ateaond b d ptd t op lrue
.........n is- imot howy ork; t wil. notbringfameioithoeiwh
I: doubiIttheiInaimreiseflwrkiwaiingsomiofthebesitrine
bweam Theiii pln fiivngtoilase oiiiiins oe ivn
sad..... re=s goii other gincoclsins bse o tes1rsuts hs1uc
IL Theiiiiii wrkiimaycar muciiiiiifriadetaledrecod o
sawor!Wthn=orwht e!hik hee higstech Mnyfamescu
doii iiiibiw iciiiiiiiiiiiirechdasthy ssmethsewe
Aso n cuaeyue. u il edwt neetwa etikw
iiiiiir dereiiesccsiiiotigrcltriileeiidex eim n
deed n hi an etindetuhmihte epe Edwdb
Gowa and&*tiivermetidepndit ortheriullsucesionaditina
it.t.... ..................................n arly a s p ssi
beii wiorkn in in wthth poulr hogh. Te eltinsof llconete
tb~a andiheiib~iiiiiiibifrakianiiodialiisecialyiiuldIiim res
40011 ofi"Vig iecolegiinilos rlaionhi wth hepulicscoo
O wiii niiiiii iiiiiiiiiii=====
of th.....u h hic ftemotdsrbl ie f okado
of don thtiokiiiiialyiedeiedbitoeiiiclycareiwt
of theiiiiiiiiiiiiustesibordiofiotroiiresdetsfaultes
and staionworerscannotewae, he espnsiiliiesresingupo thif










Alt















,a..L V/ f" w l .. ii::jj! ii%.:-;;;jj|jg.~ ||||||
Mr. Alvord stated that the executive committee would ii
scriptions for the plaster casts of this bust until the new ia"
committee was appointed. The cost was $50, which might b
by further subscriptions to $45 or $40.
Mr. HARRIS. The attention of the Section on College Wink.
called to the fact that the entrance requirements and courses of
in the various colleges, including not only the agricultural b. t!a
departments, vary very greatly. Attention was also called to ........
that high school preparatory courses were not only very diffCrent.,"'
different States, but in different parts of the same State. A. wo,
tee was appointed to report immediately upon what action mnigh- 'wi,
profit be taken by the Association to remedy thiA. The commit ,.
reported as follows: /-J
That a committee of five be appointed by the Association, which committee sh.0|
report at the next annual meeting, and that the executive committee be ak-As.
defray all expenses of the committee.
That the committee be authorized to confer with the New England Association u 4
Colleges, the Committee of Ten, the National Educational Association, and a ouilC
other bodies or associations as may be, and to embody the results of such *coin-ts|l
ences in its report to this Association.....
I move the adoption of that recommendation. ..
Seconded. '-
Mr. TYLER, of Massachusetts. I have been very much interestiedp
personally and officially, in this matter of entrance requirements, a .:,i
am in full sympathy with the motion proposed. I should be personatyl:
glad if, among the societies specifically named in the resolution, went
included the Society for the Promotion of Engineering Educatioqb|,:
This society was organized at Chicago last year, and had its seeoan&
meeting last August in Brooklyn. The matter of college entrance ae'
quirements was very carefully treated in a paper by Professor Oravefl .4
of the University of Kansas, and aroused considerable discussici!x
At the close of the discussion it was voted that a committee of, five h&.
appointed by the Association to consider entrance requirements and...
report at the next annual meeting of the Association. The field to &i
covered is of course not identical with that represented in the present
Association, but certainly on the mechanical side of this Association thei
work is very much common to the two. I think the result would h'i
very satisfactory on both sides if there were the best possible coop .ra.|
tion between the two committees.
Mr. HARRIS. While the field is of course not identical with the MZ-$a |
we represent here, it is entirely included within it, and the last I


..... ... t J",*






waoneddt ncueamsin o hssr.I
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iii Thiiiiiiiii cariiiiihiiiieiiiint enioiaiom it
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......o the chair wais directed to appoint the committee.iiiiiiiiiiiii
ehi noue h blwu etee h oiiteo



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wilpoce~o h osieaio fth rpse mndett
















and whatever legislation has been had by Cofigress recogniti.i.|
that this supplementary legislation is designed tosupplements:iiS
plete the organization of the colleges under the original ...
same objection applies to the change moved by Mr. Harris.j::.71
are State colleges which have neither part nor lot in ti
ment. Nov, whatever change be adopted, it ought to be in cO.
with Federal and State legislation. These ends will be accomjy
by the amendment introduced by Mr. Cavitt last year, and4,iI
requirements of those who desire a change in the designation c(..
Association will be met by the insertion in the present nlameii...! .o.
words "and mechanical." I do not believe in any cumbrous"., i
clature; the shorter the name the better, so that it expresses adequa l
what we want to express by the name-of the Association. It.. .
argued at New Orleans that the mechanical side of these colleges IaIl
to obtain recognition in this Association. There is a general disp6s `
tion to recognize that. This disposition is shown on the part of
connected with mechanical training in these colleges to bring: t-hiftl
part of the institutions up to the level which has been obtained by tli||
other sections represented here. I think we can not evade the resp=anar.
ability attaching to the development of the mechanical side of tI......
institutions of learning. It is important that we should educate .:.6
agriculturists; it was truly said that they are the backbone of A im
can industry, but there are mechanical industries that will be second iiJ
importance-only to the agricultural interests of the country. It It!
important that we educate our mechanics, our laboring classes, and .ii
as much for them as for tke agriculturists. You are well aware thi!
there is a constant tendency of the agricultural population to move fom""
the rural districts to the towns. When you bring that fact into ..hnnhle
tion with another important fact, namely, that practically all the wealtf..
of the country is in the cities, you bring together the two explosive el6e ments that endanger this country. I argue that education for thie!
artisan is as important as for the agriculturist, and Congress in its fat
sightedness foresaw in 1862 that that would be the case. From 'th"es
points of view it seems to me we can not neglect this duty to fart*ti
the development of the mechanical side as largely and liberally 'as .ti:'i
other side. The other side is well established; the mechanical sidilaB
unfortunately not so. In a great many institutions established Uibt
the land-grant act, mechanical training is still in its infancy. Whatii
want this Association to encourage by its official act is to give"it


.. :.. .i iii
*..* .:::.
... ..... ..... .... .. ... .:. ... :. ... .


Pr









Let 0ongress and the wvml States see that
woest about V& matter, and thai while we are not going
the oaoN we we equally willing Ao foster the other.
It gives me great plemwe to second the speech of, Mr.
so I did at Now Orleans two yean ago. It seems to me
the tight nall -on the bead. We must adhere closely to
1mrpose as expressed in the organic act of 1862. The act
t "oeflegm for the beuedt of agric* ulture and the meebanic arts;"
we there wmmiaW find we shall be safe lif we keep close to
w1&*1 and organic act I have debated in my mind some time
'boUtute that should be compreWmeive and at the same ti
ve4 and I have come to the conclusion that we can know no
mme than that proposed in this amendment I do not like
adjectives, but for the present I think this amendment should
and tWA the colleges should be known as the agricultural and
iml colleges. I would that it might be colleges for the benefit
,,agricuUare and the mechanic arts, but...-that seems cumbrous.
I support the amendment proposing that this Assmiation
I
bo the "Association, of Amexican Agricultural and Mechanical
and Experiment Statione It seems quite necessary to
the experiment stations, not only because we have college
stations which an in the act designated departments of
but bemuse we have State experiment stations associated
as as welL Therefore they should be included in the title of the
AL
Xr. CLur& I agree heartily with the speeches that have been made
In regard to our name, but I think we ought to avoid a long and cum-
Uvus title and am- inclined to believe that we can find a name that
A" adequ&Wy describe the colleges and stations and that shall be
%W. It imms that we all desire to honor Mr. MoMiU, from whom we
,Uve our first and meond grautiN and we should all like to honor Mr.
A-ate-b- who introducied the bill. We want to include colleges and
7 ...
,-aba"ans in all their departments in the name. It wenis to me, there-
Awe, Uat if we affi our Association the "Morrill-Hatch Educational
A i datim," we shall have a sbort yet compreheusive, name.
Mr. HAitum There seem to be two objections to the prolmned name.
U M* too long, and for that reason I favor leaving out the experiment
It does not seem to me necessary to mention in the name all
inadtations that are entitled to memberabip. The seeond objection
to calling this an aimociation of agricultural and mechanical colleges
,and agricultural experiment stations seems to me more important It
tends to coDfine the A on to those colleges bere represented.
TW time is coming when every college in the land will be willing to
0
be in hwtv U not in nanmN an agricultural and mechanical college.
Almdy thm exist many good Wealtural colleges in the Uw*ted
wbich do not call tbemselves such. I sis here my good friend,
A and U I demoted the um wbe bave reesived inspim


















111133.131 fLlUIU JilZ U TV ti OLUI3V LUtJ LL tWu F ajLLIU Y AX VT A A(W10 U IUJ VIML SV FU L 1 *-ag Eg
college." Any college with the word "agriculture" in its namel
: ". .... .. .. ............
the public something less than other colleges. If there is su a .
as an agricultural college, it is first a college, and afterwards"i
tural. Now, what shall the name be? It is proposed that wei
follow the organic acts, but you will find no name there. Does a
Pennsylvania State College conform to the organic act as well ilSq
agricultural and mechanical college of some State or other? Di'b
tlhe University of Wisconsin conform to the act better than omeS1
institutions? What,-then, shall we select? Some one out
characteristics must receive emphasis. I believe that the mostim
tant idea we represent is not agricultural education, nor th W6
industrial education, but State education-the assertion that theW:'":iWI
owes it to every boy and every girl to give, not the meanest eda ...
it can get off with but tihe very best education, which shall take
f from his A B C's until he receives his diploma from the State um iertif.
For these reasons I am in favor of my own amendment, and I shouItl
call the Association the "Association of American State Colleges," ,a'"
Include all the arts, the old-fashioned liberal arts among them,
you can.
Mr. HENRY. We have been quarreling about what the baby's naU.6 0
shall be ever since it was born. To-day it is said that the meohani4
i section of this Association is already leading the agricultural. T-b11
seem to be doing very well; why not let them alone? I learn that f7
States are represented in this convention; I learn that adjectives do x4.
represent them, and yet we propose to add another adjective.' If tb-I
mechanical section is doing its work so well, why not let it go on? Otit
name is good enough, and I move that the proposed amendment lie un,
the table.... ...
Seconded.
.: iLi:::: :.
The yeas and nays were called for, with the result that 33 ya aM"l
16 nays were recorded, as follows: .|
,,4; !, ii! ;
Yeas-Messrs. A. L. Emigli, C. S. Plumb, A.W. Harris, HI. H. Goodell, W. M. Hayi....
W. C. Welborn, W. P. Headden, C. D.Woods, R. H. Miller, S. M. Tracy, S. P. MeCr, !i.
I. P. Roberts, J. B1. Power, W. H. Scott, H. E. Alvord, T. C. Karns, M. H. Bnckhhr&li
C. L. Goodrich, F. W. Rane, N. D. Fratt, A. A. Johnson, A. C. True, A. E. B.!M'K
i1. H. Wing, E. F. Ladd, W. J. Greenii, H. P. Armsby, C. 0. Flagg, W. L. M. %ilok
C. F. Vaindcrford, J. L. Hills, J. A. Myers, WV. A. Henry.
Nays-Messrs. W. L. Bronn, A. N. Raub, 0. Clute, J. K. Patterson, W.W. 'At'
R. H. Jesse, P. H. Mel], IM. A. Scovell, C. S. Murkland, A. Scott, A. Q. Ho:W
J. H. Washburu, E. B. Craighead, E. B. Voorhees, F. E. Emery, V. L. Roy.

"E *
..... .~~~. .... ... .. : ... i I.. .;i
... .. .. .. .....' .. ..... 1 0 4II i





N3 1-
z4F
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ad A dio HwTaeeA Wt h ooe so

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&a se htIssuetsbcm odctzn.I

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to Mr. iiiiiiiiiiiiiid then intriiceiDircto
atMiofKpeietSaoswodlvrd h olwn
T miiiiioriiiiiiiirixp~tx xTiiiiics
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aiiiii=%iii t=j .......... tsaio slieo r w n t eefr ntte
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Soow"s bycnutdb r ma, fiaslai.Ti fesa

















one or two exceptions, the work ot the indivtdual experiment stations wa g.>
for distribution throughout this country and the rest of the civilized wo.tP...
fifth volume of the Experiment Station Record comprises 1,196 pages ii4.
abstracts of 267 bulletins and 43 annual reports of 55 experiment stmatiSt-
United States, aud 67 publications of the Department of Agriculturei ......'........
number of pages in these publications is 17,161. There are also 227
reports of foreign investigations. The total number of titles abstracted is 9,'
fled as follows: Chemistry, 46; botany, 42; bacteriology, 4; zoology, 6; m wa
1; meteorology, 36; water and soils, 36; fertilizers, 72; field crops, 155; hort
84; forestry, 10; seeds, 16; weeds, 8; diseases of plants, 66; entomology, 74; Lead
animal production, 119; veterinary science, 18; dairying, 89; agricultural g. .
ing, 18; technology, 4; and statistics, 69. Classified lists of titles of foreign
not abstracted are also given in each number. The aggregate number of titls:::'
reported is 1,514. Special articles contributed by eminent foreign workers i .
cultural science were translated in the office and published in the Record.
A notable feature of the fifth volume of the Record is a review of recent witkA#i
dairying, prepared by Dr. Allen, assistant director, which serves to show how is
and important a feature of experiment station work investigations on dairying.^: |i
In the preparation of the Record constant effort has been made to conde t4:: |
abstracts as far as practicable, and as a result they have become increasingly teciit-
cal as regards their language and form of statement. In spite of this the deaoaai&it:
for the Record from intelligent farmers has steadily increased, and the numbe,::r
commendations which it has received from persons without scientific knowledge bi.iii
been surprisingly large. An edition of 8,000 copies is now required to meet theremiim9
lar demand for this publication. Wheu the cards were recently sent out asking tbkil
persons on the mailing list whether they wished to receive the next volume of tMbhiei
Record, almost all of them returned an affirmative answer. Of course no such!alfi.,,i!i
were sent to college and station officers. The Record is now regularly sentrto alairgio'h:
number of the foreign experiment stations and other institutions engaged in a s"!'g; .
cultural investigations. In the sixth volume of the Record all the abstracts .aii4
0 ~ ~ ~~.. *?.......... ::
been arranged under one series of topics. This enables us to make a more thoriong":.;
classification of our material and to get more in the same space. We have at the.& '9*
same time enlarged the scope of the Record by securing the cooperation of the'.sclea, ;f.:
tific bureaus and divisions of the Department, and the abstract committee of th :7i.:
Association of Official Agricultural Chemists. It is hoped that by this, meafa w- ",h ;!i.
shall be able to present a comprehensive summary of the investigations in agrioul? ,l
tnral science throughout the world. i
The Handbook of Experiment Station Work, in which the work of all the stations .
in this country for about twenty years was summarized, has proved to be a popular :,'
document the demand for it having greatly outrun the ability of the Department to:7 ,'i
meet it. We still hope that Congress may be induced to issue a large editionifo .::::
general distribution. This publication has, it is believed, helped to impress Con- "i
gress and the country that the experiment stations have accomplished mmih worE'6 ..,;...
that is useful to farmers in all parts of the Union and are institutions which should "ii
be genceroii8ly supported by States and nation. :'::
A general view of our system of agricultural education and research has b :nn'i:
presented in the bulletin entitled "Organization Lists," and in the annual report Ofl-
the office. I am aware that the preparation of these bulletins has involved c9"11"'
siderable labor on the part of the station and college officers who had to collar. e ii

.. ~~~.... ......


f ~ ~~~~~~~. .. .. ....* ...... :. :. .. ..
.. .. ........ ... .... .*.:i,.lc. *:li .^ *", a ii.. : .*. ... ...^ ^





77

|4

$orraov ntttirs u eiv ha hslbrI ml


|eal*oto h ulaie f opeeadaasi ttak
...........ns My experln lea....t.beiee...tthe.... id




MWOi Ino111 Iaprca11he1111 o akn astifctr
of.a.ag..ult..............a..is inguih.d..om..her....... o
=]SII]==Imt] I eiv hta ra baa ednwt oedfutnsI
We, an.bot.o..d..tour...........nnul.....fia a d
r.... teninedpomtrtr.I ol exadt eev
reirin iatoua inq iris1111111111o1b1ma e. s i I
IncludeJiiii in heanualreor "yea smebitorai s'tmens egrd
1 iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii a on t is li e il b m de in ou
audluexasi@onliirtirbaistadlyiroresedduingthiyer.Th
.................... b o a dacnieal u brofst hc a ep rh sdb
at wiitiks, ndienbrs f hi cnvntiniayredera eric b
topaetwst hnteywl otems od


sut fyuko,%eofc a nerae nidxo rilsb tto
iiiiii &Usainwriih hv o ofrcnrbue oti ne r


. ... ..............................................................p.............d
of thr testreenagicltra siecear bin pepre i te ffce

























the country.
t h... .ry ........... ...... ..... ..
The experience and correspondence of the Office of Experiment.. ............"
out certain criticisms of station management to which it may be p:roi "
to briefly a(lvert, provided it is clearly understood that I am not findttg.ll
seeking to help the cause. Perhaps one of the most frequent and seriousat
of station management which is brought to the attention of the Deportnsri|J
in the conduct of college and station there is a mingling of college t4 :
funds to the undue advantage of either the college or the station. .It u....ii ..
how this idea may be causelessly entertained, owing to the intimate relatiA"":"
must necessarily exist between the college and the station. At the samt r:a
criticism serves to emphasize the desirability of making \as broad a.-dittb-aPi
practicable between the work of the college and the station, so that it willet:
to all fair-minded observers that each institution is doing its own worw:* "
trenching upon the province of the other. ...
Another vexed point is the question of inserting in station publicatiom-i:43a*4
practically advertisements of private concerns. This has been most oftsxbil1....
the use of pictures bearing the trade-mark or names of manufact nr s- .s-
usually justified on the ground that the station is thus enabled to given. it| .
useful information without which the investigations of the station in Cetrti*-W-
tions would not be practically effective. This practice has, however, exait ii
criticism, and it is very doubtful whether the information thus given is f 16.ad
importance to compensate for the risk growing out of charges of partialikyte#
vate interests. T..iiii
~ ~. .: .." -.': ...... ....
Another matter which perhaps deserves more consideration than it h 11:...W*..
relates to unity in the management of the station considered as a publicEIui....
In the conduct of station business and in the issuing of publications it hazs,2iid
appeared that the person doing the work or the author of the bulletin wa.*ri::l
most part individually responsible for what he did, and that in case of lNid
mismanagement the director, or even the board of control, did not have 'or.0fieC)
particular responsibility in the matter. It is believed that this lack of 4iwtW..
weakness in station management. One way in which this is illustrated isuintb1 MS
and general make-up of station publications; that is, in certain of these puba i
it would appear that different officers had each contributed their part anad th..!.
one felt called upon to do any editing or had considered how the publicaM.W4i
whole would impress the reader. It is believed that the highest interestfiI
stations will be promoted by making the public feel that they are perman.....
solid public institutions, working steadily and consistently for the benefit-li' -
culture. The workers may change, but the institution itself should pursue ita.S"'
course without interruption'or deviation. .9*., ,l

0 a

.. .... .... 3





Pq

48

vwd aftted that the qnestion whetber it was a legitimate
of the Match ffind to pay the expenses of a delegate to
.mov*ntions and to pay the aunual.4contribution of the stations
is of the AmWation had beeu exhaustively considered by
of Agriculture, and the decision was that these dis-
wot perfectly legitimate. The Treasury Department has
the de M**Ou of 'the Department of Agriculture.
Mr. Harris this morniug emphasized the truth that
tkm we represent am first of all colleges, and that our Work
This being so, we are not only connected with.the
t of Agriculture, but withall educational work, particularly
by nationeJ officers. I count it a great privilege to
to one who not only by personal qualifications, but by long
experience, M* so well entitled to our most earnest attention.
great pleasamin introducing Hon. W. T. Harris, Coin -Aiissioner
look,
0
MRM TxAcxrNG oF Ac-RicuLT=L..
44bwk ym, Mr. Presideut, for your kind allusions to me personally. In the few
which I have to make I propose to call attention to the twofold relation
A* agricalkmd college beam namely, on the one hand to tb Department of
&led on the other hand to the Bureau of Education. The Department
maw assists it by making wise and useful experiments in regard to plants
the selection of the best meth ods of train ing and cul tivati i ig, the modes
atoahmateandsoil. We in other Departments of the Government here
areproudef what the Department of Agriculture does in these and in
Wha thmm But my Bmwm wishes to be kept in mind by the managers of agricul-
*w*1 eeUegea fimr its interest In methods of teaching and school management. I
mMn rpook at length of the method of tewhing agricnIture as a branch of stndy.
agAcultural poputttion in any country in the most conservative class of all its
-peopi& They k1low the methodsof their proderAmsors; they are patriarchal in their
; you have deat with them and do not need assurances from roe. Yon could
VwA we a lessm on this subject But I was born on a farm, and bad the education
-st a hrmer mad know sometbi a g about the prej ad ices and concei t8 tb at be harbors.
TU Urmer be11*TeG-bi4 TOC*tw'n to be the one which 8ecure8 the most personal
im 010 11 of sJ1 employment, because he raises what he eats and often the raw
--i-rial for clothing; he thinks of an ideal civilization in some far distant future
wbiab xW1 have no cities but only farms. I could make a long story of the ttevelop-
11 1 of or *wA ideas iu this regard. I could tell how I changed my former idvw
*Wlemo to we that farming is the most dependent of the employment, and that
of Win life, urban life is the life of the future and of the highest civil ization.
wM is that period become market gardening and he as profitable as mann-
1 44%nd commerce am I began by supposing that the farmer prwiuced most
of the ws9th of the country, bnt wben I invostigated the questions of polifleal
emoomy I learned that it is the manufacturer and commercial vocations which add
aaA to the value of our productious. The raw material furnished by the farmer
aoaWgutm ono-fourth or one-fifth of the weeltb of the country, and the three-
JowrUw or four-fifths which includes the other wealth of the country Is furuiohod by
go manafimAurw and trader and the one who trausports the goods. Looking into
Ow probbw of the education of the farmer one mette first the" various facts. He
inds the fkrmw the most conswvative person and the person who is the most Igno-
xmt of tho true book of modan civilization, which nots on productive industry and
I 1i i 1 as of nothiawy to &be Pwfornmew of the dradsory of the world. AU
duveily to t" agrioultural and nwebaniad e*Uege.
















inquiry. The college may profitably set its students to reporting upon the .i....
of their local communities; discussing the methods in vogue, and especialy'il.'^'^-
note of the enterprising citizens of their localities.. This suggests what :i:W'4i:::::
"university extension," now creating so much interest in this country and a
University extension seems to be the very field of greatest usefulness op6 ii -
agricultural college. I defer to your better wisdom in this matter. It neriat$li
that such extension of higher education and of secondary education prore |
enable us to take account of two kinds of youth in the community. One M
youth we have provided for. He is the boy who wants the old-fashioned- e'dy,
and his parents can afford to pay for it. *1
We make him pass strict examinations in the elementary work, and promot M.-.......:.i
step after step when he has completed the course prescribed. Hitherto we
excluded the other kind of boy, the boy who has great talent in some particulae ...i..
tion, but has not a taste for the old-fashioned education and will not pass tb.r.o.u
a course of study extended through many years. The secondary school and t-he lH
lege lose their hold of this class of youth. But a great many of our successflime%
come from this class. Perhaps they would have taken a regular course of edueait.i:
in the schools if their parents had furnished the money for it. A great manyu of:ouiii'
millionaires are not college bred; many of our inventors are not college bred; .fe
have nevertheless become giants in their special provinces. They have been gift&
in special powers. It would be interesting could we trace in every case the hi t00t7
of these men back through their infancy, and study their heredity also. We siMl01iJIlJ
see how the brain, nerves, and energy of the family worked to develop a man who:,ii
has a faculty of secreting wealth as the adipose tissue is secreted in the body. It Isj
a matter of congratulation that the agricultural college is about to take hold oftNi41||
work and look after the sporadic individual who is good in some particular lineA, b&C!!
has no activity for general studies, or at least no taste for them. His whole soul'Aiia
goes out in activity on some particular line. It may be entomology, or astronomyii|;i
or meteorology, or botany, or archaeology, or it may be a much narrower province1 ..J
such as the cultivation of the potato, the improvement of the beet root for the':?iS
thble or for sugar-making purposes. We shall agree that the schools ought to rgpt:.::3
hold of such men. I believe it is one of the important functions of the agiculturalI'.'
college to look out for the youth who do not come to school, but who show eminent: .".. ..4h
capacity in particular lines relating to the industries, or especially agriculture. M1y ( ii
neighbor, Mr. Bull, in Concord, Mass., Invented the Concord grape by a long serie:ii
of experiments on the native grapes of his region. ::iI
I do not mention this function of the agricultural college as seeming to offer advice 4|....
to you who are present, for I well know that you are the most competent men in the ..
United States to understand the work of the agricultural colleges, and I believe that:
you have found out or are in the process of finding out the lines in which to beat J'.i
direct their work. This annual conference of agricultural college presidents is .4?
itself sufficient evidence that what each discovers in the course of the year i.: h
brought to the attention of all his fellows. There is a constant process of reenforcing '.
each agricultural college by the experience of all similar institutions. Ia
While I, as an outsider, am not competent to suggest new lines of work, I claim
to know enough about the subject to arouse in me the desire to get brief reports on A
the progress made by the faculties of your institutions in reducing agriculture aud ::
kindred branches of industry to a pedagogical form. The branches of instruction:;...
in the old colleges have long since been reduced to such a form. The studies of'i......
Latin and Greek, mathematics, history, geography, grammar, have been so arrangedt^
that the lesson that lies nearest to the pupil's mind is placed at the beginning. I


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Of industry yu dud thatmuolt has een dow t
apodgiea for.inite ublc cholsof an eilii awdll
sekn ntuh n&eiso rgesv eos t eaoi
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0 saliiiiiianiiiiiiiiev ryite.in n llothriia aleiiw

beM of theiii~i Inersiiiappiiohiirdtayiniaqurdiiase
Iiii deir togtfo ec giutua olg
ofii= progess v::: n rducig te vrios fatues o ths feldof tud
iiiiiiiii ben co fi etiitiiniisiiucioisio plt, ntre
40 owltareI===IY will..1 iiiiii onl b wn aed n ou isttuioniutaloiil
Veyi isl iihiii Iiiiiiiiiiiiiioit e ar in de~ t
amm tieae nTool ogM nhsboketild1 SxHnre er
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.. become centers of information and directive, power for their nelghho

It has been found that university extension stands in need of end o .w.........'
,"" ~ more than the regular teaching work of the colleges of the country, Thiclik i
Sbe fellowships founded by wealthy men interested in agriculture so that
,. ~of genius may repair to the college on these fellowships and have their" '.-d ..
expenses all provided for. This is the one country of the world for e...
educational institutions by private munificence. I presume that each .iGo.i.c,
dent knows of certain persons who would be glad to erect monuments for..iiir..
lies in the shape of scholarships in the State university, if they were su,:r.......
money would increase the practical acumen of students who seek higher J
I believe that in this direction large endowments may be expected in the ,saW:i
and that a proper account of the practical work done by agricultural stud...ii.
published in the Annual Report of the Commissioner of Education will b.alftWs
best means of attracting from men of wealth numerous endowments for the ..
of founding fellowships in agriculture. Many of the wealthy men of this e .
look askance at the liberal education furnished in our colleges and unlvej.n,,::,
Many have devoted large sums to establish nondescript institutes with the hopsj
they would better fit young men for industry and the practical demaa4.ds ::io.
They want something, but they do not know how to obtain what they wS uE
believe that it is in the future of these land-grant colleges founded for agrnc ii,
and mechanical instruction to solve this problem and to hold up for the wou jlh1
practical philanthropists a kind of education which makes the most of thAe ;W*t4
of the youth and to stimulate him to original investigation and to lead hiw.:onwai
into the abstruse and highly technical studies which are necessary in order to 6idQ"
him with power to solve the highest problems. I have ventured to make 1tUM
remarks in order to show more clearly what kind of contributions I should Uli.tWfr
the presidents and professors of agricultural colleges who will kindly nudertaki
record for me these items of progress in the development of the pedagogical fort
for the new branches of instruction. ......

EVENING SESSION, WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 14, 1894. '
............
The Association was called to order by Chairman Morrow, at 7 30 p. m.
Mr. ALVORD. .1 call attention to the fact that the constitution, whi$'
it names the number of vice-presidents, does not indicate any differ
in their relative rank. It has been thought best to dispose of ..::
possible compl)lications by the following resolution, which is reee
mended by the executive committee: .i.
... **.-. i::;2 ,i!
Resolved, That the nominating committee be instructed to designate the i*
presidents in numerical order when making their report to the convention..,
.~~~ ~~ ~~~....:.., i : !~
Adopted. ....


:..........
.:.... ..:
.. .. .. .. ...... .... .. ....... .. .







411

By'O 'Mie FWV amma on &WAOn WO* dedAw to
*mowing a ishWag to Oe ledw rwdvtd ftm Ow
of 8"Ons:

Volsed 86" ha" 1606i"W1 with gre" ples"re UW eomnlunkstlm
md 4*oply appnolate ** *YWWwon of the regard and frateml
of Ariftitur4i Experls"at fitatio" of 60 German

2%4 66 ONW06"Y of this be tontraoted to eenvey to Prof.
Voodag and &Tatieftd aeknowledgment of his courtesy and to &aure
AW always webmwe in the =sotings of this Amsociation the praomm
at OW C"Ves" th the German statiom

I an InstmW also by the same awUon to present for
t" A -- 0 1k;X"n the following resolution:

The* We mocisOm heartily approves rownt legislation by Congress
1* die Beattary of Agritalture a nowsure of supervision over the expendi-
go 26AWML
forAW,, That Association Indorses thi scheme of financial statement
ty dw SeamAary of Agrkoltm, and will approve and welcome the closest
of 46o vp of the etWous by the Department of AKrkulture, eitber by
0060m of an agent of the Department, or such other method as the
iqt AgrImItare may dwm umt efficient.

walk thm m"troduced the HaL J. Sterling Morton, who made the
address:
mn: It experlence much pleamrs in learning, through the resolution whieh
jut p ad, that the agdoultural experiment stations and agricultural col-
Oft in aeowd with the Department of Agriculture an to the manner im
tUpWWW fawls ippropristed for Oeir support aWl be accounted for. Itwas
auba petbaps (or my lack of ability to state a proposition, clearly), to sug-
ia a #www report that tbese *M,000 annually appropriated for the maintenance
Owe aftbaw md. oullages won the only money* ever appropriated oat of the
of the UniUd Statei for which no accounting had ever been required by an
or thx"gh &noM* ofthe United States Government. There waa no auditing,
,ftii so Andftw or Comptaviler ever saw the results of these appropriations itemized
**tint bobw him or AW in a -t of the Government. It seemed to me that
v= ja Oo iatmed of oymy rod, shwre lover of this work that these accounts
be awU pWa sad put in the archives of the Government, so that those who
,sumahm us might ses.preciesly what was accomplished by every dollar expended,,
hr a* poodble. It was said thati that report snU419nized all the agricultural
statieft and solUges; yet any one reading it could see that it not only
SWAM the azistence of Ume valuable side to the science of agriculture,
You may reammber thato In treating of tbo

--saw sad prongecoomedlaWbuMen of seals at Goverament expemm tbo reporis
wM Sban, wbat I Mleage now, th" it tbere ever had been good reason for this pro-
Iddbution of am* that =own WA been obligmted wimm the experiment
46WOM es"WWbodw and thatt in my judgmmfoo it woWd be far b~ hr The
in praedW yewha if all seWs won amt direetAy to the ""oust
in obarp at sd=Uft mm od coald UA eseh varleq $9 lie Adaptep-
s9H sad elimmd* =4 dkAr envireammiL Now,, we bay* die.
IWyaw# to r m so i wmbor% SMOOM p*W"Va of "ols thmXbout Oe

se



















annually, be utterly abolished, and that in its stead there shall be'I....
appropriation made to each experiment station in each State and" .....
United States, which shall be for the purchase of seeds by the station
self authorized to get those things which may be adapted to his soil, .......
environment. Then we shall really have experiments with new and ii:.nvidt
eties. This last year, at the suggestion of Dr. Dabney, Assistant Secre"tir.1
culture, an appropriation was put in, as a sort of amelioration to Congreoa.... .
disliked to give up this cheap method of electioneering through package .ot
that $30,000 should be used for the publication of plain, practical buf.ltilulj
farmers upon such topics as might be deemed important at the time. Am.!,A...
question to be determined by this coming Congress is, Which shall do the aJin
to the agriculture of the United States, the distribution of unfertile turi..p oi4|
the dissemination of live thoughts among the farmers of the country? A..
will convey thoughts with very much more certainty of doing good, it seem...
than seed packets will convey seed. The results of this seed appropriate -i
years have not been at all satisfactory. Besides their cost, they have loaded 4":
the postal service. Last year's seeds weighed, when packed and put into t....e ..
of the United States, more than 305 tons; and you may well imagine that thatiii:
dead matter assists materially in increasing the deficiency in the postal a...
Now, it seems to me that this distribution of bulletins should meet with .H
approval; and certainly that a direct appropriation made for each station hr'iT
purpose of the purchase of new and improved varieties of seeds will also meet
your approbation. .....
A word more, and that is to say that, while the seeds are generallVy-
there is another planting that may be taught in experiment stations wbhlh. *l
produce things of far greater duration. I refer now particularly to forestry. 'viiit
country the extent of denudation of hillsides in every State of the Union it *
treating every day what vast waste comes to the lauds in the valleys. In h
portions of Pennsylvania, where the hillsides and mountains have been defores'l"
the sweeping torrents have poured down with such force as to wash away all ti
surface soils of the valleys. In the State of Ohio to-day there are 1,000,000 aorfir
land, which a few years ago were fertile and productive, which are to-day aba ltel$
untillable, because from the erosion of the water pouring down the hillsides the sa
has been washed away. In view of this denudation and its results here, as well '..
in the presence of the vast waste that has occurred in European countries from .t
same cause, it seems to me that every agricultural experiment station anal cotu
should have at least'a kindergarten school in forestry. We are using in this 'on*Wiat
now 30,000 acres of timber every twenty-four hours. To-night, because of its .d...
sumption by railroads and manufacturers, there are 30,000 acres less of timber ts
there was this morning. We have only 460,000,000 of acres in the entire Unioui4
States and Territories, and it is not a difficult problem to solve, nor does it' ta:k....
very profound mathematician to see that in a few generations this country "uciirl
be as denuded of timber as the Orient is to-day. And remembering that notp i
lives so long as a tree and the truth, I commend this question of forestry to yeoan
your most thorough consideration.


~.
....... ... .. .......... .... ... ..
.................. .. ...........
......:.:.. ...::H: :.:J.:7.:





W 1W

iA

etpmd te M~sdo wdIntat o th







*b "ad o
oniiiiiead hms yte "e pth hr
"The iiiiiid ofteigiuluaiCleestwrdit
Inteasneo eu.Lto ndas n

M r. iih o of Newiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiheiiiiect
i iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
Ii iiebfr o urpidt gv yseilifraini
As. the --ueo h giutrlen"twr nvriyetnin
.. ........................exp rienc.......J e sey.w th......l
work. Itbmwt si 81adha otne ihicesn
upto...reen.....h..ure....te.. .et ine n t a in be
In a eea a h oki eadda xrml ucsfl
a h farclua okr h naxosfrifraino eti
am: no erale ytecleei n te a.Tecifdfiut
..... .................. .t itli s ch a or a t m et sp cii
on th partofiarmes.itiwsireognzediiiirsithaiairculura
in. exeso itosms ifrmtrilyfo ntuto nclee






















required during the week, such as essays and the reading of agrieulti|!|i
At the end of the six weeks we examined and 'gave credit for the workr:ii|
and that, practically, was the whole work. ...;
I found that those who took the first course-that is, began with'the-s00
soils and crops-were the ones who were most likely to go through and _i.e l
work. That is, if we could get them started right, we generally e -g
through better. It was noticeable that out of a large number very few,
had arrived at the age of 25 years, seemed to care for any more than simpari..
the lecture and pick up such information as might be of use in regular, w......
could not get them to study between lectures or give an account of th....i..
far as study was concerned. But the most useful course was given a s
It was inspiring to have these young men as students, every one a young mi*
had not gotten far enough along to get into a rut, and still believed that the1y-pro
be something a little better than had been taught him by his father. As to t6 ^
tical result: A young man of 23, who took hold of it in a bright way, took .:'p'I
question of fertilizers. He raised early potatoes, and the whole questi wiotni
was, How can I get my potatoes into market a day or two earlier than myie.gh.d
If you can give us a formula that will do that it will be dollars to us. '--Of-:.!
the only thing to do was to give him principles and tell him how to appli.........
principles in the application of the formula. He says io himself, If this :prof
is right, I must get a crop if I do thus and so; hence I will buy the bea|t 'p
manure in. the market, and I will put it on, making the formula according to.tb'
and see where I come out. He did put it on, and told me the other day in'gkroeag
that he thought there really was something in it. He took the principles of s-ai
and applied them to practice. His neighbors asked him how he knew it. HB.
he attended the extension lectures.
The only fear we have is that we shall not be able to meet the demands mrsaeap
us to carry on the work. However, I believe the indirect effect will beof ji
value to our institutions in stirring up interest and bringing men to us for the 1e
course. So far as my experience goes, I consider this one of the most useful lie!"'
work we have ever taken up in New Jersey. "
The CHAIRMAN. We will proceed at once to the topic "Th". Co.
ration of Stations with Farmers' Organizations in Experiment Wo*
Mr. JENKINS. The special resources and equipment of the different institU*4
and the character of the education given, as well as the special needs of :ths0:;
farming interests in the different States, make it a very dangerous work for( M.
who has spent his whole life in a single State to dogmatize with regard to hqq
tion like this, and I shall offer only one or two brief notes. :-:
Of course a plan which may be useful in Connecticut might not be usti
Texas, and a method which will work in New York may not work in Col
The conditions under which we work in different States are very dis& a::i
results in decided embarrassment in discussing questions like this. .


.. ."' 4' ":
'* ., : .. k"...'" .... .** ...... ... :..::". .


VL,


.. .i. : .. .




4W "e

W0 rXIU hc a"a Om$ hc
MAisa Mb h hagpplto
"dIpant Mi rethqM mwoecuty h

stAUIS 0t!go ed n alti nlsso it-





o f........ .......................................s W W
......ul to st siief andappiiaiin ad Ineretiiniir
work, which W inihe an moreiiiiiiii-t invstigaionio:the
whc neleo giolue e h ttin*i eot e
to iier~ and carr 00i toiiiiii soeiiiiiiii n nceain
of thi!!idwIchda!no s rodiy!metwit apreiaionho
mdii it... It:iiiiii ist..........sa io ,I m s e u ae t on tten yu
... Ut: knd :::anopo:unt:of:rsfo:copraio wthan:frm
...............................ly elc me by the ri en
as.. :::,:::noporunt t elit:hesypah:ad:ntret f:h
adi extndihesiiiiiiiiiiiiiifiiiiin tiutinilsitoaccmiishii
some wor :::e shl beofsietii:::::ndwhc wllsan. u
v0insoMntudrae ieo oka h nvtto fayfres
whic fti Jiii U.ntabetiarytrugiaisatrlyadcmpeey
Is.a.w.ys.a..........o...lt....t...li.e...fo.r..ork.a.d.d vide.o.r.force
I* eaen::::::bysodiidng:::a:at:::e:lwys:::ahutl,:he
paUan astongpu:a:sme:e:hi::oud:acoplshmor:i:te-nd
tt ai Huioiwriiiiiiiiisiuciiiiaiiiin an no U deta e ti
Aiyl a mAsmng oeeta tainhstetm n
:: iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiil say b y a ll ea n
: :W]"']'']] i t .......................... .in o n eni nc i n ces wy
Itfrtesk f ne:ga bec esno ht hruhon
piiiiiiec fwr hudibadelsitesmahin atnino h
.... ............................................ .d g
wow nmdo rnigtesaininocoe yptywt h amn
VAy==J I hul e iligo ariie ok adpane o ve egni
mw ii,,- I re or- oacetayofe fcoprto it am
V uiaini arig ono eo h ep rm ns

Ithv wwr et 4yaotadne aemtwt nm xeienc i





_111R



beets of leadingerops, cotton and corn being tho chief, ones. Tho WW
very much reduced in numbers, -seven stations 'bibijig caxried fbrWv,4,"
sections of the State-in the east-central pQrtio-n, tJie Piedmont soeJdoVi*'*`
who,
mountains. Thesestations were conducted bym."Cu.. of intelligence tl
pains with the work. They pent a great deal.of time, and for the s'
we paidthem $20 for their time and t.he use of the landq they of co-arse-
crop. We recognized the necessity for'moving these atations round aU4 n
them in the* same section if we would car themlorward for any eong
Men conducting experiments of this kind get tired after a while and
does not continue so much as during the first season. The first seasout,
quite a considerable interest manifested by the people in the neigh,
they rather tired of it. The difficulty of securing in. their placeo.truatwokthy
ance without'the close. supervision which it needed caused us to give up tk#,,
It requires a great deal of painstakiDg care, aud with-,the distances we-haNAo. 4_
expense of traveling we did not feel that we got results of sufficient Y'Slue to,
rant us in carrying on the work.: As I said to the section this aftorrkmm,,'-,,
attempted then to meet the farmers' alliances. We got into corrospondenoe',
considerable number of the alliances and an a ricultural. committee was apupoo,
ulars and to delegate one of their members or we mew
to receive our cire 60 ber
alliance to conduct experiments. In this way we got a, considerable nu
experiments on new crops and soil tests started in different parts of Me
Some we carried through were quite successful, though the percentage w e
reports from was so small we (lid not consider the results worth publislhiuc.I,
interest of the alliances dwindled out apparent] as their interest in politics,
4 oped. Perhaps if we had been in 'a position to visit these allialims occa
during the season we might have held their interest, but that was 11
Later we have distributed seeds of desirable varieties of plants'and hay follo
these up at the end of the season with a series of questions in circulax. form, 4#4
that means we have got a considerable number of favorable replies as to the grow
of crimson clov r. We have no doubt that we shall get a considerable nu bqw,
farmers to growing crimson clover as a resplt of that, but so far as &Ubstatiou'va
is concerned we do not think the results obtained are worth the time that h,%g h
expended on them, though as a matter of education it is probable that enovghll
been done on the whole to, warrant the work having been undertalent and 041-1 0
forward.
Mr. Mills spoke of very successful cooperation with farmers ln'th,#
Province of Ontario. His experimenters were largely ex-pupils
Ontario College.
The Section on Agriculture and Chemistry here took the floor
a discussion on tuberculosis.
On motion it was resolved to strictly enforce the five-minute rule, an4t
to recognize no speaker a second time until all who desired had spokeultip
Mr. HENRY. In order that we may understand each other, upou,*-,,,
subject which is crowding upon some of us and in which all ar intooof
estedl I would like to get a few statistical data. I would ask all
and stations represented here how many, stations have directly 4$01
the tuberculin test? Seventeen responded.
Now, how many have used it on the station herd and found the ht
infected? Twelve.
How many have used it on the station herd and found no in'tee,
in the herdT One responded (Storrs College).





..... ... .... ... .. .... .. ..... t A N k








Vem AVOW"Ded f (Kro Koons was not to U70
of 30, and the veterinarian made t4oft on those

We have bad an idea that this thing is pretty pue=1
Axe thwe any other questions we should saki
Is bow mny eamm have animals bwo tested a first
*Ave issponded on a wond test? Five.
many cow was the seeond text verifted by poat-mortamt

Atal"W'W Will the Ave gentlemen who report above state bow
io Sm intervened between the tests I
]RASaw Six moofts.
RUST. About two yeark.
XYBz& About two months.
MLm About a molath and.4 balf.
Bvmy. In how many cases have stations taken charge of, or
with, other PeoplOs herds I Ten*
ftrx& How many persobs hen have injected cows and received
yet the eppm were afterwards friand to be diseased I Three.
In something like 11200 cases, had found 2 cases where
did not reacti
How many who have bad experience with tuberculin
Obow ved injun*ourj effix0 of any sort upon animals not reacting

PLu=. We had a mae of abortion, but it was not certainly from
emwa. It occurred two or three months afterwards.
Hum& Out Of 11200 cases them was I case of erysipelas, start.
at the point of fv*tion-
Xr. Rnmy. In North Carolina we bad one animal whicli respondled
sHotly, but It was a cow which a month or two tifterwards died
abortion, and upon examination we found the lungs very badly
vrith foreign matter. We doubted very much whether the ani-
bad tuberculosis though one or two of the examiners thought it
I believe there was no tuberculosis in the animal.
Mr. NY=& I would like to ask whether any animals were allowed
fiv% when found 'infected, and were afterwardf; found to be fkv* t
*r. Rn La, Our veterinarian bad an opportunity to test the heM of
PrW Institute, at Brooklyn, and through the courtesy of Mr. Pratt
muffestly tuberculous cows were isolated. One has been injected
Oglkt or nine Umes at intervah4 and seems to be getting better. The
,,rdWm have been kiflkA, afteir Injection two or three time&
Mr. Auxom. I Wish to add to what Mr, HiRs has said that I am told
by emspetent veterinarian that he has some remm 'to believe that
# in hils ame ~ in enflng came of tuberculosis.
Sr. HATS. In Xinnewt& we have te4W 4ft eaffl& Som abowW
*we a high We we trying dom of difteat sixe and
















l| enlarged, and in the last stages of her sickness from consunptIu'l
milk from that quarter became like whey. We had it iujeacfr
rabbit, which died in fifty-five days with its lungs gone 1entireiy.
milk was fed to five calves which were killed five months after.
Ni this milk, and we found a few tubercles along the alimentary tract .t-iil
..... ,, .. .." .'" : ": .....
!I~ course this is in the direction of the danger to humans in usiagii
milk.
. ..Mr. BECKWITH. We have tested milk at our station and fou d.-
frequently. ::,
Mr. MILLER. I was going to substantiate what Mr. Henry hb"aaj
by a case I know of in my vicinity. A cow had a bad case of tnbt....
losis, and the veterinarian having charge of her made a test witi'.i
which he fed for three weeks or a month on her milk. The pig b.l l
then evidently affected, he killed it and found it badly diseased. I
a steer about a year ago which was drooping, but did not have a tei
made, as it was evident he was affected, and was found to be so wheIS
| killed. About a month after the steer was killed some hogs which h.ih
followed him in the field were badly affected, and eleven were fo
more or less diseased. I cremated the whole lot, but was interestet4
find that after keeping hogs away for about two months in midwin...
and thoroughly disinfecting about the spot, a subsequent lot we$!hiii
affected at all. The examinations were made by a veterinary .ugeo
Mr. POWER. Among the animals affected or killed, how many w Mi:..,,
high bred and how many commoner grades? '.,
Mr. HARRIS. According to our experience tuberculosis is no respeot8r
of persons as to breeds or families of animals. N,
Mr. PLUMB. I would like to ask how many stations here representedi
have had their veterinarians make inspection of slaughterhouses il
their immediate vicinity? Two...
Mr. HENRY. In how many States are there laws now relative to:
tuberculosis? Five. / N
How many States are contemplating legislation in this direction!".NI
Thirteen. :
Mr. ARMSBY. In how many States having laws on this subject ta...
:led Four... ::...!" i
provision made for compensating owners of animals killed? Four.. .
Mr. FLAGG. In Rhode Island the State Board of Agriculture ha,
had an appropriation of $15,000 which has been mainly used for wOeii
with tuberculosis. Perhaps more than $10,000 has been used for t.f.
purpose. We have a cattle inspector in each county, an apprai*'t -



.. ....... .......f. :. .....
:"E :' -EiiiiiE
..ce -"'..,".:*'****"-.**:* ..** *:*;;** -*I-,-,, .,:i:A ?:i^.;,i.ii: ,,::1..,;,L ,;.,^ ^ li^ ^ f!^^ ^ ^ ^:-- II i ^








If the &WuW Is condemned and found tabor-
"one-half the appralseamt is paid to the owner; if found sonud
We# killed the M appratseumt is paid. A limit is fixed of $M
grWe animal and $100 for a pure bred,
vbowizz& we have a da4y commission in our Statik and the
is in the hands of the State Board. of Agriculture. They, how.
am not examine any animal except upon request of the owner or
Daby Commission. Thin oowmissloj4 however, has power to
ift own mles, and they we the law, and it can pay for an animal
Q- to its judgment not to exceed $60 for a registeid animal.
77, We prwfica4 have in our State a system of exami-
payment for animals, although it in not directed at tuber.
it routes generaBy to the health of animals. The maximum
is $20. There is in contemplation this winter legislative
upon the subj6et of tuberculosfi4 and while it does not emauate
the et&Uor4 doubtlew the station will have a hand in it.
Xr. Jomsm. Has any conclusion been reaclied as to locality I Does
bw or a high altitude have amy effect upon the disease I So far as I
to say, I do not now know of the disease existing in Wyoming
Ookw"O.
Iffrira In the course of preparing our bulletin I corre8ponded
emy vettrinarian in the country. Those from the high plateaus
Wyoming and Colorado disc][aimed the presence of the disease them
Xr. DAmmy. I should like to hear something more about this impor-
mmUw of paying for tuberculous stock. It appears from what
bere have Wd that the disease is quite prevalent, affects all
of amrs in this coantry, and has reached all parts of it. If this
le tmb I do not thhiV it is right to begin paying for worthless stock.
M man bas animals of this sort they are more dangerous to him and
hk fkniUy than to anybody else. I think if legislation is to be so
.,*ztwWvelY started this winter it ought to be on right lines. I do not
tWmk it good policy to pay for this stock.
Mr. Xuj,& It appears to me it would be entirely unjust to slaughter
naWis stock, if it is proved that the stock is only slightly infected,
wMew you are prepared to say, in the first place, that the bacilli have
been fband in the milk of animals only slightly affected. Is there any
-- a vffima milk from such an animal ffirnishing tuberculous baciHi I
In the seemd plsee will an animal slightly affected in that way give
fte disew to another animal I It seems to me these two questions
Uve to be answered before asking for legislation condemning a num's
stook and then reftsing to pay for it.
Mr. Xy=& Thus in another side to this question. We we in a fair
way to got panicky, and there is no occasion for It. People an not
g to die any h&w than they have died simply because we have
,*kwd Uu4 Mom we siome tubereakes eattle and it behooves thin As.
in my Jadgmwtt to be eareM bow it takies bold of


M Aick























we encourage hygiene among our dairy t-erds we shall .t.
ease out in time. I might suggest here that people will ii.
Sculous stock into States where they will be paid for it, or .......
did with pleuro-pneumonia in certain States, infect them.... .
Mr. VOORHEES. In reference to the attitude of the s
the tuberculosis question, in aiding or "directing legislmtitf .! I
state that in New Jersey we were forced into it by an unfortet
dent, perhaps, but inasmuch as we are in, we have taken it up-1: 1.1
idea of guiding legislation with reference to the extent ofth..
and the reliability of the tuberculin test, whether animals t hatii
eased in a slight degree are liable to communicate the ..dir .&a'
have but a small appropriation, and we have laid down the.' ...
plan, which is now being.carried out: We have employed. a-....
and a veterinarian. Every animal is examined by both the vet--tJh
and the biologist with the tuberculin test. Animals that ax
festly badly diseased are destroyed. Those not badly dis :.t
isolated and treated further, and those animals which we havetl...
in herds throughout the State we have not paid for because
found that wherever farmers have diseased animals, so diseasgdi4
show it, they are glad enough to let the pay go provided we As b
ing about it. I think that by working along these lines we OsW4_
as much valuable information as if we make a spread about it ... .i
work we are doing we have divided the State into thre6 ..
One, where the hygienic conditions are manifestly bad, and .we..i".
ing the statistics of animals under these conditions. Then, .bii
that are high bred but are kept under conditions of food and m.W
meant not supposed to be the best. The third and last, those whhiA
under as good conditions as possibly could be, in reference to 1*II
management and hygiene, and we test herds in that section ax1&
statistics. In every case when an animal is killed we keep fall re....
temperature and the veterinarian's diagnosis before and after thbei.L
is killed, and we have samples, not only of portions of the
.. .... ... .
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t of the veterinarian nor of the bacteriologist, and- not mupe'i|':"..
* point of view of scientific observation, except in so far as cloeiW..
~i : tion of any kind, with common-sense deductions therefrom, ae.....
...... ... .:.:. ...::-.....
* to come under that head; but I have watched them as an i
party, as touching my pocket. There are a good many thinRse.i
matter of tuberculosis that the breeder and dairyman must yeto P
vinced of before he will be satisfied to be raided on by the&.
menii. I will not go into detail, but take the matter of hero*it
liave been reading, observing, and studying and informing myi.
an owner of stock subject to this disease, as to all the facts,4abo.il
I am not convinced yet, by the evidence presented, that good, hi.]
animals, free from the disease, that will stand the tuberculin"
you please, can not be bred from parents one or both of which: w.
been tuberculous. I believe this is as true in the bovine as in:, si.
human race. I have not yet been satisfied that animals treated i..
the best hygienic conditions will easily communicate the disease th
they are not themselves in an advanced stage of it. I have not yetbe.
convinced that the milk the community is using to-day generally i -
more dangerous than that which generations before us have used.. ...
do believe that there are places in the country where there are gr..
percentages of unhealthy milk. I am not yet convinced that milk froq"l
tuberculous animals, that give no other evidence of their being infect .
than the tuberculin test, is dangerous to man or beast, be the ai"
young or old. In this line I have carefully watched the use of iI,
which I was not willing to have come into my house, in the feedingof.$
pigs, calves, and lambs, all of which have been slaughtered and enIn. ;
ined as a butcher would examine them, not as a veterinarian or micro.4
copist would. I want to say as a breeder that if there is any suchi .
thing as defending one's rights of property in this country, you havol.
got to go further with your evidence than you have .yet to take my.
stock and slaughter it, when the animals are performing all the fune>:i:|1:
.. .... ... :: ..
tions we demand of healthy stock and show to the closest scrutiny of..
superficial observation that they are not diseased animals. Suppose;,:a:
that I have a cow that is a good feeder, a good breeder, a fine dairy:...
animal, or in any other particular is a profitable animal in my'estim$w.:::`:
tion; I say that that cow is healthy if she performs all these function."*
notwithstanding the fact that she may respond to the tuberculin 'tetil:.."'
Animals have been slaughtered as a result of this test which J do nio:
believe can properly be called diseased animals. I believe, with. jth....,
gentleman from Canada, that the owner of stock must be carefully pr-i
tected. ,:



.. .... .: .. ,. .--....
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redalte i h aina ttsiaAscain
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express its grateful and hearty appreciation of the valuablA services ream".,iL..
Association by President Alvord, and directs that this resolution be s .ft|.'
minutes of the Association and published in its-prooeedings.
At the suggestion of the chairman this resolution was Unn ai
adopted by a rising vote. r
Mr. Holladay moved the appointment of a committee to.dra,
lutious of thanks for the various courtesies which the Ass0oclisoi.
received in Washington, the committee to report at the genr't..
at night, November 15. ...,
Adopted... '
The chair subsequently appointed Messrs. Hiolladay and Emigh"'a
committee. ,
Mr. Hays addressed the convention on the subject of a card .i..i..i
agricultural literature relating to field crops and field manage,
live stock, and dairying. He and some voluntary associates, w.i.fr
help of students, had made some 5,000 or 6,000 catalogue cards, at'
and catalogued under the system or key furnished by the OI.,c
Experiment Stations, with additions along certain lines. He tb'JI
one or two thousand dollars would bring this work up to date iE:.i.
logniug such works as the Association would be especially intere Stei:
The CHAIRMAN. No formal recommendation has been made; yq-0u: .|
the matter.before you.
Mr. ALVORD. I am instructed by the committee on order of bttninti
to give an opportunity at this time for delegates to make motiQonsti|
ing the sense of this meeting as to time and place of the next .*...."Z
convention. .!'*,l
Mr. JOHrNSON. I call up the resolution r have already offered. Wi:
select Denver, Colo., as the next place of meeting, and suggest AttguS
15 to October 1 as the most suitable time. / ,',
Mr. Clute extefided a cordial invitation to the convention to meDet, tL
Florida, suggesting a winter meeting as the most interesting and agr..
ble for Florida. ..... '
Mr. Johnson desired to divide his motion, the first half to relate"t'
the place of meeting, the second to the time. "
Mr. Emigh earnestly seconded Mr. Johnson's invitation to Dsinvd
reminding the convention that it was invited not by the city alon.....:
by the whole State.

i:. ,,. :**." S C ."K'
.. ~~~~~. ..... J....=.......fi
:.. .. ,: .:. ..: .* .
.. .... M. .... *





4- :i, fr t T16


as inyhWm to tba oenvudou to meet at
X, #M Mr. Rays repoded his fuvitagon to Miummpoli&
tim roR of deleptes was called, each delegate stating his
Ais nam w#A mMoL The vote resulted:
pbwids ni Umhc% 31 wumbu,4 0.5f 0aliftm% 14
that the sentiment of the convention. favored
so the next Place of meetinge
of balding the uext convention was then discassed. Mr.
that the National Educational Association would
,negAi im uwal, the third week in July, at DenVer, and on
-Mr. Swtt It was declared, by a vote of 30 to 4, that the sen.
At, Oe..,swciatlon was to hold its convention the week Preced-
of the National Educational Association,
ORA The exwutive conimitt4% wiU take note of this.
of opinion in favor of holding the meeting one week before
g of the National BducatAonal Association. AreaDy0fthe
jww ready to report upon their offim
Wwdtburn., for the Section on Mechanic Artg reported the names
Patterson, of Kentucky, for President, and Mr. Anderson, of
itbrowntary. On motion these nominations were confirmed.
Worbees, for the Section on Agricalture and Chemistry, reported
of X B. Voorhees for president, A. E. Blonnt vice president
CL Gewgeson, of swretary. On motion these nomina-
van confirmed.
Xym offered the followitig resolution, which wag referred to the
committee and immediately referred back to the convention
.. .....
Mamma akwe relations ezU* between the agricultural colleges and experiment
of the United 8b;k* and those of the Dominion of Canada: Therefibre be it
Jftoofw4 That 4xmvvntion extends a most cordial invitation to all of the agri-
eoIlegee and experiment stations of the Dominion of Canada and its several
to mad reprt*entatives to the meetings of our Association; and we hereby
to & same the fuU privileges of the Association permissible under our oon-
F te
AW 10
XMR expressed the thanks of the Dominion expenintent stations,
IMr. Mmb reported the following noinhiationg for officers of the Seo-
on (3onege Work: Mr. Harris, of Maine, president; Mr. Connello
T"SoN vice-president- Mr. Wing, of New York,, secretary.
0a motion these were ounfirmed.,
r. Ifforri,4 of the COWMIttee to nolninate offieM of the A no
*emted the Wowing report,:
Vow eaumlaw o"WaMd to noWunte offism of Um Aft"iXtIft bt the suffidug
pW bavo the bonor to pment tb* fdlawing TocOMMOMIA9004:
*w pvaumt-Heary R. Alword, of OkUduaria.
jrw rio*-Prr#wwu__o) A. A. johnsm,, of Wyoniag; (2) A. Q_ RoUs&yy of Nor*
(3) T. B. Countmkp of Adwaxi (4) IL B. CrOlghesdo Of-*mth OwOUR&I
of Florl4a-

.aL,,P _g '."'g '-A
I I R
















A. W. HA.
A. A. JoE soS, .......
;i::- *W. L. tROU'N,
W. A. HiBwnTir
C. W.. GA.i..... .F .Z
C. F. VAND ERWODI
A. C. Tu; .

WASHINGTON, D. C November 14, 1894. 'iI
".,"ijpiiJn ::, ::!^^H
On motion the report was adopted and the officers named 4 .
duly elected.
Mr. Test presented, for the Section on Entomology, the n4a i,
P. Gillette, of Iowa, for chairman, and J. M. Aldrich, of I
secretary, which, upon motion, were confirmed.
Mr. Craighead presented the following resolution:
Resolved, That it is the sense of this Association that the executive oou x.t.
continue its efforts to secure an appropriation for the purpose of furnishing, ..i..
proper restrictions, students in land-grant colleges with uniforms and such utb
equipment as may be necessary for their more complete instruction in miii
science and tactics. ...
On motion of Mr. Harris this was referred to the Section on 3ol..
Work. ...:
Mr. Silvester, followed later by Mr. Miller, extended a cordial T
station to the delegates to visit the Maryland station and collerga.H
College Park, Md., 8 miles from Washington.
Mr. AlVord announced that General Breckinridge, having' be.i
ordered away from Washington, would not be able to address the ejc.
mention. ,
Mr. Wing moved that a committee of three be appointed to examinlij
into the proposition offered by Mr. Hays in regard to indexing agrlctW3
tural literature, and to secure, if possible, the cooperation of the Depar t%.
ment of Agriculture, Mr. Hays to be chairman of the committee, whili..
was to report at the next meeting. i
Adopted. / i
The chliair appointed Messrs. Hays, Wing, and Plumb such comminifte!&!
Mr. HARRIS. By an error the committee on nominations overlookid.
the office of bibliographer. The committee recommends that the presii
ent incumbent, Mr. S. W. Johnson, of Connecticut, be reelected.i'
Adopted.. : ,
Mr. Scott offered the following resolution, which was seconded. ali
referred to the executive committee:
Whereas this Association, sensible of the value of the present and possibleil
tions of the Office of Experiment Stations in bringing the various stations in1toJi:
,.t. .... .

....... ........ ,:,,,,,, :, ,,, = r ,, :.... ... ..








*Itlk the Government of the United Stat4m, and In serving tAgeuend

for invvetigaton and those seeking the rattlts of their investigaUum

ThM ** exeoutive committee be instructed to communicate to the
Bomtw7 of Agricultuft the judgmerit of this Awocistion that a similar
sommunteation between the agricultural colleges and the Governmeut is
md to wowte him of the readiness of the executive committee to coopor-
IS be desired, In perfeetiag a plan which may serve this purpose, either
On enlargement of the mope of the worir of the Office of Experiment Sts-
by such other means as may be judged wise.

Cgiwlw W Dabney, jr., Assistant Secretary of Agniculture, was
and spoke as Mows:

Tax ScmgNTtrw WoRK oir Tjaz DzPAwrxzxToir AawcuLTuitx.

mm Gawruw= oir Taz AssocxATiox: I thank you very much for
hind invi"ai, to meat you at this time, although I understand thoroughly
6bibvitationis more to the Department of Agriculture than to myself. It
aw hator to ressive ftom the honorable Secretary of Agriculture, on the first
It eatered upon my duties at the Department, a commission to take general
of som of the more purely scientific divisions of that Department; so I
at this time to speak to you about that part 6f our work. Since yon
Ow appointed representatives of agrILicultural science in America, it is very
bqe for me to ten you something about the scientific work the
of Agriault=6 in doing.
1*44zess, this morning the representatives of the agricultural colleges and experi-
soAions organized under a system of Federal laws for the investigation of
as applied to agriculture and I feel, therefore, that the best way I can use
*w awmente allotted me is in telling you about some of the new things now
dme for the advancement of the sciences to which you are devoted. You are
I *Am happy to believe., already pretty familiar with the ordinary work of the
i 1 1 t of Agriculture. I shall, not,, therefore,, t4lk about the old lines on which
havo published bullatinwand, reports, but will confine myself to certain new sub-
abitdyllor the purpose of exciting your interest and inviting Your cooperation
in *orking them out.
U usinee of the resolution passed by you at the convention in Chicago, recom
amAx
AOnxwthm* the &=vtary of Agriculture be authorized bylaw to exercise aupor.
vWmover'theexpensesof the stations, Coin gress has incorporated in the agri oultu ral
'ation bill for IM the following words:
"Awid tbe Secretary of Agriculture shall prescribe the form of the annual fiDAUCi&l
ut by motion three of the said act of March second, eighteen hun-
Awed wA eighty-seven; shall aseertain whether the expenditures under the appro-
--h 'I Ps hereby made we in acoordanee with the provisions of the said act and
',sb&U aske report thereon to Congress."
INU is the only change in the laws regulating our relations. Since it was made
** your xequest and with the approval of the Secretary we have reason to hope for
parfoet hambony In carrying it out.
In order that the stations might have the fullest opportunity to order their expend.
rues, in aeowdance with the plan of the Department, schadulas for thaw finanoW
podp to be made first at the "mi of the present fised year, wero prepared and met
to you soon, after the appropriation bill pawed. This lawp in connection with pro-
Tiam 42 W-F gives the Semtary of Agriculture authority to iavestigsto and
sopor -upon the expendilknes of the stations and to visit thorn for the purpose of
detailed information in order to make his report to Coup This exim6
a" vWWW4 which you bays said you will most heartily weloonw." will




















: : *to our new officer, the "agrostologist"-a title that the.country ne
! been struggling with ever since.
i The Department of Agriculture has always recognized the importance ..: l
tigation of our forage resources, and through its Division of Bota;.$.k.
many valuable contributions to our knowledge of them. In view of th::e
importance of grasses and forage plants at the present time, when thei-
i ~ objects of farming in many sections of our country are undergoing a radi..l.
the honorable Secretary of Agriculture recently decided that this subjt:ti
.., more attention than the Department was able to give it with the pre .........M
the Division of Botany. He therefore employed a special agent to proda""S
tigations upon grasses and forage plants.. ''
No country in the world possesses such vast forage resources aspur, .I .
are the plants which compose that forage more various. Our botisti RIM: f
that there are over 3,500 different kinds of grasses in the world, of which st.:ia .
:: known to grow within our territory. There are, besides, many useful forage .......
not grasses-such as the clovers and alfalfa. The annual hay crop of the c, d
has an estimated value of $600,000,000 and more than .14,000,000 head of:ctt9
supported upon our grazing lands. The maintenance and improvement of Ib
resources is a matter of importance to every citizen of the United Stait, ".d
direct and vital interest to every American family. Upon it depend the v'aat
and dairy interests, and to a great extent the more important methods of!i-ib"
ing the fertility of our agricultural lands. ..Y:'l"B
In our great territory, including lands of many different elevations and6-
much exploratory work yet remains to be done upon our native grasses, aMaeW'
tinucd examinations it can not be doubted that useful species new to agricuWtri'
from time to time be found. In the arid regions of the West and Sonuothw*I
nutritious grasses and other native forage plants whose introduction into uitiin
carefully undertaken, could not fail to greatly benefit these sections. Theiai0t'
tion of the native or improved forage plants of other countries has in sq"i
resulted in much benefit to our agriculture, and doubtless many other pla' bl'cat
found and tested with regard to their adaptability to our climate and ....'|...
study of grasses for special purposes, as for example, for'binding the driflit |i
along our ocean and lake shores; for holding the embankments of our grea ..
which frequently overflow and sweep away farms, while they cover bthets
destructive debris, materially broadens the interest in grasses and makes it
of practical importance to many other classes of citizens. ..' i
Considerations like these have induced the Secretary of Agriculture to. ret:::
to Congress the establishment of a separate Division of Agrostology for IA+0aji
ing grasses and forage plants, with special reference to their use in those.t, 1&ii
our country where they are at present little known. The establishment 'o f I
division would demonstrate to the citizens of this and other countries' itii
National Government fully recognizes the primary importance of t e6'graslSlI
rural economy of the nation. It will be the function of the new divisioh'to^i
our people in the habits and-uses of these plants; to examine their naturt !4
and adaptability to our different soils and condition's; to impobrt,'teit, and",Jji
., .. ':!.

C. ,,,... ...
LM.:::..: .:k.i.'kMEMOi1
... .......... W E 1. ... ..









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iM 6wetAnogohr, htcaifiakteIuain hoe
ofouiiiiisne hik obewrtiismilinihsreeieimc
ii @i110iiuidome alliithat iticouldido in investigating=
-hstr =Aiiiiiiiiitrbtinoftisiiiid@npulshn er
-* *A......................................................r........... ...................i f
so thisand hey wll Qbe stdiedaniraidlyasithinua
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l:=it p edall in cnnecion ith or stdies f grases forae plinta
4 0 4 0 % a== = i iiiii iii = im o u r a s n o n d s e d g a i m l a y i a l t e o t t n n i e
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.F The work of this new division is to be confined to the study, p ..........
texture of the soils adapted to these different interests. It will b.e .i''
poses of this division to develop the methods of these investigationS |..
age an extensive study of the soils of the country by State stations,' 'a|#l
There is a pioneer work to be done here which you can scarcely bep...
*,. This work is based upon geological formations which may covers'nuib ....
and may be found in widely separated parts of .the country, SBa.....n
.~~~. .. L .... .... .........i
same formation or the same class of agricultural soils must be oolleiit
I,. over the country and carefully examined and compared. In' many -4..
doubtless be necessary to get samples of soils from foreign countries nw.
of comparing them with our own.
Congress has also been asked to provide, in connection with outir C
sion, for the investigation of the chemical characteristics of the vrins"R-t
soils of the United States, especially in relation to the nature of tht.e;:i
organisms contained therein and the best condition for the growth of ik:6i
This work has already been begun and promises to be most interesting. ; Ai:,
.: I am in danger, however, of using too much of your time, and muit w.. A
a conclusion. You will be interested to know that the Department of ApIO
which is, in part, a great experiment station itself, is pushing its scieitta '
ahead of everything else. We have made a little table showing the actin-injiO
tures of the Department during the years 1892, 1893, and 1894 for all of its 4
purposes, and have classified these expenditures so as to throw .all money!
the strictly scientific work in one column and all that expended for adiaf
purposes, for publishing and distributing documents, for distributing ..,&:.
purely business or strictly educational work, in another column. I will noi, b
your proceedings with this table, but merely give you the results. .
The Department of Agriculture expended for the fiscal year 1892 $2,271,3MB
46.2 per cent of that sum was expended in scientific research. For the .s |
1893 the expenditures were $2,354,809.56, and out of it 45.6 per cent was eXpezwi
the application of science to agriculture. For the year ending June 30, 1894'"".':
a total expenditure of $1,990,530.70, the Department applied 51.8 to scientll4I
and investigation. While economy has been practiced in the administratl od
Department, this economy has not impaired its scientific work. Comprlaing
expenditures for the fiscal years 1893 and 1894, respectively, I note that 1t-h,:
expenditures for 1894 are, roughly, $364,000 less than the .total for 1893; but i
cent of the total amount paid out for scientific work, as distinguished f:r
administrative and general business, is 5.6 per cent more, in proportion Ib.hI
expenditures during the year 1894, than it was in 1892, and 6.2 per cent.m.ii""
it was in 1893. It was during this same time -that we commenced the new i
agricultural soils, agrostology, and seed investigations, and still furtherdet.1
that in weeds and many other older scientific lines. '
We feel that this report of our stewardship is due you as scientific mensn4',
not made in a spinit of boasting. It is simply the natural and proper devslfl
of a Department that is, above everything else, a great agency of soienae;
Department of Agriculture is an agency for the promotion of economic pribdlt
in our country, and, as such, it must use scientific methods and means. -, i
While speaking of the progress of this Department, it is gratifying to 14
the reports of the colleges and stations, and from the discussion isi tW:j

.. ... : .. ..i .. 1
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OF 49


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form.a..............for..h.a..a..em..t...sci.n.e..p lied.to.... .
wihu:n:11ntewol.W ayntytbediga toogl
work... as= corsodn ntttosi emn rohrcutis u
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.... lasti ustheefoeiakeiiiaeto o frwadiad d ouiwokiiith
ii:iiiiiini teiolegsaniiiteieprtenimrefathuly ndmoe ieruil
om ....... The!! Ameica people haeitutd ra neesst o n
ii::::: aswihiibraiman.ietusbesue ha widintiisppinitem
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do@iii fadi~aint teCmisoero dcto: hrfr ei
That....... iti h ovcino hsAscito htteeuainlwr
of iii i nsiutosrersntdbiiioldbigetyirmteiythisabih
w:ii t i n~~~ .......... Biiii ofE uc tono........rofcesmia.i u cto t h
OfikeofEpeimn iiiiiithiDprtet f gicltr;in
. ha hee ec tveiimite binsrutdioex r m bi judg e tt
goSertayofteineroinitiffrilincssricoertint wui h
a"iii view
I r L O D h r r o w e oui n a-n if r n r u d
In th|ad fteeeui~ omte.I saprn htteei
notie o fr hecnsdeaio o ti ipotntsujet bt |h
Seci o oniiiiiW rkbailltiiateniniiiisielbeatoni










Messrs.. Atherton of Pennsylvania, Harris of Maino,
McBryde of Virginia, Murkland of New Hampshire.
Mr. ALvORD. The. committee on resoIntions has ins
report back, in a modifi9d form, the resolution. offered by Mi';-
tuberculosis, as- fOllows:
Resolved, That, the Association recognizes the italiortauce-of coDtroll
venting bovine tuberculosis and tbut-it is the senke of this body thatt4o"
the various stations should use all legitimate means to increase and perf Pet
forfurtherstud an experiment in Connection with this subject.
Adopted.
Mr. ALVORD. The committee also reports bwk, in a modi"
the, resolution offered by Mr. Goodell regarding seed distrlb'
follows:
Resolved, That this Association will approve and cordially cooperate in so*y
which may be recommended by the Secretary of Agriculture and legalioe4' "V
Congress for improved methods of testing and introducing in the several 8wo"'.
rare, and valuable seeds and plants.
Adopted.
Mr. TRACY. The Section on Botany and Horticulture reports th6
lowing nominations: Chairman, Mr. Tracy, of Missi IPPI; V
man, Mr. Crandall, of Colorado; secretary, Mr.. Lazenby, of Ohto.'-
The nominations were confirmed.
Mr. GORTON. Two resolutions (by Mr. Scott and Mr, Atherton'",
referred to the Section on College Work, are reported upon: as foUo-
Resolved, That this section deems it inadvisable at the present time for th
ciation to take action on the subject of the two resolutions submitted to the
tion, respectively by Mr. Scott, of New Jersey, and Air. Atherton, of Pe
Adopted.
Mr. GORTON. The section also submits the fOllOWiDg'.
Resolved, That it is the sense of this Association that the executive committmo
tinue their efforts to secure an appropriation for the purpose- of furnishing, U-0
proper restrictio"ns, students in land-grant colleges with. uniforms and simho"'
equipment as may be necessary for more complete instruction in military scianoei.,.'
tactics.
Adopted.
Mr. GORTON. The section further submits the following:.
Resolved, That the Section on College Work recommends to tho generol se"iob
a committee of five -be appointed to confer with the War Department relative to
military work in land-grant colleges.
Adopted.
Mr. GORTON. The section further submits:
Resolved, That the executive committee be instructed to secure legislation VAIAh'*
shall require one officer of the Array to be detailed to each college receiving t1io bw-
fits of either of the so-called Morrill acts, which shall require it.





U_ .... ... .. AL









Tbommm! 1-1; 41 v Mir ON, to re-M-fttkm at th*!Irss
tit Md- reporta the followtue,
11" on rwtwn returat US weal thaaks to 60 COUM4 Club rM
#j*sx*w tamhed hr Oe mosUag; I* the offieses of the Dopus.
40000fikebot -041,11M. 't Stationst &" to 60 pro" at WOG&
eourbW wA klMnew reeei,"W at their hand&

stated that he had just reedved from Idaho a letter con.
rewittemees for both ooll"m and istation, which thereby
Amatiatiou.
announced the following as the committee an military afiWn
'tba War Depwrtmeut: Messm Alvord, Holladay, Goodell,
Bilvester.
then read the fidlowing p&W
PYM
WAAT n Tim Knerow oF.TBz BuLxxTmf
is podkw the most important question propose4 for discussion in this con-
*w it opwo up othe whole question of how beat 'to bring before the public
as have been secured by careful investigatton. The work of college
In sot tbat of a close corporation,, kept to itself and for i"If alone. Far
?U orpnic law of both demands the utmost publicity. The act of I=
p*bU* UwWW to the States which should provide colleges for the benefit of
&ad the meehiWc arts expressly declares that 11 an annual report aball
repirding the progresi of each college,, recording any improvements and
to made, -with the cost and results., and such other matters, including State
and aeonowleal 044sties as may be supposed useful." The act of IM
agricultural experiment stations in connection with the colleges rea-
and requires,' I that bulletins or reports of progress should be
at land osee in three months, a copy of which shall be sent to each ne*9-
and to sw& tudividuals, aetua4 engaged in fuming as may request
wamN and so far as the means of the station will permitt" What the catalogue
V tow is to the eallege, the bulletin and annual report in to the experiment sta,-
#mms. Tbey are the official organs, established bylaw for disseminating information.
mpa being provided, them remains then to be considered only the kind of
fas required. Tk% may be of a triple nature. Distinctly technical sad
ouly to a scientific public; entirely popular and directed to the average
,*Ww- or a unhe of the two addressed to both classes. Which @hall the bulletin
Mhan it be the t&Wwd or popular, or techno-popular I To aid in wriving at
I resolved to invoke the assistance of the briners themselves, and accord-
wroU to thm represmtstive men in the State asking for their views. The one
Uetererl, jeseher, and farmer for over forty yeare; the second a tboroug14
ft=w,, one of dis kind of which the bone and sinew of Now England k
1; and the third a graduate of the eolUgs. eupsed in agricultural work.
'*jh*'aT11a won strught to the point and unique, I offer them fa your congders,
Amim. The teseber and fumm Ant speaks:
t$Wbs* is &a udosion of Vie bulletin of the experiamt statiout It is to OMT*y
to praetiod fumm hwft wbich bay* be= determined by seleaNk inv*&UgMb=
md which nay be guMn to t1w bmA readta in *very S of form 1", a.
$wou& U Is to emv" to pnwdiad haums fte =otbods by wbkb beis an fOWA
w pr*"dt sad X=AmMy to edueMs, theas to beciame am$* observen of o"m
effutt sad to umake *Wr prec" an intsHigmt east wid a" a men Mad
at ralm fw whka tUy know nMtber raes am bw. This tomobes Ow


..1-4e Awl
,*Ad &AAA 1&




















every statement very clear and concise. Conclusions and summaries fi.ndc ........
while the processes through or by which results are obtained are receivie:tm
indifference. Let me illustrate this by calling attention to the condensaed
contained in the Experiment Station Record. And right here a' culling outof I4'i-I
ever is of special value in that Record to your constituency might make a4.......
bulletin. Again, I would not spend much money once a month in publis I:::::- i:
fact of which way the wind blew thirty days previous, or once a month stsatf4gh...
analysis of fertilizers whose commercial value hardly varies in a year. Again;
use a technical term, or any term that is not, or will not, be understood by
mon farmer. Such terms. are probably necessary. An important mission k!#w
my judgment-would be to issue a bulletin periodically that would explain in:.4
plekt form, terms used to give results of analysis, such as 'protein,' 'cellulo"F.. 1'ri
cellulose/, crude fat,' 'nitrogen,' 'nitrogen-free extract,' and so on through-a t i
making a dictionary or text-book explaining these terms, that not one farmAer. '" ..J..
thousand could explain to you or me, although by statements, we 'catch on' ii "....
conclusions. Here is a mission of education to make your bulletins more valuable.
"Without treating my first further either negatively or otherwise, I refer toi::'i,
second proposition. You are supposed to obtain information at 'your experimn eit"r
station from your land, animals, and laboratory. It seems to me that no statlutj
prohibits you from obtaining facts, information, or conclusions from whatever *oq4ii
you can obtain them. In my judgment, it may be a legitimate mission of yoqrrb4.
letin to have those of inquiry. Let me suppose you want evidence to form neins!f
sions as to any line of farm industry-cattle, we will suppose. Take the aac0ot&.0'-
report of any given town; at a moment's glance you will notice those most eag iie&..
in that line. Send your bulletin of inquiry to them. Your question, Ithink, veryi
legitimate, but I fear I have not enlightened you on the subject. The more I thi.ai..
of it, the more its importance appears." ... .i!
Last of all, the student speaks: J:
"You ask, Should the bulletins be technical or popular, or both? I thinlkthbe.y.....4
should be both. That is, there should be a popular form for farmers, and also atedk-e:-.ii;
nical form in order to preserve the scientific work of the station and for limited d .i$,
tribution. The bulletins should be simple and yet instructive. There should benO` :,:.:
use of technical terms when a plain one will express it much better; no use of Litin K,:.`;S
names to describe ordinary wheat, and a hog should be called a hog rather than by "'
its Roman synonym. It may be well to use these scientific designations in a scien-iM".
tific report, and yet I.think even in these simple language is preferable if it describe:siii:::.
the subject in hand. To always use the Latin names and scientific phrases even in:l "l
scientific works is an affectation and a sort of humbuggery belonging, if you please, :i
to the medieval times, when the monks and the alchemists used to hoodwink thel:: ':MM
plain people with phrases which they could not understand. I believe, however, i.i:::1
scientific statements of facts when we have facts to be recorded, but there shoulder "
no bulletins published, popular or scientific, until we have got something to .aiiii,::
This publishing a monthly bulletin is a lot of cheap business not worthy of a Massu# "
chusetts institution or honest men. I do not think our bulletins need necessarily.bi$
confined to the work which we do, but may embody the results, especially thepi..



....... .... .. :.:... : .. ... ".. .. ..."
.... ....... I 5:T:..:. ":ii:uM :;: :: .".:'.::..1"0."~ Hi~~hE .: : "E !' NE:".i









*hlab bas be" 6"0 in 06her Stations, so wt isay have $be
4f 411 rwA wor); in all the dirarent stations. It my be necessary to Issm an
vapeO, but that repork need not woessarAr giv* the details of what bjw been
rwo became a goW 4W of what umby UT* been done this year wiU be
ww aext by the nmdft obtained in that year. My plan would be this: Pub.
popolm buUmMa when you have got something to say either of work done at
*%silosp w some result obtained at some other station which would be
to the socultm of our Statc Publish an annual report stating brielly
of tho station, what work was in progress, and a thorough digest of any
war which had bum completed. This for scientific record for um of
am ud for Were roferen6e. We can not lay down a hard and fad role
shall be published as popular and what as scientific; it must be left to the
00M of our 8"Um managem"
Of veutiov4 you have listened to the opinions of these three men
as types ofthe classes to which our bulletins we addressed. Itseemstome
is gnat truth in what they say. If it is our mission to convey information, It
emveyed in such tierms and with such explanations as will make It intel.
to the average mind. We can not afford to overshoot the knowledge of those
I** we trying to benefit go doing, we bring ourselves and our work into contempt
to secure the hearty cooperation of our constituents. The average reader
4so not *=t the proeessim of our scienti fie work. He wants results, and results
N* SU be eam about or looks for. Lists of noxious woods or useful plants, cata.
I*ww of inseetso eonstitutents of feeding stuffs set forth in chemical terminology',
be win have none of, for they do not appeal to his under
aw do they increase his broad-winning capacity. And yet all these are
AMIN, doobdects, of tuvestigationby the different stations, and the results
U communicated to all associated workers.
I am hA coming to the opinion that there should be two sets of bulletins; the
*mw 06ripped of all sciestifie garb, setting forth in plain, unvarnished language such
AIssin so have been ascertained and addressed to the laity at large, and the other, in
only to the scientific worker and putting on record the
by whi& xwults bAve been secured. We do err in not coming closer to
nisd of the average man. I shall never forget the lesson taught we in the earlier
6sysetinytewhin& I Waid lectured for four days upon the Crusades. 1hadthrown
olf into my subJect and really believed that I had done a good thing. Faneymy
A -- Jillijille" when a few days later, happening to meet one of my clatis, he &%id,
"You nay tbink it a strange question,, Professor, but what is a Crusade wWwayrl
Mr. Beovell. spoke upon station bulletins, endorsing Mr. Goodell's
----IL- that them should be two clasms of bulletins and emphasizing
tM neemsity for nsing plain and simple language in publications
A 1W .8
The following paper from the Swtion on Mechanic Arts was then
read by Mr. Drake:

Ws" NsmAxic." Wojm Sw"x wx Givx To TEM STuDzym or ouit Amucur.,-
TUWM COUX(;" I
In thk paper I propose to confine myself to the agricultural side of the questim
Vow of work for Audents of mechenical engineering have been so well marked
out by teachers, of long "perienee and keen realization of the soak of the pupfls
tb" is would be presumptuous an my part to suggest hem Uds evening anything as
origiad in that lim
a AMM of fto-Ow.1 P 1 our State 00114g08 WO notice that some Of thOR
aosaws of high, graile, and we shall also And that *o
at thm MW een"a de "d Oak* Any SPO" see" to give to thew "o-

















he will, in most cases, never get'it at all, for his lack of time will preveit"l... i :
. attaining to any great degree of skill while performing ordinary farmS
S the other hand the progressive mechanic from the very nature of. Me .is *c....lhgi4|.
.: ~ stantly developing his powers of delicacy and skill. We may give the lu I
" mechanics principles and theories, but he must get his experience out -of
r ~ Education, someone has said, is the development of power in the.pltqU
* development may take place in Various ways. It may be brought about b
once as one goes on in life and comes into contact with bright men of M.
The process may be hastened, however, by submitting the youth to a systeas' i E'
graded course of study.
One of the greatest needs of the average farmer to-day is this lesson o.f l
We know that there is a power in systematized action that can not be "y'
opposed either by strength or numbers. If our students are to make the bh
their powers they must early learn the value of system. The college that ha.li ...
must be founded on system. He must be encouraged to carry on his colleget. :.'i
all lines according to some system. Class instruction must be given in an. i"
and not haphazard manner. The teacher must at all times remember that tie ,
ner is influencing the pupils for good or for otherwise. The courses of shop'6-w...
must be arranged in a regular step-by-step order, and if the arrangement i .. ..1.
chosen that the pupil himself can recognize the sequence of the various opemfi"".
as he studies them one by one, he will have a greater respect and confideue E lft
work at hand. He knows that he is moving forward and that the last step bit11........
difficult than the one just before it. *"
On the college farm every hoe, shovel, rake, plow, chain, or tool of any kindl
have its definitely assigned keeping place under cover, and when not in use2sh1"6 ..
found in its place. In the carpenter shop, the tools that the student uses c.nift$
at the bench should be kept in a drawer, rack, closet, or other convenient Ao'is i
the bench. Special tools should be kept in a tool room and may be borrowedb:lY th',;
students as occasion requires. If a tool is missing let the student who is pmi|
sible for it do nothing else until it has been recovered. Each tool should be sa.IMp&
ened as it becomes dulled. It is very bad practice to use all of the tools one aft: i:!!
another till all become dulled or out of order.
The teacher has a grave responsibility in directing the pupil in his first effott, .i
With many the first few days means either success and a fondness for subi quoa 'iitl
work, or failure and a general dislike for school work ever after. If a boy in leaIi.... ...
ing the carpenter's trade is allowed to work at a bench that is untidy and the toolli.i6k
half buried with shavings and dirt, that boy learns his lesson of carelessness snt..ii|
disorder and becomes a poor carpenter. Teach the students that in order-to do g.iod'.
work it is not necessary to chew tobacco, wear an old hat on the back of his lie" ,i.:
nor to hold an old black pipe in his mouth, as we might reasonably infer if we weei.
to visit the average shop in this country. :
Do not allow the student, at first, to help himself to lumber and other supilieaSiii
it tends to make him wasteful. Keep record and account books in all departnIteA.iutt:
If the student is engaged in any construction work require him to keep a recotvi '.iiAi
all materials used, as well as his time spent upon it. In this way the stude t.. "i
acquire the ability to estimate, within reasonable limits, the cost of needed impr".i'"
ments at home. If you are supplied with steam power, keep a close account-of'tiii





L. ......6W4..~L !. ....... ....... ....
...- .:E :
.* *. l : m ; i









UtMA ON& Md ***%w ot bomm of roll lag the englue. NO%
I i in oymy bour# and *ake tho 11 w,1wm$M ot as f1b" wSter, If Y06
-rd the Man during which the dynamo is used,, and tako
st the electrical indicating instruments. IMis awAssial in Itself
and also hr bistoriod putpomw 86adents to doing Als
boom* observant and quiek to natkis If anything Is going wrong.
whoe, it is poselble; to do m, but never m *_ ON&
night be tendered usehas to sms pupik by requiring them to
.-low system
Mwo If the studenis aft given preetlee In the firing of the boilw
IMM Mg *slot & prim he the one who $hall got along with the low
A-
UAMWMP May,# In me term. TI&M or f66r yam of such an atinoo.
t IT &Us work Is sure to Impress its everlasting mark upon the lives of
The farmw of the future must adopt such measur*A and it shall be
wal 1 10 4544*lp a" send out them now pioneers of Ole modem age.
boy comies to the agrimlturxl. college with a definite idea of getting
and training as. will enable him to accomplish more work with low
Be vinix to bun bow to operate a farm with the least expense and the
paosIblio rotwraL In aborto he destres to find out how he can improve his
wA at the, *ams, time to make life easieT for himself and his &=ily.
a** alomys best bvougbt about by making the-larmer more indepemUnt.
U general, dew not ummu every man for himself alone, but it is sure to
vo UWY observe, the sentiments in the saying Live and Ut live." This is
NEEL, amosere, Aba ewftt of business mooess. One man says to another, 11,1 You
40 awand I will buy year goode of you," and in the tranowtion each one makes
Terefbre I do not think it best t encourage the farmer to do by himself
***at bis skruadve work or repairs. Here gmd there one may be found
6 ft"ble sins and building a new barn, but in most cases it will be
%mew to Vw and for 4heimum to employ a builder, while he is giving his time to

wo veimble aperattouv to him;, of harvesting and marketing his crops.
-?We to me extrome easep but it servu to illustrate my thought. I do believe in
Vvhc So 6 if web pmoUed knowledge that he will take good can of his fwm
andalso, make ord' in. Let no name some of the various branches
jot an mks that nwifu given at college and note their val us to one engaged in
F Ataral purmdts*;
(1) Woodworking in all of Us forms is of prime importance, and should precede
Ansibor --I- lotalwork. A warm of Joinery at the bench should be followed till
-'Ow Student bu acquired a fai r degree of skill and accuracy. Then a course of con-
"vowerk any be taken tap. Everycollage, can afford a varied amount of work
a ObAft of the &bops. Fences, poultry houses, granaries, and other improvements
required1p and a large claw may be kept busily and profitably employ*d.
earring may be insde elective for the boys, but should be required. of all
xW It 4s truly valuable, because it Is refining in its influence and cultivates
40OW&MV4 intgre"in beautiful and ardAie objects. Wood taming breaks up the
*iPmao6my at the Practically useful and gives a training to the eye for form that Is
**Ir sqwiled by ftee-hand drawing.
M I wouM place forging or smithing mxmd to woodworking In its usefulness on
gkn. The pupils appreciate the value of this instructJon perhaps better than all
O&M ktuds of work. in the Awgs shop of the Rhode Island 8tate C*UW of Agri-
-I
VWX60"s and, Mechanic Aria the agricultural stwiesto Produce such shapes In Imm as
we e-ammonly used about a fim. Staples, booksp bitch rings, whWeWft ineop
UWU rbl^ wagon iranwork, and ebolus of all sortev an but a small list of the arW
__4w made. Ie principles of horm"Ang should be tan& but I am as yet wwm-
tAft an too the wi"m of encouraging the SMAII hMW $0 SUGUIpt to Gh" hk Own
His bone to a vital neeftsitY to hiSt and S bVUY hat" Migbt
arippled a" rendered useless 9w an indefinite per"


















farmers might produce better results in that direction if they were *acquabJi
even the first principles of such work. The old dam that forms the ice p.oi
Sbe made a permanent affair if constructed of stonework, instead of old ha*.
and'sods, as is usually thecase. i:
We propose to give the agricultural students at the Rhode Island Stato sC .
some instruction in the mixing and testing of cements and mortars. Vuai'rio.i
portions of cement and sand are used and tests for both tension and comprtsiew
made. Investigations as to the effect of the age of cement upon its strenl ......... :
be carried on during the present winter. .:...,
Surveying is essential that a farmer may have a clear understanding of legM...
meuts descriptive of real estate and of other matters, such as boundariesa... i
fields, etc., for which he is usually dependent upon the word of strangers. ... ;,' ,
.: '$ .......
The ability to repair shoes and to solder leaky milk cans will often Sana..it::.
into town, and likewise save dollars and cents. I have often wished that. a a
might be produced involving the study of machine construction as applied t .gi
cultural machinery. There may be such courses-in existence, but I do not kniow
any at the present moment. A feature of the next convention may well be a.pqrp
upon the above subject.
The first cost of fitting up a woodworking department ranges from. $12 to $25A. :I(
each bench and its complement of tools. A forge shop can be established for abq:w't
$25 to $30 per forge and complete set of tools. The expense for materials usedk.."
instruction in these branches for a year should not exceed $10, and may be limiteJ
to a much smaller figure. In my own experience students frequently wish to kice1
their own work, and they are allowed to do so by paying only the cost 'of ."t:
m materials used.. ,,:...::..'
Mechanical work of an exacting nature should be given to all students o1f .n.i1i
Agricultural college, because it cultivates habits of order and neatness. It enco Tr .1...
ages original thoughts on the part of the student. It brings out a confidenc:M:: in;.
one's powers of doing and stating things accurately. It gives the student a greater.'
respect for skilled labor, and puts the future farmer in sympathy and touch with thou::.0
whose life occupations are the mechanical trades. Moreover, if this instruction 1|0i
given in a proper manner and by teachers who are experienced and enthusiastic a. i,
their work, these results of mental and bodily cultivation must make their appear- ,
ance. It is right and just that we give our time and put our thought and strength into::.,::|
the development of the mechanical courses of our colleges, but at the same time let us ":"-:
give the agricultural student all the assistance that lies in our power.' Let us teach 'ia`..
him how to make his life work pleasant and interesting. Let us so lead him in the :
development of his powers that he will return to the farm with a true realization of *!
the fact that he is to follow one of the noblest callings in God's universe. '
On motion of Mr. Murkland a vote of thanks was tendered the'..
chairman for the signal ability and courtesy displayed by him in pre- i":',
siding over the convention. 'I
On motion the convention then adjourned sine die. A social gath.r-.. '::.
.. ..... ... % 'ii
ing at the Ebbitt House followed. .
.1


. ...... .......... .. .. :" ... ...... ,.:


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EiiiiiiiiONiiiiiiiiiiiNDiCHE ISTR-
6"on onarcluriiihmstyM.Wngoee h
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= i=~I theiii 7iiiii~iiii7 m a n u al.............................en ts
::hoi iiiiiiriiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
fo mmiiiii coplt iniiiiiianiiduiniiemtoenerth
cora AiIiiiisirable clanioistudentsiconsisted o
....... ftiiiarwitith lie o wih th bet mthod offaring

i'a ntuto yrue sncsayt acnieal xet
::y iiii oftweleiweksihoudinoicoeriteiwoleiroudio
svii Te sudnt hold e mdeto eaizehowlitle h rell
lot** 2]iiiii atte opeto f h sotcore
Mr il owdid h cp f h br oreamte ob
N Pil111id-1o oa odtos e'1mivdte a agrta

sbr co wudiieriiugmeiroiherguaifu iaa
iiiiii Te idaiirtcusii osdrd ob n md po
"Wih tak n.uto.t..........f..e.on..urs ... er on
'*eonlysucesetl i~rt ours ha bee tha indairing
Mr. lum stted tht a PadueUniersty ll f te diryiiiiie
-16onbad eenenont rom te reular ours ofifuriyarsiad puiint
a pd or&A ti nttto teew ielne farclua
-&-w~ fto whih th stuent ayicoose
Mr. Hnt blievd tht th shot corse houl beioncenediithi
................... P u jcitt eO i nv riytes otcus n a rc l
twiemTefrtya f hscus otisn















view and not as furnishing safe data for scientific deduction& :F. Z...,,,...
tainted, however, that cooperation in feeding experiments, p
in the formulation of plans for the work, was exceedingly .de.$4
Mr. Morrow spoke of the advantage of" stations consultbig"Ia.Wi
~ ~~ ~ ~~. 'E ""E"..:...... .

as to minor details of parallel experiments,-in order that therw.
their work might be comparable. He also urged the importance ofi
careful study of the relation of water to soils and crops, and. "g6
the advisability of cooperation among the stations looking t.ii
discountenancing of exaggerated claims made by seedsmeular.:...
varieties of plants. :$
Mr. Flagg emphasized the importance of studying the water : w
and acidity of the soil of plats used in fertilizer experiments,.::..:,:-
Mr. Hays referred to extensive rotation experiments which the
nesota station proposed to undertake at three substations in thw Stao.|
" Mr. Smith spoke of the advisability of station workers everyiw
being supplied with diagrams of station farms on which experizaeQ
were conducted and with data as to the character of the soil, amen.|
of rainfall, etc. : "."
": "" ::il[.. Ml
Mr. Frear suggested the need of cooperation among stations in inv
tigations to determine the -effect of climate on plants. Mr.M
explained how in his Province satisfactory results had been seeu.O
in cooperative experiments with about 2,000 farmers, most of themw.t
students of the agricultural college.
Mr. Henry stated that the past experience of the stations in the-liwor
of cooperation has not been encouraging. He believed that ."pt ira|i
rather than public methods of affiliation would prove effective.":.,
Mr. Armusby doubted the practicability of the formulation by a o000:%
mittee of plans of cooperation in feeding experiments.
Mr. Redding favored cooperation with neighboring stations. ,
A motion introduced by Mr. Woods that a request be made ti
one session of the convention in 1895 be devoted to the discussion..'Oii
methods of feeding in experiments with dairy animals was carried.
Further details regarding matters presented to the convention b .2
this section are incorporated in the general proceedings (see espuci.ly pp. 49, 50, and 52). '.: q :, .,., ,ii:
...7 :i:
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4 It
=]iiT H iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
4=i~ i ii iiiiiiiiiiii
....in wa aldt re yCarmnHri.I h bec
............... Mr Gorton of Michigan, wa chosen secretary
14roo oe isndrtadig n rgua pogameha be
.. ..... I t w s m v d a d c r i d t a a t r e e r d t h s S e








by thiiiiiiiSesionibithentakeiup.ihe iiiiiiifiiic riii
ofSntrMril a osdreadi a oe n are
Beto recommendiiii== toiiii thiGneaiiiiin ha te ubec
%iiiii iniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiutveiom itteiiiiau ho itytorec iv
Q "2i 111 ii::iii
.t-' -_ iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii d o btan t eiirbl bu t p opo e&
': !!i=d!!!!!!! keepi t nasial lc nW sintn'rusq tue h

States.xp.essd.theiri.tenton.to.btain.ab.st..labama
.tWyufg, Maylnd.......etsMineot..icignSothCao
................ Penyvna i lmp i hdeIln ,V r ot ea ae
iiisin No o anC lrd ,N rhD k tN wH m s ire
a 0 0"iiiiiiiiii
Thei' sujc ftqrlto ftecolgst h a eatet
lee toiiiiiiiiwain xttke u twaim veiiaiti
Seii reomen toteGnrlSeso htacomte ffv





























Adopted.
Moved and carried that the committee on programme.1 :br
be instructed to place upon the programme one session of t:
on College Work, for the discussion of t4e methods-of teach
h ture. It was moved and carried that the chair appoint a..
five on nomination. Adjourned, to meet at 2 p. m., Novembctit
Moved that the two resolutions referred to this Section br |
eral Session be taken up. Carried. -
It was resolved that this Section deems it unadvisable at tepro
time for the Association to take action on the subject of the""
lutious submitted to the Association, respectively, by MessrL
New Jersey and Atherton of Pennsylvania.
The following resolution was then considered:
Be8olved, That it is the sense of this Association that the executive
should continue their efforts to secure an appropriation for the purpose. o||fiq
ing, under proper restrictions, students in onr land-grant colleges with unlt 6:i
such other equipment as may be necessary for more complete instructions nhitiiI
science and tactics. .. ....
Adopted.
It was moved and carried that the Section on College Work: mo"l
mend to the General Session that a committee of five be appointed rd
tive to the military work in land-grant colleges. It was moved a
carried that the executive committee be instructed to secure g a
which shall require one officer of the Army to be detailed to*a*.4
lege receiving the benefits of either or both of the so-called- _*
Acts, which shall request it. N.N
FACULTY MEETINGS.
By W. H. SCOTT.
The occasion for faculty meetings grows out of the conditions under whili :
ties exist. To teach and govern jointly requires a mutual nnderstandisg C
accepted basi8 of cooperation. To secure ark maintain these, there must:W-*.8; 1be6 j:"


.i. .. ..... ... ... .. .-" ** f i l B
.. ... ......
A : :~N H H N .. .. .





















































iSiige M aOftfufly the grounds for decision. The rest depend for their infor-
*R| mud ove for their opinions, on those who are more immediately interested in
b ui tr who volunteer to do the talking; and all, even the most cautious and
Asam- liable to be swayed by the feelings of the moment Feeling is
hB smad more untrustworthy in a large body than In a small one. Agaiu, it
B ty ~that in order to reach an agreement, or merely to save time or to put
ia-i t to a discussion that might otherwise be interminable, modifications are
.S... which greatly impair the result. It is endured with the salve, "it was the
6 :iwn euld do." Who wants the judgment of the many on a question of scholar-
*mpe Jplomacy or a nice question of equity f There are questions that may safely
b sbmUind to a popular vote; but there are others which must always be reserved
w aselt men, eehoe for their fitness to decide them. None will be more ready to
861t the trath of this potiona th college profemors themselves.
SA larg fSalty ti liable to villanuting and inconsistent action through variation
he teo atte ne. At on meeting a question nay be decided in the afirmative; at
"b mot by the abseame ofm.e member who were preemt aon the former oemedmo
mlft!M prmee of some who wern absnt before, a sinliar eme may be deeded In
4 i- aqh. The eet to t o lower tdo culty In the respect of tOwstvaUt ad
iha MliUS the diseipline of Bes eosbUp
...... .. .


. ..... ....... ............ ..... .... ..... ......
..... .. ...... ................. .............. .. ......... .......
.............. .................
....................................



























formally or by tacit consent, to the chief executive of the colleg..7 i. B
colleges the president should be nearly or entirely free from the. .t 4
so that he can devote his attention to matters of administration.
surate with such a position should be placed in his hands, and he 14
responsible for its exercise. *
A great means of relief is a system of standing committees or nibfaoeiM
of theme committees should have jurisdiction over the studies of a tex
of students, the members of the committee being selected because they I. e .
of classes to which these students belong. The committee may have
for meeting, but it will usually be found more convenient to meet at t .- '""M
chairman. These smaller bodies can meet oftener than the full.faiti Vi'a.
brought together, and thus business will suffer less delay. There 1 ii
persons to be informed or to be brought to agreement, less time will be d lM)
discussion and conclusions will be reached more rapidly. And as those i0 l
already familiar with the students and the work under their special h|......
conclusions will be more intelligent and more just.
The general government of the institution, so far as it is not exer0Joiei,
president, might be committed to a small governing body, consisting of. tkq....
and a select number nominated by him. The same arguments of prom t
efficiency, economy of time, and sound conclusions which have been gN ii||au
the value of subfaculties apply here. The administration would a.]so biei i
..".' ..:."r i iii :... ".
form, as the same persons, or nearly the same, would deal with all like can.JI''||:,n|i
of well-defined precedents would be established, rendering the governmmao
well understood, and easily managed. ::
While all these advantages of improved method and result would be o:0 1
there would be at the same time the removal of an unwelcome burden AS
majority of the faculty, and the prevention of a great and needless lIos aidE
What good reason can be given why twenty or thirty or more men should lea'
work, perhaps depriving ten times that number of students of instructio:tl '
*they are entitled, in Order to decide what shall be done with some boy who. b*s.
from his neighbor's paper during an examination! :7
Such a plan of organization would leave for the general faculty only t$k I
ness affairs which are of the first importance. These would hardly icl*bint|
than general legislation for the guidance of the subordinate bodies aid 4ti`J
serious cases of discipline. With this class of its duties so much reduoeidafrlM
have time for more frequent and careful consideration of the second kiu-:At
named-those of conference. ..i:,;.
There are many topics on which a free consultation together by mqmb**ei
faculty may be fruitful of excellent results* Though less urgent from a w: 4(
S..:.. ......
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ad aftbakk"vo aa*6w% 6ey km a bigbw 9" 0
41SM4 am Ot far greater 7Uy belong #A a wUW 6"
ubjed th" pertai"s to 6* WOUIN" Ot 0 OOUOP or 116 66 846610ft at Its
it ad to aw& otha my as At *madow b* pnd"My --- by W
,mA
no A004 as &16060 do the padbili" ot Ow hmWo
Awk
to dwPaulie, plans fw qbuyvqwst Wd tolwo "R"P t" Wel.
-A-d-ent-s 4bw and nuoy men ought to eminand the Intaut ad
O(O.W7 naftber. : %
that WO Ubbly to sow he= onch we pubap
and I shall Anetwo vo*KT* what time remains to me for 430phe"
bmAts, wbiah to my mind we of oven greatse valac
is tha* eseb proh may &hns keep himiself WernmA to some sOms
ot otber departments of the college. He am hwdly W to do Ids own
lateRigently U he in acquainted with that of his fellow towflmm Beth
=wits aud hm their 40fectis he am improve his methods of instruction -
am wodif.* his requireamats in kind and amount so as to afford and to
grestmt help.
is Wmulus;'md no teacher who Is Mive to the denumWo
P
ma am angage in such eonfereueea without being filled with higber
The netb*4 the sugStesitions, the spirit of his associates will sharpen his
a" deepen his hitereet.
the highest ba"t of the houlty meeting iAr the fe&Ung of unity wbich
and whiah am hardly be maintained without it. The success of a eel-
SGOOON of an "my, depends not merely on the Wthful performance
*sty by each member but no less on the esprit do corps by which It
Mmy a o*U*V needs move thav it needs anything also the cultivation
# =W Them is a tendeney to forget the geueral interest in ones zeal
W --t, If any great success is to be achieved, this disintegration
sawted. Every num must learn to look not on his own things, but also on
J**W of oftem There must be,, and must be felt, a bond of unity. To create
Und and to makb and keep it a living bond, there in perhapt no agency that
U noU mom sMelent than the faculty meeting. Here, if anywhere, a union
N Amdbg a&,y be awakened and a union of effort inaugurated. Here, if any wlere,
A* *Wftp may be ami-e-r-ted from a congeries of departmouts, each confining iumlf
i Us I tin aw narrow circlo4 and perhaps jealons or even hostile toward all the
Obasm6 W& & oompact and vital organization, each part supported and supporting,
Od *U sntmaUd by a cow m.on soul.
,A Us xwelt will. naturally company and follow the common pumnit of an objec-
out Whm a body of man unite heartily to aceomplith an object, each one of
y and almost unconsciously pasms into a freer and more sympar.
Mental contact generates a Are that would have slept forever in
sopwate mind. The oxygen of one mind combines with the carbon of others to
a by whieh all we filled with light and heat Or by proximity alum
P d i g, minds, like dying embers, may warm each other, fir" into a glow and
Am Into a radimt Am The professor alone in his library, or tesebing his clam,, or
C" by students in his laboratory, may not bo distinctly conscious of this ele-
*mt of f*Uowship in his mental sUtes and actions; but his thought is ekarer and.
aamswntlvv his apesch is more Umpid and illuminating, wA his wbole aspect
"A swvemmi we freer and, mere effwtive becattse he has fWt the prokegod tooch
# and reeaMA tbe Woulating hm of the nion who study sad Seach arowA him. The
favelf N A ftall Potmtka of a *Ouego thas ehargotl compared with thas of a Stn& nd"
warkift in Wations is n the enthusiasm of & mem amwilag to the terplift at a
"Utary plow="-
These, one, we dw peoible am of Sbe Awafty emlew"t 6MOMW
of boWinasso a Coll"vo WOW,- at the we* of the a* raw



















* and.stimulating force reaching upward and downward from the o officeo
dent to the room of the humblest and most sluggish student, and ot
utmost boundaries of its sphere. The faculty meeting ought to be tS&":'U"::
life to the college-the warm and ample heart whose beat regulates the
whole body, and from whose outgoing tide the whole body, fitlyy J i..
and compacted, may make increase unto the building up of itself both 1.
in power.
When can such conferences be held? This must be determined a.cordti.t...
.. ... ... .. ...: ...
cumstances. If the time of the faculty meetings is taken wholly.-r t't ii
regular programme hours, it would hardly be right to extend it for thIs .....
But if the faculty meetings have an evening set apart for them once wa k.n:tH |
a fortnight, or once a month, the latter part of the evening may very a .... A
and profitably be devoted to such conferences as are here meant. It mig9. tA.|-A
better plan, and one that would suit either case, to give one evening fai'.M
this special object, and to have one or two short papers prepared as a bas ....'.i.'.
cussion. What is this meeting in which we are now engaged but a R
faculty meeting of the kind I have suggested? If it is worth while for u tU.s
together, at great expense of money and time, from different colleges scattea4'.i'
the whole country, to hold such conference meetings as this, surely it waold
the slight effort and inconvenience involved in holding meetings of a single -aiyj
for a similar purpose. .."::'.




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so doub true tha be are ertain methods of treatment wbieh a ba pplieable to
I.qe group of inseet, aad that the more tboroaugh tody of pisonosu solution
, .uMethods of appliestiom re promidag into result, but there Is the danger that toe
- ru lim.ee be placed upon na bmethods, ad that the Invee tr -egfeet to
xt. the d etailof bsehabit of imet, sad tiat there mW be eaes wbh

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certai pp.cullajities of hitbit will render aninsect proof ngainf3t me"
-first sight appear to be entirely practicable. Methods of. spraying ulad
of substances f6r this purpose have been tested. and experimented w
erable extent by men who are- not trained entomologists, and, -In M ny
decided advantage in'the, prIoduction of mechanical devices for a Yi1i
binatioDs of insecticidal subkancesy.but in some cases the attempted
such methods or Combinations, to certain kinds of insects would be. 46
useless by anyone acquainted with the fundamental structure of in
While we would encourage therefore every, effoit toward the, perfect404
tion of spraying devices andspraying fluids,,we would. urge the imp''
ring the application of these to vATious. insects whose habits are, not eh
t
to trained entomologists who should be able to determine aA to the possiblo,-_`
usefulness of the, effort and the direction of practicability for. such me
the entomologist connected with an experiment station should devotff1ii'_
investigation of the injurious insects in his territory would seem to require
ment, but there are cases in which we see, entomologists in their capacity,,Ii
workers devoting themselves to studies which, to say the least, have"but o,
remote relation to the practical needs of their constituency. While a kU0
the insect fauna of each particular- State is a great desideratum aud, is uitbo
economic importance, it seems to me that to make this the leading snbjcilclf
to the exclusion of the study of the habits of the known destructive form's it,%.
take. To take up the investigation of. monographing of a group of inwIts,
in their distribution and habits, have little relation to the industries of hio
unwarranted'. For the person engaged as an experiment station worker to,
in the monographing of a group of marine mollusca would be manifestly abs"14,
instances not greatly different from this could be cited from the history of our
iment stations. It must be -remembered, of course, that there are a nwno6t 0,
instances in which the station entomologist is simply to devote part of him AP491A
station work and part to other duties, and if such work is embraced among hils
duties this remark would have no application. It should be understood thorora,
however, that it is a matter of common honesty for an individual engage4.
certain kind of work to devote himself thoroughly to that particular work',.
In the method of work which he investigates the entomologist should aim tb
all to secure thoroughness and accuracy, and for this purpose he needs ttfall eq,
ment of apparatus, the particular character of which will depend upon his
and the subject of study, but in the provision of which he should not be stia'"t
For the fall elaboration of life histories some form of insectary is almost esso"a
although., of course, much work may be (lone without the complete control of
tions which may beprovided by such a building. Of breeding cages he should lixt,
a full supply, and these will be constructed in varying degreesof complexity,
ing to the results to -be reached. He must not omit the study of minute dotaik iA,
structure or a careful determination of species and varieties,'as this may happeuo,
,be an important factor in the determination of methods of work, danger of itit,
duction and distribution of certain species, and other points of importaD ", all o'
which can not be exaggerated. A complete equipment for thorough microsgo'""Id
'work is therefore of, absolute necessity, and no entomologist should, titider
equipment complete, or even begun, without such an outfit. While a great, n M'"A*f
of insects which he is called upon to examine may be readily determined withoutAbo"
use of the microscope, there are many in which the microscopic charactersarl6w 40
absolute necessity. For instance, the necessity of such work occurs in;, the-rociftV
distribution of the San Jos6 scale, which has been of such immen-se importa66 WA
California, and which during the last two years has been recognized at a n
localities in the tastern States. The extensive notices given to the distrib-tiltion
this species naturally led to -an examination of orchard trees all through'tle `7
growing districts, and many specimens of the common native bark lice wiere SCI
our experiment station for identification, and doubtless the same occurred in,'



.. ... ........






79


wbere 06 orebord Is of any INT The P"Opt OUNI-1 Ot**
ftum $be oommon he am roadfly be, em to havo doeided lopm.
In to 6* 4hAributlon of naromy stook at oelow hm ordbud ftow
vWY issmanua reaft" of am equipmient to an *dOnsive '8021hur
of** species. Obst may be Mint In he idwilAosp.
vavW as &r knowleAp of *a load *Am& Sw6 mudnipwartlyW
A.8
of th" "A tbomgb To and their ou*W. iden a
ot uu& labor and but this dtouldby no meaw be uftleatedp fbr it
Is to W when dmm my be dmend lor the Identid"on of w=eobeaure.
wd natwilly, V it In an Insect attmoUng any &#*nUm4 Qe detorminallion
I* p pt wA eartain. Whether *U toseet be lajuda= or not the partles
U and Minding for inlonation want to know what the nature of the inseet
7 wbedw of possible danger or no4, and wbatever Soft may be of impor.
mqpwding its appearance. It to an excellent plan also for each entomologis*
up amos group of inseeft having economic importance as mamiewbat of a
ohm* it is impossible for one to be an expert in *11 lines, and than, by oor-
and exchanging with entomologists who have given attention to other
ft& nay booome possessed of collections which are authentic. The careffl
*a thaber insects in the West Virginia station is an excellent example of the
of Ws plan. The work of Hopkins on Scolytidw, Bruner on OrthVfmq4 and
m NoctoWe is directly in line of each study. The enlargement of this les-
41
at fte statka work upon the part of those in authority would seem to me very

It &odro bere to eaU attention to a phow of our work which I believe confronts tho
94
in &U parts of the country and which seems likely to be, a perplexing
- POWWlssa In the time U come. I reft to the various insecticides, good, bad, and
NM k *kUh we placed upon the market and more or low energetically brought
A* p@Wlie setiee by parties who have simply the commercial phase of the subject in
vim. lit would be entively out of place to make a general condemnation of these
or of parties who we pushing their use. Some of them are undoubtedly
valushAN and there can be no quedion. that benefit arises from the adoption of them
by par" who, from. indifference and ignorance, would not adopt well-
kamns standwd pug"umtkas that might be used with much Ion expense. We
I rmmq*m the Lugo advantage of the commercial advertiser in placing b is wares
befte Uto pabUe, and the fact that the average farmer is quite likely to adopt the
wbkb is accessible at his nearest supply station when forced to adopt reme-
by some outbreak of insect injury. An effort to secure the establish-
of mpply stations for standard apparatus and insecticides in the larger tov"ks
of am& BtMio migM be of practical benefit. Such a movement has been undertaken
ft J&16o,.wbm Oe distance from main supply depots renders such a provision par.
MeWWAy --inary. Dis an important question whetber we should go out of our way
*061POW materiab or to condemn those which, aa placed on the market
an aWWWA away times their actual value. Some method of reaching this question
U necessary for the protection'of cultivators who ask such information and who bovis
w6 go mown of diatinguiahing the unscrupulous from the honest dealer; also for
Ow Prelection of the man who gives an honest article for an honest pria& We am
Asubtlew gain wisdom how an examination of the history of fortilbw control.
JUm however, need of some uniform plan to be adopted by the entomologieft
of UO various sfttiosN and what Seems t* M & TOTY excellent movement has bsen
sist" by tbe of Reowmic Entomol"bts, whweby it In hoped "
qoediou an be deah with In a satislaotm manner. While It may mom .. ry
to to" an 60 different which may be bm"ht out and wbiah an pro-
teeted by lrado4wwk or patmk It is to may esm almost esismjW got th& auto.
mologiss should be prepand to Shv an vo ""W e so" 11ing I" valie of
sueb nUineW& Isa" ft 4000 *0 UdW9 of OR 0" sub-
stances WORM be 410 $oft at Ow US, @W kb&


Ar






















tion, and replies he written with the same care that would be devoteA:W
for publication. In many cases such letters may pass from hand to .4.....
by the neighbor or different parties, and indeed where referring to I ia.i:J.....i .
in a particular locality, they are very likely to be handed to some local .p
thus get a much wider circulation than the writer anticipates. Moreovtii
reply to one letter is very likely to encourage further correspoudeeei Mt
way the entomologist will secure a correspondent who may be ofevery|
in keeping him informed as to the insects of importance in that loeali
would become a center of information for the neighborhood in whieh NI|
personal letter is much more likely to be carefully read and its suggesitaiiS4`
Than a general note published in a general way, so that this personal or U
may be more effective in bringing about active adoption of remedies thaiitl. h
distribution of information in published reports.
The question of what to publish and how to publish the results of inv.t
is often a very perplexing one. The great majority of the people whom we. .......
serve have very meager knowledge of the structure and habits of insects, :aiv&
pains must be taken not to bury our information in articles written in l j
beyond their reach. On the other hand, we will fail in one great purpoqiat
work if we simplify to such an extent as to not present the evidences on w.Mi. "
clusions may be founded. The reader should be left with some more definitely : f
edge of the subject in hand than he possessed before, and if possible stim ..lt....
observation, thought, and experiment for himself. The plan of writing pI...it., .4..
nical articles, but with every effort to secure accuracy and clearness of '.ili .
for the general bulletins, and of publishing more technical matter necessary
use of station workers in such journals or bulletins as will reach espeeia"k'jK11
scientific workers, seems an excellent one. Aside from these methods, we.must:".4i
all possible means, such as personal work in institutes, notes in agricultural p
etc., to reach the greatest possible number. i!i'
Entomological work has made gratifying progress, but results so far gaie. 'v
I am confident, but a slight indication of what may be accomplished by periest0il
faithful, and well-directed effort.. ".

.- .. .

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... A committee .composedfMS_ ....".."".
.. .appointed for the purpose of having 7thpa:ri:i^^d "



* the Section, published in the general couwrtttou pro
The following papers wserepresentk&:" :G|~
Some Problems of Manual Training in nfl reEl^j
J. .M C. .. .....o .





'% Bolt Fastenings," by Walter Flint. '.-.
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;il',, theSection, p ubl shed in the ten" rs! 41 U
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'The following papers dW -~ .:.........- ..,
"Some Problems of Manual Tran~n i" "- .0:
:J. R. M c .eoll.'. '...
4ABelt Fastenings," by W-alter Flint.,- :' +


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E SEMON ON HORTICULTURE AND BOTANY.


Mr. Cleff, of Wiwonsing and secretaq,,xr. Pammel, of
&A attend the convention, and the Sectiou organited by elect-
Trwyl, of Ippi, as chairman for the meeting and Mr.
'of Now jft"W? as Pecretary. The printed programme for the
gave the tides of eleven papen by as many authoM but only
tiam autbors were priesent during the whole convention, and only
of the Section. A committee upon programme
AIL ofte appointed consisting of Mean. Hell, of Alabama,
of Ohio and the acting secretary, to report at the next session
section*
Sam!, psqw read (by Me secretary) was by H. N. Starnes, of
X* upon '&The Frio'per Position of Hybrids in the Classification
VtAw soon GrapeLll A classification is proposed dividing all sorts
grapes into seven series or species, and all native subspecies are
me va"e& The mother plant in all cases regulates the
win into which the hybrid falls. The vineyard in charge of the
wiftw, Kr. Redding statied, was arranged according to the clamification
oftrW. Xr.Lweix* statAwl that plums and other ftit8 needed a sat-
A plan of classification. Mr. Burrill suggested that more of
bebmay and the methods of botanists sbould be used in horticulture.
-Mr. Goff ient a paper upon" Plant Breeding at Experiment Stations,
wbJ& *w read by the secretary. The author made a strong plea for the
insUon of new varieties at the experiment stations, and stated that
Amm his Am conviefion that grand resulta must come from plant breed.
Ug. A lengtl6y disenssion followed, in which Messrs. Mell, Trwy,
Burrg and others took p"
A WWwt session of the Swtion was held on Tuesday evening, at *which
Awe was a discusaion upon the general question of how best to ukake
tU seedonal umtings of greatest value. Methods of tesehing horti-
eWtu" were offered as for exanp* a winter garden under gl"s by
Xr, Laxenby; grembouse methods by Mr. Rane of West Virgini&
Short courses in bordiculture it ww tbought by some would belp to
tes& the tastructor bow to do his work. Mr. Waite, of the Depart.
ment of Agrieultuz*4. ontlined brWy his expechneaft with pwm
At the next sesslow4 Thursday aftawm, Mr. Orem, o( Ohio boving
read two papeirs (1) TM PodUft of Greeshomm Bew6ft
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microorganisms, a new species of bacillus. Mr. Mell stated thiM$
met with a similar decay. Two other papers by Mr. Pammel "'H,^
by title, namely: (1) "On the Distribution of Some W e Hd.....
United States, especially Iva xanthiifiia, Lactuea seariola, H
rostratum, and S. carolinense;" (2) "Notes on Diseases of .i
Ames, Iowa, 1894." 1
Mr. Bolley's (North Dakota) paper upon "Effect of Chan.g..
upon Growth of Wheat" was read by Mr. Lazenby. Among :.4
clusions arrived at from the experiments are: (a) "That the*...
fruit of wheat is much less subject to variation than its Yeg
parts; (b) that true varieties under like soil and climatic cnalH
Swill approximate a like product without reference to the pa"re$ |::
and hence, (c) that in general the changing of seed wheats be'ahi#0
supposed advantages to be attained through change of soil is-bei:
upon a fallacious supposition.' ":
Mr. Waldron's (North Dakota) paper upon "A New Macrosj$m4fl
Disease of Squashes" was read by the secretary, as likewise <0:
Mr. Corbett (South Dakota) upon Determination of Sex in S/ .ipt..
argentia by Bud Characters." iii
Mr. Rane, of West Virginia, contributed some points upon "Surfwl
Subirrigation." Ordinary tiles are used for conducting the MA
between the rows of plants. It is simple, practical, and inexpen..n
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~ anone .. .... topicsi for discussion:ii~i
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stations
'144co~lin the niandarrangemeniofistatioiaccounts
1ointetpfc:wr ae p nteaoeodr
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rutiiiu nisaton or
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iiiiebetriwmm eoe h eerlbd,
::o id was lost.iii ...
.... The... ie~tr presented a=iiiiiii communcatio frmPrfiD.iq
at ii .....zb-d''-in. ttn htth atcptino ebr
at ::::::::::::::::::::: ................ sta io s oul a w a s biiiim e
NX iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiioniw ich hehaiiipa ediniespniit
....... It was moved and seconded:::that::they:be::: iii
toiiGneaiisioiiipsae
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(3)............... In orertobrngWoe hemetig te hid opc tie upr
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satisfied that the funds of a station were being properly expeundtA
could send out a man to investigate.;
Mr. Goodell thought the stations ought to court the fullest. i#
gation. If the Secretary of Agriculture wished to send a: uj
inspector, the stations should not oppose iL. .,
After some further discussion Mr. Alvord withdrew his resoiw
and one offered by Mr. White as a substitute (see p. 47) was ado
and recommended to the Association.


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INDEX OF NAMES



Gearpwm, C. C., F 14, IL
Gflberl H., 17, 41.
GUlett4k C. P, 8, 62.
34, SkA A K Godfri*-, T. J., 10, 22.
Got, R. S., u, gi.
GoodaL R. H., s, io, 14, 38, 50, 02, 0% 00 SL
Goodrich, C. L., 11, 38.
lklJlk4Tt$k45kAd&7L Gorton, L G.. 10, 08, 79.
NAL Green, W. J., 10, 14, A 91.
HaUted, B. D., io, 14, 91, 9L
Hamiltoz4 J, U.
Ran* A- W., 8, 9, 24,25,33,34.4 38,37, A A
K 61, 6% 08. 79.
Harrim W. T., 13,43.
4L Harvey. P. L., 14.
R&Wb, W. H., $7.
Haye, W. X., 10. 25,4 53,57, SD, 61, 7L
Headden, W. P., 9, a&
envy, A., 11V 135, 11 17&
IEUUs, J. L., 10. 14,38,53,55,77.
Hoiffhmn, J. W., 13t $9.
Nk 14 2% U 24,34 4L Holladay, A. q* 8.10,35,38, 61. 61,09.
lk$L Hoyt, J. W., 11.
3L Hank T. F., 10, 30,63,68,77.
lrby. B., 10.
Jenkink Z. H., 9,14,50,93,9L
4L Jes", P, 10, 38.
efohnoon. A. A., 8, 11, 19, 33,4 55, 00, 61, 9&
Jobason, S. W., 8. 62.
Kama. T. C., 10, 38.
Key, S., 90'
Koons, B. F., 9,24,53.
1W.01L Ladd, R. F., 10, 38.
lAttmi, W. C., 14,40.
Lawes, J. B., 17.
(V-* IL L=eu by, W.U., S. 10. 68, M, ft
IL lAWk, & D., 8, M 18, 24, W OX
*.,W.* IL MeAdic A.. 11.
MeWyde, J. X., 0&
mewil J. R.. 90.
Jr. jpo IL MC(;Iww, G. W., It
&L McCrea. IL P., to, SL
I Jr. ILI 100 it. 30 64 SL MaDowneU: 11. B.. 0.
L 3f, 14 46. mWee. W. I., it 3&
AL e, 3k SL 4L X4U'P.B.'%mkql'qLfL
W. U. Wmw'JLff'9*A444L
-0 X. 1L. U. mm^ J-1. III a% A sk 04 To.
V. (k. Ilk A K IL MOW% a 0 'jrllL
W1.11 ok
N*^'S. Do. "I Sk 4L mm"Wo 0. it.. 14 A A A ^ ft a* IL
196W.W.0 1% Sk U6 74 06 war6alki.s.47. I
W'* 14 SL Nadi" QCAA*#kmw
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UyT, 1 V u.*| W ,L,.
Salmon, D. E., 11.
Scott, A., 10, 37,38,62,67,68, 80.
Scott, M. P., 9.
Scott, W. H., 10, 25, 38,61,79,80.
Scovell, M. A., 8, 9, 13,15, 19, 35,38, 62,71.
Silvester, R. W., 9,62,90.
Smith, C. D., 10, 78,93.


TV LLJVM'iJg*JB-B Alt.
Wiley, H. W., 11.
Wilmore, J. J., 9, 89.
Willits, E., 11, 24,25.
Wing, H. H., 8,10, 14,38,61, 6.77.
Wolcott, E. 0., 24.
Woods, C.D., 9,14,38, 78.


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Receipts and expenditures, itemized statement.............................. .......... ..:-.
Report of committee on nominations-............................................-...-... ,
executive committee-.................................................... .. ... ,:!
treasurer........................---------.........-------.....---..........--.........--.........
Resolution concerning agricultural colleges and experiment stations of Canada.... -.. ,.;...
annual meeting................................................. ...-i
bovine tuberculosis ................................................. ,
bust of Hon. J. S. Morrill ......................................... ,
Expenses of association ------------------------....................................--------....
German association of experiment stations .....................
military work in land-grant colleges............................ .....
name of association .................................................
publication of proceedings....................................... ii
seeds and plants .................................................... .--i. t
supervision of expenditures of experiment stations by Departmr.n:wt ,
A griculture-.....................................................1.4" ::.i
uniforms and equipment of students in land-grant colleges............
of thanks to chairman of executive committee ........................... v Wllj
Cosmos Club .--.........................................-. i
Office of Experiment Stations .................................... *.r-,
officers of the Department of Agriculture............---...........: iii
press of Washington.-----------.......-..........-----------------------..... ............
Scientific work of the Department of Agriculture-.-.....-........----.............. .........
Seeds and plants, resolution concerning.....---.-......-..-.-.---..---....----........... .. ..::
Station bulletin, mission of---.................---.....-.................................. ...... :,
Teaching of agriculture...................................................................... *.....
Telegram of sympathy to President S. D. Leoe ..............................................-.. -,
Treasurer, report..................----..................--............--------------...................................: .
Treasurer's report, report of auditing committee-........................-- ..-----..-..-.....-....
Tuberculosis, discussion on---- .........--...... ---.---....-....... ----------..----------------...
Uniforms and equipment of students in land-grant colleges, resolution concerning-.........
ITniversity extension, attitude of agricultural colleges toward............................ .
What is the mission of the bulletin!------------------------------
What is the mission of the bulletinI....................................................... .. :w
mechanical work shall we give to students of our agricultural colleges I................: ;|


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