Relation of environmental factors to cotton fiber length


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Relation of environmental factors to cotton fiber length
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Shipley, Oliver M
Day, Emily L ( Emily Louise )
United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics. -- Library
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Economics ( Washington, D.C )
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-- I
L inmibrai-r List No. 22 Washington, D. C., April 1941


Selected References in English, 191.-1939

Com-piled by Oliver M. Shipley
Under the Direction of Emily L. Day,
Library Specialist in Cotton Marketing

This is a partial list of references to books, pamphlets and
periodical-articles in the English language published between 1915
and 1940 on the'effect of environment (fertilizers, soils and
weather conditions) on the length of cotton lint. References tc
the effect of other factors, such as rust, root rot and spacing
have been omitted.
References listed were compiled from the card catalogue of the
U. S. Division of Cotton Marketing Branch Library; the Botanical
Catalogue cf tae U. S. Bureau of Plant Industry; Cotton Literature,
1931-1940; Experiment Station Record, 1900-1939; Index to Publica-
tions of the United States Departmsnt of Agriculture, 1901-1935
(3v.); The Influence of Weather on Crops: 1900-1930, compiled by
A. M. Hannay (U. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Pub. 118); Cotton and Cotton-
seed, compiled by Rachel P. Lane (U. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Pub. 203).
Call numbers following the citations are those of the United
States Department of'Agriculture Library.


cBarre, H. W.3 Seed determines lint quality. Cotton Ginners' Jour. 9(7):
56. Apr. 1938. 304.8 C824
Extracts from a press release issued February 10, 1938 by the U. S.
Department of Agriculture on the regional cotton studies.
"Contrary to popular opinion none of the 16 varieties varied more
than 1/8, and in many instances as little as 1/16 of an inch in staple
length whether it was grown in the Mississippi Delta under the most
satisfactory moisture and soil conditions or on the western fringe of
the Cotton Belt where farmers long have planted short staple cotton for
the simple reason that they believed they could not grow longer staple


Barre, H. W. Some production and biological aspects of cotton quality.
10pp., processed. Washington, D. C., U. S. Dept. of agriculture,
Bureau of plant industry, 1938. 1.9 P697lSo
Presented at a meeting of the Textile Section of American Society
for Testing Materials in Washington, D. C., March 9, 10, and 11, 1938.
Preliminaryj results of the Regional variety study are discussed.
In the case of staple length, the author states that variety is the
most important factor. "Contrary to popular opinion, there is seldom
more than 1/8 of an inch difference in the staple length of any
particular variety when grown in the southeast under optimum moisture
conditions, in the Mississippi Delta, or when grown under extremely
dry condition of 1935 in Oklahoma and West Texas."

Brown, C. H. The effect of locality on the halo length of various strains
of Egyptian cotton. Egypt. Min. Agr. Tech. and Sci. Serv. Bul. 84,
3pp. Cairo, 1929. 24 Eg93 no. 84

Brown, Harrj Bates. Cotton. History, species, varieties, morphology,
breeding, culture, diseases, marketing, and uses. 2d ed. 592pp.
New York & London, McGraw-Hill book co., inc., 1938. 72 B81
Effect of the environment of cotton plants on staple, pp. 147-148.

Hancock, N. I. Tennessee experiment station finds no large differences
in staple length of cotton variety grown in various sections.
Mid-So. Cotton News 16(7): 4. Jan. 1939. 72.8 C8295

Humbert, E. P., and Mogford, J. S. Variation in certain lint characters
in a cotton plant and its progeny. Tex. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 349,
23pp. College Station, 1927. 100 T31S
"Weather conditions were favorable for cotton in 1916, the year
the parent plant was grown. The hot dry summer of 1917, however,
was unfavorable to the growth of the progeny plants. This may ac-
count in part for the fact that the average length of lint of the
progeny was slightly shorter than that of the parent plant, since a
lack of moisture is known to affect the length of lint."

Humphrey, L. MI. Arkansas experiments with cotton varieties show varia-
tions in acreage, yield and staple lengths. The two tables show
Comparisons at the several locations of plots in different sections
of the state. Mid-So. Cotton News 16(8): 4. Feb. 1939. 72.8 C8295
A table showing the staple length of.sixteen varieties grown in
thirteen locations in Arkansas is given.

Moore, J. H. Relation of the quality of cotton planting seed to length
of staple. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 296, 4pp. State College
Station, 1934. 100 N81
"Seasonal conditions maU, sometimes cause the staple from good
seed stocks to be shorter than the usual standard, but averages prove
that quality seed give the best results."


Pope, 0. A. Effects of certain soil types, seaso:ial conditions and.
fertilizer treatments on length -%nd, strength of- cotton fiber. Ark.
Agr. Exot. Sta. Bul. 319, 98pp. Fayetteville, 1935. 100 Ar42
Literature cited, p. 98.

CPope, 0. A.) Environment changes cottons. Prog. Farmer (Tex. ed.)
52(5): 58. May 1937. 6 T311
Extracts from a press release issued. Mtrch 10, 1937 by the U. S.
Department of Agriculture on the regional cotton studies.
The first year of the study on the sixteen varieties grown under
widely different environments "indicates that staple length, lint
percentage, weight of lint per 100 seed and lint fineness do not
change greatly as environment changes."

Pope, 0. A., and Ware, J. .0. Influence of variety, -season, and location
on the fiber nroncrties of cotton. 15pp., processed.. c7achi:'gton,
D. C., 71. S. Dept. of agriculture, Bureau of plant industry, 1939]
1.965 C3In3
"Presented at the meeting of the Am-:ricarn Society of Agro)-comy,
Nev- Orleans, La., Novemnber 22, 23,. 24, 1939.",
"Fiber length and fineness are largely determined by variety
although both may be modified to a rather great extent by environ-
mental conditions." Containrs 14 tables from the rc-gional variety
study, 1935-1937.

Ramakrishna Pao, K. L. Effects of environments on characters in cotton.
Madras Agr. Students' Union Jour. 16(12): 500-504. Dec. 1928.
22 !7262
The effects of excessive rainfall, variation in the soil'and soil
ingredients on fiber length are discussed briefly.

Reynolds, E. B., and Killough, D. T. The effect of fertilizers and
rainfall on length of cotton fiber. Amer. Soc. Agron. Joux. 25(11):
756-764. Nov. 1933. 4 Amn34P
"Then the average results for .the 3 years on the Lufkin fine sandy
loam soil are considered, there did not appear to be any significant
correlation between the percentage of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, or
potash and the length of cotton fiber... The length of fiber at
College Station was positively correlated with the armoLnt of rainfall
during the time the bolls were developing in 2 of the 3 years of the
experiment. There was, however, no correlation apparent between the
rainfall and the length of fiber during the 1- year of the nork at

Reynolds, E. B., and Killough, D. T. The effect of fertilizers and rain-
fall oa the length of cotton fibers abstract] Assoc. South. Agr.
Workers. Proc. (1932)33: 36. 4 C82 33d, 1932


Sen, Kamakhyaranjan. Studies of variations in the physical properties
of cotton. 70pp. Lyallpur, India, 1934. 72 Se5
Thesis, D. Sc., Dacca, University.
Bibliographical footnotes.
Effect of environment, water supply, mpnure and sowing dates on
the length of the fiber is discussed on pp. 36-41.

cStaten, Hi W.3 College lists factors which affect cotton. Okla. Cotton
Grower 16(5): 2. Jan. 15, 1936. 72.8 0k4
The effect of root rot, growing conditions, date of picking and
moisture on fiber length is included in this brief report of two years
of experimental work at the Oklahoma A. and M. College on the factors
affecting the quality of raw cotton.

Sturkie, D. G. Some factors affecting the length of lint of cotton
abstract] Assoc. South. Agr. Workers. Proc.(1932)33: 40. 4 C82 33d,1932
Soil type, soil moisture, temperature, evaporation and humidity were
the factors considered.

Sturkie, D. G. A study of lint and seed development in cotton as influenced
by environmental factors. Amer. Soc. Agron. Jour. 26(1): 1-24. Jan.
1934. 4 Am34P
Literature cited, p. 24.
Report of a study on the influence of soil type, climatic conditions
and soil moisture on the development of lint and seed made at the
Alabama Experiment Station. Lint length did not appear to be affected
by soil type, temperature or humidity, but was markedly affected by
available moisture in the soil.

Sudan. Dept. of agriculture and forests. Locality effect on lint quality.
Sudan Dept. Agr. and Forests. Rpt. pt. 2, 1937: 84. [l9383 24 Su232
Staple length was one of the quality factors considered in the

Teeter, C. E. Physiological and environmental factors affecting the length
of cotton fibre. Ariz. Univ. Bul. 4(5) (Gen. Bul. no. 1): 46-47.
July 1. 1933. 241.8 Ar4
Abstract of thesis, 1933.
Soil moisture and temperature were among the factors considered.

Ware, J. 0., and Pope, 0. A. Some agronomic aspects of the regional
variety study. (Preliminary report of work). 20pp., processed.
cWashington, D. C., U. S. Dept. of agriculture, Bureau of plant
industry, 19391 1.965 C3So5
wPresented at the meeting of the American Society of Agronomy, New
Orleans, La., November 22, 23, 24, .1939."
S"Lint percentage and staple length both were affected most by
variety, second in order by station, and least among the years."
Contains 19 tables from the regional variety study, 1935-1937.


Knight, R. L. The effect of shade on American cotton. Empire Jour. Expt.
Agr. 3(9): 31-40. Jan. 1935. 10 Ern7
References, p. 39.
"The experiments were designed as a preliminary investigation to
determine, by means of artificial shades, the effect of continual
clouds on American cotton... Shading with cotton. cloth reduced the
production ocf buds, flowers, and bolls... Plant-height was increased
and also the height of the first synpodiun, and the lint produced
was longer."


Killough, D. T. Relation of soil quality cotton. Fks and
Ranch 50(7): 4, 13. Feb. 14, 1931. 6 T31
"There is very little difference in the length of staple of the
sane variety grown in the different regions o0. -aplands which grow
the principal part of the Texas cotton crop. Also it appears that
the use rf fertilizers on the sandy sils of to.stern Texas had no
appreciable effect on length of lint, but at Anjloton, on the black
prairie soils rhich are deficient in phosphcric acid, the application
of fertilizers contaling phosphoric acid increased the length of the
staple on the average 1/16

Mogre, S. B., and Wad, Y. D. S:il texture, nutrition and staple length
of cotton cabstract] Indian Sci. Cong. Proc. (1936) 23: 431-432.
513 In22 23d, 1936
Report of experiments with Malvi and Cambodia cottons. The authors
state that "compost increased and nitrogen decreased staple-length of
Cambodia, in Malvi it was decreased by compost "but unaffected by
nitrogen. Potash and phosphate reduced lint length but this effect
was modified byr nitrogen, texture differences and varieties."1

Nayak, H. R. Effect of farmyard manure on fibre-characters of cotton.
Indian Jour. Ar. Sci. 7(6): 877-893. Dec. 1937. 22 AgB3I
References, p. 893.
The effect of various applications of manure on the length of
cotton fibers is included in the discussion.

Nelson, Martin, and Ware, J. 0. The relation of nitrogen, phosphorus,
and potassium to the fruiting of cotton. Ark. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul.
273, 75pp. Fayetteville, 1932. 100 Ar42
"The staple lengths as determined by the usual method were not
affected," p. 74.

Oakes, J. Y. The effects of potash fertilizer on cotton in Louisiana.
La. Agr. Ex-t. Sta. Bul. 291, llpp. cBaton Rougej 1937. 100 L93
Literature cited, p. 11.
"Decreases in the length and percentage of lint when potash

- 6 -

starvati-n occurs, it is said, can be corrected by use of potash
fertilizer. Additional potash does not increase fiber length on
soils containing pctash enough for normal plant growth.. Dzy seasons
appeared to decrease length of fiber and. to encourage potash starva-
tion." Expt. Sta. Rec. 78(3): 329-330.' Mat. 1938.

Reynolds, E. B., and Stansel, R. H. Effect of fertilizers on the length
of cotton fiber. Amer. Soc. Agron. Jour. 27(5):-408-411. May 1935.
4 Am34P
"In previous work to determine the effect of fertilizer on length
of fiber, the application of phosphoric acid to cotton on a soil
that responds readily to phosphoric acid apparently increased the
length of fiber. An experiment using 10 different fertilizers was
conducted in 1933 on Lake Charles clay soil, which is low in phosphoric
acid, to study the matter further. Some significant differences in
length of fiber were obtained from variously treated plats, but the
differences apparently were not caused by differences in the amounts
of nitrogen, phosphoric acid or potash, or to different rates of ap-
plication of fertilizer." Summary.

Reynolds, E. B., Johnson, P. R., and Langley, B. C. The effect of time
and rate of application of nitrate of soda on the yield of cotton.
Tex. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 490, 20pp. College Station, 1934. 100 T31S
"All of the fertilizers used increased yield, size of boll, number
of bolls per plant, percentage of 5-lock bolls, size of plant, number
of fruiting branches, and earliness. Fertilizers, however, did not
increase the length of lint, nor the percentage of lint, nor did they
reduce the amount of shedding." Summary, p. 3.

Staten, Glen, and Hinkle, D. A. Fertilizer experiments with cotton on
heavy irrigated soils. N. H. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 248, 16lpp. State
College, 1937. 100 11465
"There is very little difference in the staple length of no-fertilizer
plots and those receiving commercial fertilizer, none of the staple
length values being significantly longer or shorter than those of no-
fc-rtilizcr plots. It will be noted, however, that the staple length
of the cotton grown in the plots that received manure averaged almost
1/32 inch longer than that of the cotton raised in the plots which
received no fertilizer. The difference is fairly consistent and is
significant." n. 11.

Wood, P. C. Potash starvation and the cotton plant. Empire Cotton Grow-
ing Rev. 11(1): 25-29. Jan. 1934. 72.8 Em7
"The yield of cotton from plots at the Imperial College of Tropical
Agriculture, Trinidad, which showed definite symptoms of potash de-
ficiency, ras very much lower than that from plots which had received
potash, while the lint was shorter, more irregular and contained a
larger proportion of poorly thickened hairs." Summary.


Rainfall. Moisture and Irrijaticn

Armstrong, George M., and Bennett, C. C. Effect of the water supply during
various stages of boll development on the distribution cf the length
groups of cotton fibers as shown by the sorter method. Assoc. South.
Agr. Workers. Proc. (1935) 36: 462-463. 4 C82 36th, 1935
Results cf experiments performed "to determine the effect o a
water shortage on the usual lint length, and also on the distribution
cf the different length groups of the sorter array" are reported

Balls, W. Lawrence. The development and properties of raw cotton. 221pp.
London, A. & C. Black, ltd., 1915. 72 B21D
List cf references, pp. 211-214.
In Chapter IV, Developrent of the Boll: II. Environmental In-
fluences, the author nctes the length of lint from plots starved of
water, compared with that from ncrIaai plots. A difference of nearly
2.5 millimeters or 1/10 inch was noted.

Balls, W. Larrence. Growth fluctuatio:is during the development of seed-
cotton. Eg7-)t Min. Agr. Tech, and Sci. Seri. Bul. 101, 15pp. Cairo,
1930. 24 Eg93 No. 101
List of references, p. 15.
Graphs show (among other items) irrigation periods, mean hair
length -and halo length of daily pickings from August 11 to October 30,

Beckett, S. H., and Dunshee, C. F. Water requirements of cotton on sandy
loae soils in southern San Joaquin valley. Calif. Agr. Expt. Sta.
Bul. 537, 48pp. Berkeley, 1932. 100 C12H
Effect of irrigation on length of fiber and lint index, pp. 32-33.

Burd, L. H. Reports on the research work carried out at the Cotton ex-
periment station, St. Vincent, West Indies. I.. The influence of rain-
fall on the lint length of sea island cotton in St. Vincent. nEmpire
Cotton Growing Rev. 2(3): 225-228. July 1925. 72.8 Em7
Literature, p. 228.
"Observations on the influence of rainfall on the lint length of
sea island cotton indicate that in St. Vincent the mean maximun lint
length of a strain is seriously depreciated by a heavy fall of rain
about 19 days after flowering. Apparently as little as 0.2 in. mny
suffice." Expt. Sta. Rec. 54(9): 830. June 1926.

Cook, 0. F. Cotton improvement under weevil conditions. U. S. Dept. Agr.
Farmers Bul. 501, rev., 17pp. Washington, D. C., 1934. 1 Ag84F
"It is safe to say that many of the variations of quality ascribed
to differences in the composition of the soil in reality arise from
differences of cultural conditions that affect the supply of moisture
available for the plants." p. 10.


Funchess, H. J. The weather has a lot to do with fixing the length of
cotton staple. Prog. Farmer (GCa.-Ala.-Fla. ed.) 46(6): 238A.
Mar. 15-31, 1931. 6 P945G
Brief repncrt of results of experiments conducted at the Alabama
Experiment Station. Variations in staple length are attributed to
seasonal variations in rainfall and the water holding capacity of soils.

Harland, S. C. The importance of cotton breeding to the spinner. Textile
Rec. 45(531): 87. June 15, 1927. 304.8 TS311
"An experimental study of the effect of varying water supply on
the character of the staple was begun by Mr. F. S. Parsons, in 1924,
at the Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture. His results have
not yet been published, but briefly, he established clearly that with
excessive water, the individual hairs became long and thin walled,
while with deficient water the hairs were greatly shortened and
thickened, with a considerable proportion of dead, half-grown seeds
bearing immature hairs."

Hu, C. L. A studyZ of seed cotton by means of fiber arrays. China. Cent.
Cotton Improvement Inst., Tech. Bul. 2, 85pp. Nanking, 1937. 72.9 044T
"Studies were made during the years 1934 and 1935 to determine the
fiber distribution and fiber length of the varieties Half and Half,
IMebane, Lone Star, Missdel, and. Sea Island cotton... The length of
lint was increased from 2m. to 4mm. by the presence of an abundance
of soil moisture."

Kelsick, R. E. Some observations on the relations of lint length to rain-
fall. West Indian Bul. 17(2): 79-82. Oct. 22, 1918. 8 W522
There is shown to be "a definite appearance of correlation between
rainfall and the ultimate length of lint attained."

Mohammad Afzal, M. Watering experiments on cotton at the Cotton research
station, Risalewala, Lyllapur. Cong. Sci. Res. Workers on Cotton in
India. Proc. (1937)1: 86-93. 72.9 C764 1st, 1937
"Variatinns in the lint length of a pure strain of cotton may be
ascribed to environmental variations. Adverse climatic conditions
result in reduced lint length. A reduction of as much as 3.7 m.m. in
staple length has been noted in St. Vincent in years of excessive
rainfall which results in partial waterlogging of soil. The optimum
amount of irrigations would, therefore, tend to produce the best
fibre." p. 91.

U. S. Dc-pt. of the interior. Soil erosion service. Economic survey.
U. S. Dept. Interior. Soil Erosion Serv. News Letter, no. 4, pp. 8-11.
Sept. 1934. 1.96 So39E
Report of a study in progress in the Elm Creek Watershed area of
Central Texas on "the effect of moisture in the soil on the staple
length of cotton."



Armstrong, George M., and Bennett, C. C. Effect of soil fertility, boll-
matturati:n period, and early or late production of bolls, on the length
of cotton.' fibers. --U'. S. Dept. Agr. Jour. Agr. Res. 47(7)-: 467-474.
Oct. 1, 1933.. 1 Ag84J .
Technical Contribution no. 301. (new series) from the South Carolina
Agrirltural Experiment St-tion. ...
"Small plr.nts, growing on plots of low fertility and clearly suffer-
ing from malnutrition, produced lint.of practically the same length
as that produced by vigorous plants. growing on plots of high fer-
tility, though the uniformity of distribution of the different lengths
was less in the poorly nmurishced plants." Summary, p. 474.

Kearney, T. H. The uniformity of Pima cotton. U. S. Dept. Agr. Dept.
Cir. 247, 6pp. Washirngtcn, D. C., 1922. 1 Ag84D
"There is considerable diversity in the soil of the Salt River
Valley and exactly the same seed mnayj produce fiber of very different
staple and quality, depending upon whethc-r it is planted on good or
on poor soil."

Stroman, G. N. Certain characters of cotton fiber as affected by plat
placement. Amer. Soc. Agrin. Jour. 29(8): 638-643. Aug. 1937. 4 Amn34P
Literature cited, p. 643.
"Length and uniformity of fiber are affected by variation of soil,
as shown by different placements of plats."

Vilbrandt, F. C., and Murphy, J. R., jr. The yield and quality of cotton
fiber and seed as influenced by soil conditions. Cellulose 1(5):
142-144. June 1930. 309.8 0333
The authors state that fibers of cotton grown on light or badly
washed land were 1/16 to 1/8 of an inch shorter than fibers grown on
stiff land.

Youngblood, B. Relation of soil fertility to the quality of cotton.
7pp., processed. Washington, D. C., U. S. Dept. of agriculture,
Bureau of agricultural economics, 1929. 1.9 Ec733?Rel
"tAddress at the meeting of the Southern Agricultural Workers,
Houston, Texas, February 6, 1929."
The author by studying the reports on length of lint from various
sections of the South and by correlating length of lint with soil
type concludes that longer lint was associated with the more fertile
soils. In the case of the poor soils of the Piedmont, however, longer
lint than on the more fertile soils of the Coastal Plains was produced.
Also in Assoc. South. Agr. Workers. Proc. (1929)30: 106-114.
4 C82 30th, 1929.

10 -


Hawkins, R. S., and Serviss, George H. Development of cotton fibers in
the Pinm and Acala varieties. U. S. Dept. Agr. Jour. Agr. Res.
40(11): 1017-1029. June 1, 1930. 1 Ag84J
"The tine of the season during which cotton fibers are developing
affects the rate of fiber-wall thickening greatly but does not in-
fluence the rate of fiber growth in length to any appreciable extent
until late in the season. Prevailing temperatures contribute to the
rate of fiber development, and, when lower than necessary for optimum
plant growth have a retarding effect on both fiber elongation and
fiber-vwall thickening."i



No. 1. State trade barriers; selected references. March 1939; Revised.
June 1940.

Nr. 2. The frozen food industry; selected references, January 1937 to
IMarch 1939. April 1939.

No. 3. High drafting in cotton spinning; selected references. April 1939.

No. 4. Egg auctions; selected references. July 1939.

No. 5. Acts administered by Agricultural Marketing Service. October 1939.

No, 6. Periodicals relating to shipping. October 1939.

No. 7. Electrical properties of cotton; some references to the literature,
1931-date. November 1939.

No. 8. Sea island cotton; selected references. November 1939.

No. 9. Cotton picking machinery; a' shcrt list of references. March 1940.

No. 10. The tomato industry in Puerto Rico and Cuba; a short list of refer-
ences. June 1940.

No. 11. The dairy industry in the United States; selected references on
the economic aspects of the industry. July 1940.

No. 12. Planning for the farmer; a short reading list of free and inex-
pensive material. July 1940.

No. 13. Indirect flood damages; a list of references. August 1940.

No. 14. Relocation of farm families; selected references on settler re-
location. September 1940.

No. 15. Homestead tax exemption in the United Stntes; a selected list of
references. October 1940.

No. 16. Mate'; a list of references. October 1940.

No. 17. Exhibits; a selected list of references. November 194C.

No. 18. Food and cotton stamp plans; a selected list of references.
November 1940.

No. 19. The banana industry in tropical America with special reference
tc the Caribbean area, 1930-1940; a selected list of refer-
ences. January 1941.


3 1262 08926 5549
12 -

In. 20. The sunflower, its cultivation and uses; a selected list of :i'
references. April 1941. "

No. 21. Delta county, Colorado; a selected list of references. April 1944.,

No. 22. Relation of environmental factors to cotton fiber length;
selected references in English, 1915-1939. April 1941.

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