Cotton picking machinery


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Cotton picking machinery
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Day, Emily L ( Emily Louise )
United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics. -- Library
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Economics ( Washington, D.C )
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IV. IFF ia

*: ... -_ ""' Bureau of Agricultural Economics
-conomic Library "ii. No. 9 Washington, D. C., March 1940


A Short List of References

Compiled by Emily L. Day, Libraxy Specialist in Cotton Marketing

This list supersedes three typewritten lists I
dated June 17, 1936, April 9, 1937, and March 11, I
1940. It was compiled mainly from Agricultural
Economics Literature, v. 1, 1927 to v. 13, 1939, I
and Cotton Literature, v. 1, 1931 to v. 9, 1939. i

Adams, C. F.

The hierarchy of cotton. Commonweal 22(21): 489-490. Sept. 20,

"A discussion of the possible effects of the mechanical cotton picker
on the cropper and the hired man." Agr. .Econ. Bibliog. no. 64, item 766,

Andrews, Stanley. Iron fingers come to Dixie. Ark. Farmer 39(21): 6-7.
Sept. 1937. 6 Ar42
Brief account of the attempts during the past one hundred years to
perfect a machine which will pick Qotton.

Another mechanical cotton picker. Amer. Ginnor and Cotton Oil Miller 14(7):
14. Mar. 1937. 72.8 AM35
Describes a machine invested by A. R. Nisbet.

Another mechanical cotton picker reported in Texas. Cotton Trade Jour. 18(34):
6. Aug. 6, 1938. 72.8 08214
Also in Cotton Digest 10(44): 12. Aug. 6, 1938.
The picker of a type Imown as the wind-roll was invented by A. R.
Nisbet, and is o'being triod in Texas.


-- 2 ..

Arthurdale co-op signs contract to manufacture cotton pickers. Thst brother. i
decide to join manufacture of their cotton-picking machines to co-op ttao-::
tore; signing of contract result of three months of negotiations. paxmers:
Union Herald (n.s.) 13(8): 1. Aug. 1939. 280.28 F224
The pickers are to be manufactured at Arthurdale, West Virginia by the
Arthurdale Fanr. Equipment Cornporation.

Barnwell, Mildred G. Picker progress. Checking up on 1937 statue of one of
the big stories of 1936. Textile World 87(7): 81. June 1937. 304.8 T315.
The present status of cotton picking machinery is noted.

Barnuoll, Mildred G. Rust cotton nicker means gradual motorization, but not
violent economic upheaval. Textile World 86(10): 1806-1808, 1878, illus.
Sept. 1936, 304.8 T315

Bealle, James S. Dixie needs no cotton picker. Forum nr-d Cent. 97(4): 224-
229. Apr. 1937.
"The Scuthern farmer has no groat need for a cotton picking machine.
He can arrange for his cotton to be picked for less money under the
present system,"

EBennett, Charles A.] Ginner discusses the mechanical picker problem.
Machine cannt yet "remove trash of conjecture from lint of fact." Cotton
Trade Jour. 18(37): 7. Aug. 27, 1938. 72.8 C8214
Extracts front. address at Greenville, Miss., Aug. 23, 1938.
Also in Cotton Digest 11(4): 12-13. Oct. 29, 1938.

Bennett, Ch-.rles A. The rel-tion of nochanical harvesting to.the production
of high grade cotton. 5pp., processed. cWashirgton, U. S. Dept. of
Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Engineering) 1938. 1.9 En36R
Address before the 32nd annual meeting of the American Society of
Agricualturral Engineers, June 29, 1938, at Anilomar, Pacific Grove, Calif.

Better picking methods add money to value of lint sold. how
"right" r.methcds of picking bring premium at Stoneville Station under gov-
crnr.ent supervision. Mliss. Co-op Nevis 9(2): 2. Aug. 1937. 72.8 M69

Bryan, Jack. The Rust foundation. South. Workman 67(12): 361-366. Dec.
1938. 275.8 So82
Quotations are "taken from the Memphis (Tenn.) Press-Scimitar of
Au,-ust 24, 1938...and from bulletins of the Company, and printed here
for the record."
The purpose of the Foundation is to use proceeds from sale of the
picker to uplift Southern workers.

Burgess, A. F., and Rogers, Frankn E., jr. Modern cotton picking. Agrnrian
cClcnson Agr. Col.3 l(l): 21, 37-38. Dec. 1938. 276.8 Ag8
Mcchavnical harvesting of cotton is described.


- 3 -

Butler, Eugene. Cotton picker saint or devil? Progressive Farmer (Tex. ed.)
51(9): 36 47. Sept. 1936. 6 T311
Discusses the many changes which the Rust cotton picker and other labor
saving machinery may make in the agriculture of the South.
"After considering the advantages and disadvantages and striking a
balance, it seems to the writer that even though the coning of mechanical
choppers, and pickers may displace labor temporarily and threaten us with
over production, it is likely to benefit Southern agriculture in the
long run.".

Carlson, Oliver. The revolution in cotton. Amer. Mercury 34(134): 129-136.
Feb. 1935. Libr. Cong.
Description of Rust Brothers mechanical cotton picker, and a discussion
of the social and economic implications involved in large.scale- production
and use of this invention.
Extracts in Reader's Digest 26(155): 13-i6. Mar. i935.
Abstract in Financ. News 3(16): 17.. Apr. 27, 1935.

Carlson, Oliver. The South faces disaster. Amner. Mercury 37(145)t 1-8.
Jan. 1936. Libr. Cong.
"An almost immediate revolution in cotton production is at hand: the
mechanical picker, when introduced in Australia, as well as here, will
destroy the American small producer, wire out the Southern tenant farmer,
mechanize the entire industry, cut production costs from fifty to eighty
per cent, yield enormous profits to its first users, and throw millions
of the Southls most helpless popul-ation out of the only employment which
they understand."
The author describes the increase in cotton production in foreign
countries, especially Australia.

Cavanagh, J. R. Will steel fingers a-nd drops of water free the South from
picking drudgejry? Amer. Ginner and Cotton Oil Miller 12(11): c41, 8,
illus. July 1935. 72.8 AS35
The Rust Brothers cotton picker is described and its advantages are

Chew, A. P. Cheaper cotton-picking. Farm Jour. 51(8): 12. Aug. 1927.
6 F2212

Clark, Allen F. Ingenious drive distinguishes mechanical harvester. Machine
Design 4(8): 11-14, illus. Aug. 1932.
Describes the Gyracotn harvester designed by Geo. R. Myorcord and
Associates, Chicago.
"Mcchanical cotton pickers, to be successful, must gather a good
majority of the ripe cotton and substantially nothing else, and in ac-
complishing this, must not injure either the cotton or the various parts
of the plant; they must cpernto efficiently in cotton with green loaves
and in that with dead leaves and stems; they rust be capable of operating


efficiently. in nost typos -nd sizes of plants, but need not be capable
of handling abnormally large or snall plants inasmuch as these are rela-
tive.l- few in number; and they must be so constructed that no oil can
got cr. the cotton."

Co-op member has invented cotton picker. Mid-So. Cotton News 14(6): 6, illus.
Jan. 1937. 72.8 08295
The picker invented by L. C. Stukenborg is described.

Cooperatives will noke Rust cotton pickers. Hoosier Fanrmor 24(8): 10. Ang.
1939. 280.82 H76
"The Arthurdo-le FP.rm Equipment Corporattinn cf Arthurdnle, West Virginia,
managed by the American Co-operatives, Inc., rx group of farmer cooperatives.
operrting throughout the Middle West an'd Oanadl, which is now doing about
$18,000,000 worth of business annually, is goirgr; to produce the famous
cotton picker, invented by the Rist Brothers of Memphis, Tennessee."

Cordell, W. H. Dark days ahead for King Cotton. North Aner. Rev. 240(2):
284-292. Sept. 1935.
"The effect on sharccrn-opers a-nd tenants of tho acreage reduction
program and the results of the adoption and. use of the Rust Brothers,
mechanical cotton-picker are ascribedd."

Cordell, Williari, and Cordell, K-thnryn. The cotton picker friend or
Frankenstein? Cornnon Sense 5(6): 18-21. June 1936. Libr. Cong.
This article, authorized b-, the Rust brothers, is on the mechanical
cotton picker, its significance, ,d the efforts of the inventors to
"discover some neans of lessening the fearful impact of this machine
upon the tenants." The article includes a description of the machine
(including a sketch of it) rPn4. st,-terents as to its low cst of operation
-ji. the p-viount of cotton which the machine can pick in seven and cne-half
hours as contrasted with the amountt picked by huxaan labor.

Cotton picker. Cotton Digest 5(ll): 9-10. Dec. 24, 1932. 286.82 C822
Describes the mechanical cotton picker invented by the Rust Brothers.

Cotton picker. Another new machine. Cotton Digest cHcuston] 10(17): 9.
JQn.29, 1938, .286.82 C822
"The develo;rx-ent of a nechanictl cotton nicker...was announced by
A. H. Hanrauer, president of the Cotton Harvester Corporation of America."

Cotton picker does job of seventy-five men. Pope. 1echvnics 70(4): 513.
Oct. 1938. 291.8 P81
Also in Agr.-Indus. Monthly 6(3): 21, Dec. 1938.

Cotton picker does work of 60 non. Pon. Sci. Monthly 121(1): 56, illus.
July 1932. 470 P81
Describes a machine exhibited in Chicago, which was equipped with
headlights and could be used at night.

-. 5 -

Cotton picker. Machine-vs.-man jitters exaggerated in the South. Nevsieek
12(7): 32. Aug. 15, 1938. 280.8 Ne
The outlook for use of the Rust cotton picker is noted.

Cotton picker portents. Business Week, no. 366, p. 15. Sept. 5, 1936.
280.8 Sy8
Describes the demonstration of the cotton picker in Mississippi, as
well as the machine itself. It is held that the "Significance of the
invention ranges from the world.-empire of cotton to our domestic social
set-up;" According to this article the Rust brothers do not intend to
sell any of their pickers, except to Russia, which has already taken two
machines. Markets for the machine are plreadr opening up. "Four machines
will be used this fall at Clover Hills, a motorized Mississippi plantations'
The rates at which the pickers will be leased are given.

Cotton picker tried here. High growth causes difficulties but Rust principle
proves correct. Ariz. Prod. 14(18): 3. Dec, 1, 1935. 6 Ar44
Invention of John D. Rust will no doubt be practicable for low-growing
cotton of the South.

Dickinson, Roy*. Men nnd machines. The Rust brothers of Memphis propose an
advertising question that demands an answer. Printers' Ink 174(12): 17,
20-21. Mar. 19, 1936. 238.2 P932
"Undoubtedly in our present problem the answer to unemploymceit- is not
to smash the machine itself, to refuse to make any new inventions, but
to have men interested in purchasing power do some intelligent and far-
reaching research...Oertainly men create machines to serve and not to
enslave them. With bettor thinking on the part of the owners, machines
can be made to perform the true function for which they are so eminently

Dilemma of a modern man of conscience. Christian Cent. 53: 485. Apr. 1,
1936. Libr. Cong.
Not seen.

Farm: Drought and machinery present two great problems. U. S. News 4(35): 5.
Aug..31, 1936.
Includes a discussion of the cotton picker invented by John and Mack

Federal council of churches of Christ in America. Dept. of research and oduca-
tion, The cotton picker. Fed. Counc. Churches of Christ in Amer, Dept.
Res. and Ed. Inform. Serv. 15(24): El-2) June 13, 1936.
This article on the Rust cotton picker and its significance is based
on an article by William and Kathryn Cordell The Cotton Picker Friend
or Frankenstein? in Common Sense for June 1936.

Forsyth, W. HI. Cotton stripper reduces cost in Texas. South. Cult. 91(3):
9, illus. Mar. 1, 1933.


This article considers the stripper or picker as a threat to cotton
production in Georgia, as it is not adapted to conditions there, but
increases competition from the southwest.

Future of American cotton in question. In two years U. S. production drops
from 60 to 40 per cent of total world crop. Share-croppers raise issue,
Threat of pickers adds to difficulties already confronting millions of
farm tenants. Amer. Observer 5(8): 1, 8. Oct. 21, 1935.

Gantz, H. L. Methods of harvesting cotton are brought to trial. Tex. Coop.
News 13(1): 7, illus. Jan. 1, 1933. 72.9 T315F
Results of a cotton harvesting experiment onr a farm near Shallowater,
Lubbock County, Tex., in which the use of a cotton picking machine and the
method.of snapping and picking were contrasted.

Gyrator cotton picker. Melliand Textile I:cnthly 2(11): 1488-1489. Feb* 1931.
"It is claimed for the machine that one acre of cotton may be picked
in one hour, regardless of the pound.oe of cotton to the acre."

Hand vs. machine. An old story being repeated in cotton picking in the Delta.
Textile World 87(11): 2229, illus. Oct. 1937. 304.8 T315
Compares the pickers manufactured by Rust Brothers anr.d by the Inter-
national Harvester Co.

Harvester engineer works thirty years on cotton picker.
Impl. & Vehicles 31(2): 26, 28, illus. Mar. 11, 1937. 58.8 Ea7-.
Also in Farm Mach. and Equipment, no. 1839, pp. 7-8, 42. Mar. 15, 1937.
Harvester cotton picker invented by T. A. Johnston is described.

Ron, Ralph C. The Rust cotton picker. South. Econ. Jour. 3(4): 381-392.
Apr. 1937, 280.8 So84
Describes the operation of the cotton picker invented by John and
Mack Rust,

Home, Roman L., rnd McKibben, Eugene G. Changes in farm power and equipment.
Mechanical cotton picker. U. S. WTorks Prog. Admin. Natl. Res. Proj.
Rpt, no. A-2, 24pp. Philadelphia, 1937. 173.2 W89St no. A-2
Selected references, pp. 23-24.
Reviewed in Sci. hews Letter 33(10): 153. Mar. 5, 1938.

Horno, Roman L. Cotton pickers.. In U0. .S. National resources committee. Sub-
committee on technology. Technological trends and national policy, pp. 139-
144. Washington, U. S. Govt. print, off., 1937. 173.2 N214T
Reprinted in Rural Amer. 16(l): 9-12. Jan. 1938.

Hurst, W. M. Some types of harvesting machinery reach high state of develop-
ment. U. S. Dept. Agr. Yearbook of Agriculture, 1932: 445-446.
"The problems involved in the development of a successful mechanical
cotton harvester are doubtless the most difficult of any which have con-

S7 .

fronted inventors and designers of r-,gricultural implements ...duo
largely to the phzrsical characteristics of the cotton plant and to the
wide variations in soil, weather, and crop conditions under which cotton
is grown. There are at present two types of cotton harventors in the
experiment-al stagee"

I. H. C. Cotton picker. Still experimental after 30 years of trying, but
success is in sight. Ariz. Produccer 15(25): 7, 33. Mar. 15, 1937.
6 Ar44
Describes the International H-rvester Company cotton picker invented
by E. A. Johunson.

In the driftway. Nation 136(3543): 613-614. -May 31, 1933.
Liention is made df a mechanical cotton nicker vfhich "when tried out
in Louisi4na last autumn seemed to inpn:r observers, including some tech-
nicians, to solve the problem. The new device makes use of a twet
spindlel..,It is said that the new machine will reduce the cost of nic]k.
ing cotton, now $10to $20 a bale, to $1.70 or $0.35, doing the work of
40 to 100 human pickers according to the heavirness of the crop...Inevit-
ably it would end what is left and thc-re is a gooe deal of the old
plantation system historically associated with th'e South."
International harvester cotton picker. Mfrs. Rcc. 106(3): 52, illus. Mar.
1937. 297.8 M131 "
The International Harvester CompTany of .Amcrica,' Inc. -thinks "the
time is still remote when cotton picker- will be placed generally on
the market."

Is the mechanical, cotton picker a threat? Bedding Mfr. 32(3): 38, 40. Oct.
1936. 309.8 B39
Recent tests of the Rast cotton picker are commented unon. "If this
thing, is intelligently handled it can prove the greatest boon to the
* South since the cotton gin."

Johnston, E. A. The evolution of the mechanical cotton harvester. Agr.
Engin. 19(9): 383-385, 388. sept. 1938. 58.8 AgS3
Also in Farm Impl. News 59(1): 34-36. July 28, 1938.
"An address as the 1938 recipient of the Cyrus Hall McCormick Gold
Medal awarded by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, and
delivered before the annual meeting of the Society, at Asilomar, Pacific
Grove, Calif., Jmune 29, 1938."
The article is concluded as follows:
"To sum up, we know we are now on the right track at last, but we also
feel that there is absolutely no likelihood of mechanica-A cotton harvesters
being produced and sold in quantities sufficient to revolutionize ngri-
culture in the cotton-growing oreas in the near future.
"Thile it is reasonable to -asgume that the demand for mechanical cotton
harvesters will be stimulated by the increasing scarcity of hond pickers,
the high and increasing cost of hand picking, nnd the necessity of reducing

thb cost of production, I cannot emphasize too strongly my belief that
this dcmrnd will continue a long time before mechanical harvesters are
used in sufficient numbers to affect seriously the labor situation in
cotton-growing arcaa."i

Jones, D. L., Hurst, W. M., and Scoates, D. Mechanical harvesting of cotton
in northwest Texas. Tex. Agr. Expt.'-Sta. Circ. 52, 31pp. College
Station., 1928.
On pp. 27-31 is found a description, with illustrations, of the prill
ciple of the mechanical picker, with the'forecast that a successful
machine will be developed in the near future.

Jones, R. F. Reducing cotton production costs by the utilization of improved
machinery. Agr. Eng. 10(6): 183-188. June 1929.
Among the kinds of machinery discus-ed, is the mechanical picker, which
is being worked on, but as yet not siccessfull-r developed.

Kile, 0. U. The new agriculture. 218pr. ITew York, Macmillan co., 1932.
281.12 K55
A revolution in cotton production, pp. 120-123.
"When the practical power picker arrives, and it is evidently near at
hand, we shall see a most extraordinary revolution in the Cotton Belt."

Leach, H. G. Hulmanizing machines-I. The Rust cotton picker. Forum 96(2): 49-
50i Aug. 1936. 110 F77
The author suggests "that co-operating societies be formed of groups
of cotton croppers and that these societies rent thie Rust pickers and
offer the services of the machines to the cotton planters. With one
:sharccroppcr representing seventy-five by running the machine, the other
seventy-four workers Ithrown out of work3 would have the time and divi-
dends to provide schools for their children, hospitals, .and sanitation
and to nffer their onawn hand labor in diversified agriculture and other
auxiliary services. Under competent leadership a co-operative community
of sharecroppers would gradually jack itself up in its standard of cleanli-
ness ni-d living."

Lewis, E. E, Black cotton farmers and the A.A.A. Opportunity 13(3): 72-74.
M1&r. 1935,
The writer corements adversely on the prospects of the licgro agricultural
workers under the A.J1.A, and also discusses the probable effect of the
mechanical cotton picker on thle ITegro an-d white workers in the Southern
cotton fields,

McAllistor, Sydney G. Concerning mcchanicnl cotton pickers. Farm Impl.
News.58(21): 46. Oct. 21, 1937. 58.8 F22
Also in East. Derier-in Impl. nd Vehicles 31(17): 16. Oct. 21, 1937;
Impl. rund Tractor 52(22): 20. Oct. 30, 1937; Farm Machinery avnd Equipment
1847: 9, 38. Nov. 15, 1937; Farm Ideas 1(6): 14. Nov. 1937.
A radio broadcast October 8, 1937.

- 9 -

S"Whether a mechanical cotton picker id inttoducod into widespread use
in the South during the next generation it dependent primarily upon thie
economic direction taken by the cotton producti-n industry I.s a result
of changing world factors."

cMcCrory, S. H.3 Meehanical cotton pickers reported improving. At
best, machines turn out lint one or two grades lower than hand-nicked.
.Cottox Trade Jour. 19(6): 1, 8. Feb. 11, 1939. 72.8 08214

Machine cotton picking still far off. Prog. Farmer (Ky.-Tenn. ed.) 51(ll): 3,
57. Nov. 1936. 6 T311
The writer believes that a mechanical cotton harvester would "long
Since have been in use but for the difficult mechanical engineering and
economic problems involved. The mechanical difficulties, which have not
yet been solved, are due to thc form of the cotton plant :,2nd its habit
of maturing its fruit. The defects of the present :n-ch-publicized machine
are just those which have for the last half-centur defied solution by
other engineerss"

TAe machine invades the cotton field. U. S. News 4(36): 11. Sept. 7, 1936.
280.8 Un33SA
Describes the cotton picker invented by the Rust Brothers, and its
first public demonstration near Stonevillo, Miss. Comment of Oscar
Johnston on the operation of the machi-e is given.
S John W. Taylor coranents on*tho possibilities of the picker on p. 10,
his remarks appearing under the canption: "Southts nc-i7 problem. Cotton
picking ma.chino: threat or promise?"

Machine picker saves 2 cents a pound, claim. Cotton Trade Jour. 17(31): 1.
July 31, 1937. 72.8 C8214
Brief statement on cost cf picking -cotton by hird and with the Ruhat
cotton picker in a test near Clarksdrle, Miss.

Machine picking and then? Its effect on labor, en cotton growing industry
and f-arnnming in general. Axiz. Prod. 16(16): 6. Nov. 1, 1937. 6 Ar44

Machines that pick cotton. Tex. F-xmning and Citricult. 14(2): 8, illus.
Aug. 1937. 80 T31
The illustration shows a 1935 model McCormick-Deoring Fa.rmall cotton

McHugh, F. D. Machines pick cotton, but -. Sci. Amor. 159(5): 242-245.
Nov. 1938. 47C Sci25
Several types cf nechanical pickers are described and illuntrh.ted.
Effects of mechanical picking or. quality are ncted.

Marshall, P. L. Facts about the mech.nicnl cotton nicker. Can a mechanical.
cotton nicker be used in Georgia, or will it be confined to the Mississippi
Delta? Ga. Agr. EUniv. of Ga.3 15(4): 5, 24. Jan. 1938. 276.8 G29

-10 -

The mechanical cotton picker Cotton Digest 10(5): 6, 15, illus* Nov. 6E
1937. 286.82 0822
The present status of the development of a mechanical harvester is

Mechanical cotton picker. Melliand Textile Monthly 2(12): 1568, illus.
Har. 1931.
Also in Internatl. Cotton Bul. 9(35): 360-361, illus. Apr. 1931.
Description, of the Nanauer-Gamble-Berry cotton picking machine.

Mechanical cotton picker demonstrated at carnival. Mid-South Cotton Assn.
Neows 11(10): 2, illus. May 1934.
A picker to be exhibited at the Memphis cotton carnival May 16-19,
1934, is described.

Mechanical cotton picker simple in c-eratio: Mid-South Cotton News 14(7): 6,
illus. Feb. 1937. 72.8 C8295
Describes the cotton picker invented by L. C. Stuckeonbcrg..

Mechanical cotton picking. Cotton ,and Cotton Oil Press 38(40): 10. Oct. 2,
1937. 304.8 0822
Report of "a demonstrntinn of International Harvester's new cotton
picker in the Delta."

Mechanical cotton picking in two years! Arizona trials leave no doubt I.H.C.
machine to be complete success soon. Aris. Prod. 16(17): 7. Nov. 15,
1937. 6 Ar44
Describes the Interna.tional Harvester Compranys machine.

Mechanical nickers discussed by chief. Cotton Digest cHoustonj 10(48): 10-11.
Sept. 3, 1938. 286.82 C822
Statements of Charles A. Bennett nre quoted.

Mechanization of cotton harvesting. Econ. Rev. Soviet Union 7(15-16): 332,
illus. Aug. 15, 1932.
"The need for a cotton-harvesting mn.chine rrhich could distinguishl
the ripe from the unripe pods was net by the construction of nev types
of harvesters."

The Moeyrcord cotton picker. Farm 1mp1. lers 53(17): 1,2-14, illus. Apr.
28, 1932. 58.8 F22

Mullen, C. W. Steel spindles tnke place of nurb fingers. Kans. Agr. Student
18(4):- 106, 123-124. Ivh 1939. 276.3 113
Discusses the difficulties rand hard labor of picking cotton and the
-1dv,-ntk:ocs rf a nechan-iccl cotton nicker.

Munro, I. C. King cottons stepchildren. Current Hist. 44(3): 66-70. June
1936. 110 C93
An article on the Southern sh,-.recroppcrs the organization of the

- 11 4.

Southern Tenant Farmers' Union, the cooper,-ative farm started for the
benefit of a fen evicted'fTr-nilios of sharecro-ppers in Tennessee by
Sam Franklin and Sherwood Eddy, the Rust cotton picker, and the Rust
Foundation orgnnizod for "the .purpose of utilizing nine tenths of the
inventors1 profits for the foundation of cooperative frnns and educational
projects for the white and Negro." John Rust lhas offered marketing
control cf the machine to the Southern Tenant Farmerst Union.

Must pick Pina cleaner. Ariz, Prod. 12(15): 1. Oct. 15, 1933. 6 Ar44

New cotton picker. Internal. Cotton Bul. 13(49): 97. Oct. 1934. 72.8 In8
J. and M. bast, brothers of lMerrphis, Tenn., have patented a new machine
for harvesting cotton.

A new cotton picker. Internatl. Cotton Bul. 15(57): 50-51. Oct. 1936*
72.8 In8
"As nearly, as can be determined, the first attempt to develop a mechani-
cal cotton picker was made in Memphis in 1850. Since that time some 820
patents have been taken out at the United States Patent Office for all
kinds of cotton pickers...A short time ago the press gave extensive pub-
licity to what was termed a Inew mechanical cotton picker', i. e., the
New last Cotton Picker, but the reader is referred to page 97 of the
October, 1934, issue of the International Cotton Bulletin, whc-re a note
on this same cotton picker will be found." The recent test of the Rust
brothers' picker is briefly described.

New cotton picker in the U. S. S. R. Intc-rnatl. Cotton Bul. 11(43): 399.
Apr. 1933. 72.8 In8
"This picker has a much higher production capacity than the American
two-row cotton picker, and makes a full use of the tractor power possible.
It gives an additional operation, that of sorting cotton according to
grades." This new six-row picker was designed at the Ukrainian Scientific
Research Institute for Mechanization of Agriculture, U. S.5S. R.

New cotton picker now on market. Mid-So. Cotton Ioers 16(ll): 2. Mny 1939.
72.8 08295
Also in Ariz. Farmer 18(7): 20. June 10, 1939.
Describes the operation of the St. Louis Cottonpicker.

New mechIn-ical cotton picker does double duty. Pop. Sci. Monthly 133(6): 91,
Dec. 1938. 470 P81
"Each row of cotton is picked over twice in one operation as a now
and improved model of a mechanized cotton-picking machine perfected by
the Rust brothers of Memphis, Tenn., runs back and forth across the
cotton field."

New-model cotton pickers. Rust rnd Intcrnntional Harvester machines are
working ?n this yearl.s crop. Low cotton price, high lrabor cost, nnd
short-ic of hands make a market. Business Week, nr. 422, p. 26, Oct. 2,
1937. 280.8 Sy8 .

12 -

New pichker ignores green bolls. Cotton rind' Cotton Oil Press 38(33): 18.
Aug. 14, 1937. 304.8 C822
Also in Textile Bl. 52(25): 30. Aug. 19, 1937.
Describes a new cotton picker with ni electric eye, invented by Chnrles
White -f Moline, Ill.

New types of cotton hold key to efficient mechanical picking, Daily News
Rec. r1T. Y.1 no. 152, pp. 1, 3. June 30, 1938. 286.8 IT48
Also in. Prog. Farmer (Tex. ed.) 53(8): 12.. Aug. 1938; Impl. .& Tractor
53(14): 12-13, 34. July 9, 1938.
Giv6s extracts from addresses cf Charles A. Bennett and E. A. Johnston
at the 32nd annual meeting of the American Society cf Agricultural En-
gineers at Asilomar, Pacific Grove, Calif., June 29, 1938.

Pickett, John E. CuLtting farm costs with m!.chines. Pacific Rural Press
122(24): 550. Dec. 12, 1931. 6 P112
Amcnn other machines a mechanical cotton picker is described which is
knovni as the Gyracotn.

Picking an acre of cotton an hour. Inpl.. and Machinery Rev. rLondons 63(746):
186, illus. June 1, 1937. ).8' Irm72
Describes the work of a cotton picking machine in the United States.
Picking cotton. A mchanical device. Qteenslander 65(222): 13. July 16,
Describes the invention of Mr. J. Fcrricr of Brisbane, Australia.

Progron for picker. Time 27(12): 60. MAr. 23, 1936.
The plan cf the Rust Brothers to lease their cotton harvesting machine
in order not to throw men rut of work is noted.

Reynoldson, L. A., naid Thibod.eanux, B. H. :Archpjnizktion in South has been re-
tatrded. by lack of a cotton-picking machine. U. S. Dept. of Agr. Yearbook
of Agriculture 1932: 428-431.

Robot cotton pickers. Many problems still to be solved before such pickers
are mn accomplished fact. TLctile Wnrid. 89(1): 48. Jnn. 1939.
304.8 T315

Russia pleased by cotton picker test. Cotton Digest 9(16): 14. Jan. 23,
1937. 286.82 0822
C-mment on '1demcnstraticn )f the Rust Brcthers* mechanical cotton
picking machine, (by) Charles Stanley, dem-nstratcr of the machine."

Runt, J. D. Lower production cost is answer tc cotton problem, Rust asserts.
"If Cotton will mechanize, mn'dernize kin,-d.m, throne will be secure."
Cottnr, Trade Jrur. 19(17): 5, 6, Apr. 29, 1939. 72.8 C8214

Rust, John, The Ruast cotton picker. South. Worhnan [Hamptcn Inst.j 67(12):
36--3G7, Dec. 1938. 275.8 S-82

V -

13 -

Bust, J. D. The Rust cotton-picker Will it solve the labor problem?
Cotton Digest 8(29): 16-17, illus. -.Apr. 25, 1936. 286.82 0822
The -Rust nicker and its operation and use are described.

CRust, Johnj. Bust defends good work of cotton picker. Challenges statement
that machine lowers gr&de of staple. Cotton Trade Jour. 18(32): 5, 8.
July 23, 1938. 72.8 08214
Comments on the address of Ch-rles A.. Blernett entitled "The relation
of mechanical harvesting to the production of high Frade cotton" given
at the 32nd annual meeting of the Aprricnn Society of Agricultural En-
gineers, June 29, 1938, at Asilomax, Pacific Grove, Calif.

Rust brothers change original plan to lease cotton pickers. Sci. News Letter
32(871): 397. Dec. 18, 1937. 470 Sci24
Plan to sell cotton pickers outright is ngted.

Rust brothers invent improved cotton picker. Sci. News Letter 30(814): 313.
Nov. 14, 1936.
An improvement of their cotton picker, for which patents have just
been granted the Rust Brothers, is described.

aRust brothers plan to manufacture 1,000 pickers a year. Daily News Rec. rN. Y.]
no9 169, p. 1i. July 21, 1938. 286.8 N48
Also in Textile Buil.54(22): 6. July 28, 1938; Textile Age 2(8): 10,
12. Aug. 1938; Textile World 88(9): 32-33. Aug. 1938.

Rust brothers promise tandem picker. Cotton Digest cHouston] 9(39): 8.
July 3, 1937. 286.82 0822
"A now type double cotton picker, actually two of the old pickers in
tandem formation, will be introduced this fall."

The Bast cotton picker at work. Prog. Farmer (Car.-Va. ed.) 51(ll):. 11, illus.
Nov. 1936. 6 P945
Three photographs show the cotton picker in use at the recent Stone-
ville, Mississippi, demonstration.

Rust picker given public tryout. Cotton Digest 8(48): 9. Sept. 5, 1936.
286.82 0822
Describes briefly a public domonstraticn of the picking machine in-
vented by John and Mnc: Rust held at the Delta Experiment Farm at
Stoneville, Mississippi.

Rusts are ro1Adr- to begin mass picker production. Cotton Trade Jour. 19(13): 9.
Apr. 1, 1939. 72.8 C8214
"The 'ust Cotton Picker Company, of Memphis, is ready to begin quantity
production of a mechanical cotton picker by meons of which three men cnn
do the work of 100."

- 14-

Sanders, P. H. The kingdom. of the negro, the mule, rind cottons Cotton .
Trade Jour. (Intgrnatle ed.) 12(1): 49-50, 51-52, ilnus. Jai. 2, 193A' I
72.8 C3214
"The Yazoo-Mississippi Basin, known to the cotton world as the home
of 'Delta Staplpsf is breaking an old tradition.- The Mississippi.Delta
groxis machine-minded." -'

Says machine will pick cotton at $3.50 for 1,500 pounds. Inventor maintains
grade of staple is better th.n by hand-picking. Daily News Rec.. cN..Y.]
no. 166, p. 16. July 18, 1938. 286.8 N48
Also in Cotton Trade Jour. 12(32): 6. July 23, 1938; Textile Bul.
54(22): 23. July 28, 1938.
The machine was invented by A. R. Nisbct. and is being manufactured,
at San Angelo, Texas. ..

Schoffelmnyer, V, H. Cotton sleds popular over South Plains. Large crop, -
low prices make growers turn to mechanical -harvesters. Dallas Morning:
News 48(86): 1, 12, illus. Dec. 25, 1932.
Also in Cotton Trade Jour. S13(l): 4. Jan. 7, 1933.
"A Dallas News survey...reveois thl.t -fOout 400 strippers and related, .
although improved, types of cotton harvesters, have been in use there
.throughout the fpll." Describes advantages of various types of harvesters.

Schoffelmayer, V. H. : Is cotton "mass production" coming? How much will the
changes in method of harvesting cotton influence the future of cotton
growing? Will mechanical substitutes replace hunan labor? 'Will "sledding":
and.; "snapping" be the reaction to low prices? Cotton Trade Jour. (Inter-
natl. ed., 7th) 13(21): 20-21, 79, 98, illus. 1933. 72.8 C8214
A discussion of harvesting methods.
Illustrations show various types of harvesting machines, such as the
strinpper and the picker.

Schoffelmayer, V. H. Sledded cotton in West Texas. Country Gent. 92(6):
13-14. June 1927. 6 C833
"The mechanical harvester mgay prove to be as great an advance as was
the gin."

Scoates, Dan. Cotton-picker progress. Country Gent. 101(6): 6, 65. June
1931.. 6 0833
Discusses the development of two types of cotton pickers, one of which
picks the cotton out of the boll while it is still on- the plant and the
other strips the cotton from the plont, boll and all.

Scoates, Dan. Mechanically harvesting cotton. Farm ar.d Ranch 46(53): 2.
Dec, 31, 1927. 6 T31

Smith, H. P. Cotton harvesters. Better Crops with Plant Food 17(5): 21-23,
41-42, illus. Dec.-Jan. 1931-32. 6 B46
Describes an experiment with harvesting machinery at agricultural ex-
periment stations in Texas. Illustration shows type of plant being
developed for mechanical harvesting.

- 15 -

Smith, H. P. Herets the dope on experimnents to cotton with machinery.
South. Agr. 65(9): 12-13, illus. Sept. 1935. 6 So83

Smith, H..P., -and etherso, Mechanical harvesting of cotton as atffccted by
varietal characteristics anr-d other factors,by H. P. Smith, D. T. Killough,
D. L. Jones, and .}. H. Byrom. Tox. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 580, 49pp.
College Station, 1939.
References, p. 49.,
"During the past ten yeors the Texas Station Cotton Harvester has beern
improved so thvt it 7ill 94 to 98 per cent of the cotton from
varieties developed for mech-anicdl harvesting. 2cperiments indicate that
an ideal plant type is one having relatively short, short-noded fruiting
branches, no vegetative branches, an -pen- type growth, light foliage,
storm resistance, and large strong bolls spread open enough to permit
the locks of cotton to protrude frm the bells in 2 fluffy condition
and borne singly on peduntcles (boll stems) that will snap easily under
tension but withstand plant agitatirn."

Smith, H. P., ,n-d others. The mechanical harvesting cf cotton, by.H. P.
Smith, D. T. Killough, M. H. Byrom, D. Scoates, and D. L. Jones. Tex.
Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 452, 72pp., illus. Ccllo-c Station, 1932.
Extracts in Oil Miller and Cotton Ginner 41(2): 2. Oct. 1932.

Smith, H. P. Mechanical harvesting of cotton progresses. Farm and Ranch
50(20): 2, 10, illus. May 15, 1931. 6 T31

Smith, H. P. The mechanical picker. Cotton Digest 7(47): 6-7. Aug. 31,
1935. 286.82 C822
Also in Textile Bul,. 49(2): 7. Sept. 12, 1935.
The "stripper" and "picker" types of cotton harvesting machines and
the problems of machine harvesting are discussed.

Smith, H. P. Progress in mechanical harvesting of cotton. Arr. Er-gin.
19(9): 389-391. Sept. 1933. 58.8 Ag83
"Paper presented before the Power and Machinery Division at the
annual meeting of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, at
Pacific Grove, Calif., June 29, 1938."
Also in Cotton Trade Jour. 18(42): 6. Oct. 1, 1938; Cotton Digest
11(3):.3, 11. Oct. 22, 1933.

Smith, H. P., and others. Progress in. the vtzdy of mechanical harvesting
of cotton, by H. P. Smith, D. T. Killough, D. L. Jones, and MIA. H. Byrom.
Tex. Agr. Expt. Sta. BTl. 511, 35pp., illus. College Station, 1935.
"The results obtained in the ctudy of mechanical harvesting of cotton
are reported and a description is given of the improvements made during
the 1932-1934 period." Bibliog. Trnp. Agr., 1936, p. 210. 1937.

Smith, H. P. There's man- an unsolved problem in the machine harvesting of
cotton. Fnrm Impl. News 58(10): 24-26, 40, illus. Ma'y 20, 1937. 58.8 F22
"The revolution in cotton h.a-rvesting is not yet and will nct come


until -. suitable plant has been developed to permit .the cotton h.rvoest-..
ing machine to perft'orm satisfactorily."

Southern tenant frmcrs1 union. A statement cor.cerning fam tenancy submitted.
to the governors commission on farm tenancy by "the executive council.
27pp., processed. rcomphis? 1936] 282 So82
A short sectich, .p. 18-?9, tells of successful ieronstratiohs bf the
Rust picker, and its probable effects on labor and upon the famnily-sizo
far nr.d tenrants.

Soviet cotton picker. Business Week, nc. 504, -p. 49. Aor. 29, 1939.
280.8 Sy8
Ai announcement thint "the All-Union Research Institute for Agricultural
Machinery cooperating with a Soviet has produced the first Russian
cotton pickers."

Snecula.tin- on mech,-nicnl cctto.- pickers. Birronts 16(40): 20. Oct. 5, 1936.
284-1.8 B27
The five principle upon which nrinufacturcrs are working are listed.
"Experience has been that...unless the product is taken away Trcnm the
research departrients ,nd put into circulation, the day of its perfection
will 'be definitely delayed."

Stanford, J. E. The nechnnical cotton picker. South. Agr. 66(10): 11.
Oct. 1936. 6 Sr88
Describes the Rust Brothers cotton picker, tells what it can do, and
lists the m.ijor criticisms expressed by observers at the demonstration
hcl'd. at Stoneville, Miss., AuguLst 5s1, 1936.

Straus, R. K. Enter the cotton picker:' the story of the Rust brothers in-
vention. Harp.-er' s Mag. 173(1036): 386-395. Sept. 1936.
Scoetches the history and background of the RLust brothers cotton
picker, discussing the Rust brothers' hnpes for the.mac.chine, ccst of
oncr-.tior-, rnd possible economic n4id social consequcrnces.
Condensed in Readers Digest 29(174): 43-47. Oct. 1936.

Tolley, Robert. Cottnnls new social problem. Nations Business 24(11): 29-
31, 91. Nov. 1933. 285.8 N212
On the Rust cotton nicker.

Taylor, A. W. The plight of thL* southern tenvit. Christian Cent. 53(14):
427-428. Apr. 3, 135.
The writer anr,-l:-zes the situ.ti.. of t:i S-uthern tenant farmer, find-
ing that over-capitolization -f lvnd, low average per-capita-wealth, the
Dne-crop system -vnd a bad credit system are the main factors contributing
t, his plight. The mechanical cotton picker and the increase of cotton
growing in Brazil .and Rttsia nay bring even more calamnitous difficulties.

- 17 -

Taylor, A VW. Rust brothers open new pr.thI Their nachino M.ny revolutionize
cotton industry: their social ideas nnr influence profit-seekers.
Christian Cent. 53(17): 606-608. Apr. 22, 1936.
Pl,-ans of the Rust brothers to introduce their cotton picking: machine
without lowering labor standards are described. The Llano a-nd Sherwood
Eddy cooperative cotton colonies ire also described.

Test two other cotton-pickers, International Harvcster and Berry machines
receive field trials and show vy.rTing Ce'reocs of success. Business
Week no. 379, -- 29-30, illus. Dec. 5, 193r'.
The two machines are doscribcd. Sin;ning tests of cotton picked by
these pickers and by the Rust cotton pcqccr are mentioned.

These are the new mo'lis of the Rist cotton picker. Business Week Sept. 3,
1938, p. 24. 280.8 Sr8
Pictures of the pici;er arc given.

Tractors and cotton pickers. Oil Miller and Cotton Ginner 46(4): 7. June
1935. 307.8 0i5
The article suggests theo economic and social significance of in-
creasing use in the South Dnd Middle rest of farm machinery to replace
farm.labor, A cotton picker that is "80S perfected" is mentioned.

Ulm, A. H. A revolution in cotton picking. Nations Zusiness 15(5): 66-68.
May 1927. 286,8 N212
"The most surprising thing in cotton this year not even excepting
its price is that several million bales of cotton, not picked byr hand,
have gone to market from f.-bts in the south since the of the
present cotton season. M'ore than a half million bales were g-thered by
a distinctly machine method. This fact is of rore significance perhaps
than any other event in the history of cotton since Whitneyls invention
of the cotton gin in 1793."

U. S. Dept. of labor. Bureau of labor statistics. i->.chircnes for the h-rvest-
ing of cotton. U. S. Dept. L-i.bor, Bur. L-uoer Statis. Monthly Labor Rev.
25(5); 31-33. Nov. 1927. 1593,6 B871I
Gives descriptions of a coto: kicker of the spindle type, a cotton
stripper or boiler, eand a cotton clon-nor devised and now being tried
out by the InternationJ Ha:rvester Ccinp-'v".

Walker, H. B. Mechanical 'zttnr- h,'-rvestcr ex-iorience in California. Agr,
Engin. 19(9): 392. Sept. 1938. r8.R Ag83
"Presented before the Power ond L:.-chintry Divisirn at the annual
meeting of the Aucric n Society- nf Agric-ilturvl Engineers, at P-cific
Grove, Calif., Jane 29, 1938."

Waterman, W. ec-chanical picl:er is next step for improving Americn cotton.
Cotton Digest rHnustonj 10(52): 3, 14-15. Oct. 1. 1938. 283.82 C322
The Gyracotn ha-rvestcr is described nand the type of plant needed for
mechanical ha-rvesting is considered.
Also in Agr. Engin. 19(9): 393-.394. Sept. 1938.

- 13 -

Waterman 7. Some needs in cotton harvesting development. Agr. Engin.
19(9): 393-394. Sept. 1938. 56.8 Ag83
"Paper presented. before the Power and Machinery Division at the
annual mectir.g of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, at
Pacific Grove, COalif., June 29, 19C8."

Westbrook, E. 0. Cotton nick-er friend or foe. Prog. Farmer (Ga.-Ala.-Pla.
ed.) 51(10): 12, illus. Oc.t. 1936. 6 P91bG
The author concludes that in his opin.iion, "if the southeastern states
continue to work towia-d one variety cotton conmmunities in the production
of quality cotton, the southeastern cotton will sell for enough above
the nmachine-picked western cotton to onible it to compete successfully."

Weybright, Victor. Two men and their machine. Survey Graphic 25(7): 433-433.
July 1C36. 280.8 C37G
"The Rust brothers once -oicked cotton for a living. Now that they
have invented a mechanical r'ickcr they seek a wv/y to launch it without
bringing catastrophe to the cotton worker."

Whittam, Wiliiamjn. A ncv cotton picker. Textile Recorder 53(629): 40, illus.
Aug. 15, 1935. 304.8 T311
The mechanical cotton picker, invented by J. D. arnd 1.1. D. Rust, is

Wiley, Clarcnce A. The Rvst mechanical cotton picker and probable land-use
adjustments. Jour. Land & Public Util. Econ. 15(2): 155-166. May 1939.
282.8 J32
Ti',, writer does not believe that the effects of the introduction of
the mechanical cotton picl:er will be as dire as have been painted by
v-rious writers and even the iwnventors of the machine themselves. The
major part of the article is devoted larrel.r "to (1) a det,,.iled compara-
tive ono.lzrsis primarily to see t'he prosnccts of an cr.rly and wide intro-
duction of the machine; (2) to weigh the extent of the land-use adjust-
ments on theo basis of comp-rx.tive costs; nLd (3) to point out that intro-
duction of the irachirne possibly- will be slow even in areas adapted to
machine frrminp because of limitrt ions imposed by -(a) expense of readjust-
m3nts in the size of the farm unit, (b) the difficulties presented by
cooperative oocr-.tion of the n-chinc, and (c) the availability of low-
pnid hand nickers."

Wolf, George. cMechanical nicker is still na1head. ALimor. Cotton Grower 4(3):
20. AuG. 1933. 72.8 A1.32
The Rust Brothers "hope ail i-itend to have pickers on the market for
the season of 1939." Other types of -ickers are still being tested.

Wolf, George, jr. The cotton picker still -1 uostion. Aner. Cotton
Grow:r 11(5): 8-9, 12. Oct. 1, 1C36. 72.8 A332
Describes the three -enoral cl.scses of automnrtic cotton picking


machines that have been invented since the Civil War seven hundred and
fifty patents have boon issued since that time none of which has proven
itself in field tests. Contains also a description of the cotton
picker, and lists valid objections to the work of the picker.


No. 1. State trade birriors; selected references. March 1939.

No. 2. The frozen food industry; selected references, Jnmaryj 1937 to lMarch
1939. April 1939.

No. 3, High drafting in cotton spinning; selected references. April 1939.

No, 4. Egg auctions; selected references. July 1.939.

No. 5. Acts administered by Agricultural Mnrketing Service. October 1939.

No, 6, Periodicals relating to shipping. October 1939.

No. 7. Electrical properties of cotton; some references to the literature,
1931-date. November 1939.

No. 8. Sea isl-and cotton; selected references. November 1939.

No. 9. Cotton picking machinery; a short list of references. M,-rch 1940.


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