Farm costs and returns ... with comparisons

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Farm costs and returns ... with comparisons
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LOCATION OF TYPES OF FARMS STUDIED


Shaded areas represent types of farms
on which reports have been prepared
c represent types of farms under study


11





F.M. 93


FARM COSTS AND RETURNS, 1951 WITH COMPARISONS
20 TOPES OF COMMERCIAL FAMILY-OPERATED FARMS IN 10 MAJOR FARMING REGIONS I/


As in previous years, returns to farm operators in 1951 varied widely
throughout the country. For the Nation as a whole, operators' returns recnv-
ered somewhat from the slump of 1949-50 (fig. 1). Measured in terms of prewar
dollars, the purchasing power of farmers' returns last year were still substan-
tially below the peak reached in 1947, although up somewhat from the 1950 level.
The purchasing power of these returns in 1951 was less than in any year since
1941, except for 1949 and 1950 (fig. 2).

On the 20 important types of commercial family-operated farms covered in
this report, located in major producing areas in widely scattered locations,
average net returns to operators and unpaid members of their families for labor
and management varied from an average of about $1,300 on Piedmont cotton farms
to about $15,400 on Northern Plains sheep ranches. However, 1951 was an excep-
tional year for sheep ranchers. In that year operators of sheep ranches in the
Intermountain and Northern Plains areas received approximately 95 cents per
pound for wool; whereas during March, April, and May of this year wool prices
averaged about 50 cents per pound. Net returns to operators in 1951 on most
types of commercial farms covered in this report were in the general range of
$3,000 to $7,000 per farm.

The returns for the farms covered in this report run well above the aver-
age for all farms, because they are generally larger and to some extent better
operated than the average for the Nation. They are commercial family-operated
farms of the types most common in the farming areas shown on the inside cover
of this report. Small-scale and part-time farms are not included. Neither are
the large-scale farms.


I/ Additional information is given in F.M. 55, "Typical Family-Operated Farms,
1930-45, Adjustments, Costs and Returns"; "Farm Costs and Returns, 1945-48,
Commercial Family-Operated Farms in 7 Major Farming Regions"; F.M. 71, "Commer-
cial Family-Operated Cattle Ranches, Intermountain Region, 1930-47"; Kentucky
Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 544, "Farmnning in the Bluegrass Area of
Kentucky, Operations, Costs and Returns, 1930-48"; University of Wisconsin Re-
search Bulletin 166, "Changes in Dairy Farming in Wisconsin, 1930-48"; Agricul-
ture Information Bulletin No. 89, "Cotton Farming in the Southern Piedmont
Area, Organization, Costs and Returns, 1930-51"; Agriculture Information Bul-
letin No. 85, "Commercial Family-Operated Sheep Ranches, Intermountain Region,
1930-50, Organization, Costs and Returns"; Montana Experiment Station Bulletin
(in process), "Commercial Family-Operated Sheep Ranches, Range-Livestock Area,
Northern Great Plains, 1930-50"; and Agriculture Information Bulletin No. 86,
"Changes in Dairy Farming in the Northeast, 1930-51".




do mW


INCOME $ BIL.
OF FARM
OPERATORS Gross 30
.. 30


.:PRODUCTION
: X:: E EXPENSES 20


10
REALIZED
MET
20
1930 1935 1940 1945 1950 1955
INCLUDINGG GOVERNMENT PAYMENTS. BEGINNING 1933
U. 5. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NEG. 47545-XX BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS


1lgwe 1


]rPIw 2


Farm Operators'
REALIZED NET INCOME AND
ITS PURCHASING POWER
$ BIL. I---
Realized net
5 income


10

5 _Purchasing power in
1935-39 dollars
~irs
0 L1 ] I
1930 1935 1940 1945 1950 1955
U S DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NEG 48260-k % BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS


I





S-3-


In contrast with the income figures reported here for various types of
commercial family-operated farms, the 1951 realized net income per farm in the
United States averaged $2,775. It should be noted that the average for all
farms includes units operated by croppers and other tenants whereas the esti-
mates given here for family-operated units are on an owner-operator basiR.
Furthermore, the realized net income of farm operators represents the income
actually available for family living and saving, and does not include the value
of inventory changes. The net farm income from family-operated units, as shown
here, includes the value of inventory changes, which represents substantial
amounts for some of' the selected types.

Production costs, prices received for farm products, crop yields and live-
stock outturn are the most important factors in determining operators' returns.
In looking at income prospects for 1952, crop yields are one of the most impor-
tant variables. If yields in 1952 should prove above average, this would materi-
ally affect returns to farmers. In general, in the spring of 1952 the outlook
was for farm prices averaging near or slightly lower than in 1951 with costs of
production rising. If yields are good in 1952, gross farm income in the United
States as a whole may be slightly higher than in 1951, reflecting a heavier vol-
ume of farm marketing. However, the continued rise in production expenses in
1952 may well result in a realized net income to all farm operators about the
same as a year ago or perhaps somewhat less. Production expenditures have risen
year by year since prewar, and probably will reach a record high in 1952.

During the early 1930's a gross returns of many farm operators were not
enough to pay production expenses. As a result, the operator and his family re-
ceived no return for their labor and management and investment in the farm.
During the U years from 1930 to 1940 inclusive, annual returns to operators and
families for labor and management averaged around $300 per farm on wheat farms,
$500 on Corn Belt farms, $600 on cotton farms, $300 on cattle ranches, and $600
on sheep ranches.

Net farm income (return to farm operator and family for labor and manage-
ment and to investment) was higher in 1951 than in 1950 on 16 of 20 types of
commercial family-operated farms studied (fig. 3 and 4). The four types of farms
on which incomes were lower in 1951 than in 1950 were the family-operated cotton
farms in the Delta of Mississippi, those in the Black Prairie of Texas and in the
southern High Plains, and the winter wheat farms in Kansas (table 1).

Volume of farm production also was lower in 1951 than in 1950 on these
four types of farms. In addition, it was lower on cash-grain, hog-beef fatten-
ing, and hog-beef raising farms in the Corn Belt. Production was higher in
1951 on spring wheat farms in the Northern Plains, on livestock ranches in the
Intermountain and northern Great Plains regions, on tobacco farms in Kentucky,
and on cotton farms in the southern Piedmont. It was about the same as in 1950
on dairy farms (table 2).





- 4 -


NET FARM INCOME, COMMERCIAL
FAMILY-OPERATED FARMS, BY TYPE
Dairy, Spring Wheat, and Corn Belt Farms
$THOUS. I I
Dairy farms --Hog-beef raising
--EASTERN WISCONSIN --Hog-dairy
8 -- WESTERN WISCONSIN (CORN BELT)
CENTRAL NORTHEASTERN J
STATES
4 -
^^ ^ /
O.W __/^ s/_


20


16


12


8


4


1930


1940


1950 1930


1940


1950


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


NEG. 48626-X BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS


Figure 3


-- Wheat-corn-livestock
--Wheat-small grain
SWheat-roughage-
livestock
(NORTHERN PLAINS)






-5-


NET FARM INCOME, COMMERCIAL
FAMILY-OPERATED FARMS, BY TYPE
Tobacco, Cotton, and Winter Wheat Farms, and Livestock Ranches
$ THOUS. I
Tobacco farms Cotton farms
(KENTUCKY) SOUTHERN PLAINS
S BLACK PRAIRIE
-- SOUTHERN PIEDMONT



4

4o to.-
(65


20


1930 1940
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


1950 1930 1940 1950
NEG. 48627-X BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS


Figure 4










Table 1.- Farm returns, commercial family-operated farms, by type, 1949 to 1951 with comparisons JV
S: Return per hour to operator
Type of farm :Groas farm income : Net farm income :and family 2/
ad location :193741: 1949 : 1950 : 1951 3/: 1937-41: 1949 : 1950 1951 3/:*1937-41: 1949 : 1950 1!951 .
: Pol- Dol. P ol. : Dol. Dol. Do' : Dol. p' Dol-. Dol..


Corn Belt farms:
Cash grain
Hog-beef fattening
Hog-beef raising
Hog-dairy

Dairy farms:
Western Wisconsin
Eastern Wisconsin
Central Northeast

'nbaceo-liveatock farms:


Kentucky Bluegrass

Cotton farms: -
Southern Piedmont
Delta of Mississippi
Black Prairie, Texas
Southern Plains


Winter wvheat farms (So. Plains)
Wheat
Wheat-grain sorghum


4,370
3,899
2,160
2,828


2,168
2,771
3,034


: 2,073


1,381
1,297
1,922
2,576


2,561
3,075


Spring wheat farms (No. Plains)::
Wheat-corn-livestock : 2,438
Wheat-small grain-livestock : 2,510
Wheat-roughage-livestock : 1,925

Sheepo rances:
Northern Plalns : 6,523
Intermountain region :10,036


12,804
13,237
7,792
8,663

5,800
7,228
8,074


12,208
13,848
7,668
8,174


6,001
7,494
8,747


14,905
15,794
8,467
9,713


7,353
9,192
10,066


2,900
2,180
1,337
1,602


1,242
1,521
943


5,431 5,276 6,386 : 1,219


3,231
2,673
5,776
10,060


8,826
14,227

6,803
7,842
5,871


13,565
21,184


3,016
3,671
5,381
9,016


4,084
3,353
5,262
9,137


11,977 10,793
9,761 13,340


7,883
9,270
7,195


18,968
28,010


11,878
11,042
10,669


31,461
47,464


495
1,023
1,229
1,684


1,427
1,870


1,550
1,476
1,064


2,734
4,103


9,729
9,347
5,920
5,672


2,825
3,472
3,205


3,217

1,204
2,076
3,303
6,496


5,988
11,015


4,173
5,283
3,411


3,361
5,854


9,262
9,803
5,892
5,156


2,854
3,588
3,536

3,082


1,244
3,147
3,642
6,787


8,982
6,421


5,250
6,696
4,753

9,760
8,923


11,529 :
11,189 :
6,435 :
6,359 :


4,092
4,948:
4,476 :

3,872


2,023
2,743
3,112
6,357


7,407 :
9,538 :

8,840
8,105 :
7,801 :


20,155
19,108 :
3


o.44
.31
.24
.24

.17
.17
.12


1.84
1.86
1.22
1.12


.45
.48
.51


.7&

.19
.53
.74
2.23


1.70
2.01
1.22
.98

.48
.53
.58


.73



.2.3
.90
2.43


2.20
2.25
1.29
1.24


.76
.81
.78


.96


.45
.77
.60
2.12


.22 1.35 2.47 1.69
.38 3.24 1.47 2.52


.30 .84
.32 1.43
.20 .61


1.21
2.00
1.05


2.20
2.43
1.93


3.57
3.4


-.10 1.42
.48 1.17


/


* *
* tt
*
ft
II
tt











Table 2.- Production, yields and prices, commercial family-operated farms, by type, 1949 to 1951 with comparisons I/

S Net farm production : Crop yield index Prices received zor : Prices paid for
Type of farm P:----------- :____ ---- products sold .:production items
and locationV
a lato 1937-41 1949 1950 :1951 1937-41 1949 1950 :1951 1937-41 1949 1950 :1951 :1937-41: 1949 1950 :1951
:Index numbers (1937-41 100) :


Corn Belt farms:
Cash grain
Hog-beer fartening
Hog-beef raising
Hog-dairy


: 100 132
: 100 174
: 100 153
: 100 138


Dairy fZarms
Western Wisconsin : 100 123
Eastern Wisconsin : 100 125
Central Northeast : 100 114

Tobacco-livestock farms:
Kentucky Bluegrass : 100 120

Cotton farms:
Southern Piedmont : 100 105
Delta of Mississippi : 100 100
Black Prairie, Texas : 100 134
Southern Plains : 100 188
winter vheat farms (So. Plains):


Wheat
Wheat-grain sorghum


Spring wheat farms (No. Plains): :
Wheat-corn-livestock : 100 112
Wheat-small grain-livestock : 100 136
Wheat-roughage-livestock : 100 146


Sheep ranches:
Northern Plains
Intermountain region

Cattle ranches:
Intermountain region


125 123 : 100 114
175 164 : 100 130
150 142 : 100 139
133 136 : 100 130

126 127 : 100 108
128 128 : 100 122
130 131 : 100 99

112 125 : 100 122

83 107 100 123
119 102 : 100 92
100 92 100 112
132 121 : 100 147


232 189 :100 142
183 205 : 100 170


131 174 : 100 81
158 171 : 100 112
178 234 : 100 107


135 176 : 100 111
102 127 :.3/100 3/105

98 116 :3/100 1/105


11 106 100 227
137 127 : 100 207
146 127 100 244
128 128 : 100oo 227

113 126 : o100 225
126 145 : 100 216
121 128 : 100 218

124 113 : 100 228

120 135 100 246
128 104 : 100 228
97 71 100 249
131 86 : 100 258

184 165 : 100 233
153 157 : 100 246

100 141 : 100 249
150 143 100 260
146 201 : 100 246


138
3/107


133 : 100 214
3/108 : 100 236


3/1001 /1o01 : 100 269


235 283 : 100 175 175
217 258 : 100 195 202
239 278 : 100 173 171
221 256 : 100 194 196

230 281 100 205 206
220 268 : o100 192 192
210 244 100 184 177


242 259 : 100 208

308 330 : 100 204
301 279 100 199
307 333 : 100 226
337 374 : 100 228

245 263 : 100 168
230 276 : 100 178

258 293 : 100 178
266 290 : 100 177
269 282 : 100oo 173

258 363 : 100 223
285 396 :100 211

331 402 : 100oo 165


192
223
185
214

213
199
190


206 225


174 188
181 199

179 193
191 207
172 187

227 274
247 305

157 187


2/ See footnote 1, page 1. g/ Preliminary. 3/ Hay yield index.


0

0


: 100 183
: 100 254


: ioo 107
: 100 90


1: 00 101


1/ See footnote 1, page 1. 22 Preliminary. / Hay yield index.








Production was lower in 1951 on the Corn Belt farms largely because of the cool
wet summer which caused lower yields and poorer quality of corn. Changes in crop yields
from 1950 to 1951 appeared to be the main factor causing changes in net production.
With minor exceptions, changes in crop yields and changes in net farm production moved
together.

Prices received for products sold averaged higher in 1951 than in 1950 on all
types of farms except cotton farms in the Delta of Mississippi. Cotton is the predom-
inant cash crop in that area. Because it is usually harvested and sold early in the
season, the rise in cotton prices that took place late in 1951 did not materially
raise the average prices received on these farms in 1951 compared with 1950. Prices
received ranged from 5 to 10 percent higher on other cotton farms and on some types
of wheat farms, and about 40 percent higher on sheep ranches. Average prices received
on dairy and Corn Belt farms, cattle ranches, and wheat-grain sorghum farms ranged
from 15 to 20 percent higher in 1951 than in 1950 (table 3). i

Farm costs continued to rise in 1951 on all types of farms. Cash expenditures
were higher on all types of farms, and total costs per unit of production were higher
on all except the cotton farms in the southern Piedmont. Costs per unit of produc-
tion were lower on Piedmont cotton farms, primarily because net production per farm
increased more than total costs from 1950 to 1951. Input per unit of production
(costs per unit in terms of constant prices and thus a measure of physical efficiency)
were lower in 1951 than in 1950 on nine types of farms, and higher on six others.
There was no appreciable change on five types of farms.

Figures 3 and 4 indicate that returns to farm operators were relatively high
during the last 10 years, particularly to operators who owned their farms. But, to
operators who bought farms on credit, returns were a great deal lower. A part or all
of the difference between net farm income and return to operator and family for manage-
ment and labor would have been required for debt service charges. As a result, the
income available to the farm operator and family who bought a farm on credit was re-
duced materially below that for a debt-free operator. (Contrast estimates of net farm
income and returns to operator and family for labor and management given in figures
5% 7 and 9 and in the tables that follow.)

Farm values and total farm investment values have risen to unprecedented highs
in recent years. As late as 19140 a typical hog-beef fattening farm in the Corn Belt
could have been bought for around $15,500. An additional $5,000 would have been re-
quired to buy the machinery, equipment, and livestock. In 1951 the total investment
value of such a farm set-up was around $67,000. A typical dairy farm in the central
Northeast could have been bought fully equipped for $9,600 in 1914., but in 1951 it
would have required about $24,000. Cotton farms generally are smaller than most other
important types of farms and have much less investment in livestock, machinery, and
equipment. In 1940 it would have taken less than $5,000 to buy an average family-
operated cotton farm in the Piedmont compared with more than $13,000 in 1951. These
estimates include land and buildings, machinery and equipment, livestock, and year-end
value of inventory of feed grains, and roughages. These are average farm investments,
and as such do not represent values of new machinery and equipment. It is evident,
therefore, that an individual who bought a farm in the last 8 or 10 years has a con-
siderable investment. If he is buying on credit he is carrying a debt load of con-
siderable proportion.









-h


- 8.








Table 3.- Farm costs, commercial family-operated farms, by type, 1949 to 1951 with comparisons V/


Type of farm
and location


Corn Belt farms:
Cash grain
Hog-beef fattening
Hog-beef raising
Hog-dairy

Dairy farms
Western Wisconsin
Eastern Wisconsin
Central. Northeast

Tobacco-livestock farms:
Kentucky Bluegrass

Cotton farms:
Southern Piedmont
Delta of Mississippi
Black Prairie, Texas
Southern Plains


Winter wheat farms (So. Plains):
Wheat
Wheat-grain sorghum


Spring wheat farms (No. Plain
Wheat-corn-livestock
Wheat-small grain-livestock
Wheat-roughage-livestock

Sheep ranches:
Northern Plains
Intermountain region

Cattle ranches:
Intermountain region


B).


1937-41:



100
100
100
100


100
100
100


100
:10O


100
100
100
100


100
100


100
100
100


100
100


100


Current prl
1949 1


179
151
184
183


216
206
206


217


247
212
242
176


127
109


251
201
219


268
291


251


Cost per unit of production ____ : Operating expense per dollar
Lce : Excluding price change/ _: of gross farm income


?50
:ndex


186
152
181
189


210
200
193


230


1951 / :1937-41: 1949
numbers (1937-41 100)


216
186
219
210


228
220
211


235


249
233
354
249


103
153


209
165
173


224
311


296


144
153


185
177
154


224
364


294


1950 : 1951 '/3 1937-41: 1949 1950 1951/
^^ol Dol _


100 92 91 90
100 96 95 95
100 102 99 100


100 92 98 90


98
0lo4
90
62


100oo lo6
100 84
100 92


100 113
100oo 131


100 119


0.33
.45
.38
.43

.43
.45
.69


.41


Dol.
0.24
.29
.24
.35


.51
.52
.60


Dol.
0.24
.29
.23
.37


Dol.
0.23
.29
.24
.35


.52 .44
.52 .46
.60 .56


85
96
119
85


45 57
63 58


91 72
70 67
75 60


93 75
123 117


136 121


.33 .26
.28 .27
.34 .27


.49 .36
.68 .60


1/ See footnote 1, page 1. 2/
and the southern Piedmont cotton


Based at 1935-39 dollars except the three dairy farms
farms based at 1947-49 dollars. J/ Preliminary.


and tobacco-livestock fann


based at y,53-*A x. UUAo


1. S -


3


: Dol.




- 10 -


Many factors have contributed to higher farm returns in recent years. The use
of more fertilizer, new and improved varieties of seeds, improved cropping and live-
stock practices, and labor-saving equipment have contributed a great deal. Farmers
who have been able to take advantage of these improved practices have increased their
volume of output the most (compare fig. 6, 8, andlO). Except on cotton farms input
per unit of output has decreased more on crop farms than on livestock farms (see tables
which follow).

It is evident from figures 6, 8, andDlO that prices received by farmers for prod-
ucts sold have increased significantly since 1940, and that they are one of the biggest
factors in increasing farm incomes in recent years. But the cost of living has in-
creased also and in terms of current dollars incomes do not buy as many goods and ser-
vices as they did 10 or 15 years ago. Prices of items which farmers buy for household
and personal living have increased in recent years, and are now the highest on record.
During the last 4 years (1948-51) they have averaged more than double the prewar 1937-
41 average and in 1951 were nearly 2.2 times the prewar average.

When returns to farm operators and families for labor and management are adjusted
for higher living costs they are considerably reduced in recent years. Measured in
terms of 193R-41 dollars, the purchasing power of returns to operators and families on
hog-beef fattening farms averaged only $3,450 during the 10 years from 1942 to 1951
(fig.5 ).

The purchasing power of returns on these farms reached a peak in 1948, and de-
spite continued high production and prices received for farm products in recent years
they have not yet regained that level. They were highest in 1946 for Northeast dairy
farmers and for Piedmont cotton farmers. Purchasing power of returns to operators and
families on Northeast dairy farms averaged only $1,470 during the last 10-year period,
and on Piedmoat cotton farms only $550. A considerable part of the improved income sit-
uation on such farms as'the hog-beef fattening type has been due to more rapid adoption
of improved techniques which has resulted in a larger volume of output than was possible
on dairy and cotton farms.


COMPARISON OF 1950 AND 1951 RESULTS

Corn Belt Farms

In 1951, net farm incomes were higher than in 1950 on four important types of
Corn Belt farms. Volume of production generally was about the same or slightly smaller
than in 1950 but prices received were sufficiently higher to offset any modest decline
in production. Costs continued to rise in 1951. Total costs per unit of production in
1951 averaged 16 to 30 percent higher than in 1950. Cash expenditures rose from $250
to +440 per farm above 1950. Higher prices paid for items used in production were re-
sponsible for most of this increase, but cash inputs such as hired labor, equipment,
feed and supplies, etc., also were greater in 1951. Total inputs (cash inputs plus
operator and family labor and capital) per unit of production were as high or higher in
1951 than in 1950 (tables 4 and 5).

Net farm incomes on cash-grain farms averaged more than $2,200 above 1950. Crop
yields were down about 4 percent from 1950, and net farm production was down about 2 per-
cent but prices received averaged 20 percent higher compared with 1950. On the cost side,
total inputs were up about 1 percent, whereas cash inputs were about 4 percent greater




w 11 -


PRODUCTION, INPUT PER UNIT OF
PRODUCTION, and PRICES RECEIVED
Hog-Beef Fattening Forms, Corn Belt
% OF 1937-41--

--- Prices received for prod. sold

200 ===Volume of production t
.s-e Input per unit of prod.




150


1930 1935 1940 1945 1950 1955
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NEG. 48413-xx BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS











U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NEG. 48413* XX BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS


ngw 6


FARM INCOME, OPERATORS' RETURNS,
and OPERATORS' PURCHASING POWER
Hog-Beef Fattening Farms, Corn Belt


-41L
1930


1935 1940 1945 1950


1955


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE




-12 -


FARM INCOME, OPERATORS' RETURNS,
and OPERATORS' PURCHASING POWER
Dairy Farms, Central Northeast
$ THOUS. I --
S Net farm income A
4 _=Return to operator 6& family-_ _/
4, -Purchasing power /
(IN 1937-41 DOLLARS)





-2

1930 1935 1940 1945 1950 1955
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NEG. 48689-XX BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

Figure 7

PRODUCTION, INPUT PER UNIT OF
PRODUCTION, and PRICES RECEIVED
Dairy Farms, Central Northeast
% OF 1937-A41
250-
Prices received for prod. sold
200 Volume of production_________
*A-. Input per unit of prod.

150

100


1930 1935 1940 1945 1950 1955
U. S DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NEG. 4868B-XX BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS


rigmu 8




- 13 -


Figuwe 9


Figu" 10


FARM INCOME, OPERATORS' RETURNS,
and OPERATORS' PURCHASING POWER
Cotton Farms, Southern Piedmont
$ THOUS.
Net farm income
2 == Return to operator 6& family
.-.- Purchasing power j
(IN 1937-41 DOLLARS) I



0 -



1930 1935 1940 1945 1950 1955
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NEG. 48690-XX BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS


PRODUCTION, INPUT PER UNIT OF
PRODUCTION, and PRICES RECEIVED
Cotton Farms, Southern Piedmont


1930 1935 1940 1945 1950 1955
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NEG. 48687-XX BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS




litV
11 -

than in 1950. Prices paid including wages were up 10 percent over 1950. Amount of
hired labor also was slightly greater in 1951.

Net production on hog-beef fattening farms was approximately 6 percent lower in
1951 compared with 1950. Corn yields were down to 52 bushels per acre compared with
58 bushels in 1950. Yields of other crops, except hay, also were slightly lower than in
1950. Livestock production, however, was up about 5 percent. Despite lower production
on hog-beef fattening farms, the average gross income on these farms was more than
$1,900 higher in 1951 than in 1950, largely because prices received were 19 percent high-
er. Net farm income also averaged higher in 1951 by nearly $1,400. Costs continued to
rise in 1951 because greater quantities of production goods were bought and higher prices
were paid for them. Prices paid averaged 10 percent above 1950.

Net production on hog-beef raising farms was lower in 1951 than in the previous
year. Livestock production continued to rise but crop production was considerably
lower than in 1950. However, with higher prices for farm products net farm income was
greater than in 1950, but it rose less than on other types of farms in the Corn Belt.

Crop yields and net farm production on hog-dairy farms remained almost unchanged
from 1950 to 1951. Total inputs also remained about the same, so that the increase in
net farm income from 1950 to 1951 was due almost entirely to the 16-percent rise in
prices received for products sold. Prices paid increased only 9 percent. Net farm in-
come in 1951 was 23 percent higher than in 1950.

Dairy Farms

Prices received for products sold on western and eastern Wisconsin dairy farms in
1951 were 22 percent higher than in 1950. Prices paid for items used in production ad-
vanced too, but by only 3 to 4 percent. As net production remained almost unchanged,
these higher prices were responsible for a substantial increase in net farm income on
dairy farms in both areas.

Dairy farms in the central Northeast are more highly specialized than in Wis-
consin, and because milk prices did not rise as much from 1950 to 1951 as did livestock
prices, net farm incomes on these Northeast dairy farms rose less than on Wisconsin
farms from 1950 to 1951. Net production on Northeast dairy farms in 1951 remained about
the same as in 1950 (tables 6 and 7).

Tobacco Farms

Net production on tobacco-livestock farms in Kentucky was 12 percent higher in
1951 than in 1950. Acreage of tobacco harvested in 1951 averaged 5.5 acres compared
with 4.9 a year earlier. Tobacco yields were 1,430 pounds per acre in 1951 compared with
1,245 in 1950. However, yields of other crops were lower in 1951.

Prices received for tobacco did not follow the rise in the general price level
from 1920 to 1951. They remained at about 48.5 cents per pound. But prices received
for other farm products rose by about 7 percent. The increase of 26 percent in net farm
income from 1950 to 1951 was the result of greater production of tobacco plus higher
prices for products other than tobacco. Largely as the result of greater production
(12 percent) in 1951, input per unit of production was 8 percent lower than in 1950.
However, there has been little change in this measure of efficiency for most years since
1937-41, indicating that at least through 1950 tobacco-livestock fams have improved




- 15 -


efficiency of operations relatively little compared with many other types of farms.
In 1951 net farm income on tobacco farms averaged $3,872 compared with $3,082 in 1950,
and $1,219 in 1937-41.

Cotton Farms

Net returns on cotton farms in the southern Piedmont averaged a little more than
$2,000 per farm in 1951, an increase of 60 percent over the low returns of 1950. Pro-
duction on these cotton farms in 1951 was 28 percent higher than in 1950. More acres
of cotton were harvested in 1951 than in 1950 and yields were considerably higher--322
pounds per acre compared with 203 pounds in 1950. Both acreage and yield of corn were
slightly smaller.

Prices received for cotton averaged somewhat lower than for the 1950 crop but
Prices received for other farm products were higher. Input per unit of production was
22 percent lower than in 1950 but only 11 percent below the 1937-41 averages. Aside
from the exceptionally high yield of cotton in 1951, little change has occurred in either
total production or total inputs during the last 10 to 15 years on these farms.

Operating expenses rose sharply (24 percent) from 1950 to 1951. Prices paid for
all items used in production were 14 percent higher in 1951 than in 1950. In addition,
considerably more labor was hired in 1951 to harvest the larger cotton crop. More cash
wages were paid in 1951 and the sharecroppers also received more cotton as their share
of the larger crop (tables 8 and 9).

On the three other types of cotton farms studied net farm incomes averaged 6 to
15 percent lower in 1951 than in 1950. This was primarily the result of lower yields
of cotton and lower prices for cotton lint and seed. Cotton farms in the Mississippi
* Delta are the only farms of the 20 types studied on which prices received.for all prod-
ucts sold were lower in 1951 than in 1950. The other three types of cotton farms have
more diversified sources of income and prices received for most farm products other than
cotton were higher in 1951 than in 1950. As a result, the index of prices received for
all farm products was higher in 1951 despite the fact that prices received for cotton
and cottonseed averaged lower.

Wheat Farms Southern Plains

Net farm income on winter wheat farms in 1951 averaged nearly $1,600 less than in
1950. Gross income was about $1,200 smaller and expenses were about $400 greater. Pro-
duction was down about 18 percent from 1950. Approximately 62 percent of wheat seeded
in the fall of 1950 failed. A large portion of this acreage was planted to grain sor-
ghums in the spring of 1951. Total acreage of crops harvested in 1951 averaged 264
acres compared with 293 acres in 1950. Yields of wheat in 1951 averaged only 14.6
bushels per harvested acre compared with 17.6 bushels in 1950. Prices received averaged
20 percent higher than in 1950.

Production costs continued to rise in 1951 primarily because of a further increase
of 8 percent in prices paid. Some additional costs were incurred in seeding grain sor-
ghum on land on which wheat had failed.

Net farm incomes were nearly 50 percent higher in 1951 than in 1950 on wheat-grain
sorghum farms. Acreage of crops harvested, crop yields, and prices received were all
higher in 1951 than in 1950. More than half of the winter wheat acreage was plowed up in
the spring because of poor yield prospects, but this. acreage, plus additional land, was











Table 4.- Land use, livestock numbers, and distribution of Income and expense, coercia l family-operated Corn Belt fa-r, by type, 1937-t1 average and 1949-51
COWRN BT FAI6-E
( W ,h g r i u-t ge f f te r a f W 1 11 ... .
___Ite* 1m, 19 : 1t :91 7-: 19 95 15/: : 1/ 13-+ : 19195 195 /
193T-141:1949 195 :1951 19>37-141: 19149 1950 :15/19-4: 19I 90~~x~9713 94 15


Total land in tam

Proportion of land in:

Cropland hrvested
Idle and failure

Pasture and other land

Cropland harvested:


Acre : 217


Pet. : 77
do. 7

do. 16


Corn Acre 77.1
SWll grin : do. 49.1

Soybean : do. 25.7

Haw do. 13.5
crop yield (per harvested acre): :

Cormn Bu. 147.2

Onto do. : 39.3

Soybeans : d. 22.9
All crops index (1937-41.100) : Pet. : 100

Livestock on faro Januarey 1:
All cattle z No. : 15.1
Milk com do.: 4.6

Bop, all ae : do. : 27.6

Poultry : do. : I

Vorktock : do. : 2.0

rmaw vith tractor. : Pet. : 86

Proportion of cash receipts fro nt

Corn : Pot. : 35




R d
Soybeans d o.: 1.1
Otharcrop. : do.: U

Bog. :do.: 18

Cattle : do. : 7

Other livetock d o. 2
I I
Livestock products do. 9
Oovermenat pamnt : do. 7
Proportion of cash expenditure for:

Feed d o. : 6
Labor z do. : 7

Pomwr ad mehinoery : do. : )T
; '1
twuzl farm dto. i 30
"iMdllnm.uj to. 1 0


e~


235 235 236 195 213 213 214


77 77
2 3

21 20


79.2 87.8

50.5 4.6.4

36.0 30.7

15.7 16.8


52.3 51.2
40.4 38.0

24.8 24.8

11 106


18.7 19.1

4.7 14.5

32.5 38.3
117 112

.8 .7

100 100


46 35
12 16
12 10
114 21

8 8

1 1
6 8

1 1


6 6

3 I
1.9 46

31 33
11 11


65 70
5 14

30 26


68 67
4 14

28 29


60.3 76.0 68.4 72.8

35.3 38.8 1.0.3 33.2
2.7 2.8 4.5 3.0

28.A 30.9 32.3 34.2


42.9 54.6 58.1 51.8

34.8 40.5 42.1 39.0

19.3 26.8 24.8 24.8

100 130 137 127


36.8 16.4 49.2 51.2

3.4 3.7 3.8 3.6

47.3 63.4 69.4 80.0
112 i.n 113 U4

14.2 1.6 1.3 1.2

71 100 100 100


1 2D

1 1

2 5

34 32

45 36

3 2/
8 6
6 ?


12 10
11. 17

35 31.

23 22
16 17


14 10

2 2

6 4

33 38

39 39
1 1

5 6

_/ 2/


10 9

18 21

31 32
21 22
17 16


166 186 186 187


1314 145 1145 1w6


56 53 53 60 67 66 66
5 5 6 6 3 3 3
39 42 .1 34 30 31 31


3-.3 45.2 36.1 4o.6

25.2 33.1 29.8 24.7

3.8 4.5 5.6 5.1A

21.3 21.2 27.3 28.4


36.3 52.4 56.2 45.,

30.9 37.7 37.2 32.6
19.6 26.2 25.7 29.7

100 139 116 127


25.2 28.5 28.5 31.1
4.8 5.1 14.6 5.3

20.3 24.9 27.1 31.4
95 104 11O 100

3.6 1.6 1.3 1.2

34 75 80 84


33.5 43.1 10.2 141.9
26.2 31.3 29.6 27.8

2.2 2.9 3.9 3.8

18.14 19.9 21.4 92.3


49.5 61.O 57.9 60.7
35.2 46.8 46.6 45.3

17.9 g6.1 23.4 24.6
100 130 128 12


18.14 19.1 19.9 21.7

11U.5 11.1 11.5 1.5

32.7 39.4 41t.3 14.9
112 16 126 129

3.2 1.1 1.0 .9

50 95 100 100


7 35 32 23 3 2$
3 14 I 5 1 8
4 6 9 9 4 5

27 3s 21 25 314 30
26 20 19 2 11 8

7 2 a 2 5 a

18 13 13 14 37 28

8 ?/ 1 I 2/ 5 2?


9 8

7 7
M 49

26 21

14 i5


9 8

3 6

50 47
26 21

16 1s


8 8

23 30
36 33

1 17
,13 ,1


22 17

2 3
6 3

30 33
6 8

* a

32 33




8 8

32 33
32 30
17 18

U1 U


W -so .; Pa Er ,


-- ---- -- ------------- --- .............. ........


Am U 11
zw_-_ Is -
L6 17 U 14


Jje







Table 5.- Investment, Income, and related factors, coiercial familly-operated Corn Belt farms, by type, 1937-41 average and 1949-51

C(1'MW BELT FARMS
SCash grain Hog-beef fattening R og-beef rasing Hog-dairy
Ite* Unl :1937-41 1949 : 1950 : 1951 / 1937-1 1949 1950 : 1951i / : 1937-1 :1 19149 : 1950 : 1951 / : 1937-1 : 1949 : 1950 1951 /


Total lnd infar tm :Acre: 217 235 235 236 195 213 213 214 166 186 186 187
Cropland harveted do. 166 186 181 182 127 148 146 143 84 104 99 99
Total labor used Hour 4.062 3.767 3.626 3.711 4,842 4,436 4.581 486gp 3 3.723 9 3.
Operator and family labor do. 3,546 3,499 3,499 3,499 3,796 3,499 3,499 3,499 3,487 3,499 3,1499 3,499
Haired labor : do. : 516 268 127 212 1,046 937 1,082 1,191 302 224 100 206
Total Investent Dol. 28,619 69,534 69,528 80,980 20,848 57,798 56,201 67,1i8 10,461 33,534 32,536 39,027
land and buildings : do. 23,841 54,520 54,990 64,900 15,767 39,405 39,405 46,438 7,200 22,134 22,134 26,180
Machinery and equipent : do. : 1,566 3,670 3,706 3,997 1,293 3,092 3,041 3,209 811 2,285 2,293 2,501

Livestock : do. : 1,232 4,069 3,624 4,777 2,399 9,026 8,097 10,839 1,700 5,419 4,745 6,532
Crops on hand : do. : 1,980 7,275 7,208 7,306 1,389 6,275 5,658 6,662 730 3,696 3,364 3,8114
Cashub receipts : do. : 3,705 11,564 13,087 13,078 3,284 12,477 12,855 14,558 1,693 7,321 6,884 7,893
Cash expenditures : do. 1,542 3,228 3,156 3,597 1,770 3,932 4,138 4,714 888 2,016 1,936 2,185
Net cesh farm incom : do. : 2,163 8,336 9,931 9,481 1,514 8,545 8,717 9,844 805 5,305 4,948 5,708
Value of perquisites : do. 333 741 718 848 339 672 662 769 303 604 584 681
Change in inventory:
Crops and livestock Dol : 332 499 -1,597 979 276 88 331 467 164 -133 200 -107

echbinery and building : do. 72 153 210 221 51 42 93 109 65 144 160 153

Nat farm income : do. : 2,900 9,729 9,262 11,529 2,180 9,347 9,803 11,189 1,337 5,920 5,892 6,435

Total charge for Capital do. 1.349 3,W LM L 1.000 2,838 &M5 1306 506 1,658 1.609 1,936
Charge for real estate capital do. 1,087 2,399 2,420 2,856 719 1,7314 1,734 2,043 329 974 974 1,152
Charge for vorknlag capital : do. : 262 901 887 981 281 1,104 1,025 1,263 177 684 635 784
Return to operator and family for labor and management: do. 1,551 6,429 5,955 7,692 1,180 6,509 7,044 7,883 831 4,262 4,283 4,1499
Return per hour to operator and family labor : do. : .44 1.84 1.70 2.20 .31 1.86 2.01 2.25 .24 1.22 1.22 1.29


134 145 145 16
80 97 95 96

5.M7 5.016 5LM9 2.13
3,870 3,149 3,499 3,499
1,303 1,517 1,600 1,637
13,544 35,506 34,684 41,213
9,622 23,635 23,635 28,180
1,076 2,629 2,637 2,776

1,740 5,289 4,614 6,141

1,106 3,953 3,767 14,116

2,368 7,884 7,594 8,478
1,295 3,080 3,100 3,1432

1,073 4,804 4,494 5,046
318 651 625 736


142 128 -45 499
69 89 82 78


1,602 5,672

654 1.752

439 1,040
215 712
948 3,920

.24 1.12


5,156 6,359

1.714 2.035
1,040 1,240
674 795
3,1442 4,324

.98 1.24


Gros farm IaCON
Not farm ineom
Net farm production
Production per hour of mn labor
Operating expense per unit of production
Total cost per unit of production
Total input per unit of production
Power and achinery used (quantity)
Prices received for products sold
Prlees pjid Inacludin wnaew to hired Labor


Pet. : 100 293
do. : 100 335
do. : 100 132
do. 100 142
do. : 100 159
do. 100 179
do. 100 84
do. : 100 143
100 227
d.o 100 179


279 341
319 398
125 123
140 135
161 186
186 216
88 89
143 1146
235 283
17q lop


Index numbers (19-'f-I00lO
100 340 S55 4 5 10
100 429 1450 513 100
100 1714 175 164 100
100 189 184 168 100
100 136 141 169 100
100 151 152 186 100
100 65 65 70 100
100 137 133 133 100
100 207 217 258 100MO
IIm lot ae 092 infl


361 355
443 441

153 150
155 158
151 145
184 181
79 78
157 156
244 239
171 171


100 306
100 354
100 138
100 143
100 177
100 183
100 80
100 141
100 227
100 194


289 344

322 397
133 136

135 137
185 202
189 210
84 83
140o 139
221 256
1o6 214


196 214
10D ION: 2D2 901" IM


J









Table 6.- Land use, livestock number, and distributlon of income and expense, commercial ftamily-opertd dairy fare and tobacco-livestock farms, by type, 1937-41 average and 1949-51
__ __ __ __ __ __................. .....___ __ __ __ __ __ __~A cU 1J wz A r


* Western Wisconsin : Esatern Wisconsin : Central Nor t : Kehtck r
Unit 1937-1.1 199 190 1951 J/ 1937-41 1949 1950 1951 1/: 1937- 1 1949 1950 : 1951 /: 1937-1&1 19.49 950 : 1951 /


Totallnd In farm Acre 130 137 138 139

Proportion of m iand I
Cropland harveted Pet. 44 44 U4 43
Idl and failure do. -
peture and otaer lnd do. 56 56 56 5T

Crop harvested:
To bcco AcrM -
Cora, grain do. : 5.4 7.7 6.7 6.6
Corn, sl.g : dto. : 5.9 6.3 7.1 6.4
P31l pr..n do. 19.0 18.6 1B.6 18.4
,ay do. t 25.5 25.8 26.4 26.9

Other crops do. : 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4.

Crop 7Yield (per harvested acre):
Tobacco t Lb. I -
Con, ain. :Bu. 38.0 49.6 43.5 43.9
Corn, *sl : To : 7.9 10.3 8.8 8.7

1 gu in)/ : Dou. t 31.2 35.2 41.6 42.7
Bay Ton 1.6 1.4 1.5 1.9
All crop index (1937-i1l100) Pet. 100 108 U3 126
Livestock oB tfr January 1:
AUl cattle : o. 20.7 23.8 24.0 24.5
Milk own do. 13.8 15.7 15.7 15.7
BoRa, all *see do. 6.9 6.9 7.2 7.9
Sb-p and lambs do. .- -
Poultry : dto. : 86 103 106 103
workatock do. 3.4 2.0 1.6 1.5

Farm witb tractors Pet. 29 78 85 90
Proportlon of csh receipt frCm:
Tobacco Pot. -
OteMr erops do.: 4 3 3 3
Livestock do. 214 26 30 29
Mlk: do. 58 58 57 57
Otter livestock product do. 10 12 9 10
moret product do. :- -
overnmnt psymntm t do. 4 1 1 1
Pro m tion of cash epedLtures for:
led I do. 21 w0 22 23
Labor do. 2 9 6 6 7
Prow and maiay 3D 33 3A 33
0r aamp do. 3
am=%&a rem 6- 0 7 3
,I., 38 17 36 I6
ainid. S I 1I 1


115 121 122 123


54 55


46 45


5.2 7.5 6.5 0
8.3 8.5 9.6 1

24.9 24.7 24.7 21

22.0 23.6 23.8 21

2.2 2.4 2.4 1



40.3 55.0 48.; w
8.3 10.1 8.6 (
38.5 47.1. 55T.7 5
1.8 2.0 2.1

100 122 126

22.8 25.1 25.3 2!
15.4 17.5 17.5 1V

9.7 11.6 12.2 1:


93 104 107
3.3 1.6 1.4
59 100 100


8 5
23 29

57 56
8 9


14 I

20 20
9 9
34 34


35 35


176 190 1m


54 36 37 37

2 4 4
46 62 59 59



0 0 0

).6 6.7 8.5 8.7
4.5 14.1 15.6 16.3

1.4 42.1 45.5 45.5

2.4 1.3 .9 .9



.8 0 0 0

,5 9.3 10.3 10.0

N.3 34.0 36.0 46.0
2.8 1.3 1.3 1.6

145 100 99 121

i.3 28.0 33.4 34.0

r.5 17.7 20.8 21.1
1. 1.0 1.0 1.0

0 0 0

[0L 71 81 91
1.2 2.7 1.6 1.5

.00 31 81 85


5 5 1 1

31 31 It 14
55 55 78 77
8 8 7 7
1 1

1 1 2 2J


go 25 30 36 3T
8 8 13 U 10
36 34 36 23 95


34 32 18 15 14


193 o U3 U13 u3

37 26 g8 27 26
4 3 2 2 2

59 71 0T 71 72

5.3 5.5 4.9 5.5
0 T.7 6.8 6.5 6.3
8.8 -

16.6 5.1 3.5 3.1 2.9
46.0 10.3 15.14 16.14 15.9

.9 -

995 1,283 1,245 1,1430
o 35.5 145.3 47.2 41.7
9.9 -

47.0 16.4 20.0 17.0 16.0
1.7 1.3 1.5 1.5 1.3
128 100 122 124 U3

34.4 7.2 10.2 10.7 U.2

21.2 3.9 4.8 4.8 4.9 S
1.0 7.7 7.0 7.1 7.3

0 21.7 13.4 13.7 14.4
90 50 48 49 48

1.4 3.1 2.A 2.2 2.1

90 9 32 35 40


63 68

2 2
20 2

5 14

5 3


5 1


66 66

1 At
23 23
6 6

3 4


I "].


36 21 9 9 10
10 V E7 y30 Vag Yoe
24 B3 14 25 NY
IL. 16 16 15
IA 26 19 20 IS


a 2 2 1 13 1s 14 16 a I


V Pm.Hri-T.--j low 1 ma .-j fji .- N OMBM tftiNarin 4y M antG I= Meanmm simm


a a


I ton





Table 7.- Invetment, Inecome, and related factors, commrclal funly-operated dairy farms and tobacco-livestock fas, by type, 1937-1 average and 1919-51
SbDAIRY FARMS : TOBDACO-LIVESTOCK FARMI
i W western Wisconsin Eastern UWiconsin : Central Northeast Kentucky Bluegrasa
2tO Ut 1937-11 : 1919 : 1950 : 1951 / 1937-1. 19.99 : 1950 : 1951 -' 1937-3.1 : 1949 1950 1951 / 1937-1 1949 1950 1951 2'


Total land in farm Acre 130 137 138 139
Cropland harvested : do. 57 60 60 60

Total labor used our ,173 4.5 4.394
Operator And family labor do. 4,656 4,093 4,001 3,892
Hired labor do. : 517 455 44 432
Cropper labor do. -
Total investment Wol. 8, 19,939 M 5 22.061
Land and buildings do. : 5,560 10,312 9,713 11,244
Machinery and equipment : do. : 804 3,281 3,496 3,700
Livestock : do. 1,714 5,094 4,590 5,581
Crops on band do. : 348 1,252 1,166 1,536
Cash receipts : do. 1,706 5,127 5,339 6,607
Cash expenditures do. : 1,008 3,304 3,538 3,652
Net cash farm income do. : 698 1,823 1,801 2,955
Perquilsites for cropper and hired labor do. -- -

Value of perquisites do. : 372 625 576 659
Change in inventory:
Crops and livestock : do. : 90 48 86 87

Machinery and buildings do. : 82 329 391 391
net farm income : do. : 1,242 2,825 2,85b4 4,092
Total charge for capital : do. : 4147 993 945 1.123
Charge for real estate capital do. 281 454 427 506
Charge for working capital do. : 166 539 518 617

Return to operator and family for labor and management: do. 795 1,832 1,909 2,969
Return per hour to operator and family labor : do. : .17 .45 .48 .76


115 12. 122 123 176 190 191
63 67 67 66 64.2 70.5 71.4 1

5.784 5.090 4.994 4. g 52,01 5.241 5
4,859 .,276 4,195 4,099 3,543 4,036 4,088 4,
925 814 799 781 1,791 1,185 1,153 1,


12.260 29,618 28.104 32,839 9,440 22.800 22.000
8,705 17,953 16,936 19,759 5,340 10,600 10,300

1,315 4,267 4,533 4,800 1,160 2,900 3,500
1,839 5,640 5,071 6,164 2,260 7,300 6,200
401 1,758 1,564 2,116 680 2,000 2,000

2,346 6,393 6,613 8,190 2,587 7,379 7,463

1,436 4,093 4,376 4,714 2,203 5,175 5,411
910 2,300 2,237 3,476 384 2,204 2,052


374 785 738 863 412 935 930


51 50 143 139 35 -240 354
186 337 470 470 112 306 200
1,521 3,472 3,588 4,948 943 3,205 3,536
644 1.443 1.370 1.635 500 1,172 1.151

439 790 745 889 265 489 485
205 653 625 746 235 683 666
877 2,029 2,218 3,313 443 2,033 2,385

.17 .48 .53 .81 .12 .51 .58


24,
10,

3,
7,
2,
8,

5,
2,


1,


193 no 113 113 113
2.3 28 31 31 30

243 .37 4.22 ,W3 4.117
,1.6 2,932 2,819 2,786 2,802
,127 768 641 608 551
- 678 767 745 764

.000 9.43 3,453 20.818 23.351
,700 7,898 16,503 16,896 18,609
,800 440 1,070 1,170 1,388
.500 822 2,088 1,953 2,1101
,000 275 792 799 953

,719 1,687 4,666 4,492 5,821
,803 851 2,238 2,221 2,591
,916 836 2,428 2,271 3,230
- 44 114 92 111

,025 304 714 676 791


322
213
4,476

1.284
510

774
3,192
.78


82 51
41 138
1,219 3,217

145 1,00-9
356 792
89 217

774 2,208
.26 .78


108 -226
119 188
3,082 3,872

1.03 1.187
811 912
224 275
2,047 2,685

.73 .96


Gross fare inema
Net farm Income
Net farm production
Production per hour of man labor
Operating expense per unit of production

Total cost per unit of production
Total input per unit of production
Power and achinery used (quantity)
Prices received for products sold
Prices paid Including wages to hired labor
VJ Preliminary.


Pet. 100 286
do. 100 228
: do. 100 123
dao. : 100 146
do. 100 253
do. 100 216
do. 100 92
do. : 100 183
do. : 100 225
do. 100 205


Index ni~ers (1937-141.100)


I Index numbers (1937-41-10O)
100 261 271 332 100 266
100 228 236 325 100 340

100 125 128 128 100 114
100 154 160 160 100 117
100 224 228 244 100 194
100 206 200 220 100 206
100 96 95 95 100 102
100 160 160 162 100 144
100 216 220 268 100 218
100 192 192 199 100 184


100 263

100 264
100 120

100 123

100 216
100o 217
100 92
100 159
100 228
100 208


254 309
253 318

112 125
118 133

230 236
230 235

98 90
172 193
242 259
206 225





- 20 -


planted to grain sorghums. With a favorable spring and summer growing season and a
good price for grain sorghum, the total value of sorghums produced on these farms
was about twice the total value of wheat produced. In 1951 the gross value of grain
sorghums averaged 29 an acre compared with $24 an acre for wheat (tables 10 and 11).

OTerating expenses on wheat-grain sorghum farms also have continued to rise.
These expenses rose from an average of about $3,212 per farm in 1949 to $3,3140 in 1950
anH t3,802 in 1951. Although expenses were considerably higher in 1951, production
also was greater tlan in 1950. As a result, operating expenses per unit of production
were up only 2 percent and total'costs per unit of production remained unchanged from
1950 to 1951.

Wheat Farms Northern Plains

Net farm income on wheat-corn-livestock farms in the Northern Plains averaged
1,oO00 higher per farm in 1951 than in 1950. This higher net income was the result of
10 percent greater acreage of crops harvested, 40 percent higher yields and 20 percent
higher prices. Net farm production in 1951 was a third greater than in 1950 and pro-
duction per man hour was nearly 30 percent greater. With favorable weather in 1951
yields of wheat averaged 16.1 bushels per acre compared with 11.1 in 1950. Total har-
vested acreage averaged 238 acres per farm compared with 261 acres in 1950. As a
result, crop production was nearly 60, percent higher in 1951 than in 1950. Livestock
production, however, was only 7 percent higher (tables 10 and 11).

Total costs also continued to rise in 1951. Cash expenditures per farm averaged
0350 higher in 1951 than in 1950. Part of this higher expenditure was for purchase of
additional machinery, and for repairs to buildings. After deducting the increase in
Inventory of machinery and buildings, farm operating expenses were $170 higher in 1951
compared with a year earlier.

Net farm income on spring wheat-small grain-livestock farms averaged about
$8,100 per farm in 1951. This represents an increase over 1.950 of about $1,400 per farm.
Crop yields in 1951 generally were lower than in 1950. Yields of wheat were slightly
higher but yields of most other crops were lower. With a larger acreage of crops har-
vested and a slightly larger production of livestock, net production per wheat-small
grain-livestock farm continued to rise in 1951.

More than 30 percent greater net production plus higher prices in 1951 over 1950
gave operators of wheat-roughage-livestock farms in the Northern Plains a net farm income
in 1951 more than 60 percent greater than in 1950. Acreage harvested and crop yields
were higher in 1951 than in 1950, but livestock production was lower. Operating expenses
were higher in 1951 than in 1950 by $426 per farm. This was an increase of 11 percent
over the rrovious year. Prices paid were about 9 percent higher (tables 12 and 13).

Livestock Ranches

In 19,1 net ranch incomes on sheep ranches in the Northern Plains area averaged
t20,155 per ranch and in the Intermnountain region $19,108 per ranch. They were tLe
highest on rpccord and more than twice as high as those in 1950.

Livestock .ro.-luction on these ranches in 1951 was 25 to 30 percent above that of
1950. In large measure this was because of the favorable pasture season in 1951.
Price, rec..ived 'or wool were nearly 60 percent higher and prices received for lamb were




- 21 -


about a third higher in 1951 than in 1950. Prices received for all farm
products also were higher in 1951 (tables 12 and 13).

Partly because of high prices for livestock, total investment per
sheep ranch was higher than investment in any other type of farm. The
minimum-sized sheep ranch for economical operation is relatively large,
and for that reason there are few small specialized sheep ranches. How-
ever, in other types of farming it is possible to have efficient small
farms as well as efficient large farms. As a result, the practical range
in size of family-operated units is generally wider for Corn Belt, wheat,
dairy, cotton and many other types of farms than for sheep ranches.

Net returns in 1951 on cattle ranches in the Intermountain region
averaged about $13,650 per ranch, or more than 50 percent higher than a
year earlier. Except for the sheep ranches, net income on cattle raunches
was higher than for any of the other types of farms studied. This higher
net income was due to greater production and higher prices for cattle.
Net production in 1951 was 18 percent higher than in 1950, and prices re-
ceived were 21 percent higher. Operating expenses also were about 20
percent higher but, because of the larger volume of production, costs per
unit of p-oroduction remained about the same as in 1950.











Table 8.- Land use, livestock numbers, and ditribution of Icom and eense, eomrcial family-operated cotton rm, by typ, 1937-11 erage and 199-1


GUMNAM FARMW
as1othem Piedmont asDelta R Hl..ippl i w Wmrt. fxm; Sothern PlaLns
;uantt 193T-j 1,94 190 19531 Ign 13-41 19k9 :m 95 151I;13-a ^ 191951 *5 MSU: Is"-t I'm 15 : W


Total land in term ACr 158 161

Proprtion of land in:
Cropand berv"etd Pet. 42 39

Idle sad failure do. -
?ature and other land do. 58 61

Crops turestrie:
Cotton Acre 90.8 20.4

Cormn do. 22.2 17.7
Bay and forage do. 9.14 10.5
OtUW crops do. 12.2 13.7
Crop yteld (per barveted ac*re):
Cotton, lint Lb. 255 228

Corn a. 11.9 20.2
All crop Index (1937-142*1.100) P:et. 100 123

Livestock on firm Janury 1:
All cattle No. 3.5 3.6
j1k com do. 2.0 2.1
Nog, all ve do. 3.0 3.0
I I
Poultry d o.:i 39 149
Workstook i do. 2.7 2.1

Fsrm vith tractors Pet. 13 37

Proportion of cash receipts fro:
Cotton, lint and seed Pct. S so 60


Other crops

Livestock
Livestock products

Other income


Ido. 10 O0
do. 5 7
o. 5 8
do. 2 3


0ov"rUmt pamnt do. 6 8

Proportion of cash expenditurei for: I
4Imleh Pat. 5 4

lAbor do. 17 17

Feed and ottbr livestock sqaniam do. 8 8

Crop expens i do. 30 31
Powr and mchnlaery do. 26 30
0mwlfs ruqasMm do. L1 9
NDBILNmaus do. I


161 162


42 45 45 45 1314 145 145 149


314 33 73 68 68 66 67 73 66 70
5 5 5 5 7 2 5 4
66 67 22 27 27 29 26 25 29 26


13.8 15.4
18.1 16.2
9.4 10.0
13.2 11.8


a03 392
00.4 19.3

1m 135


3.8 4.0

2.0 2.0

3.1 2.7
46 44

1.9 1.8
40 43


15.1 18.1
8.7 6.5

3.6 2.1
3.1 4.0


395 301
19.2 20.9

100 92


2.0 2.9

1.3 1.5

3.3 3.3
26 33
2.0 2.0

0 0


13.5 15.5
8.6 5.9

2.0 1.8
6.3 6.6


396 336
33.8 25.6

126 104


3.6 3.3
1.8 1.6

3.2 3.2

36 26

2.0 2.0

0 0


46.0 6o.7 42.0 67.1
25.5 22.9 34.8 23.8
8.4 8. 7.14 7.9
11.0 10.3 11.9 5.8


181 1S8 157 111
20.7 26.0 23.5 19.8

100 112 97 71


7.3 8.6 7-9 9.9

3.5 3.6 3.8 3.6

3.7 3.2 3.4 3.6

83 99 3 97
3.3 1.0 .9 .7

42 100 100 100


53 66 76 82 8se 76 58 73 65 68
24 15 6 10 6 16 10 u 18 10
8 7 3 4 7 4 6 6 6 10
8 7 1 3 3 2 10 9 10 11

3 2 .
4 3 1A 1 2 2 16 1 1 1


3 4 24 19 23 0
15 21 19 4 37 41
9 7 -


30 27
32 31
10 9


2 14
85 10


08 225 225


6a 68
a 1

31 31


65 68

3 3
32 29


56.0 90.4 56,9 1034.
/32.5 2/X,.9 /62.8 2/21..7
27.9 10.8 12.6 138.

10.2 10.3 14.9 10.3


f2 E76 I 2 143
2/16.9 3/23.9 a/23.6 /17 .1

100 147 131 86


11.0 10.14 10.8 11.0
14.7 5.0 5.0 4.4

7.3 5 .5 4.8 .7

103 94 96 89
3.8 .8 .7 .6

59 10 100 100


47 76

a 10
lii 7

11 6


20 1


9 10 14 19
25 31 so 43


4u u
1A "*
]a 10


b5 U
U


68 76
16
a 12

T 7


1 1


16 16






45 39
B 7
L


a, a a .i l3 &2 &. A I -


uLis.ray *-- m woialaim.


Item


--- __ --- 10110PROMM







Table 9.- Invetment, incomep, iand related factor, come rcial femily-operat.ed cotton farms, by type, 1937.1-1 average and 1919-51
: : C(Y-'un FARlE
: Southern Piedmont : Delta of Mi.Bl.sppl, Black Prairie. Taexs S thern Plains
Tt.e.U 137-1 : 19 190 191 93711 : 19 1950 191 19 : 19 : 1950 : 1951 / 93T- : 99 : 1950 : 1951
1937-4.1 191.9 1950 1951 j/ 1937-4.1 191.9 1950 1951 ~/ 1937-1.1 191.9 1950 1951 j/ 1.937-11.1 191.9 1950 1951 ~


Acre 158 161 161 162
do. : 66.0 63.8 56.3 54.9

Hour L25 M 4.633 3
do. 2,935 3,027 2,587 2,884
do. 667 443 225 336
do. 1,653 1,163 747 745

Dol. 4.711 1.906 1.566 13.095


Total land in farm
Cropland harvested
Total labor used
Operator and family labor
Hired labor

Cropper labor

Total investment
Land and buildings


Machinery and equipment : do. : 287

Livestock do. 602
Crops on h nd do. 210

Cash receipts do. : 1,025
Cash expenditures do. 819

Net cash farm income do. 206
Perquisites for cropper and hired labor do. : 88

Value ofperquisites : do. 340
Change in inventory:
Crops and livestock do. : 16
)Achinery and buildings do. 21
Net farm income do. 495
Total charge for capital do. 234
Charge for real estate capital : do. : 174

Charge for working capital : do. 60
Return to operator and family for labor and management: do. : 261

Return per hour to operator and family labor : do. : .09


9,396 9,193 10,564


1,066

925
519
2,475
1,889

586
150

787


-31
12
1,204

642

489

153
562

.19


1,246
851

434

3,2143
2,008

1,235
109

795


46
56

2,023

7527
570
157
1,296

.145


42 15 45 45
31 31 30 30

L-h2 IM A" '1A7
2,952 2,998 2,788 2,827

537 900 531 652


.44I 2L463 9.157 10.704
2,846 8,145 8,010 9,225

138 275 290 310

326 574 550 558
135 169 307 611

1,079 2,271 3,073 3,054
282 607 535 619

797 1,664 2,538 2,435


212 461 422 490


6 -59 176 -191
8 10 11 9

1,023 2,076 3,117 2,743
176 482 473 556

141 399 400 461

35 83 73 95
847 1,594. 2,674 2,187

.29 .53 .96 .77


134 145 145 119
91 1)6 96 105
4.092 2,06 3W7W 4.213-
3,104 2,967 2,816 2,903
988 2,099 904 1,310


8.824 23.526 22.445 27


7,A98 20,010 19,285


50 1,756
580 1,235
226 525

1,660 5,322
733 2,.487
927 2,835


1,631
1,158

371
4,635

1,801
2,834.


23,395
1,587

1,738
530
4,682

2,274
2,408


247 537 483 586


15 -83
40 14

1,229 3,303
425 1.119
343 880

82 239

804 2,184.

.26 .74


263
62
3,642
1,102
887

215
2,540

.90


-6

124
3,112

1.362
1,100

262.
1,750
.60


208 225 25 225
126 153 1A7 152
JA8B 3.663 2.6 3
2,950 2,466 2,386 2,1.
868 1,397 582 984


9.30 20.37 19.673 22.96
7,413 15,975 15,525 18,225
829 2,202 2,113 2,136
765 1,509 1,504 1,960

296 693 501 646
2,318 9,497 8,.495 8,148
952 3,654 2,345 2,980

1,366 5,843 6,150 5,.468


279 588 540 652


-21 -25

60 90
1,684 6,496
458 1.002
340 703
118 299

1,226 5,494
.42 2.23


-19 37
116 200
6,787 6,357

996 1.179

71 857
282 322

5,791 5,178
2.43 2.12


: : Index numbers (1937- 1*100)
Gross farm income Pet. 100 237 221 300 100 206 2S 100 301 280 27T4 100 391 350 355

Net farm income : do. : 100 243 251 109 100 203 308 268 100 269 296 253 100 386 403 377
Net farm produetlon do. 100 105 83 107 100 100 119 102 100 13k 100 92 100 188 132 121

Production per hour of man labor do. 100 121 123 141 100 91 126 104 100 108 .10 89 100 187 171 136
Operating expense per unit of production do. 100 215 240 217 100 217 160 217 100 264 245 328 100 214 190 258

Total cost per unit of production do. 100 247 281 258 100 212 166 233 100 242 262 354 100 176 192 249
Total input per unit of production do. 100 98 109 89 100 104 80 96 100 90 106 119 100 62 75 85
Power and machinery used (quantity) do. 100 138 139 141 100 111 113 114 100 173 160 148 100 139 134 127
Prices received for products sold do. 100 246 308 322 100 228 301 279 100 249 307 333 100 258 337 374
Prices aid including ages to hired labor. do. 100 a20 208 238 100 119 204 228 100 226 197 226 100 228 201 229
/ Preliminary.


Sdo. : 3,612











Table 10.- Land urn, livestock nimer, end distribution of nooe and expense, comerclal family-operated wheat form, by type, 1937-41 average and 19L9.51

V-! g"m- .9 FA9O. WfSW V _/U PLAI n S" a99 MgY PfONS. N(Ei Pam ~
StVt-s o t-cn-
it9k Unit :1950 1999


Total land In far

Proportion of land in:

Croplmnd arvested

Idle, fallow, and failure
?eture and other land

Crops barrested:

wheat

Corn

Grain eorghun

Other 1 Pain

ay and forage eorgbm
Crop yield (per ,harvestd acre):

Wheat
Corn
cam


Grain sorghuim

All crop Index (1937-441100)
Liveetock an fars January 1:

All cattle

MiLU one
oge, all Wee

Poultry

Vorketoek

ra* ith tractors


Wbat









Proportieos at caab aspe iture fort:

1"4

La sor
Power ad mnacinry

OGeeral tre

MUGL Musa


:Acre 566 610 610 617


Pct. 39 245 48 43

do. 26 27 26 32

d do. 35 28 26 25


Acte 142.0 205.0 223.2 163.5

do. 19.0 11.6 .1.0 15.4

d o. 29.0 28.0 23.8 50.0

do. 16.0 11.6 7.24 4.4

do. 15.0 18.3 27.4 30.2


I u. lo.2 12.7 17.6 14.6

do. 9.4 25.9 34.0 2T.1

do. 10.2 24.I 25.9 21.6

pet. 100 142 l82 165


No. 19.3 31.9 32.9 36.5

d do. 5.5 4.4 4.5 24.5

do. 6.3 6.9 8.1 8.7

d do. 96 105 111 204
Sdo. 2.2 1.0 .9 .8

Pet. 100 100 100 100


I KPt. 37 57 67 56
2 do. 1 10 6 13

2o. 3 9 0 1

d o. 2 23 22
2 14 7 6 7

210. U 1 1 1
2 I

tpet. 2 3 3 3
: do. 3 3 5

: 0. 1 72 70 70 65

i o. : 19 19 a

4o. k 5 5 6


636 710 710 712


41

37
22


160.0
2.0

57.0
14.0

28.0


9.2

13.6

13.24
10D


16.1

4.4

4.7

103
1.2

100


35
U

0

15


19
ID



1

76

17


624 52

14 23

22 25


324.0 164.0 146.0
2.1 4.3 7.1

98.7 182.5 185.7

6.3 1.2 3.5

21.2 19.2 46.4


14.4 8.2 11.1

26.3 31.2 26.1
28.6 28.4 25.0

170 153 15T


26.4 26.4 27.6

2.7 2.9 2.9

5.4 6.7 6.1

U3 B 123
.6 .6 .5

100 100 100


61 38

22 41

0 0

12 15

o 5
1 1


* 8

7 8

78 72
14 13

5 5


389 415 415 417


63 69

12 8

25 23


76.0 106.0 85.0 98.0

34.0 41.0 39.0 40.0


76.0 A4.o 119.0 132.0

43.0 34.o 39.0 37.0


11.0 8.8 U.1 16.1

2B.3 19.9 24.8 23.9


100 81 100 141


18.3 25.6 26.1 26.4

7.6 6.0 6.2 5.8

10.0 15.4 13. 15.0

78 103 111 109

k4.3 1.9 1.7 1.5
74 100 100 100


475 540 520 5247


46 56

21 17

33 2T


122.0 173.0

9.0 10.0


70.0 106.0

43.0 39.0


52 5T

21 17

27 26


14R.0 170.0

10.0 9.0


116.0 122M.0

40.0 40.0


12.1 11.7 14.7 15.6

90.1 25.6 22.9 22.1


100 U2 10 1243


17.1 20.3

7.2 6.3

3.9 5.0

55 $9
4.3 1.9

68 100


19.9 10.3

6.3 6.1



1. 5.30
1.8 1.7

100 200


22 25 24 23 42 46 48 48


17 27 as 36 6 26 26 30

9 3 35 3 30 19 t17 16 t12

18 12 12 10 17 10 9 9
14 1 1 1 16 1 1 1


7 8

3 6

57 61


7 5


7 7 5 5 4 k
6 6 6 10 8 10

68 60 57 61 64 61

B a as 19 s 19

Is 5 7 5 lb


L/ ItaLY.--








Table 11.- Investment, income, and related factors, comercil famLly-operated wheat farms, by type, 1937-41 average and 1949-51
:---L-U WI9AT FARM. BSOzJflU PLAZNM : Vi Mb FARMS. NGR M F Ma
SWheat : Wheat-grain .ormhum vbeat-ccr-llveetpck : Wheat-small graln-liveatock
ItU : Unit : 1937.341 1949 1:950 1951 193-1 1949 1950 1951 1/ : 1937-41 : 1949 : 1950 : 1951/ : 1937-4.1 19 :9 1950 1 951 /


I
Total land in farm Acre: 66 610

Cropland harvested do. : 222 274
Total labor used Hour : 2,662
Operator and family labor do. : 2,6.47 2,636
Hired labor do. 15 137

Total Investment Dol. : 17.512 97
Land and buildings do. 14,472 37,820
Machinery and equipment do. 1,743 4,730
Livestock do. 930 4,391
Crops an band do. 367 2,768
Cash receipts : do. 1,997 8,587
Cash expenditures do. : 1,2949 3,140

Net cash farm Income do. : 748 5,447
Value of perquisites do. 222 522

Change in inventory:
Crops and livestock : do. 342 -283
IMchinery ad buildings do. : 115 302

let farm income : do. 1,427 5,988

Total charge for capital do. 837 2.418
Charge for real estate capital do. 660 1,7O40
Charge for working capital do. 177 678
Return to operator and family for labor and management do. : 590 3,570
Return per hour to operator and family labor : do. .22 1.35
s S


610 617 636 720 720 712 389 415 w15 417 475 5140 540 547

293 264 262 452 371 389 203 275 261 288 215 300 280 314
2.825 .947 7 2.960 3.01&4 3.948 La 3.474 3.416 I3A 3.L2 3.0140 &M IM
2,667 2,725 2,651 2,625 2,649 2,700 3,1401 3,236 3,126 3,270 3,025 2,684 2.631 2,665
158 22 91 335 365 548 191 238 230 267 327 356 298 390
48.512 56.510 17.964 51.940 51.418 56,.60 1.5 31.076 9292005 34.168 10.467 3085 99.670 3374


37,210 41,955 14,981 4O,470 39,760 44,855 8,183 18,119 17,804 20,120


4,856 5,163
4,125 6,196
2,321 3,196
10,270 10,050

3,213 3,515
7,057 6,535
505 583


1,837 4,954 5,046 5,383 1,114
747 3,583 3,292 4,675 1,219
399 2,933 3,320 1,347 759
2,498 13,318 11,314 .1,016 1,906

1,345 3,472 3,583 3,917 1,079
1,153 9,846 7,731 7,099 827
221 510 497 574 281


1,202 160 356 399 .2,050 1,750 351
218 129 140 260 243 115 91

8,982 7,407 1,870 11,015 6,421 9,538 1,550


2.390 2.803
1,712 1,930
678 873
6,592 4,604

2.47 1.69


857 2.516 2.528 2.747 527
683 1,862 1,829 2,063 349
174 654 699 684 178
1,013 8,499 3,893 6,791 1,023
.38 3.24 1.47 2.52 .30


3,878
4,850

4,229
7,022

2,872
4,150
625


49,290
5,842
3,916
9,177

3,208

5,969
714


-844 572 1,987
242 225 170


7,364 18,927 18,317 90,415


1,275
1,089

739
1,818
1,108
710
296


3,730
3,508
4,692

7,554
2,702
4,852
624


3,773
3,106

4,474
8,036

2,712

5,324
614


3,98o
4,167
5,185

9,274
3,154
6,70

709


396 -336 620 1,059
74 143 138 217


4,173 5,250 8,8140 1,476 5,283 6,696 8,105


1.464

725
739
2,709
.84


W.96
712
684

3,854
1.21


1.648
805
843

7,192
2.20


315
178
983
.32


1.456

776
680

3,827
1.43


751

681

5,264
2.00


ia s

837
800
6,1468
2.43


Gross farm income
Net farm incom

Net farm production
Production per hour of man labor
Operating ene per untt of production
Total cost per unimt of production

Total input par unit of production
Power and mchinry used (quantity)

Prices received for products sold

Price Incuding wag" to hired labor
ji Prsi~t~y ---


Pet. 100 344
do. : 100 420

do. 100 183
do. 100 173
do. 100 114

do. 100 127r

do. 100 56
Sdo. 100 166

: do. 100 233
d o. 100 168


468 1421
629 519

232 189
215 168

96 133
103 144

45 57
169 171

245 263

174 188


Index numbers (1937-41-)
100 463 318 434 100
100 589 343 510 100
100 254 183 205 100

100 236 168 174 100
100 99 141 144 100

100 109 153 153 100
100 46 63 58 100
100 167 169 171 o100

100 246 230 276 100
100 178 181 199 100








Table 12.- Land use, livestock numbers, and distribution of income and expense, cmaerclal femlly-operated spring veast-roaugbaee-ivestock frem, and sheep ranches,
end cattle ranches, by type, 1937-.41 average and 1949-51


srM : UHEAT, N-OET-ie PLAoNS M:Noten s SP RAICTES __- __t_____: CATHTZ RJAnEB
w Wheat-rougbmge-llveatock Northern Plains InDternunta&n Region z Intermountali Raglon
Un1 1937-L1 : 199 : 1950 :1951 : 1937-1.1 : 191.9 : 1950 : 1951 j 1937-1 : 1919 1950 : 1951 : 1937-4.1 199 1950 951 1,


665 665 676


Crops harvested:

Wheat ad other mU grains Acre : 3/82.0 /150.0 ,/120.0 /12.O

Corn do. : 16.0 22.0 23.0 23.0


Other crops do. 143.0

SAY and forage do. 61.0

Crop yield (per mvesteA acre) :

Wbht Bu. : 8.2

Corn do. 11.1
All crop index (1937-141,,0) Pet. : 100

CelI crop (jamb crop an sbeep rumch.) do. 85

Livestock on fsm, January 1:

Al cattle No. :20.3

Milk con do. : 9.2

AX beep do. 11.4

ews do. : 8.7

Ross, all esai do. 4.9

Poetry do. 53

Borse do. : 5.7

rom With tractors Pct. : 60

Proportion of cuab racipts fronm:

What Pat. 1 15

Oth r crop* do. 2

Cattle do. : 0
SNOp do. 2
Othr litvetock do. 12
ool do. 2
Otbr livestock products do. 26

Ooveniimnt p mnts do. 21

Proportiion of ashb qendlt'rem for:
Fod o 16
Livestock expse do. -
Labor do.: 3
Peawr md hln, am. so
I I
aaaml. tln~ 'do. 25

do


ai lauummv, 5W


75.0 83.0 87.0

68.0 72.0 72.0


10.7 14.8

21.3 s0.6

16 201

85 85


34.1 31.7

9.0 8.5

10.9 9.5

7.7 6.9
6.9 7.0

78 73
3.0 2.7

100 loo


9.7 36w. 'V wome V7 A&L bw Ae..


4,721 5,187 5,296 5,175 3,076


Total land ia tarm

Proportion of land In:
Cropland barvested

Idle and failure
Pasture and otber land


3 4
7 8
.1. 50
1 1
34 36


1 1


15 12
15 in
LI? OB

23 a
I3 31
14 13
an


5,190 5,161 5,277 1,573 1,610 1,68 1,665


1 1

2 2

97 97


12 12

V V
88 8B


11 10

1 1

88 89


13.0 12.0 14.0 13.0 15.1 15.0 13.0 14.0


1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.4 2.7 2.5 2.0

29.0 30.0. 29.0 30.0 167.9 168.7 166.0 158.0






100 6 88 95 6y 72 79 0 V 1
a? 86 as 95 69 72 79 ft


Acre 583


Pet. : 27
do. O

do. 53


4 4 4

2/ 2/ 2I
96 96 96


68.3 63.0 65.9

10.5 10.6 10.5

1.5 1.8 3.8

130.7 140.6 121.8






111 138 133

75 75 80


24.5 23.7 23.6

1.3 1.k 1.3

1,111 1,085 1,1i,

9"a 88at 9w
2.2 2.0 2.0

314 36 40
9.1 8.6 6.8
96 96 99


1 5
814 814


0 4

96 9k


8 8 2 0


30 30
0 0

1 1


19 16 lb 12
31 19 31 U
18 31 l OD
16 1 18 13
8 10 8 7
8' 6 5 k


3 1 2.

1. 3 1


7 6 6 9
15 7 LI 18
1 15 9 0
U lb o 16
B 26 a
._ _8 __ M 8_____


I we


11.9

1.7

1,447

1,220
1.7

24

7.6

21


12.2 12.2 12.6 199.1 211.7 109.9 9S9.0
1.5 1.4 1.3 2.6 1.5 3.0 3.0

1,5040 1,409 1.5143 .
1,312 1,272 1.333 -

2.0 1.9 2.1 1.7 2.T 3.1 3.0

o 25 31 34 143 A* 38

7.5 7.A 7.2 15.2 13.4 13.3 12.0

57 57 58 9B 9 61 fA


-- -- .....


.i


i m








Table 13.- Investment, Income, and related factors, comrcial famLly-operated spring haeat-rogbage-llvastock fare and sheep ranches,
and cattle ranches, by type, 1937-41 average and 1969-51


: .amu WHEAT FRNM, nMUxmiB rKjj.n iuuiuAM aLD Uh rr. i Snuina
Unit Wheat-roughage-livestock : northern Plains lteromUcaiLn Be.lon Intermuntain lRealon
i 1937-41 1949 1950 : 1951 1/ 1937-1 : 1949 1950 : 1951 L/ I 1937-41 19149 : 1950 1951 / 1937-41 1949 1950 1951 1


Total land In farm
Croplend harvested
Total labor used
Operator and family labor
Hired labor

Total investment
Land and buildings
Machinery and equipment
Livestock
Crops on bhand


Acre 583 665 665 676

Sdo. : 159 261 244 271
Hour 3,.478 3,795 3.797 LW
do. 3,311 3,250 3,242 3,219
do. 164 55 555 618

Dcl. 8,332 30.091 28,203 32,8W6

do. 5,717 17,170 16,718 19,125
do. 912 3,228 3,265 3,T77
do. 1,312 5,601 5,123 6,444
do. 391 4,089 3,097 3,800


Cash receipts do. 1,298
: 8
Cash expenditures : do. : 886

Net cash farm since : do. : 412
Value of perquisites : do. : 268

Change In inventory:
Crops and livestock : do. 359
Machinery and building : do. : 25
Net farm income do. : 1,064
Total charge for capital do. 394
Charge for real estate capital do. : 244
Charge for working capital do. : 150
R eturn to operator and familly for labor
c and UAageSment do. : 670
Return per hour to operator and family labor do. .20
C).


6,205 6,496 7,643
2,614 2,605 3,043
3,591 3,891 4,600
610 607 705


- 944

154
3,411
1,423
687
736


92 2,321
163 175
4,753 7,801

1.358 1.588
669 765
689 823


1,988 3,395 6,213 1,365
.61 1.05 1.93 .34


4,721 5,187 5,294 5,175 3,076 5,190
108 211 216 202 43 43
L.,568 7.647 75 7.610 2,&.B 10.066
4,050 4,4W. 4,380 4,320 4,919 4,lo6
2,518 3,207 3,173 3,290 4,764 5,960

25.382 7431 68.1.6 1 87 .385 7e r76
14,981 10,976 38,031 44,029 12,345 38,885

1,407 5,021 5,331 5,832 1,418 3,442
7,923 24,034 22,315 35,030 12,199 33,809
1,071 4,282 2,751 2,650 1423 1,140

5,973 15,227 17,058" 28,241. 9,657 20,832


10,095 9,030 11,515 5,999
5,132 8,028 16,726 3,658
757 726 837 437


- 2,419 1,184 2,383 58
109 178 209 66

3,361 9,760 20,155 4,103
3.79 3.560 4.724 1,360
1,926 1,825 2,157 571
1,867 1,735 2,567 786

432 6,200 15,431 2,743
.10 1.42 3.57 .56


15,204
5,628
1,050


- 698
- 126
5,854

3.901
1,789
2,112


5,161 5,277 1,573 1,610 1,658 1,665
44 44 186 187 182 174

9.Q60 10.093 4.874 5.-0-01 450 4.690
4,080 4,023 4,815 4,080 4,08o0 4,020

5,780 6,070 59 921 510 670

8.134 103,340 29.051 65.238 70.643 78.142
39,527 4h,604 13,932 25,610 26,5B 29,636

4,399 4,6836 1,464 3, 58 3,621 3,051
37,079 52,656 12,776 32,956 37,143 39,600


1,129 1,244

25,605 43,121
18,993 28,324
6,612 14,797
1,294 1,566


1,111 2,7T7
-91 -32
8,923 19,108
4.161 5.37
1,818 2,141
2,343 3,230


879, 3,394 3,328 4,855

3,454 11,324 12,917 13,062


,1.486
1,968

348


492

35
2,843
1.4.96
686
810


3,721 4,025 4,968
7,603 8,922 8,094

883 931 1,129


- 865
178

7,799
3,080
1,178
1,902


- 818 4,811

-203 378
8,835 13,656

3.Wl2 3861
1,221 1,393
2,205 2,474


1,953 4,762 13,737 1,347 4,719 5,.409 9,789
.48 1.17 3.41 .28 1.16 1.33 2.43


Index numbers (1937-41.-100)

Gross farm incoe :Pet. 100 305 374 5514 100 208 291 182 100 211 279 473 100 264 305 1*3

let fatrm incom : do. 100 321 47 733 100 123 357 737 100 143 218 466 100 284 322 498
Net tar production do. 100 146 178 234 100 107 135 176 100 90 102 12I 100 101 98 116
Production per hour of man labor do. 100 136 65 215 100 93 119 151 100 87 100 122 100 98 10 120

Operating expense per unit of production do. 100 193 158 113 100 255 207 205 100 279 315 385 100 24.2 297 317
Total cost per unit of production do. : 100 219 173 154 100 268 224 224 100 291 311 364 100 251 296 294
Total input per unit of production do. 100 92 75 60 100 113 93 75 100 131 123 117 100 119 136 121
Power and machinery used (quantity) do. 100 194 194 195 100 170 175 173 100 137 139 110 100 110 147 118
Prices received for products sold do. 100 246 269 282 100 214 258 363 100 236 285 396 100 269 331 402
Prices paid Sncluding w es to hired labor do. 100 173 172 187 100 223 227 271 100 211 2.t 305 m0 165 1 18I
1/ Frel-miary.


Item


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Il NI OF FL ORIDA i

3 1262 08928 1975




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