Handbook of official United States standards for individual eggs

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Handbook of official United States standards for individual eggs
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United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics
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United States Government Printing Office ( Washington, D.C )
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UNITED STATES

&TMENT OF AGRICULTURE

AU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS


, D. C.


Issued June 1935


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(BOOK OF OFFICIAL



STATES STANDARDS


FOR


INDIVIDUAL EGGS










Effective February 16, 1934


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tIANJJISUUK. U1


UNITED STATES STANDARDS


FOR


IND IVIDUAL


EGGS


Ecffectfvei Febr y 16,194
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UNITED STATES


GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE


WASHIGTON: 1935


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FOREWORD


A primary requisite in the standardization anf.
grading of eggs is a set of standards for individual eggs .
in accordance with which it is possible to classify every.l"
edible egg.
These official United States standards for individual' :
eggs, which were promulgated by the Secretary of ,
Agriculture to be effective on and after February 16, I
1934, are believed to constitute a suitable basis for. a .
national program of egg standardization. .
Attention is directed to the fact that these standards j
are intended for application only to individual eggs;,
and that they do not include such factors as color,
size, weight, packing, treatment, or tolerance, all of ..
which are questions of classes or grades for eggs and i l
which are covered in the present tentative United I
States grades for eggs, or wl6h will be covered in i,
United States classes and, grades for eggs to be later !.
promulgated.






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CONTENTS
Pag

---------------------------------------------- ----------Pa%
Order of promulgation of standards 1
gpoiatinso for official United States standards for individual
l -.-- ------------------------------
1
Explanation of terms -------------------------------------
y eeggs -t-----------------------------------------6
Summary of United States standards for individual eggs---------- 8


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and it must be free- front vsibl e- diz
other defects or' blemishes. T : :- m:
The white must be firm and clear. :r

SPECIFICATIONS FOR U. S. EXTRA
The shell must be clean, sound, and normal.
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The air cell must not exceed two-eighths inch in d.pt
and must be regular except in the retail grade of I:
Extra, when the air cell may be slightly treniulmoug.:.....
The yolk must be fairly well centered and itrQ,9Ut tROB
may be moderately defined. It may be slighltly.ai t.;
but must be free from visible germ developmala..SB mmm
practically free from other defects or 'blershles...... .r...i
The white must be firm and clear. mh. ll. iii*tiiii

SPECIFICATIONS FOR U. S. STANDARD .
A.IL
The shell must be clean and sound but my : H
slightly abnormal. : -\
The air cell must not exceed three-eighths iW9,1 iii -
depth and may show movement'not in excess Obt m mm!
half inch. ....
The yolk outline may be well defined. The. joj '
may be mobile and may show slightly visible Igplt I |
development and other definite but not serious ddeiti* li
The white must be reasonably firm and be c miear., m:
ram : iE "*i^'t~m)m m
SPECIFICATIONS FOR U. S. TRADE 4 .
'* ,m mm ** ** ..:. .; ..1:
The shell must be clean and sound but mny be :: .:: .
abnormal.
The air cell may be over three-eighths inch in depfth ;m
may show movement in excess of one-half invV, .a i.'A
may be bubbly or free. .m .. m. .
The yolk may be plainly visible. It may bie ftMly A
mobile and cast a dark shadow. It may show clearly
visible germ development but no blood. It may shbow
other serious defects. H j
The white may be weak and watery. .. m
STANDARDS FOR EGGS WITH DIRTY SOUND SfWH d l..
Standards are provided for three qualities of & dirt .. ...A)
sound-shell eggs, namely, U. S. Extra Dirty, J_ S. .
Standard Dirty, and U. S. Trade Dirty. 6"mm
fications for dirty-shell eggs of each of these the
qualities are the same as for the corresponding qmmmm m
of clean-shell eggs except that the shell may be onl ..y




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.STANDARDS 3 INDIVIlDUAL EGGS

sligtly stained or slightly dirty in the U. S. Extra
Dirty and it may be stained 6r dirty in the U. S.
Standard Dirty and the U. S. Trade Dirty.
STAj9j:ADS FOR EGGS WITH CHECKED OR CRACKED
/r; SHELLS
.0ne standard is provided for eggs with checked or
cracked shells, namely, U. S. Check. The specifica-
tinsfor eggs of this quality shall be the same as for
dean sound-shell eggs of the quality of U. S. Trade or
better, except that the shell may be checked or cracked
but nct leaking, and it may be clean, stained, or dirty.
In testimony whereof I have hereto set
.. .. .my hand and caused the official seal
of the Department of Agriculture to
Sbe affixed in the city of Washington,
this 15th day of February 1934.

-W X ^r GJUL 4 c a Secretary of Agriculture.


EXPLANATION OF TERMS

TERMS DESCRIPTIVE OF SHELL
(1) Clean.-A clean shell is one which is free from
foreign matter and from stains or discolorations. Eggs
which show traces of processing oil on the shell are con-
sidered clean when classified as processed or shell-
treated eggs, unless the shell is otherwise soiled.
(2) Sound.-A sound shell is one that is free from
checks, cracks, or blind checks.
(3) Normal.-A normal shell is one which approxi-
mates the usual shape and which is of good, even tex-
ture and strength and free from distinct ridges, rough
areas, thin.spots, or other conditions not common to
good shells.
(4) Slightly abnormaL.-A slightly abnormal shell is
ope which may be somewhat unusual in shape or which
way be somewhat faulty in texture or strength. It
may also show distinct but not pronounced ridges, thin
sots or rough areas. .:
t{A)( Abnormt-M A ajbnormal shell is one which may
be decidedly misshapen or which may be decidedly
faulty in texture or strength or which may show pro-
nounced ridges, rough spots, or other defects.












(7) IKegutar.-A regular air cell is one
practically even, smooth outline (.ithb;;4A
ment) when the egg is twirled. ,
(8) Slightly tremulous.-A slightlytQr
is one which retains a practically fixed itt
egg but shows a slight movement, nt t r
eighth inch, at any one point where RitS i-i6& W i
touches the shell. ;I
(9) Movement not in excess of one-half i
cell which shows a movement, at one or.
where its lower edge touches the shell, but n'otr M
of one-half inch. Q11
(10) Movement in excess of one-half inch.-,kd j Si
which shows a movement, at one or more paSt:^^S
its lower edge touches the shell, which may btu i t.s ;.,,,
of one-half inch. "
(11) Bubbly.-A bubbly air cell is one which baa:^3",
several rather small bubbles within or beneath it whid:ch
give it a bubbly appearance. i
(12) Free.-A free air cell is one which moves.freeiyII
about in the egg. Such an air cell will seek the upiper-. '^,^
most point in the egg, no matter in what position thu^^::."::",:,
egg may be turned. : "
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TERMS DESCRIPTIVE OF YOLK . .
(13) Well centered.-A yolk that occupies the.:<:iE*
of the egg without much movement from that 10V1 $ A9W
when the egg is twirled. :
(14) Fairly well centered.-A yolk that occuPie,!li,
center of the egg but which may show a moderate6ni |v.::
ment from that position when the egg is twirled ::':;i|
(15) Plainly visible.-A plainly visible yolk ort ":, ii
shadow is one which has a plainly discernible ouPinid.
before the candle and may appear as a dark shadb* .I'a
(16) Dark shadow.-A dark yolk shadow ..........
when a freely mobile yolk closely approaches tii# S0R^lA
when twirled before the candle, and is distinct ..
cernible as a dark shadow. :::
(17) Outline indistinct-A yolk or yolk LSuO?$j*
outline of which is not clearly discernible when 1
before the candle. :. .:i
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I'14 ...e .. ly from the center- of the egg when the egg
q., |)) Mobile.-A mobile yolk is one which shows con-
s r' e movement away from the center of the egg
tha egg is. twirled before the candle.
: pi) V.rely mobile.-A freely mobile yolk is one
ti** shows a wide movement or swing away from the
of the egg when the egg is twirled before the
fai~i4. ad which copies sufficiently close to the shell
"as"t a de'idedly dark shadow.
I1 i (4) Iradticalby free from other defects or blemishes.-
o .wick h may show a slightly mottled condition
eri" sp unblemished.
'definite but not serious defecs.-A yolk
S ai mottled? is slightly spread, or which shows
tlie"eat spots.
Al H..h os defects.-A yolk which isdecidedly
or #eak or which shows well developohet
^^qBr* other sports, or areas of a Charater u.h611 do
itiderIetfthbee inedle.. .
.4) Free from visible germ development.-No visible
:TV i- 6*mt Q f the germ indicates tiat there has been
1: lqp.mervt of the germ spot or if Slit devlop-
:~t : deve'ol
...6. nrd t at.i has not proceeded to the
S point at which it can be distinguished by candling.
(28) Slightly vihib-era 4Awe4opment.-Slightly vim"-
-I,........le development of thi genii indicates that there has
I km1...mw development of-the germ and that it has
|W ..d .- ..to the point at which it i visblo bef.r the
Sdeqper colored.the yoak.a
. .. .i6 germ development .-Clearly visible
:op tf the ,germ without blood showing, is a
.....that .......the devqlo nt of the
: ffS^^hatopropoint at whzqh itmi plaqinjy,
4 a deeper eo*ore4 ata ora s
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caucue ana wmIcn nas Jiormeu ,as. n reii -9Q7
development. It does not refer to blood spot
occur in fresh eggs not due to embryo drelop netSk i
TERMS DESCRIPTIVE OF THE W .......
(31) Firm.-A firm white is one which is suffidelttlt H
thick or viscous to permit but little moven "'t, 1 ..
yolk from the center of the egg. A firm white is'.ia:i^'4
the principal causes of an indistinct or a mnod4w* ..
defined yolk outline. . .'.f.....' ,:'.....
(32) Reasonably firm.-A reasonably firm WlYiatO. I Q
which has a weakened viscous condition and th.ity. ...,'i
allows the yolk to move more freely from its unx '.n:'l !
position in the center of the egg and to approadr te e
shell more closely when the egg is twirled. Whew't -. ....
white is reasonably firm, the outline of the yolk .ti.. :
be well defined, but the yolk does not approach t4 :"
shell closely enough to cast a dark shadow. ,..,:.
(33) Weak and watery.-A weak and watery wb "p. .
is one which is thin and generally lacking in .viscosity '':.
and therefore permits the yolk to move freely.. fr.O.Mi,:
normal position in the center of the egg and closely....::^
approach the shell when the egg is twirled. A weak 'tnd
watery white is indicated by the free movement .i.. .
the decidedly dark shadow of the yolk as the egg is
twirled before the candle. Eggs with weak and 4ttet
whites often develop a tremulous, bubbly, or fre ..
cell. .. .. ... .
(34) Clear.-A clear white is one which is free-from "
discoloration or from any foreign bodies which, b.fo ..
the candle, appear as dark bodies. Prominent o ba|
should not be confused with foreign bodies.' '
INEDIBLE EGGS
Under the Federal Food and Drugs Act, eggs which ,':
are filthy, putrid, or decomposed in whole or in part are
adulterated. The following are regarded as inedible
eggs: Black rots, white rots, mixed rots (addled eggs), ..
sour eggs, eggs with green whites, eggs with' tuik .
yolks, moldy eggs, eggs showing blood ringsai .... .
containing embryo chicks, and any other eggs h:t* "".
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are filthy, decomposed, or putrid. .. .
Inedible or adulterated eggs shall not be c6i-"iude"...
as conforming to the requirements of any of the Official.
United States Standards for Individual Eggs.




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"t" .lAI".R INDIVIDUAL EGG8 7


NkJ containing skll meat spots or blood clots of
suck araetewr that they can be readily removed shall
be considered edible. eggs but not of a quality higher
than U. S. Trade, U. S. Trade Dirty, or U. S. Check.


















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SUMMARY OF UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR INDIVIDUAL EGGS

[The figures In parentheses refer to paragraph number of explanations of terms on pp. 3 to a]


Quality Specifications of each quality factor
factors
U. S. Special U. S. Extra U. S. Standard TJ. S. Trade

Shell --------- Clean (1) sound (2); Clean (1); sound (2); normal Clean (1); sound (2); may Clean (1); sound (2)1 may b.e
b
normal 3). (3). be slightly a normal (4). abnormal (5). *74
Air cell ------- One-eigbtb inch or les Two-eighths Inch or less In Three-eightbs inch or less in May be over tbrie-eightba
in depth -(6); regular depth (6); regular 1 (7). depth (6); may show inch in depth (6); may
(7). movement not in excess show movement'.1n excess
of one-half inch (9). of one-half Inch t10); in .. ..... ..
Yolk --------- Well centered (13); out- Fairly well centered (14) Outline well defined (19); 'May be plainly
line indistinct (17); outline moderately de- may be mobile (22); may may be freely mobiler 4
motion sluggish (20); fined (18); may be slight- show slightly visible germ cast dark shado* (28);, 2
free from visible germ ly mobile (21); free from development (28) and oth- show clearly visible pm
development (27) and visible germ development er definite but not serious devel m nt (2j but, no
other defects or blem- (27) and practically free defects (25). bloodoem) may oWOV*
Ishes (24). from other defects or blem- serious ddcts
Ishes (24).
White_--_ Firm (31); clear (34)----- Firm (ai); clear (34) --------- Reasonably firm (32); clear be weak sud,
j
(34). . ... ...

11110 that dthawlse fully m"t the speedfications of U. S. Xktrt but baTe slightly tremulous (4) idr cell (a moftund
InW may be classed as U. S. Extras in the retail grade of U. Extmio
34
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