4-H club work in West Virginia

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4-H club work in West Virginia
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United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics. -- Division of Farm Population and Rural Life
Harris, T. L
United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics
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4-H clubs -- West Virginia   ( lcsh )
4-H clubs -- Sociological aspects   ( lcsh )
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by T.L. Harris.

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University of Florida
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441 CLUB WORK IN WEST VIRGINIA


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A Preliminary Report


Wailhnton, D. C.
April, 1131


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4-H CLUB WORK IN WEST VIRGINIA


by T. L. Harris, Sociologist. Agricultural Experiment Station of
mist Virginia University, cooperating with the Division of
Farm Population and Rural Life




Introduction

Since the passage of the Agricultural Extension Act in 1914, boys
and girls' 4-H Club work has developed rapidly among farming communities
the country over, and has become a substantial part of the agricultural
extension activities in many States. This report deals in a brief way with
a study of the 4-H club work in West Virginia from the sociological point
of view. The data were gathered from 1927 to 1928 inclusive. Most of
the facts were obtained through personal interviews in the field. The
questions. so far as possible, were made to deal with objective data
rather than with personal or group opinions. Tabular presentation of
data appears together at the end of the text.

Scope of the Report

This report includes:

1. An analysis of the structure, functions, and influences of 341
clubs in 39 counties.
2. A study of farm boys of 4-H club age (10 to 18) who are not
club members.
3. An account of what 33 county supervisors of club work think
are the chief problems, values, and obstacles in 4-H work.
4. A case-study of a county in which 4-H work once flourished,
later greatly declined, and is now at a standstill.
5. A casne-study of a county in which 4-H work has made a steady
progress from its inception to the present time.
6. A case-study of one 4-H club which is in some respects out-
standing, in other respects average or below.
7. A specific stat-m:nt about 4-H club work by an intelligent
farm woman who has six children who have been active in the work. This
statement was based on definite questions and throws some light on paren-
tal attitudes toward 4-H activities.





the sooializlng of personal character.


9. Diary notes on a regional 4-4H club leaders' conference. The
discussions at this conference reveal 4-H aims and standards at theirll
bout.

10. Outline of the strong points and weak points of the 4-H olbt
work at present.

An Analysis of 341 4-H Clubs in 39 Counties

For an analysis of certain significant sociological facts a random
sample of 341 of the 828 clubs in the State during 1927-28 Was taken. The
median enrollment in these 341 clubs was 13. the average enrollment 15.5. I
The total 4-H enrollment in the State during 1927-28 was. 13,328 an aver- '
age of 16.1 per club. Practically all of the information used in the
analysis was obtained directly from club leaders or older boys or girls
who were members of the clubs studied.

Seventy-one per cent of the clubs in the sample wore in neighbor-
hoods where general farming was the chief occupation. Four-H club work
has had only slight success in mining communities for at least three
reasons: The 4-H projects, especially for boys, are designed for farm:;
the mining population is so mobile as to make it extremely difficult to
retain even a moderately permanent club membership; nearly all county
supervisors of 4-H work consider their chief Job to be with the farm boys
and girls. Only two counties. Kanawha and Fayette. enrolled any oon-
siderable number of boys and girls from mining families.

In an endeavor to determine how many competing (or cooperating)
groups of young people of club age were found in the respective club
neighborhoods, it was found that substantially more than one-half of the
clubs studied were In neighborhoods that had no other organized group of
young people.

One of the greatest problems of 4-H work in West Virginia is that
so many clubs lead a flickering existence and then die. It was found that
42.2 per cent of all clubs studied were only in their first or second
year. and 62.7 per cent of the clubs were 4- neighborhoods that never had
had a club. Undue effort on the part of county supervisors and local
leaders is spent in organizing new clubs and not enough time and effort
are spent in carefully selecting the neighborhood in which a club is to
be started and then intelligently and persistently fostering this club
through a series of years. About one in five of the clubs organized
dies within a relatively short time. perhaps because adolescent groups
change rapidly in personnel make-up.
*I
The median age of the clubs studied was 2.7 years; the median nus
ber of leaders. 1.1. COn the average, the length of service for a club
leader is between two or.d two and one-half years.

The great majority cf the 64 clubs that had enrollments of more
.hanr. 20 were found in villages or oven larger towns. Four county-seat
tow.ns. ono with a population of 25.000. are found In this group. There


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About three-fourths of all the club leaders are school teachers.
_JU situation has its advantages in that practically all club members are
1a3boo^^^,l, pupils; its disadvantages are discussed later. Apparently it
JK would be desirable to enlist the services as club leaders of a larger
pl*isom nber of intelligent farm men and women, especially those who have them-
iil: selves had successful experience in 4-H work. Nearly two-thircs of the
| Ii -club leaders have never had experience as rank-and-file club members.
I "'J: This is to be expected on account of the recerncy of the 4-H movement and
the rather mature age of a large proportion of rural teachers in West
||. : Virginia. especially the omen teachers.

Slightly more than seventy per cent of the clubs hold their regu-
lar meetings once a month. Nearly all clubs have one or more special
meetings during the year. Such meetings usually partake of the nature
of picnics or hikes, or they are intended to expedite project completions.
The typical club meeting consists of three parts: Opening service,
consisting of club songs, other music, and devotions; business, with the
cGhairman presiding, assisted by the adult leader: and recreation with
games, and stunts.

:, Nearly seventy per cent of the clubs receive adequate supervision.
| so far as frequency of visits by county workers is concerned.

At least one county has its club work so well organized and con-
veniently located that every club, waak and strong, near and distant. is
I regularly visited by either the county agent or the home demonstration
I agent.

A well-planned and well-executed activity for adolescent youth
(like the 4-H program) is a vital formative influence in the development
of boys or girls who actively participate in the program, yet nearly one-
third of the clubs are without their regular leader during the summer
period, when project completion work and recreational activities are or
should be at their height. In a relatively small number of cases special
club agents are obtained for summer supervision. Later this lack of
summer supervision in a large number of clubs is pointed out as one of
the weaknesses in the program but the situation is not so untoward as
* night be expected when one considers that 249 of the club leaders ware
teachers and that only 100 of the leaders did not remain in the community
during the summer.

!Making a liberal allowance for the clubs taken care of by the spec-
' ial agents during the summer, about 200 of the 945 clubs (1928-29) were
without satisfactory summer supervision. Perhaps there is no one point in
the whole range of club activities where a relatively small amount of
money would go so far in raising standards of achievement as would the
money necessary for at least a part-time 4-H club agent in every county
:!; ~ of the State during the three summer months.

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aimouLar ,BHBU La L LU O J.nLJ.UaIVo pr3mUWUi a onrer anai.yIE or rae t1J!II
tellectual. financial, and social (or oomunity) status of 4-H club families. m
These tables show a high degree of relationship between club menbership and:..
the following factors: (1) more-than-average intellectual interests of the ii
families from which club members come: (2) above-average capacity of club
members' families as community leaders; (3) education of parents: and (4)
financial prosperity of parents.

The lowest degree of relationship in these four pairs of factors is
found in the relation between club membership and education of parents. In '
36.1 per cent of the club neighborhoods there is no recognizable difference
between parents or club members and parents of nonmembers in the matter of ,
formal education. Perhaps the chief explanation lies in the fact that until *
the last 15 or 20 years, opportunity for education in many parts of rural j
West Virginia has been extremely limited.

In only 3.8 per cent cf the club neighborhoods was the attitude of
parents found unanimously favorable toward club work but practically no ac-
tive opposition or hostility was noted anywhere. In the very few cases of i
outright opposition the reasons givun were generally related to the parents' I
idea that club work was a fad, taking time or money that should be spent at
real work. The increasingly frequent demonstrations of the money value of
club work, especially in livestock and crops, are removing nearly all the
opposition to club work.

In only a few instances do club leaders consciously attempt to trans-
form parental indifference into whole-hearted support. Nearly all clubs
invite parents to their programs at least once a year. Other devices could
be used to accomplish this much-to-be-desired end of intelligent, general.
and enthusiastic cooperation of the parents in support of the 4-H aims,
ideals,. and activities.

Considerable progress has been made in a few counties in securing
some financial support and friendly sponsoring of 4-H work. but a reasonable goal
in this respect seems far in the future.

Frcm the viewpoint of value to the community, interest to themselves,
and encouragement toward d.vdocping boys and girls, there seems to be no
more promising and fruitful project for civic clubs and women's clubs than
the intelligent fostoring of 4-H work.

In scme cases. cuch as the influence of improved methods taught in
club wor. hu, effect upc;. I, 'or.Lts by their children who aro in club work
is ur.mi.takable and cc':nEsd. alc" thvro is no other ascertainable factor at
icrk to produce thu Fa:'ii;la:" LffCct For instance, definite improvements
in sh-..p an:d dairy cat'.i- t.:'ding and in potato growing are traceable to
the effects of 4-H work in certain sections of the State.

ucausc of tl ,.:i, *i. car.cro of the factor covered in tabular item 19
." as .iattomptd to a:.3l:z. 'his supposed effect of 4-H work. One intelli-

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I methods from their 4-H canning project.


S It the data given In tabular item 19 are somewhere near accurate, it
-J~J!j that in about 71.3 per cent of the clubs this process to bring about
mttr taming and farm homemaking has been going on to some extent. In
01 of the 341 clubs it is estimated that 25 per cent or more of the 4-H
er ~have thus definitely influenced their parents.

i'''..........In 27.3 per cent of the clubs studied there was evidence of some in-
lene by club members upon their parents in the matter of keeping accounts
t receipts and expenditures. This was true most frequently of potato
ad livestock projects.

Close connection was found between club membership and enrollment in
ses public schools. Practically all club members were school pupils; the
47 clubs that had less than 100 per cent of their members enrolled as school
pupils had only a very few such members in each case. The usual number of
S boys or girls in any one club who were not attending school was one or two.
fta a practically all cases the club members who were not school pupils at the
%s tie the club was studied had recently been in school and were merely retain-
: ing their club membership a year or so until the rest of their fellows left
school.

On the other hand, 65.9 per cent of the clubs enrolled fewer than
one-half of the boys and girls of club age in the respective schools where
the clubs were organized. Slightly more than twenty-two per cent of the
clubs had fewer than one-fifth of the boys and girls who were eligible for
club membership. Parental indifference and cost of project materials were
the chief reasons why boys and girls did not join clubs. In a few isolated
cases the club seemed to have been deliberately kept an exclusive group for
children of certain families or of a selected circle. One county agent
mentioned this tendency among some of his clubs as a real problem.

In about nine-tenths of all the clubs studied the club leaders seemed
definitely convinced that the club program was more attractive to the bright-
er boys and girls.

Possibly there should be an associate membership, witbcut full pri-
vileges, for those boys and girls who are willing to do their part with
projects and to cooperate in all club group activities, but are unable to
complete all the requirements for full-fledged membership. The present
movement in West Virginia to have "standard" or "honor" clubs: to give
special recognition to clubs with almost a perfect score in project com-
pletion, is a step in the right direction. The real leadership-training
phase of 4-H work should not be diluted or weakened in order to allow re-
lative weaklings to call themselves full-fledged 4-H members.

In 75.1 per cent of the clubs there were evidences that non-club mem-
bers did better school work because of the presence of a club in their school.
even though they did not belong to the club themselves. The spirit of


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emulation and effect of personal example are especially strong aaong ado1esl
cent boys and girls. This favorable effect of the presence of a club
perhaps one chief reason why progressive teachers who are ambitious
their pupils are willing to undertake the supervision of a 4-H club in thtil
school. 'I

In the matter of contributing toward higher standards of conductt'
it seems that 4-H club influence scores even higher than toward stimulation
to better study. While 75.1 per cent of the clubs had the latter influence,
88 per cent exerted the former.

The connection between standards of personal and social conduct above
the average on the or.n hani and 4-H club experience on the other hand, seems
to be definitely tracoablo although intangible. Both by precept and by ex-
ample the 4-H program emphasizes clearly and strongly the value of wholesome
moral character. It is similar in this respect to the program of the Boy
Scouts, Camp-Fire Girls. Girl Scouts, and Girl Reserves.

Nearly 75 per cent of the clubs showed evidence that their members
remained in school for more years than did non-club members in the sae
school. Probably this was only partly due to their club experience; their
greater native mentality, greater encouragement by parents, and greater
financial prosperity of parents would all tend in this direction. Personal
testimony of former club members as w311 as the fact that a vital part of
club experience is educational, seem to make it certain that one factor in
causing club members to continue their formal education longer than do non-
club members is the factor of ambition and stimulus toward all-round, com-
plete personal development which they received from their 4-H club experience.

Practically all the clubs revealed distinct leadership qualities in
playing and recreation at school The training which club members receive
in the matter of recreation at county and State camps as well as in their
home club meetings is app-r.rntly nnc of the most valuable contributions of
the whole 4-H program to p-rsonnl and community advancement. Inasmuch as
most rural communities aro d-,cidedly lacking in adequate group recreation,
it is especially fortunate that tho 4-H clubs emphasize this aspect of their
work. Some typical gam:s used by 4-H loaders are briefly described later
in the diary notes.

Encouragement of rood ru. nr habits was found in 88.3 per cent of
the clubs. In the grcat majority of cases active interest was secured in
completing the requircmc'r.ts of the regular pupils' reading-circle books,
which composo a standa.-rd part of th:. extra-curricular activities of West
Vlrgin:a elementary schoos :". n cor.sidorablc number of cases, the read-
ing of club members went h-yo:d thcsc r:quircments and included five to ton
hooks of excellent fir:*:o:. ,3 w:,ll as biography, poetry,. and history. Re-
sourccfui club leaders gL,-'rc" fo-:'d who occasionally devoted most of a rcgu-
lar- mucting to rcpor-ts and d'icusslor. of books read by members of the club.

In a large number of th_ farm homos good books are a luxury, and some
of thc brighter 4-H boy a:;.d irls are almost pathetically eager and hungry


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SI r pod boolm to reed. The owning and circulating among its members of
v,.q a tfw wholessoe books Is a real boon to many a club and to the homes of
.%W mbeer. Not many clubs have as yet accumulated sufficient funds to un-
srtsahs to furnish cosunalty library facilities. The fact that even 28.4
r "a t of the clubs studied are doing something in the way of providing
be. for the community speaks well for their ability to sense community
sh nthisn respect.

The fact that 86.8 per cent of the clubs seemed to exert an influence
...i.. the direction of now ideas and practices indicates that the stimulus of
fieodly attitudes toward new and improved ways of doing things has been set
o work by many of the clubs.

S.The 341 clubs hid a wide variety of social activities, ranging from
.bhes, picnics, box suppers, and socials to money-making affairs and drama-


l .... Clubs that had no members in camp one year may have been represented
Ina previous years. Abcut thirty-five per cent of the clubs had no repre-
3 smetative at any county camp in 1927. chiefly because of distance from the
-, osq pressure of farm work at home, and lack of money. In a few cases
IE there was no county camp in the county. On the other hand, nearly one-half
-i, of the clubs had three or more members at camp that year.

i The State camp at Jackson's Mill although nearly in the geographic
i and population center of the State, is yet quite distant from the majority
i of the clubs in the State. Time, money, and an outstanding achievement
5 record at home are necessary for the privilege of attending the State Camp.
9 Fifty-nine of the 341 clubs were represented by one member at Jackson's Mill
I! in 1927 and 59 other clubs by more than one. More than two-fifths of the
I clubs had honors or prizes to report for 1926-27.

A wide variety of prizes and honors, many of them of a substantial
character, are available to West Virginia 4-H boys and girls. Cash prizes
at State and county fairs, scholarships donated by railroad companies or farm
women's clubs, prizes by fruit-jar and other manufacturing concerns, are
among the material rewards offered for real achievements in 4-H work.

For boys carrying livestock projects, the honor of participation in
a Judging team at the International Livestock Exposition at Chicago is one
of the most valued of the prizes.

Members in 68.3 per cent of the clubs carried bank accounts. The
practice of keeping careful records of costs and profits bears further
fruit in helping to develop the habit of saving and of doing business through
the banks. It is fair to assume that by their experience in buying materials,
in keeping an account of quantities and values of feed used, and in buying
cloth or eggs, the 4-H boys ar.d girls who have bank accounts have found their
club work a real factor in the development of thrift and of business-like
attitudes sad practices.

In 81.2 per cent of the clubs some contribution toward the informal
social life of the neighborhood was found. In 89.5 per cent of the cases,
. :
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ElmsbUUAa ba UwrW EUUWAS.AAJ S.aUU UvM WU&& ywvyW *&-W uFA aw LUtU bUSp M
work and the club gives outlet and guidance to their potential sooabil'Il

Nearly 90 per cent of theme club neighborhoods reported that the r..
4-H young people are more active and helpful in Church, Sunday School, at*I!
young people's societies than are the other young people. This probably is-
a result of the emphasis upon tLa religious element in the 4-H program.

Interest in beautification projects, as demonstrated by nearly three-:
fourths of the clubs studied, does not always mean actual work, but at lesot
it is a step in the right direction. The 4-H influence here comes from tie
general favorable attitude of all effective club leaders toward the practice
of cleanliness and neatness about the home. the school, and church ground,
and. in a few cases, the community highways. It is not unusual for a 4"
club to assume the responsibility of cleaning the school yard, cutting weeds
around the church building, or setting out trees and shrubbery on the school
grounds. There is an increasing number of boys and girls who carry hoe
beautification projects, from which they receive intelligent guidance as to
how to improve their everyday surroundings.

Inasmuch as the 4-H program is maintained by the State and Federal
governments for the express purpose of promoting more intelligent agricul-
ture and farm home-making, it would fall short of its purpose if it did not
help the boy and girl members to put as much as possible of their educar-
tion and knowledge into daily practice. This reasonable goal of 4-H work
is. to a considerable extent, actually achieved.

Large community enterprises in rural communities are few; that is
one reason why only 2.3 per cent of the clubs have achievements of this
kind to their credit. Only in rare Instances do club members have the age,
experience, and leadership capacity to enable them to take a leading part
among the adult tax-paying members of the community.

The improvements in community life mentioned in the cases of 249 of
the 341 clubs ranged from material improvements such as a new high school
builoiag to intangible factors such as better relationships between adults
and young people or between town and country people. Most of the 92 club
neighborhoods where no such improvements was in evidence were those neighbor-
hoods in which club work was of very recent origin.

A County Study of 557 Boys of Club Age Who Are Not in School

Dr. C. B. Smith. in charge of cooperative extension work in the United
States Department of Agriculture, in regard to this study of 4-H work in
West Virginia requested that the plan of study include:
(1) Ascertaining in one or more counties, the number of rural boys
between the ages of 10 and 18 not in any school, with their respective aces.


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Y Nonnagalla Cmnty, a representative farming and mining county in
central West Virginia. was selected. With the exception of the city
lrgsatown, practically all the people of the county live under rural or
uoral conditions. Three smail incorporated villages, but none of the
'of the city of Morgantown, are included.

The county is probably above the average so far as the development
.4- plub work is concerned. The farm people have had the leadership of
eaowttnt county agent and hone demonstration agent for several years.
ad" the State university is situated at Morgantown.

The fact that Morgan District, in which Morgantown is located, has
Af* ltw etlve 4-H clubs in its 22 rural schools, and Clinton District, one of the
||Islate agricultural sections has only three clubs in its22 rural schools.
L 'igests that proximity to the county seat and the presence of a hard-road
i steptm are significant factors in determining the extent of 4-H club develop-
maii t. This situation prevails rather generally over the State.

The 147 country schools in the 39 counties vary in size from one
room to three or sore. The 43 schools with two rooms or more are found
I m. ostly in neighborhoods in which the population is partly mining and partly
i, agricultural. The 104 one-room country schools have eighteen 4-H clubs.
:: and 82 per cent of the distinctly farming neighborhoods of the county are
without any 4-H program.

Of the 43 schools having two or more rooms, 17 schools, or 39.5 per
dent have 4-H clubs, as compared with 18 per cent of the 104 one-room
schools. The larger schools are nearly always on or near hard roads.

The three magisterial districts lying nearest Morgantown (the county
meat) and having the best hard-road system, had an average of one club to
three schools. The school enrollment in these three districts averaged 29.
The four magisterial districts lying farthest from Morgantown, having the
poorest roads and an average school enrollment of 20, had an average of one
club to six schools.

The 4-H program is valuable in the larger schools but it is still
more valuable and more urgently needed in the one-room school neighborhoods.
S These more isolated neighborhoods usually have only slightly developed group
S activities of any worthwhile kind.

; Small school enrollments are handicaps to effective 4-H club organi-
nution. It is possible to have a club of five members, but eight, ten or
twelve members are necessary to a vitally functioning group. Many of the


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the county having the moat purely rarmting population was 20. with a & ... .o
siderable number lower than 20. In the other three districts the aveoim
school enrollments was 29. Small enrollment In a large number of tai...
schools in distinctly farming neighborhoods was regarded as an additli.a.....
factor tending to determine the extent and quality of club work in iiiilB
county.

An illustration of how rural migration sometimes affects 4-H @l*:.iilll||
work is found in the following note of the field worker concerning a O*@ -:ii%. l
tain school visited. "There was a 4-H club here. but it ceased to exist::::!1]:"::.
when the chief families moved away two years ago." In the farm neighbort:u.
hood the moving away of a few families is often fatal to the negihborhood/ il|
organizations.

None of the six schools for negro children in the county has a 4-2
club.

Most boys leave school at about 15 years of age and beyond. .i2
rather sharp increase in the number of those dropping out at 16 years, ais
compared with those leaving at 15 years of age, is explained partly by the
fact that the West Virginia law allows boys to work in coal mines at 1.
years. About twenty-four per cent of all the 557 boys were actually working
in coal mines when the survey was made. The 4-H program is not designed
especially for coal miners and naturally the boys who left school to work
in the mines would be inclined to drop their 4-H club membership at the
same time. i
The two leading causes given for leaving school were lack of in -
terest in school work on the part of the boy. and economic necessity. ii
One should probably not interpret this to mean that 140 boys were com- .
pelled to leave school to prevent actual suffering in their families: it "
means, in most cases, that the standard of living of farm families in :
this county is slowly rising and that the older boys of the larger families ;
wished to help maintain this rising standard when they reached the point
where they could make tangible contributions to the family income.

Ninety per cent or more of the boys of 4-H club age who have left
school are not enrolled in 4-H club work. Although 155 boys lived near enough
to a club to make membership possible, only 16 of these availed themselves
of the opportunity.

About 80 per cent of the fathers of the 557 boys earn their living .
entirely or chiefly by farming. Tabular item 47 shows that only 111 of the
boys. or 19.9 per cent. are following that occupation.

Only one-fifth of the boys in farm families are following their

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SSites' onpeation. No doubt this fact is a large causal factor in the
1.periaotage of older boys out of school who are doing 4-H club work.
S'heel. 4.H program is organized primarily for boys and girls whose
llies mke their living in agriculture, then an older boy leaves that
mupawitioi his chief incentive to 4-H club work is gone.
In the more purely agricultural counties the percentage of boys and
lrii s who stay in club work for a short time after they leave school is
4 U than it is in Monongalia. In the large number of counties, however.
ib the occupations of farming and mining are much intermingled, much the
onditions-prevail as In Nonongalia County.

S'. A Case-Study of a County in Which 4-H Club
:" ..Work Has Gone Steadily Forward.

lII i11 mFour-H 'club work in Barbour County had its origin in corn clubs;
tM first was organized in 1911 with a membership of five boys. In 1912
ti o h clubs were conducted by the teachers under the direction of the county
superintendent of schools. The total membership was 300; of these 47 per
mcent exhibited at the fair. These clubs were intended to give the farm boys
Itam girls something of their own and to give them recognition as owners and
y. operators.

During the early years of club work in the county, communities held
local fairs in which the boys and girls held the most prominent part. Local
citizens contributed money and articles for prizes and thus stimulated and
Matained the interest of the boys and girls, but Valley District was the
only one to continue this practice for any length of time.

With the help of its first county agent, Barbour County in 1915
ranked fifth in the State in club membership, with an enrollment of 204
in about eight clubs. Six boys received prizes which entitled them to
attend the Prize Winners' Course at Morgantown in January. 1916. All
were from the Kerr Club. Four received prizes on exhibits or on judging.

In 1917 more than 100 boys and girls in six clubs carried on pig
corn, potato, or poultry projects. The first girls' club in the county
that was associated with the Extension Division was organized at Mountain
View in 1918; it had cold-pack canning and sewing projects. The club
was discontinued because of lack of local and county leadership.

Several of the clubs survived the World War. Emphasis now was put
on organization, and the social and religious phases were stressed for the
first time. a feature which distinguishes 4-H clubs from other agricul-
tural clubs. Eight or ten clubs were active in 1919.

The first county camp was held in 1919 at Audra on the Middle Fork
River. Four local leaders, three camp instructors, and 20 boys and girls
attended. For the first time the 4-H idea was developed, and from that time
the idea has grown steadily.

few more clubs were organized in 1920. The county agent endeavored
to strengthen the clubs by urging old members to continue, developing club
Spirit, making home visits, encouraging more complete organization, and em-
phlasting the social hour.


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Lack of appreciation of the value of the work on the part of a iiiii|.
era, and a feeling on the part of certain business men that farmers' e
ganlzations would hinder their business, proved a hindrance to effeotivn
club work from the beginning. The county was without a county agent f :or .
six months in 1921; a- a result no camp was held, and club work declined !
somewhat.

In 1922 many new clubs were organized. Three women as local leaders
helped with the girls' work. and three mon assisted with the boys' work.
Sewing and canning projects were introduced this year. Thirty-five members
attended camp and two von their 4-H pins.

In 1923 several State leaders visited the county. Two women and
one man were employed to work on part time during the summer. There were
21 clubs, with a membership of more than 300. During the summer the work
was carried to new communities.
::.*EE EEEE





In 1923 the camp site was changed from Audra to a more centrally lo-
cated place near Volga. A banker at Philippi, the county seat, gave land
for a camp site. Men of the community dug a well and put the grounds In
condition for camp. There were nine camp instructors, four local leaders,
and 60 regular campers. Three received their 4-H pins. In the fall of
this year a home demonstration agent was employed.

One person who has lived in the county and has been connected with
club work for many years says that "the members from the early clubs are
now showing leadership and citizenship above the average in their communi-
ties.".

The period from 1923 to 1928 was one of steady growth and constant
achievement in Barbour County. The 4-H program became familiar to all
citizens of the county. Perhaps the greatest single reason is the impetus
given to more successful potato growing and sheep raising, -the chief
sources of cash inccmae. The Kiwanis clubs in Philippi and Belington, as
wall as the bankers and merchants. have given cordial and substantial
support to the 4-H work. both because of their interest in the boys and
girls and because 4-H work contributed directly toward more and better,
business. Assistance has been in the form of loaning money for purchase of
lambs and saed potatoes. in taking a friendly interest in the boys and
girls and in their projects. and in giving all who completed their potato
projects a recognition dinner at the close of the harvest.

The business and professional omen of the county give further en-
couragement to the 4-H work by visiting the county camp, making talks to
the campers, and by speaking a good word for the 4-H program in their daily
contacts.


- 12 -





.sa of the er significant and valuable results of 17 years of con-
tUjuimuous 4-H olub work Ina Barbour County may be sumaarized as follows:

1. A substantial contribution has been made to more scientific and
Profitable agriculture, especially in the fields of potato production
Sheep raising.

2. A large contribution has been made a more vital recreational life
1 ii'i U the teen-age young people. This has been accomplished largely through
the:,. training in group games, stunts, and group singing fostered by the
m, o ty camps and by the sore resourceful club groups in their respective
1oa coamm unlties.
[ll^1: ',3. The bringing about of a more friendly and mutually helpful re-
l : tionship between the farm people of the county and the business and
plro ofessional people of the two leading towns of the county. The good will
Sthus engendered and the increase in actual money profits obtained as a
result of this helpful cooperation between town and country are plainly
abticeable.

4. The all-round personal development that has been brought about
Ia the lives and characters of a large number of boys and girls who have
been active in 4-H work. This personal development includes ability to
achieve substantial results in the technical and business aspects of
agriculture, creation of interests and ambitions for high school and college
education, and ability to serve the community as effective leaders. One
Specific evidence of this developing effect of club work is found in the
large number of State prize winners coming from this county and the fact
that one very small club (Kerr) won so many prizes for two or three years
that it was temporarily withheld from prize competitions.

An interesting example of how certain 4-H projects may be used to
develop community interest and pride is found in the community beautifica-
tion project performed by the 4-H club of Philippi, the county seat and
S largest town in the county. This rather large club, of more than 30
members, took as its group project the beautifying and improving of the
school grounds. Through the planting and the setting out of shrubbery,
the appearance of the school grounds, in which all the community is inter-
ested. was transformed. Perhaps the creation of a more vital pride and in-
terest in their community by the team work on the part of the boys and girls
who carried the project through was the most valuable result of this
enterprise.

In summarizing some of the more important reasons why 4-H club work
has gone steadily forward in Barbour county the following factors should be
noted:

1. More competent and more permanent county leadership than most of
the West Virginia counties have had. This is especially true in the 1923-28
S period, during which the same agricultural agent and same home demonstra-
ti Uon agent served the county continuously.
-13 -
: "
E" =









3. In recent years the building of a well-coordinated syte .
county and State roads In Barbour County has greatly Increased the ease M
efficiency of county supervision.

4. It has been partly inoidential that a considerable number
energetic and intelligent families have been actively connected with 0.sn
work. These have made notable contributions to club work through thel.r 1||
perseverance, intelligence, industry, and loyalty to club ideals -1::
principles. .

A Case-Study of a County Where 4-H Club Work has Slumped

Monroe County, situated in the southeastern part of the State on the
edge of the Blue Ridge Mountains, is of rolling topography. Union. the ii
county seat. is the largest town. with a population of about 1.000. General
farming and beef cattle raising are the chief industries. :
,,-ii
ii -:"
There are four high schools: Union. Peterstown, Gap Mills, and :
Greenville. The average attendance at each is about 90. There are several
graded schools and many one-room schools in the county.

Bad roads have been the chief drawback to social betterment in the
county, but with the coming of good roads social conditions are improving.
Practically no foreigners live in the county; there are several settlements
of negroes; and considerable number of the characteristic mountain people
may be found.

Monroe was one of the first counties in West Virginia to take an in-
terest in 4-H club work. Corn clubs were organized in 1912 or 1913; these
were forerunners of 4-H club project work.

In 1915 the first county camp was held. Monroe was thus the second
county in the state to hold a county camp. The Extension Division of the
College of Agriculture sponsored a number of contests, and in this county
five members entered the acre corn contest, 45 the 200-hill corn contest,
one the poultry, one the pig, and one the potato contest.

The county's first agricultural agent began work in July. 1916. At
this time 4-H club work was establishing itself in the State as well as in
the county. Forty-six boys and girls attended the county camp in that year.
Salt Sulphur Springs. an old summer resort located four miles from Union
and almost in the center of the county, was the site for this and later
camps, a beautiful spot. for many years the scene of happy days.

There were games, story telling, nature classes, study of bible
characters, first aid. Indian lore. stunt nights, and campfire. In spite of
the constructive character of the meetings, some of the people in time with-
drew their support and their children from 4-H work. fearing too much recrea-
tion.

-14-









There wore three girls' clubs in the county in 1917. The projects
limited to a tw activities such as raising chickens and pigs. Cann-
ad sewing were being introduced. Up to this time most of the clubs had
organized in the eastern part of the county and around Union.

Way new clubs were organized in 1918. Almost every school had a
44 Olub. with the teacher as volunteer leader. The county camp attendance
1918 was 166. Several of the State leaders assisted. A 4-H fair was
.held at Salt Sulphur Springs.

||||!!||| During 1918-19 there were between 20 and 30 4-H clubs in the county
i! ith a total membership of about 650. In 1919 both a girls' and boys' club
egsnt were employed.

I In the summer of 1918 six girls in the Sinks Grove Community held a
mI ting to practice stunts, songs, and yells to perform at the county camp.
i They called themselves "The Big Six." At the camp they asked to be placed in
Sthe same tribe. This request was granted on the condition that they would
allow a first-year girl to be chief ("The Big Six" had all been in club work
five years). The other tribes had experienced chiefs, but this one worked
I hard and finished camp with more points than any other tribe.

The friendship of the girls in this unique club has proved to be one
of its outstanding features. In addition it has proved of much value to them
to come in contact with experienced leaders and to work with other groups.
Their work attracted attention to the county, at that time one of the fore-
moot in 4-H club work in the State.

The attendance at the county camp in 1919 was about 100; six State
leaders assisted; each club had its own exhibit.

Five club agents were employed in 1920. During 1920 and 1921, 12
local paid leaders helped with the work. There wore ten representatives
of the county.

In 1920 county camp had an attendance of 115, while that of 1921
dropped to 73. a decrease due primarily to lack of leadership, for the
county agent had left the county in February, 1920.

In September, 1921. a home demonstration agent was appointed. In
the spring of 1922 district club days were held with the assistance of the
agent and the club leaders.

Practically all of the clubs organized in 1919 were still in opera-
tion. in 1922. In both this year and the next, two camps were held each
Year. a senior camp for club members 14 years and older, and a junior
I Oamp for those from 10 to 14 years.


- 15 -








LI J.Saer06S mestangs were neiA t iv a1 am


There were 20 organized and active clubs in 1923. with a total b
rollment of 350 members. In 1924 the number had dropped to ten with an
rollment of 197 and an attendance of 43 at the county camp. The slump Mw:-::::
due largely to lack of leadership, for the home demonstration agent left it :J
1923. In 1924 a county agent was employed, but he did not stress 4-H wort ik
as his predecessors had done. The camp of 1924 was the last one held it -
the county, for the buildings at "The Salt" were now old and unsafe. Those
who wished to attend camp went to the Summers County camp at Barger'8
Springs.

From 1921 to 1925 many boys and girls from Monroe County attended the
camps and volunteers' conferences at the State camp at Jackson's Mill. IfW
demonstrations and Judging teams were sent to district and State fairs,
where they won many prizes.

In 1924 a campaign was begun for funds for a Monroe County cottage at
Jackson's Mill; the cottage was completed in 1927 at a cost of $3.000. and
the necessary funds were raised by 1928. In 1925 sixteen boys and girls front
Monroe County had attended the 4-H camp in Summers County; interest in
camp work was then at low ebb. In 1926. 152 children were enrolled in 4-1
clubs and 30 volunteer leaders assisted.

During 1927 there were only seven clubs with a total enrollment of
82. in spite of the fact that a county agent was employed. Each club car-
ried on one definite line of public work. Moreover the girls of one club
completed a piece of sewing each month so that their sewing projects were
completed when school closed. Twenty-one members attended camp in Summers
County. Twenty-eight completed their projects in time to exhibit them at
the Creenbrier Valley Fair. Two clubs made club exhibits. The Waiteville
Club demonstrated with a club-night program at the close of the club year
and invited adults. This entertainment revived considerably the sentiment
in favor of the 4-H work.

The decline of club work in Monroe County dates from the time paid
leadership was discontinued. By 1929 the county had neither county agent
nor home demonstration agent nor paid club leader.

Some of the more important factors which caused 4-H club work to de-
cline in Monroe County were:

1. The county home demonstration agent who first built up 4-H work
in the county was an enthusiastic leader herself, but failed to develop
leadership in others.

2. The district leaders who were paid relatively small amounts for
their work were important cogs in the wheel of good club work. When their
pay was stopped most of them felt they could no longer afford to supervise
club work.


- 16 -


Uai .





Mpl,.qlissioHe 5 a.ap w strongly puswa, perhaps aneac or some or tae


4. The county court became more interested in building hard roads
t.. 4 blplng finance 4-H4 olub supervision.

S 5. Changes in county agents were rather frequent. The last agent
more interested in building up young people's religious societies than
b steering 4-H club work.
*:I .. i.. ..M:.
:",, Chronological Case-Study of One 4-H Club

The olub understudy, an influential 4-H club in Northern West Virginia,
as bad a longer history than most clubs. It was selected because of its rela-
t ively long process of evolution and because it illustrates several signif-
icant conditions which make for success or failure in 4-H clubs. Among
these conditions of success are: (1) adequate, intelligent, responsible
leadership; (2) a homogeneous and stable population type in the club com-
munity; (3) the sensitiveness of 4-H groups to friendly support, or lack
of such. from their elders; (4) evidences of the possibilities of 4-H clubs
as vital factors in community improvement.

Notes on this club are offered chronologically 1/

1916: The Progressive Young Farmers' Club was organized in April
with 21 charter members. Two meetings were held but the club was forced to
discontinue for a year. and the leader resigned because of parental opposi-
tion.

1918: Club reorganized with 12 members and a new leader; projects
were carried through the summer and the club was then discontinued for a year.

1920-21: A new leader took charge of the club, nearly all members
completed their projects, and good meetings were held every two weeks. The
club sponsored a community meeting which aroused the interest of parents.
Fourteen members attended the county 4-H camp.

1921-22: Club had 40 members and 2 leaders. Nearly all members com-
pleted their projects and attended the fair. A social, with money-making
features was held every month during the summer. The club presented the
first play ever given in the community, repeated it in another community.
and cleared $50. which was used to send prize-winning club members to the
Prize Winners' Course at Morgantown.

Fifteen attended county camp and three won the 4-H emblem. The club
sponsored a successful community meeting and a club party was given at end
of year. The club began to attract attention even outside the county.

1922-23: A community meeting sponsored by club attended by 300 peo-

I/ 1fe laforatlon was gathered by Mr. C. H. Hunter, then a saenor In the Colme gof A&rIcialt irm of Vast
|r Vtrglala Daiverulty. and a permanent resident or the neighborhood 1' which the club is located.


- 17-








Li49o-il: "A' i uquuLInLWIu U" ODufLy *oiaji WEM UI.LQ aIS DOII5UUIj '
of year; eight new members were added, making total of 57. Seventy-fivfh
per cent of the members completed their projects and the club exhibit wae':"e,!
first prize at county fair. One girl took grand championship, and numerous, :
other prizes were won by members. Eight attended county caap. One member ::i
earned his 4-H emblem.
Three formed a stock-judging team and represented the county in State
contest, winning first place there and twelfth place at Chicago In Inter-
national Noncollegiate Livestock Judging Contest.
At the State fair the club leader was awarded a $100 scholarship
given by State Bankers' Association to West Virginia's best all-round club
member for that year.

Members took part in school programs and entertainments; $24 was
cleared at a social given by club. which took an active part in a clean-up
campaign, and pledged and paid $50 toward a community building. The Commun-
ityeCouncil arranged a stunt night, at which the club won second prize.

A Hallowe'en party and a "wind-up" party were held in two of the
homes.

1924-25: A slump in coal business in the two villages which had
furnished many club members affected the club. for families moved in and
out and members did not remain long enough to complete projects. Only nine-
members completed them.

No county or community fair was held, but the county agent Judged
projects of members. One boy attended the State Boys' Camp: two members at-
tended the Volunteer Club Leaders' Camp. and one of them was elected to
the All-Star group. Nine members attended county camp, where one boy
earned 4-H emblem and several wore chosen as outstanding in four-fold de-
velopment.

Two schools and a festival were held and the club aided toward com-
pletion of community building.

1925-26: Club had 11 old and 5 new members. Ten members completed
projects and exhibited at community fair. Two members attended the Vol-
unteer Leaders' Camp at Jackson's Mill and 11 went to the county camp. Of
thosb, four were chosen as outstanding; three won the 4-H honor: and the
pig raised by one of the members won first prize in State contest. More
than the usual number of meetings wore held in order to keep up interest.
At two meetings vesper services were held, followed by camp fire. The
club pledged $300 to the fund for county cottage at Jackson's Mill. An
illustrated lecture, a festival, a food sale. an amateur circus, and a
play wore employed to help liquidate the pledge.
1926-27: Fourteen old members and 6 now ones were enrolled about
60 per cent of those eligible for club work in the community. Two regular
meetings wore held each month-tho projects carried related to sowing,
pigs, corn, potatoes, and poultry.


- 18 -













sophomore in the State University and was too busy to continue work
Vfth olub; the club declined and nearly passed away. Four boys and six
girls enrolled but three moved away before Christmas. One completed his
project and exhibited his work. Meetings were scheduled every month, but
the chairman, a high school student, often was unable to attend and so call-
od otff many meetings. One member attended county camp.
i::
1928-29: The enrollment was small and was made up of first and
aeoond-year members. The club gave a large basket of focd and clothing
to the Salvation Army at Christmas time.

What Seventy Men and Women Say Their 4-H
Club Experience Did for Them

An attempt is here made to analyze the effect of fairly extensive
4-H experience as they reveal themselves in the present attitudes, charac-
ter traits, and social behavior of 34 men and 36 women. Fifty-one of these
had three or more years of experience as club members, whereas the average
period of club membership in the State is about one year.

Fifty-six have been graduated from high school. 18 from college, and
22 were attending college at the time of inquiry.

Practically all these 70 men and women were under 30 years of age,
when they gave the following information. More than half were under 25
years of age. Only 23 began their club work at the most favorable ages. 10
11, and 12: over one-half began at older ages. No doubt the rapid turn-
over in club membership has been due partly to the fact that a large pro-
portion of boys and girls join at an age when they have only one or two
years of most active club interest ahead of them. Ages twelve to fifteen
are the period of adolescence, when the club life makes its strongest appeal
to the boys and girls.

The median number of years spent in club work by these boys and girls
was nearly three and one-half- long enough to make it likely that their
later interests, attitudes, and activities were, to a considerable extent.
influenced by their 4-H club work and relationships.

The median number of projects completed was 3.1. The number of pro-
jects completed averaged almost exactly one for each year for each boy or
girl concerned. These outstanding 4-H boys and girls did twice aswellas
di4 the rank and file of club membership, since only about 50 per cent of
the projects undertaken annually in the State are actually completed.

Expenditures of money made on 4-H projects seem to have been mostly


- 19 -













UOAEO IU@ D Q6I0rm.DUA U Lii IJ JUU LUUr TIE Uvera- Luuur KOUQ B .U9 .....3
circumstances fcurd in rural neighborhoods. Smaller groups are distlinot
limited in that they can uLdertake as group projects or activities.

The one or more offices he:d by 46 of the 70 buys and girls almio ,t
inevitably contributed to their ability as group leaders atd ndded to thiiiirI
capacity for taking responsibility. f

Inasmuch as club leaders, supervisors, arnd rank-and-file members Jat:.:
agreed that attendance at county camps is one of the most vitalizing aa l
socializing factors in the %hole 4-H program, it is unfortunate that nearly
one-third of these men and women never hid or used the opportunity to at,- '
tend even one county camp. In the earlier days county camps were relatively ,
few. The State 4-H camp at Jackson's Mill is of even more recent origin :
than the county camps. Fifty never atter.dcd the State camp.

The three honors most cherished were (1) The 4-H pin (an emblem of
high achievement in the fcurfo'd life--heEd. hand, health, and heart);
(2) trip to Moreantown (.here the State University is located and where
the early rrize-tinners' courses sere he'd before the State camp was de-
velopfd); ai.d (3) All-Star membership. The All-Stars are regarded as the
most active ai.d interested group of men a:.d women in the State in the pro-
motion of the 4-H program.

These 70 men and women must have received definite impressions of
their club leaders to be able to mention 21 traits, a total of 452 times,
six or eight years after their club experience hcd ccme to an end. Honesty.
iLdustry, ar.d deper.dability ranked highest, sith Fatience and gocd judgement
next in importance.

The percentage of those who are affiliated sith the church and active
in some phase of its work is cor'sidorably higher than the usual percentage
in the general population. Because the West Virginia 4-H program places
considerable emphasis cn the vesper ser-ices ar.d other religious or
spiritual elements of its program, it seems fair to conclude that a part
of the reason for this greater showing lies in the influence of club work.

Only 25 are now farmers, farm home makers, county agents, or home
demonstration agents. Some of the 22 who were students at the time of inciuiry
may later have returned to the farm. Abcut one-half of the more capable
4-H boys ai.d girls, it is estimated, are leaving the country for town and
city life ar.d work.

Farm taxpayers support many boys and girls in the schooa.i ho later
become citizens of towns an.d cities. The same process goes on in the field
of 4-H work. In so far. however, as 4-H work is supported by Federal and


- 20 -








i pVWWYUT WoVUooILUU.
et The fact that 33 of the 70 declared that their 4-H experience had
t Influenced their choice of a permanent occupation may mean that more
attention should be given to the problems of vocational guidance by 4-
K club leaders. They are in a strategic position to give valuable aid if
they are sufficiently trained in adolescent psychology and sufficiently
Informed concerning occupational trends and requirements.
Contact with leaders and 4-H camps decidedly heads the list of the
S phases of club work which have most influenced these 70 men and women.
l according to their testimony. Self-reliance and ambition distinctly head
the list of personal or character traits which they believe were developed
through their 4-H experience. Many parents commented, with pathetic em-
phasis, on how much the 4-H club had done for their boy or girl in helping
him or her to "stand on his own feet and express his own ideas."

The simple but essential health principles emphasized in the 4-H
program were noticeably demonstrated in 60 per cent of these men and women.
The 4-H program, when participated in with good cheer and heartiness, is
bound to make a real contribution toward better conditions in rural health.

Club members are naturally most affected, so far as particular skills
acquired are concerned, by the type of project carried. For example,
the sewing project was listed as most helpful in the acquiring of skill.
On the other hand, not many projects were carried which had to do speci-
fically with the making of home conveniences. Farm people are in special
need of more technical skill and business-like practices, and 4-H work
makes a definite contribution toward this need. It also helps to develop
special technical skills.

In about 85 per cent of the cases definite contributions to social
development were noted. Nearly every element of club activities has at
least some social aspect; some of the features of the work are included
especially for their socializing effect. It seems rather strange that
even 15.7 per cent of these men and women could testify that their 4-H
experience had had no such effect.

Nearly 80 per cent attribute a definite part of their moral and
spiritual development to their 4-H experience.

It is significant that the greatest single need for the improvement
and extension of 4-H activities noted is the need for a greater number of
trained leaders who are able and willing to devote themselves wholehearted-
ly to self-imposed tasks.
Further evidences of the nature of the social behaivor of these 70
selected men and women are found in the fact that 29 are members of a civic.
community, or fraternal club and 31 have held one or more offices in such
organizations. In these respects the proportion of group activity and leader-
ship is considerably above the proportion found in the rank and file of
farm men and women or even of those in town or city. to which about half of
these former club members have gone. Of the 27 who are married, six mar-
Sried former club members.

21-










Election I acd Iteus 1 42 inclusive relate to the 341 4-H clubs ,
surveyed in 19:.7-28 as organizaticns; that is. each item susmarizes the
statto or the experience of the individual clubs. As in the first case
the total number of clubs is 341 and all percentage distributions have
been rcur.dcd aLr.d tdjustfd to cdd to 100.0 Section II and Items 43-47
relate to 557 boys of club age in Monongalia County, W. Va., *ho were
not attending school. Section III ar.d items 48-69 relate to 70 persons
sho hLd been 4-H club members prior to time of survey.

Section I. Description of the clubs.

1. Chief business of the people in the club neighborhood


Sorting baeis. Clubs in the QgrRup
Number Per cent
General farming 242 71.0
Dairy farming 28 8.2
Truck farming 62 18.2
Mining 5 1.4 ..
Farming ar.d mining 2 .6
Lumbering __ 6 L
Total 341 100.0


2. Other organizations of young people in club neighborhood


Number Per cent
None 198 58.0
1 other 67 25.5
2 others 31 9.1
3 others 20 5.9
4 others _5 1.5
Total 341 100.0


3. Age of the club to time of survey


Number


1 year
2 years
3 years
4 years
5 years
More than 5 years
Total


63
38
47
35
-341
341


Per cent
23.7
18.5
11.1
13.8
10.3
22.6
100.0


- 22 -








I or nore clubs prior to present club
earlier 441 club in the neighborhood
Lanoe not certain
Total


Number
76
214
-1
341


Per cent
22.3
62.7
100.0
100.00 __


;,, ~ 5. Number of oluba having had only 1 leader, and number with
2 or more since organization


I. leader
2. leader
3 leaders
: 4 leaders
5 leaders
i 6 leaders
7 leaders
8 leaders
Number unknown
Total


Number
163
82
41
25
13
3
7
2
5
341


Per cent
47.8
24.9
12.0
7.3
3.8
.9
2.1
.6
101.5
100.0


6. Enrollment of 341 4-H clubs at time of survey


Clubs hearing enrollment of
1 to 4
5 to 8
9 to 12
13 to 13
17 to 20
21 to 25
Over 25
Unknown
Total


Number
1
64
102
71
35
27
37
4
341


Per cent
.3
18.8
29.9
20.8
10.3
7.9
10.8
1.2
100.0


7. Occupation of the leaders of 341 4-H clubs


Clubs whose leader in 1927-28 was Number Per cent
School teacher 249 73.0
Farm woman 19 5.6
Farm man 2 .6
Club agent 9 2.6
Student 17 5.0
In some other occupation 44 12.9
Without a leader __ .3
Total 341 100.0


-23-











Leader had been a member
Leader not a member
Without a leader
Total


lumber
131
209

341


'er cent
38.4
61.3

100.0


9. Frequency of regular club meetings held by 341 4-H club

Number Per cent
Number of clubs holding regular meetings
Once a month 239 70.1
Twice a month 78 22.9
Once In 3 weeks 2 .6
Once a week 7 2.0
Irregularly 15 4.4
Total 341 100.0

10. Meeting places of the clubs

_. Group Clubs in the Groupv
Number Per cent
Meetings were usually held in
School house 272 79.8
Some members' home 43 12.6
Church building 7 2.1
Club leader's home 9 2.6
Community hall, grange hall. etc. 10 2.9
Total 341 100.0


11. Supervision (frequency of visits) from county extension
workers


Number


A county extension worker visits the club
Once a month
Once in 2 months
Every meeting
Once a year
Twice
3 times
4 times
Not at all
No information
Total


204
20
34
10
22
2
25
3
21
341


Per cent


59.8
5.9
10.0
2.9
6.4
.6
7.3
.9
100.0
100.0


- 24 -


Hi


.................. ...:, 0 0










Number
Leader reins ID comMmnity and takes
charge of club during the summer 241
Leader does not serve olub during the summer 100
Total 341


Per cent


70.7
29100.0
100.0


13. Answers to question: Do 4-H club families have more gocd books
in their homes than families in 3hich there are no club
members?

Number Per cent
Yes 286 83.9
No 33 9.7
Unknown 22 6.4
Total 341 100.0


14. Answers to question: Are the pac3nts of club members recog-
nized as community leaders more than are parents of nonclub
members?

Number Per cent
Yes 287 84.2
No 39 11.4
Unknown 15 4.4
Total 341 100.0


15. Answers to question: Have parents of club members had more
schooling than parents of nonclub members?

Number Per cent
Yes 194 56.9
No 123 36.1
Unknown 24 7.0
Total 341 100.0


16. Answers to question: Are the families of 4-H club members
more prosperous, financially, than families of boys and
girls who do not belong to a 4-H club?

Number Per cent
Yes 256 75.1
No. 17 5.0
No difference 54 15.8
Unknown 14 4.1
Total 341 100.0


- 25 -










Number


Very favorable and helpful
Favorable and helpful
Fairly favorable and helpful
Somewhat indifferent
Indifferent
Unknown
Total


111
140
17
341-
341


Per cent
3.8
16.1
32.5
41.1
5.0

100.0


18. Answers of 341 4-H clubs to the question: HaS anything been
done during 1927-1928 to promote the work of this 4-H club
by the farm bureau, farm women's club. Kiwanis or other
civic club, or by business omen in nearby town or city?

Number Per cent
Yes 91 26.7
No 213 62.5
Unknown 37 10.8
Total 341 100.0


19. Answers of 341 4-H clubs to the question: What percentage
of 4-H club boys and girls have influenced their parents to
adopt better farming methods or get morn home conveniences?

Number Per cent
Not at all 53 15.5
5 to 10 per cent 93 27.3
15 to 20 per cent 49 14.4
25 to 30 per cent 34 10.0
35 to 40 per cent 21 6.1
45 to 50 per cent 35 10.3
Over 50 per cent 11 3.2
Unknown 45 13.2
Total 341 100.0


20. Answers of 341 4-H clubs to question: Does the presence of
4-H club members in the family have any influence in causing
parents to keep financial records?

Number Per cent
Yes 93 27.3
No 200 58.6
Unknown M 14.1
Total 341 100.0


- 26 -








Number Per cent
I to 10 per cent 43 12.6
11 to 20 per cent 35 10.3
21 to 30 per cent 39 11.4
3 1 to 40 per cent 55 16.1
41 to 50 per cent 53 15.5
Over 50 per cent 112 32.9
Unknown 4 1.2
Total 341 100.0


22. Percentage of club members who are school pupils

Number Per cent
100 per cent 294 86.2
Less than 100 per cent 47 13.8
Total 341 100.0


23. Answers of 341 4-H clubs to question: Are the better
students more easily interested in 4-H work?

Number Per cent
Yes 305 89.5
No 25 7.3
Unknown 11 3.2
Total 341 100.0


24. Answers of 341 4-H clubs to question: Does the presence
of a 4-H club stimulate better study among pupils who are not
club members?

Number Per cent
Yes 256 75.1
No 57 16.7
Unknown 28 8.2
Total 341 100.0


25. Answers of 341 4-H clubs to question: Does the presence
of a 4-H club in the school help to maintain higher stand-
ards of conduct among the pupils?

Number Per cent
Yes 300 88.0
No. 16 4.7
Unknown 25 7.3
Total 341 100.0


- 27 -










26. Answers of 341 4-H clubs to question: Do 4-H club members
stay In school longer than nonclub members?

Number Per cent
Yos 250 73.3
No 15 4.7
Unknown 75 22.0
Total 341 100.0


27. Comparison of 4-H club members and nonmembers as to their
Interest and activity in organized games and play at school

Number Per cent
Club members more interested 323 94.7
No difference 4 1.2
Unknown 14 4.1
Total 341 100.0


28. Answers of 341 4-H clubs to question: Docs the 4-H club
encourage its members to rcad good books?

Number Per cent
Yes 331 88.3
No 40 11.7
Total 341 100.0


29. Answers of 341 4-H clubs to question: Has this 4-H club
helped in any way to provide: books for use of the community?

Number Per cent
Yes 97 28.4
No 244 71.6
Total 341 100.0


33 Answers of 341 4-H clubs to question: Does this 4-H club
help to produce: fricndlircss to n:w and improved ideas and
practices among the pcoplo of the community?


Yes
No
Unknown
Total


Number
296
29
_16
341


Per cent
86.8
8.5
4.7
100.0


- 23 -






Number Per cent
Hikes, picnics, wiener roasts. etc. 192 56.3
Socials 66 19.4
Dramatics 13 3.8
Money-making affairs, sales, etc. 14 4.1
Box suppers 2 .6
Miscellaneous 11 3.2
None 43 12.6
Total 341 100.0

32. Answers of 341 4-H clubs to the question: How many members
of the club went to county camp in 1927?

Number Per cont
0 118 34.6
1 or 2 58 17.0
3 or 4 51 15.0
5 or 6 45 13.2
7 or 8 25 7.3
9 or 10 21 6.2
More than 10 23 6.7
Total 341 100.0

33. Answers of 341 4-H clubs to the question: How many members
of this club went to state camp in 1927?

Number Per cent
0 223 65.4
1 59 17.3
2 31 9.1
3 9 2.6
4 8 2.3
5 5 1.5
Over 5 6 1.8
Total 341 100.0

34. Answers of 341 4-H clubs to the question: How many boys
and girls in this club won special honors or prizes in
1926-1927?

Number Per cent
3 198 58.1
1 46 13.5
2 31 9.1
3 19 5.6
4 15 4.4
5 7 2.0
6 7 2.0
More than 6 15 4.4
No report .9,
Total 341 100.0


- 29 -




uaIwur iA %7%A -n BAUDB Fv tuO que5
H club member have bank accounts?


Number Per cent
Clubs in which one or more members have
bank accounts 233 68.3
Clubs in which no members have bank accounts 75 22.0
Clubs in which it is not known whether
members have bank accounts _33 9.7
Total 341 100.0

33. Answers of 341 4-H clubs to the question: Does the 4-H club
take any active part in the informal types of social life
in the community (picnics, family reunions, etc.)?

Number Per cent
Yes 227 81.2
No _f4 1P.8
Total 341 100.0

37. Answers of 341 4-H clubs to the question: Are 4-H club
members more active and helpful in the social and recre-
ational life of the community than are other young people.
same ages, not club members?

Number Per cent
Yes 305 89.5
No 25 7.3
Unknown 11 3.2
Total 341 100.0

33. Ansrcrs of 341 4-H clubs to the question: Are 4-H club
members more interested in church activities than other
young people, same ages. not club members?


Yes
o;0

Tot4.a I


Number
302
28
11
341


Per cent
88.6
8.2
3.2
100.0


:3. ;n.ac.;s of 341 4-H clubs to the question: Are the 4-H club
ZL.Ub_.rs .,:.d t'.heir families any more active and interested
ni. bczuu:'i.-catiG. projects, (home grounds, school c.r.d church
u:.c_!o0 publicc .jadz) than families in the neighborhood
which have no club members?


C 3
't'O
;'.cmi


Number
248
53
341
341


Per cent
72.7
15.6
11.7
100.0


- 30 -








Au eipjnyagA wBna 1a0u &Baru n uonoou 0
home and on the farm?


air worK in %no


Number
293


TI
Moi..ii!u .
tham


34
341


Per cent
85.9
4.1
IQ.oQ
100.0


41. Answers of 341 4-H clubs to the question: Has this club
ever helped in a definite way to put over a large community
enterprise, such as a now high school or bonds for road
improvement?

Number Per cent
Tes 8 2.3
No 333 97.7
Total 341 100.0


42. Answers of 341 4-H clubs to the question: Do you know of
any improvements in community life since 4-H club work was
organized that can be traced to the influence of club work?

Number Per cent
Yes 249 73.0
No 92 27.0
Total 341 100.0


- 31 -









43. Ages of the 557 boys.


Group


10 years
11 years
12 years
13 years
14 years
15 years
16 years
27 years
18 years
Total


Boys in the grouD
Number Per cent
8 1.4
8 1.4
2 .4
11 2.0
12 2.2
61 10.9
176 31.6
168 30.2
111 19.9
557 100.0


44. Reasons offered for leaving school


Chief reason given Number
Indifference 172
Help. needed to support family 140
Had completed eighth grade 98
Wanted to go to work 66
Parents not interested in having the boy stay 44
Prolonged sickness 20
Inability to do school work 7
Conduct problems 5
Too great a distance 5
Total 557


Per cent
30.9
25.1
17.C
11.8
7.9
3.6
1.3
.9
__.9
100.0


45. Present membership In 4-H clubs

Number Per cent
Boys known to belong to a 4-H club 16 2.9
Boys known not to belong to a 4-H club 499 89.6
Doubtful cases 42 7.5
Total 557 100.0

46. Number of boys to whom a 4-H club is accessible*

Number Per cent
Uoys to whom a club is accessible 155 27.S
Boys to whom a club is not accessible 354 33.6
Doubtful cases 48 8.6
Total 557 100.0

SA :u' ih le as d Ca a--tnlh;m ir it i a lo ia la the b ye i hnose n tIhgbobrhod or Ia the QJoLlmDi
nei.I.borrood.


- 32 -








g Occupation
Miner
Farmer
Loafer
Glass worker
i Day laborer
S Clerk in store
Dairyan
Worker in stone quarry
Teamster
Truck driver
Luberman
Mechanic
Tin plate worker
Junk collector
Porter in hotel
Worker In shoe shop
Selling papers
Worker in restaurant
Questionable work
Worker in pool room
Worker in bakery
Unknown
Total


NUmoer
133
ill
80
74


I
1
-34
557


Per cent
23.8
19.9
14.4
13.3
7.4
2.3
2.0
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.2
1.1
0.7
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.2
0.2
6.1
100.0


SECTION III. Description of 70 persons v.ho hcod been 4-H club
members prior to time of survey

48. Present (%hen questionnaire was filled out) ages of men and
women ho were club members in the past

Number Per cent
18 1 1.4
19 3 4.3
20 7 10.0
21 3 4.3
22 9 12.9
23 6 8.6
24 12 17.1
.5 6 8.6
26 10 14.3
27 4 5.7
28 3 4.3
29 2 2.8
31 1 1.4
Unknown 3 4.3
Total 70 100.0


- 33 -







8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
Unknown
Total


Number
2
2
7
6
10
6
12
10
9
3
1

70


rer oen%
2.9
2.9
10.0
8.6
14.3
8.6
16.9
14.3
12.9
4.3
1.4
2.9
100.0


50. Number of years in club work


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
More than seven
Unknown
Total


Number
6
12
12
12
11
7
4
5
1
70


Per cent
8.6
17.2
17.2
17.2
15.6
10.0
5.7
7.1
1.4
100.0


51. Number of projects completed


Number Per cent
1 11 15.7
2 10 14.3
3 13 18.6
4 15 21.4
5 14 20.0
6 3 4.3
More than 6 4 5.7
Total 70 100.0

52. Ways in which money made on projects was used

WTvi insed T;mes mentioned_______
Put. in bank 12
schooll expenses 29
Trip 17
C i.,tho::. 12


Books
Had good time
Nono made
Misc.
Total


3
12
5
92


- 34 -






-- -w uw wnawee wmw~w IW ~~aae


Number


5- 10
11 15
16- 20
21 25
26- 30
Over 30
Not member of club
Unknown
Total


7-
70


Per cent
21.4
25.7
14.3
7.1
5.7
2.9
18.6
4.3
100.0


54. Number of offices held in the club during term of membership

Number Per cent
None 24 34.3
1 33 47.1
2 10 14.3
3 3 4.3
Total 70 100.0


55. Number of county camps attended

Number Per cent
None 23 32.9
1 12 17.2
2 7 10.0
3 8 11.4
4 3 4.3
5 4 5.7
6 7 10.0
7 1 1.4
Over 7 5 7.1
Total 70 100.0


56. Number of state camps attended

Number Per cent
0 50 71.4
1 7 10.0
2 5 7.1
3 3 4.3
4 3 4.3
More than 4 2 2.9
.Total 70 100.0


- 35 -








Honor mentioned
Four-H pin
Trip to Morgantovn
All-star membership
No honors won
Four-H cap
Indian name
Trip to Camp Vail
Trip to state camp
Gold modal
Silver ring
One-H pin
Two-H pin
Three-H pin
Trip to Springfield
Trip to Tri-state camp
Trip to Lake Geneva
Trip to Grottoes
Gold ring
Presidency of state organization
$300 scholarship
Total


Mote: In '4 cases 2 honors w-re mentioned as being or equal value

58. Answers of 70 former 4-H club members to question: What
traits in your club leaders impressed you most?


Traitp mentioned Times r
Honesty
Industry
Dependability
Patience
Good Judgement
Courtesy
Ambition
Loyalty
Fairness
Tact
N1atn3ss
Eagerness to learn
Open-minr.dcdness
Modesty
Thoughtfulness J
Originality
Alertness ]
Self-control
Thoroughness
Rcso'.ircefulness
Unselfishness
Tolal Tin of Traits mentioned 21
Tot.>' nio. of Irat:u; the 21 traits wore mentioned 452
36 -


intionea


Ties mentioned
25
12
10
10
7
7
4
4
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
104













Actiiiii iniiii church wor 39I 55.7,i ',





Str~dnt 2231.7
Teachr 1014.3
Farmer 811.5


Nre1 1.4
Asisat ibaia 1.4
Msctahr1 1.4
Elctialwrkr1 1.4
Twreodr1 1.4
Moomn1 1.4
Bokepr1 1.4
4- edr1 1.4
Cosrutonwrkr1 1.4
Buiesmn1 1.4
Saemn1 1.4
Asisan casie in bank 1 1.4iiii










Fut grwr1 1.4

Payrol clrk 11.4
Ttl70 100.0


61. nswrs f 70forer -H cub embrs to question: Did ycu
gainanytingfrom club work shioh has helped you in your


NumberPer cent
Ys43 61.4
No21 30.0

Ttl70 100.0
iiii i ii i iiiiiiii iiiiii iii iiiiii ii i ii iiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiii7iiiii l i i =iii










Number
28


Yea
No
Unknown
Total


70


Per cent
40.0
47.1
L129
100.0


63. Answers of 70 former 4-H club members to question: flat
three parts of club work had'the most influence upon your
life?


Parts of club work mentioned

Contact with leaders
Four-H camps
Club meetings
Project work
Keeping records
Personal letters
Making exhibit
Prizes won
Attending fair
Four-H suggestions
Writing booklet
Circular letters
Friendships
T-tal


Times Times Times
ranoed1 first ranked second ranked third
28 12 8
16 20 6
8 4 8
3 9 8
6 6 7


- 38 -










Traits mentioned


Ti:
ranked


SSelft-relianoe 17
I:Am bition 16
I, Interest in work 6
11 Judgement 3
Initiative 1
Honesty 1
iThoroughness 4
Fairness 2
Loyalty 3
Willingness to learn 1
Adaptability 1
Patience 1
Courtesy
Dependability 1
Self-control 2
Industry
Resourcefulness
Originality
Foresight 1
Tactfulness 1
Alertness
Open-mindedness 1
Ability to meet people 1
Cheerfulness
Better attitude toward co-workers __
Total 63


DeI


56


65 Answers of 70 former 4-H rlub members to question: Did
your 4-H club experience result in health improvement?

Number Per cent
Yes 42 60.0
No 28 40.0
Total 70 100.0


- 39 -


15
53


UL


tea
lat


Times
ranked 2nd
5
4
4
4
6
5
2
2
1
3
3
3
3
3
1
2
2


Times
ranked 3rd
2
1
6
4
3
4
1
3
3
3
2
2
2
1
2
2
1










A. In use of tools


B. In cooking


C. In swing


Yes
No

Yes
ro

Yes


20.0
80.0

25.7
74.3

38.6
61.4

14.3
85.7

27.1
72.9


I' In making home conveniences Yes


E. In caring for live stock


Yes


67. Answers of 70 former 4-H club members to question: Did your
4-H club experience contribute in a definite way to your
social development?

Number Per cent
Yes 59 84.3
No 11 15.7
Total 70 100.0 _____


68. Answers of 70 corner 4-H club members to question: Did your
4-H club experiences contribute in a definite way to your
moral and spiritual development?

Number Per cent
Yes 55 73.6
No 15 21.4
Total 70 100.0


- 40 -













Iu iggastions Times mentioned


SLeadership get more carefully trained and
S selected leaders who have time to devote
to the work and are willing to make personal
N contacts with those who need them most. 12

Extension get more boys and girls into the clubs.
go out into mountains and mining camps and
isolated rural communities. 7

Projects emphasize high standards of work and
completion of all projects 7

Four-fold development always keep before the boys and
girls the ideal of individual development in the
4-H way 5

Emphasize fairness in work and avoid partiality 3

Reduce number of records required 2

Give more emphasis to spiritual side 2

Keep in touch with members after age of 18 2

Encourage higher education more 2

Develope more sympathetic parents 2

Encourage faith in rural life 1

Emphasize individual responsibility 1

Avoid over-development of one's strong point 1

Avoid putting boys and girls in limelight 1

Introduce a project that teaches hospitality 1


- 41 -




UMVERSITY OF FLORIDA
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