E!~ ...US DEPOSTORY
CY 10 1968 DhEPOSITOY |
T ES IN THE QUALITY. OF COTTON CONSUL.D
B* UU td dney Whitaker, Assistant Agricultural Economist,
..Agr.icultural Economics, U. S. Department of
Agriculture, before the Annual Meeting of the
= Association of Southern Agricultural Workers,
Atlanta, Ga., Jan. 31, 1935
i miiiiiii .
The improvement of cotton quality, always a subject of
tbas.. sa in recent times claimed renewed attention. For many years regarded
social province of the plant breeder and agronomist, it is also coming to
"lliIm-rn of the economist, as well as ofrthe cotton technologist. When,
*r. one attempts from the economic standpoint to view q,:ality improvement as
it y... In the national cotton program and to discern the directions in which,
UPb distances to which, it could profitably go, he finds no very clear picture.
Jirst of all, he is confronted with the question of what quality really is.
m tt4 of the simple thing that quality has corr.only been supposed to be, he finds
A.'a broad complex field, a satisfactory understanding of w;ic>, notwithstanding
|InM ntn w*.ich cotton fiber and. spinning research has gained in recent .ears,
mt mait till more years of study. Tfen he is faced with the questions of the
j degree of control which growers can exercise cver quality, and the cnmparative
=@. .: *
c..enots involved In producing cotton nf different qualities. And finally, there is
the question of tUe demand for the various qaalitit;s of cotton, influ-ncing as it
Men the prices which world cjnsuners are willing to ay for b4ttur "ottons than
are now being grown.
........... .... .
9 iiiii i % ... ..
.. It is not the purpose of tiis paper to undertake a broad discussion of
these questions, but rather to confine itself to consideration of a single phase
*I of the last question, namely, the quality trends in the consumption of cotton.
Sto do even this requires a certain amount of boldness, not only because of the
pipresent inadequacy of technological knowledge, but also because of the
incompleteness of available cotton statistics.
In spite of these handicaps, it may be possible to put together some of
the pieces of accessible information and so outline, at least, something of the
Picture. Were time available, this might be done for two of the co:.Imonly known
major segments of quality, grade and staple, and to a lesser extent for character,
'but since staple appears to be more responsive to bre-ding and to the seed supply
than grade, and better understood than character, it seems appropriate to give
staple the chicf consideration here.
SIn attempting to discern by statistical means the trends of consumption
whether of staple, grade, or character, it has to be recognized, of course, that
to a large degree one is likely to be seeing little more tl._-n trends in the supply.
Over a period of time the m,.ount of any given quality consuz.:-d must equal
approxi-ately the am.-..ount of t'.-at quality that is produced. At the :-i-.. ti-ne,
the ncc-d for any givtn qUality of cotton tends to be r.fl.ct.d in thc pri-c -.t
whi&':. it sells in relation to othLr qnuli'ias, zo th-at -',ri'L z tend, .vi:thin li.its,
to brinc the sZupzly into lin,- ,;it'> dcr-.'.nd.
-. f-cilitatc disaussion, thc" various staplh- ]-r.ngths hr.v.: C.cen divided into
thrcc z-.ncs or groups. Trn: firzt, c:-il.-d tY'c 1.rg zt.C-lLZ, ir..-"'iC Z.i1 ,-otP.n
1 1/B irnc-'ts !"nd longrtr. This g-ro'ri if sr:-dividLd Ly .cp.r'.ting .nd a'ir-n.tir.g
as extra 'ong staplu cotton i 3/16 in-1us and lonc.r. T'. zhort,.r p.-rt of thu
long staple group includesa the IorC s3t.'..l':-.3s s.f LAizizncippi, Ar.ri.-nc-zz, S'..th
*,Carolina, and Californiar, Esu-ch cor. liters as Zwptia.n p,:r r=, .T:rth Brn.zilians,
- 3 -
7ad much Peruvian cotton, the extra lonc staples include the Pima of Arizona and
Its competitors, Egyptian and Sudan Sai:el, West Indian Sea Island, and sone of the
loager cottons of Peru. The second eroup designated as medium= staples, includes
all cotton from 15/16 of an inch up to 1 3/32 inches, and the tird group
desigted as short staple embraces cottons shorter t'an 15/16 inch.
The supply of long staple upland cotton in the United States has probably
never exceeded 10 percent of the total crop, and since 1928-29 the supply of
upland cotton 1 1/8 inches and longer 'as ranged fro:., about 9 percent to a little
less than 5 percent of the total supply. Although the total supply of these long
staples has increased both actually and relatively as compared with the total
supply of all cotton, the production and sup.nly of upland cotton longer than
1 5/32 inches has declined since 1928-29.
The disappearance of long staple upland cotton has increased during recent
years, particularly in 1933-34, when the arujarunt, dor.estic consu.-ption and exports
of these staples amounted to 6.6 percent of t'e total disappearance of all staple
length's, against only 3.5 -.ercent in 1931-32. T.is increase in the disappearance
of long staple upland cotton '--.s co:tc: aro'.t fro-. a r._rkcd increase in domestic
consu mntion, and in spite -f d&clininc exports 'f t',.csc length. VThe 2pparcnt
cons'mrption of long staple upland cotton plus the ccnsun-.tion of E-p tian, s.-e
of w'tich is shorter thin 1 l/e inches, A.cerican-Egyptian, Pcruvi.n, v-.d Sea Island
constituted- approximately 15 -xercent of Vie total con.unmpoi : :f a-] kindsr. of
cotton in the United Sto.tes d'-iring 1923-34". This ptrer.t -.ge is co-:narablu to
sli.tly over 1C percent in t-he orcvi-'us yL--r and lcsC than 8 -.rrLnt in 1?129-'.
The doa.estic disappearance of Akcric-.n upland cotton haj s cV.ctiutu.d r.n incr--s.ing
part of the apr-arent consumn-.ption of long, staple cotton since 192t-3, tut cxi orts
have declined proportionately.
SThus, the trends in the availability and consumption of long staplo cotton
In the United States h1ve been upward; t'it is, the proportion of cotton 1 1/8
inches and longer in both the total :uprly and t'c 6.ones3tic disappearance has been
increasing since 1929-30. But the trend in the availability and disappearance of
long staple foreign cotton, A-.nerican-Egyptian, and the ,-xtra long staples of upland
cotton, has been downward for most lengths during re _ent years. Staple -reniuns
for American cotton have declined for these lengths, both actually and as compared
with the trice of 7/8 inch since 1931. This, together with the C.-.aller supply of
these staples, indicates a de-rea:e in the de-rand for extra lonc ctaples, as
distinguished from tl-e shorter lengths -)f t'-e Icrig staple grnup-, whereas consu-.,rtion
of the slhorter of the longer staple cotto:,s has increased with increasing supplies
and declining prer.i--.s.
Long staple cotton is -.S-ially considered essential far spinning fine yarns
and ~rarns having high strength re'quire::entz. One -.-."V, thzrcforce, to analyze the
factors affecting the trends in the demand for crngi stn'Llc cotton is to examine
the trends in the preducti-n nf fine yarns and extra ztr.-ngth yarns,. tn:us
figures indicate the rsc-i::tion of '-c v-tLrio-s rr'm.;r f ;:-a. -rn -oujnts, but no data
are available giving yarn produ-tir. on t'-.L bazis s:.f r..inc ztrungth.-. The
;roporticn cf the yarr.s nrwh-,d in t'-c "iit-d S'.'ts ':n, r than 4--s -.tz rnot
increased r-aterialhy :in.' 1- 4, v'-t.r. t. se :-.r:.s :. t'- :t d m.r-cnt of
the total yarn rr-&:c':on, "- c:-.-.:r..d w'ith '.J r:c:,t in 1'29, and a p, r-- nt in
S1931. :M':t of th'L,:L y-rns art ":.d in thu .man--l':.ctr- r:f fin- -lot}.int;, :.n.d the
t ce: tried s,
requirements f:r zu-h f'arri -s o.C .o;.lin., lawn.l, dr-. ri ,/v, l. J, -.iir.r.-
crepes, sateens, and fine knit go:d3 :on:ti-itc t-e i'.-''-: c; t-n falri-z in w"'i'h
these yarns are used. LMany/ of t'-ze materials h'-ave ,e,,n ar:.-ng thd-.-. "t .:'--.,.ted
by rayon and silk co-petitir..
I -- 5 "
Let me say in this connection that co:.petitinn is bere used in a broad sense,
Including such factors as c-tyle and -:-r.s.Z-.er .,rcfPrn.'e as well as relative prices.
Changes in the technique of tire manufacturingn c I-ave also tended to caucc a
decline in the reT.ire::.ents for lone staple cotton. I'luch oif the tire fabric
produced in the United States until about 1920 was made of coarse yarns containing
long staple cotton, but this use for the longer starles seer-.s to have declined
appreciably since then, although duirinc tle sa:-ie period th. total requirement for
cotton in tVis industry has of course increased tremendously. In 1931-33, it is
estimated, only about 5,000 bales, or 21 r-.ercer.t of the total cotton consumed in
automobile tire fabrics, consisted of staples 1 1/3 inches and longer. Sea Island,
Pima, and Egrpti,-.n cotton, w'.ich were at one time used extensively by this industry
are n2w little used in the :.a-:ing of tires, except for high Epeed trucks and busses.
Thread. is a product for which long staple cot.:on corn.stitutes the bulk of
raw material requirements, but totil ;.rdQuctiln of thread probably at.ou.nted tc
the eruvalent -f leez than 7',3JD bales if ra.w -otton in 1333, and it is eisti:ated
that in the calendar r year 1932, absu-it 3=,2D0 balps of EQmtian .ctton were u:ed for
making thread. Although the rrc ti:n of t'-read fluct'ates consid'rably fr:--. year
to year, tkere has been no apr.arent up'warl or do, .rr.7r trend in total thrr-ad
production s-nze 1i19.
T7ere is little apparent .:u.:t.ficati-.:n in the ',.ii.:' t;t th, -rodu-t: fr
wrich long staple cotton is essential will r1t.:r' :'or sZntil:(- to c-e, -:r
tVian lI percent if t:tal cotton ,nzcr.=.ption in th- Unr.itcd St trs. s Arny -x*.-.i..-.
In the extort r.arket for -is c-tt-n st be ade ir. rcii r..it. rtr. and
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http: ai chive.org, details, trendquaOOunit
Am these requirements f!r long staple cot'tn are filled b.th in the United States
and in foreign r.arkets, and as the relative siup!'ly of the longer ztuplus becomes
larger, relative rre-.i':.zs for stawl.. length wo-uld obviously be expected to decline.
As premv.'.ms decline and it bc-.ones apparent that the supply:, of long staple is more
than adequate to meet require..enis for fine and extra strength yarns, the natural
consequence will be fcr mills -making medium co-.nt yarns in which the mr-edium staples
have ordinarily been used, to use long staples in those kinds of goods that provide
the greatest possibilities for profit, either through improvement of the quality
of the finished goods or through reductions in manufacturing coots. In fact,
disappearance figures for long staple unland cotton and an antppraisal of trends in
uses for this cotton indicate that this is ta-:ing place to some extent at the
As the :pzly of long stanles increases and as this increase exerts
additional pressure upon staple pre-.iu.s, the factors t:-.at determine the selection
of a given staple length of cotton f3r a parti':lar O:ind nf fabric beco--..es of
additional sig:.i-i:r. ce. The tyhe cal cotton :ill arpe?.rs not to deem it advisable
to orera'eC its establirz.ent as a rarticul;rly flexible organization, and or. :e a
=ill. gets rrodu:ti'n -organized s-ti.-factorily, the ranage.nt iz ,:rdin;.rily
rel..ictant to a-k.-'.e rangess ir. t'-e :-ality of raw ccttor utcd, tcu ch r.gP
are -.ade ftc:- time to ti-e. Such -hanges uasiiuly., necessitate t'.:e rr,::-ttinrg
=achin.ery,', ar.d often reu ec t e-.rcrar ily in poor running; w.-or:: ar.nd lowv:-r rrolu-ti.:n
which in:reae3 unit ccsts r.f roesinG and nma'y also give rise to 1..7Titi t. n
The ideal staple length from the standpoint of an individual mill would be one
so adapted to the rro&ucton of a given fabric t'-at, if a shorter staple were
used, increased ..annfacturiing costs would -.,ort t'an offset the de-creased cost
of cotton per unit cf goods, or that if longer cotton wore used, the increased
cost of the raw cotton would more tha.n counterbalance the reduction in
manufacturing costs per unit. Although mill executives generally recognize
this principle, they also realize the difficulty of deter-.ining a -urrtely
optimrn stable lengths.
Factors other than changes in staple )reT-.ii us ..ay a] so cauce changes in
the staple length cf cotton used in acccrdar.ce vith the above stated principle.
For example, increases in labor costs resulting from shorter hours or higher
wages should tend to -ake it profitable for mills to use longer staple cotton.
Developr.ents cr changes in .iac'-inery such as l!nr-iraft spinning equipment may
make it advantageous for mills to use longer cotton, and this seems to be taking
place at the -resent tin.e, at least to a limited extent. Dif'fercnces in these
factors, and in th, int.-rtia ;.f -.11 tc c-.angcs of this type, m.ke it difficult
to m.eavsrcT te ext.r.t to 'wi-t- c".anoss in stir.l.- length are :-ade as ,-r -.. -.. for
staple l.-r.nth :'-ange.
T.i- cz.tu::i-r. _fn t". inn:'-.r : f cSt..pIL i',ngth on .arn-Lf:a-:turint -cts
has :ro0 -.d.d .. .. L... -..i .. .. ,':'- i-y )i C'YoJZ i .o, .... d. a C
-. 4-6 .- oy--
cianges :r. -t'. -L:. [. a ~- 'rT :r t ..' t, be ri."L' ty, -}-ar.R S r. rex: :ot .
costs as :-:! -r d i- :t:..r ..:: A ai. -, : /--l.l r ro.-t '- v rv Ci:'::-:it
to c-.-ngc zta::, 2.rt .at.:ri-.l wi;' -" .;r thu ,..;,i -. -0 "' ni uyd
prcu. a t. The extent t z'-ih t'-2.0 w -r f-vcr: th. us,:* lof ,..: .tr :tr ..r r-
staple rrei-.Z:'s d-:.ir.. :rvi.vi th., i.. 1 vu r:i:y : the f -. .-..-:. -n
,Increase in th. vC.-.e or tric :f t .e --atri-i.l.
!!i 8 -
Lower premiuns for staple length might also be expected to increase the
consumption of goods now made from the longer staples, but this possibility does
not appear very promising because of the apparent lack of elasticity in the demand
for both clothing and industrial fabrics made from long staple cotton& Many of
these materials are used for purposes in which style plays an important part,
and small changes in price are of only minor importance. Industrial fabrics
often constitute only a small part of the cost of the finished product in which
they are used, and for this reason srmall price changes in the fabric often have
very little effect on consumpticn.
The discussion of increap.sing supplies of long str.-le cotton le-d: natura-lly
tO an examination of the trends indicated for medium stable lengths, or those
ranging from 15/16 inch to 1 3/32 inches, because this is the grour of staples
that long staples rill displace if such s':bstit'utions occur. Cotton falling with-
in this group lhas constituted r.cre than 50 percent of the total supply of A.erican
urland cotton since 1Z32-33, and in 1933-34 the quantity cf these lengths consti-
tuted more than 55 percent of the total sup.ly, as com-ared with only 38 percent
in 1929. The total supply of these staples available during the pnst 7 years has
ranged from about 6,40D,CCO bales in 192-30 to 11,5CO.C0,00 bales in 19532-353. The
diszpLPea.rn.ce of these sta.-les has increased fr:- bout 36 percent cf the total
disappearar.ce of uplan1 cot:on. in 1929-30 to nearly 56 percent in 1?33-34. In
the longer lengths of the medit.z staples, dor.estic cons.x-.u.tion exceeds ex^or't
but in the shoCrter lenrths, exports very greatly exceed domestic cor.-,.ption.
Altho'-gh there is a great deal of overlapping in the usc of diff"rer..t zta.,le
lengths for different counts of yarn ar.d for different 1inds of fabrics, this
group of -mediu'-. stable lengths can- be said, in general, to be r.arn.factured into
yam counts ranging -from 21s to ZOs which are use! e.:tensively in :-Ich fabricc.
'as printcloths, tire fabrics, bed sheets, and k.it roods. Tr.e trend ir. the
production of yarn counts ranging f1oin 21s to 4Os was generally upward from 1599,
when these yarns constituted about 37 percent of total yarn production in the
United States, and 19114, when they constituted 47 percent of the total. Following
this year of peak production, the proportion of medium yarns decreased to 42 per-
cent of the total in 1931. For certain products, such as hosiery and underwear,
the consunmpticn of these yarns has been affected by rayon competition, and some
of the coarser oues may be used for industrial uvarposes such as bags, and the con-
sumption of cotton in these has been affected b. competition from paper -nd jute.
However, the adverse i-fluence of the substitution of other fibers for cotton
upon the consiz.tior. of yarns rrade from medium staple len.t-.s las been offset to
a considerable extent by increases in consumption for such industrial products
The tendency to replace medium staples with longer staples, as the supply
of the latter increases, -:as been discussed. T'lis se-.,e tendency would seem to
hold also with respect to the replacement of short ztaples by medium staples.
Increases. ir. the s'-prly of medium staples, an.' consequent declines in premiums,
are likely to stiA-ilae increases in the consumption cf textiles requiring medium
:c'unt yarns. Sz;'le, o., the whole, seems to become lezs of a factor az fineness
'U'ai rd 2fle Z.
Znat work, aimed at rcducirn. the proportion of short sta:Q.-e cotton -r:xtced
eas be I e:fctive ir. recent years, is s-jgc:ted by c"nh.,:cs in. the fivqrcs rczhfifo:"1
4-r3iucticn of these stalez:. In l02'-3O, cotto shorter than 15/16 inch consti-
-Ltei .-re tha-.. .- .erzent of the tctal zupplyv, whre-r.z in -133-3-, these ;ta. le ;
onztiti':t4e lezs tha-. 57 -prceet of the total .ne*ly, an-r -35 a111-t 4
percent. Most -" thi- decrease ca-..c abcrt thr'r.-;, dccrLa:cs in the .,ro't.cticn 1of
cttcn. 7/ inch ar. shr .r:.r. ..i z c--a.'rc ha- b, n ,c::::.ra cd t. y a narro.i-r.. -:
price differential. f1 r ::tT-le length, an- ze` v.z a: a r'w..ir-er that ca %e....e at. .'2nti
needs to ne give:. ts the a-vanta "ez of -.eii z. stad-i' -.v.r .hort -taf1le-: r 'r:ir.
coarse uoods. It seems probable that the extent of this advwnta;e will be the
principal determinant of staple premiums if the sup),ly of this cotton continues to
The trend in disappearance of short staples ,as teen downward between
1929-30, when nearly 60 percent of the total disappearance was shorter than 15/16
inch, and 1933-34, when this group of staples constituted less than 35 percent of
Short staples are of necessity used mainly in coar; counts of yarn, that
is to sal, 21s and under a-nd small quantities r.--e used for mattress stuffing,
chemicr! products, and other non-textile purposes. The proportion thr.t such yrns
constituted of total production decreased from the beginning of the century, when
they amounted to about 58 percent, to 1914 but since that time there has been
some increase, and production !Low seems stabilized at about one-half of total
production. These coarse yarns contain substantial quantities of cotton of the
medium staple lengths, a:n.d for some uses, such az thread, the coarsest yarns con-
tain some of the longest staple: consumed. On th^ other hand, such yarns are not
iade entirely fror. raw cotton, because for certain proDucts, such as -snabury" and
twines fairly large quantities of cotton waste and somne winters are used. !Not-
withstanr'dirg the e facts, cotton used in coarse yarn-c consists mainly of short
staples. These yarns are uced for such purposes as narrow sheeting:, in which
the ecivaler.t of nearly oCC00 bales of cotton were used in 1q33; denim-.:, re-
'-;r.;. annroz;7a1ely :r:0,CG bales; cotton flan:.-el, re, i.'n 275,000 bales;
st.n-" -.-, recviirirg 275,0.C bales; drills, 1o5,00C; osrnaburgz, 12C,OC0;
cottor~aier, 7c.OX; ticking, 45,C"; and twinre an:i corlace more than 200, 20J. baleQ.
The total raw cotton eT-ivaler.t of this croup of facri:-- a-..ontcd to mor' than
2,OY0,000 tale: irn 135 or to almost two-fifth:: of t-:tal or-.e:tic connr.tio...
I These coarse fabrics might be said to constitute a key group with respect
to the advantage of staple length improvement, because, ac the proportion of
medium staples is increased, premiums will probably depend largely upon the ad-
vantage in costs of these staples for the production of such standard household
articles as sheets, such clothing materials as overalls, and such industrial
fabrics aq bags. There is, of course, no reason to doubt that better sheetings
can be made from 1 1/16 inches cotton than from 7/8 inch cotton, but the question
of vital concern to cotton producers is first, whether the majority of consumers
want such materials badly enough to pay the exti., price, .-nd second, how much
manufacturing costs can be reduced by using 1 1/6 inches cotton for blue denim
overalls and similar goods rather than 7/8 inch.
These short staples also enter into our export trade in. largc quantities.
The average staple length of cotton exported is substantially less than the aver-
age for cotton consumed in the United Stetes. Short staples are used in foreic-n
countries for the manufacture of comparatively coarse fabrics which are usei al-
most entirely for clothing by Suropeans an. Orientals, of whom, at least, most
of th3 latt-r have a corparetivcly low :-tpnd-rd o. living. That the exportation
of a l-arz-cr pro-ortion of mcdiuim staples would improve our cr.:inctitive pocitior
with otz.r cottons, particularly Indian cotton, sec.s probable because of the- ad-
vantages o : spinning s-nih cotton as compared with t:h shorter Indian cotton, bu.t
t-2c oz-u1ulit; 'of s-,bstan.tial premir.s for bct-.-r quality cloth in these cotn-
tri:_ .--: e" r. lesZs :-romisirz thlian in th- Ur.it.d States. Th. cotton spin:i.:
iru -- -,- A-iatic _y.L ntricL cuch a: Japc--;, Indir., an.d C..ir.. nat-'rlly-xsc
chPIrtc. e.- .r: zb.eterial. becazce t-e demand for fabric: i:. thCe countries i o n.i inred
largely, to low .- zried -atnrial. 7--e relative : T ..ar...r. t 7abor in tit- Orit.:.t
tends to ofze:t any sA.nninr.g-cozt adva-Atae to 1,w 1"ai.3d fre. since c ztarl cotto"..
The quest -on of grade has been largely ngloctad in thiir discussion.
Grade is a factor of quality that seems ts be more closely relatud to farm maun'fio-
merBt and ginning; than to breeding, fuad the possibility cf improving .;rade by
breea.ir; tw:'-k sees ri -ch less promising than is the 2a!:i vitih work director toward
either imrr 3venent in staple length cr in character. Grale, as w';li ot.,le
lentt, r'fects bcth czsts and thV quality :f finished fabrics. But the eLtunt
Sto which i.:"zrovement in trade is rrcfitable to fanrr.e"s i: -ntcr-dent :,icre
part-ic-iLtrly -.w.un .he relationship between. harv-:.t ing .'3sts and ur-*.ni'zins for
Grade rath th.,n xpon the variety of cott:n pl'.nte*. The develop, r.t of 1-ill
cleaniin e 'ipr.ent is tending_ tc make no .oslZ c the xse o:D lower craadz to butter
advantage; but, on the ether hanr.d, for fine finished .-codz, the briht color cf
the high grades is still nezos-i:y.
Character, inzludin- s:ch :^*ty factor-. :s 3tre v;tn, unlfc.-,ity .and
fineness, is an. e;.tremely L-.ort.t esle.-ent1 i. t.e s'-nning utilityy c -. -:zY st.plp
len:h ef ct::n, but prtic'uiarly "- in t-he l2nw otarle rroc.r. The im.ortatin
last 'ye--r :: ;-e.erly 12K,,LM hales :. for-ign ;ta--les is ex-:pl:-.r.ed +y A.ieric:..
Z.nan'f -=- -2r 3. re:esary_ -: ^t-_r. c-ttc:: hvn.x" the ch-.aracter eler1'ent., r3,,ired
..... .- ,. -r.-I ....
='-.r" =h- :. -^-_n', :-z,.. :+ --. er .'r-:i:, .r. '. .*-ithr& ad, tiirE c= rd. -,a d 1inL "Fa-,.
--- -- trr.'-t.
e---- --t iL3I ir. yar-ns in zuch jrr.D.rt .Le ns ztrct-th,
"-f--- ri : .' .ve re s:. :'r- .n. im-rerfect i:.. nd in mnanufactlu.i,._ c:stz
".:.r ." .: :-.: *_=' .-.:e : n :. i .E.^ ': ;'" *: ; n.e :"f ,.nit 3L"tp,.it It i3 :.*-.'j'^ ;.t t3 be
.ei s. i r=" r-.- "" dir LLL.',- i:. :.:: *c Trod"''. as tir^z in ";hit: re:'i.'t /.j-'.'" =o ;.tir ^
_-.->:d,-' -r- .- ;. "r--y. A li;..itu2 --u +r 3 Sir
": -.- ,'- .- :-* i .*:-: i:-.=i] "-* ""'.'* *-:.ey ;_-re ^ *::, '- inter :t---; d in ,;.c ; -- .; ,?';:il l'.
r m. n- 'r t-..e .. LS *' i -
-' i n -i-f ::.. >.r .. "y = r-, ..-;-I.. :-' J f .-c '. ,r .: 'z i .:p -..; -.: t .::...
-a ri: r^ ,-- .b I -^ -:-1 :* f ^ y .i l .h .L. I;.
sd of de.e: Lble =niformity In the supplies of cotton on which they drnwte
met their requirements.
,& Stun.arizurng briefly, the tendency during the past 6 years has been for
relative sualies of the longer staples to increase and for relative ..-yp-uliuc of
S the shorter staples to decrease. This has been accompanied by a decl-ne i;An the
premium for staple lengths longer than 7/6 inch, and in reduction in discounts
for cotton shorter than 7/8 inch. With this narrowing of premiums and discounts,
there has been a tendency for mills in this country to use relatively lar:or
quantities of the medium and of long staple cotton up to : out 1 3/16 inches.
This increase appears to have been accounted for to considerable extent by the
fatit-ition of mediumz and lon.g staples for zhort --taples in the production of
med-iu- and coarse cotton fabrics. The decrea-se in the consumirption o0 i:tia long
staples apparently has resulted partly, ; from, a falii:. off_ in the demn..iA for i ni;e
goods, ;.-.ich require relatively h-i,_J... rocessi'..; ccsts .jer uxJit of g-,o..: ... c,-,ra-
pete -ore -ctively -,ith silk- and r!-'5.L arid partly also from chrz-.c in t..-
technique of tire r.a, fct-jrinA.
in connection with orog6rans designed tc., improve the ztaole luntt' -
cotton produced it r s-t he r.cog.nized t"at S r.-l."tivel, gr .atcr ;: :
the l1:34er sta..le, are uroiuced, st.2-le >run:i',c a.-,ar '*. tek :'-. ..
JUl. ,-'-.a'el-., .,remi.:.s might be e: .pected t- re..r.n ; t ,,.cre they a'ra e,:iv- aieit
to the dif:'erence between: the cost oz rcce'zia'i ..odfi .l a aa t.' ;" -.
=..srt :tz.-le- cotton i. ,he .:roductv, n L, :i tu -.* CQ.x ,* f-bri -" 3. -.o
.i.1:':r.:-..:e zet;e.:. the valte of g;cc s ::...de fr.',n ,>.?rt ..t: P: ... -'. n t .. -;... .... : ::.
-he :.on^r staples.
- 123? -
UNIVERSITY O FLORIDA
3 12X2 0018 7230
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