The Division of Farm Population and Rural Life;

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The Division of Farm Population and Rural Life;
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United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics. -- Farm Population and Rural Life Division
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54, ~t' I STj.E IZPATjMET OF AGRICULTURE


at'


Bureau of Agricultural Economics.


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ME DIVISION OF FARM POPULATION AND RUPAL LIFE.

An Catline of 'tc S Establishbment, Staff,
Cooperative Policy, Research ProblemB,
Publications.


An Eplanatory Statement to Persons Interested in Rural Life
Problems.


Vashington. D.C.
June 1. 1924.


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US DFPOS;OHY |


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DIVISTOJ Or JA M FOIJLAtION AND UJLRAL LIFE.
U. S. Department of Agriculture,
C. J. Galpin, In Chargeh


IntLrod'cction.


The purpose of this paper isto answbr,-first of all"
questions which naturally arise about.the Division of Farm' Population
and Rural Life and its field of operations. A second aim and by
no means an ur4.tmort4nt one is tq arouse interestt in scientific
study of thA life side of africuiture and the farm population,
(especially, perhaps, the group aspects or family pooling of ex-
perdituree for well-being) as an indispensable aid to national
development. '

Establishment of tte Division.

In a very real sense the Divisior of Fanm Popralat'ion and Rural
Idfe is a fulfillment, belated. in point of time,. of President
0oo0eve0I's desire for a Federal Government ur4t studying the needs
of country life. '

LThe Division vwas established under the authority of the Honor-
able D. F. Houston-, Secretary of Agriculture, May 12, 1919 upon the
recozmerndation of a co-mittee of twerty-eight rural social, .-orkers
and students of farm life appointed by Secretary ,ouston, This com-
mittee met in Washington, May 1, 2, 3, 1919, upon request of the Secre-
tary of Agriculture, to outline the work to be undertaken by the Divi-
sion. Under the leadership of G.I.Christ ie, to; at- that time w2s
Assistant Secretary of Agriculture, end under the Cheirmcnship of
Professor T.N.Carver of Harvard University, who had been in charge of
the Rural Organization project in the Department, a report vas made
to the Secretary of Agriculture which was suabsequently printed as
Circular 139, Office of the Secretary.

The Division Staff of iot'erz.

Charles Josiah Galpin was appointed Econonist in Charge of the
Division May 12, 1910, and is still in charge: A graduate of Harvard
University; Associatc Professor of Agricultural Lconom~ics in the
University cf T.isroncin from 1912 to 1910, having charge of the rural
life courses.









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Wayne C. aaon, Junior Economist, transferred fran the
Division of final OganisaLtlon of the Rareau of Markets to this
Division in 1919. A grp&ate of the University of Minnesota.

Veda B.Larson, Junior Economist, appointed July 1, 1921:
A graduate of the University of Wisconsin.

L.Kirkpatrick, Assistant Agricultural Economist, appointed
October 2, 1922: A graduate of Cornell University.

The Clerical staff Includes Mildred H. Nilee, .-oad Clerk,
transferred July 1, 1919; Virginia K.Patterson, appointed April 25,
1922: Helen A. Robinson, transferred Dec. 16, 1922; Constance F.
Harris, transferreC Miy 1, 1924; Edna M. Downey, appointed June 2,
1924.

Temporary clerks are employed from tiro to time to assist
in tabulation of statistical data.

Housing of the Division.

The Division occupies rooms number 713, 7l14, 716 seventh
floor of the buildingrat 1358 B. St., S.T:., and tabulating rooms
number 23 and 246. "F" Building, 7/th and B. Sts.. N.W. Visitors
interested in any phase of country life are cordially welcome from
9.00 a.m. to 4.30 p.m. The Di-ision is at the service of such
visitors end will assist than. in gaining information which is avail-
able in Washington.

The Division Bdge t.

The Division has a budget of $.o".0O for the fiscal year 1924.
No increase was provided for 1,24 1925. It requires for the expenses
of the Washington office and staff out of this amount the sum of about
$20.000. This leaves at present the sum of $10,000 to be utilized
directly in cooperative projects with other research e-gercies. Very
little further increase in expenses vould be required to administer in
cooperative projects an additional $50,000.









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CooWpERAIOJ WITa C3LISGs, UNIVERSITIES, JID OTflD RESFARCH AGENCIES.

Policy.

It is at present the policy of the Division to seek cooperation
in search projects and investigate studies with other responsible
research agencies, as a means of accumulating a body of scientific
knowledge on the problems of farm population and rural life; rather
Utan to carry on researches independently with a highly organized
Division staff located in Washington, or maintained at field stations
in the various states.

Cooperative Ageneies.

The greater number of research agencies available for cooperation
with this Division is that of colleges of agriculture. There are cases
aere state universities and colleges other than state colleges can
legitimately undertake with the Division relations of cooperative research.
The college of agriculture in any State will have the first chance; if it
Smes not desire to. cooperate with the Division, then other research agencies
wl tave the opportunity. It should be said, however, that it is in-
advisable for other agencies in a state to undertake formal research in
rural matters with the Division, in conflict with the judgment of the State
college of agriculture.

Procedure.

1. A written agreement between the Bureau of Agricultural Economics
and the cooperating agency such as the State College of Agriculture,
University, or Institute of Research signed by both the Chief of the
B3rean and the administrative head of the other agency, is the first
formal step in cooperation. The tenms of this agreement are usually
arrived at by some informal discussion and agreement of the Division
head and the rural department head of the cooperating agency.

2. Tem first important item of the cooperative agreement is the
particular problem to study. A problem is usually selected which has
value in the State and at the same time fits into a scheme of national
problems possessing possibilities of regional comparison. The state is
favored so far as possible in the selection of a problem.

3. Financing a project of research has several angles. It is
expected that the Division will pay half the cost of a study and the
cooperating agency half. The Division tries to makeJW the sum o0f T150.
W foP r its 50-50 share of a small one-year study; and $750. pay for
its shbare of a large one-year study. In other word, there are many
small studies which can be made for $300; many large studies for
$1500. Occasionally a study will take two years, and two appropriations
of MOT. The money Is used for salarla of field investigators, for
teir travel expense@ and mubsistteeandM for necessary clerical assis-
tance. amd certain iscellaneouw servitce.










1. The field tnveutTeators aro virtually always found and providMe "ii
by the college or other cooperating agency, not ty the Division. Grada i;
students, young instructors, or others in the state specially qjualifi*d-
5uzh as h trh school tcachL.rs doing a thesis for a college degree umUaly
bccon.-. the fluid ar.snts. These agents when agreed upon receive appoinltnt
fror. the U.S. .Denartmont of Agriculture and become for the time being
cmplotees of the Federal Government. Som times the money furnisiad b tW e
division goes to pay the salary of the agent, sometimes, to pay his oerSa
sot irne s both; while the cooperating agency may in the first instajee
pay cxpcnses: in the second, salary; in the third, both salary and expense
of another field agent.

5. Direct supervision of field rork: belongs as a function to the
leader of tho project in the cooperating agency. Counsel, coaching agents,
standard methods, schedules, some supplier and the postal franking privi-
lege are furnished by the .Division.

6. Statistics gathered are frequently tabulated by the Division.
This is a matter of mutual agreement.

7. Publication of results of the cooperative study may be separate
or joint as agreed. Most frequently the college or other cooperating
agency prints in bulletin form. Sometimes the Division prints. rShen the
college or other agency prints. the Division is urn-ally furnished from
300 to 2,000 copies of tbfhe bulletin for national distribution. Publications
cf thc Division or of the cooperating agency will be furnished to applicants
as long as the free editions are not exhausted.


.RE3BAPH STUDIES.

A.

Studies l.hich Have Been Co.leted by the Division Staff and
Pablishd Or Arc Ar.aitins Publication.

I.
Stu.icr Publishrd ty the U.S.Dcpartment of Agriculture or in Press.

1. TIE :.'.IGAT:IO:: OF ADOLESC.LNTS AID YOULIG. ADUIZS. Frcm about 1.000 fanrs
in on: co,-anity over a period of 100 years. By Emily F. Soag. U.S.
Department of Arriculture Bullotin No. 9S4.

2. ?.RIL COMr-;I'NY BUILDINGS: By Wayne C.Nason.
?inn. of Plural Corwunity Buildings, Parmers' Bulletin lo. 1173.
r,-arizatlon of Rural Conmaunity Buildings. Farmer' Bullettn io. 1192.
UCes of -rrl Comnunity Buildings. Farmers' Bulletin No. 127I4.
3. P-L Pl'IrP.t'I: By Waynu C.Nason.
T.c foctal Arpects. Farmers' Bulletin No. 1325.
.crr1Ation Places: Farmers' Bulletin No. 1388.
Vill) 'u -ni Too- Planning: Farmers' Bulletin. In prospect.


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4. THE A:Rl POfIlfATICN OF EIRHT'ELftTED COUNTIES, (viz. Ell1s County,
Toxas: Dno County, Wisconsin: -WakS County.. North Carolina: King County,
Washington: Case County, North Dakota; Otssgp County. New York: Scott
S and New Madrid Counties, Missouri) CHARACTERISTICS, COMPOSITION AND
OCCUPATIONS. By C.J.Galpin and Veda .Larson.
To be publisbhed as mart of a Aonoraph on Farm Population by the Bureau
of the Census. In press.

5. TS 1AXD&D #.ND COST OF LIVING OF FARM FAMILIES. 3y E.L.Kirkpatriok and
'Helen W. Atwater. The U.S.bepartment of Agriculture. Department Bulletin
No. 1214.
The Cost of Living in Farm Homes in Several Areas of Kentucky, Tennessee,
and Texas. A Preliminary Report.

Cost of Living in Farm Homes, Lason County, Kentucky-. A Preliminary Report.
Cost of Living in-Farm Homes in Several Areas of Iowa. A Preliminary Report.

6. THE ADVANTAGES OF FARM. LIFE. By Emily Hoag Sawtelle.
A study by interviews and correspondence with S,000 farm women.
(A Digest of an Unpublished Manuscript).

7. DICTOHY OF WACHEIRS C-VIIK COURSES IN WJ!. SOCIOLOGY AND RURAL LIFE.
1. January 1, 1922.
2. May 1. 1923.
October 1, 1924. (in prospect)


II.

SStudies Published "y Universities.

1. A SOCIAL STLVDY OF RAVALLI COUCX.Y, CMa'i'NA. By Walter 3.Eau gnartel.
The Agricultural Erxriment Station, Uuaivursity of Montana, Bull. No. 160.

2. TSE STAIJDARD OF Li-F IN A TYPICAL SECTION OF DIVERSIFIED FAR:ING.
By E.L.KZirkcpatrick. Cornell University, Agricultural Erperinent Station,
Bull. 423.



Studies .'ich Have Been Completed by Investigators of Certain Colleges and
Universities, in Cooperation -ith the Division of Tarm Ponulation and =ural
Life; and Published byv the Colleges or Universities.

1. FRE2CE CREEK AS A RUPIAL C0..,dTITT. 3y A.J.Dadisman.
West Virginia University. Agricultural Experiment Station. Bull. 176.

2. .RURAL PRIMR0Y GP3UPS: A Study of Agrtcultural Neighborthoods. By J.&Xolb.
University of Wisconsin, AMricultural ExperiLnent Station. Research Bull. 51.







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3. V34ID1M LA7'ZKT 1N MBE1LZSLU Fat HOCS. By J.O.Rankin. I !
The University of Nobraaka, TIS Agricultural E experiment Station. Bill. 180.

4. T1HE3 ESASKA FA RM FAMILY. By J.O. RP. nkin. J
The University of Nebraska, The Agricultural Experiment Station. Ball. M.O

5. RURAL OEGAIIZATI01: A Stuiy of Primary Groups in Wake County, N.C.
dy Carle C.Zi-rwrman and Carl C.Taylor.
North Carolina State Collage of Agriculture and Engineering. The Agri-
cultural Em.xpriment StAtior Bull. 2145.

6. 3OtE FACTORS IN TOWN A.D COUNTRY RELATIONSHIPS. By Augustus W.Hayem.
The Tulano University of Louisiana. Research Bulletin. Unufmbered.

7. HDV FA31M TENAfLS LIVE. By J.A.Dickey and E.C.Branson.
The University of North Carolina. Extension Bill. Vol. II. No. 6.

E. !.BRASEA FARM FOMES: A Comparison of Some Living Conditions of Owters,
Part Owners, and Tenants. By J.O.Rankin. The University of Nebraska,
The Agricultural Experiment Station Bull. 191.
9. rRA.AL LIFE IN A.RKANSAS AT ITS BEST. By 0. T. 3ooden.
Hendrix College, Arkansas. Rural Series, No. 1.

10. TI REE NEGRO COAIJUtTIfIES IN TIDEWATER VIBRGINIA. 3y Allen 3.Doggett, Jr.
TIt 1armpton Normal and industrial Institute, Tti Hampton Bull. Vol. XIX.bo4.

11. :'-7bSi.SFA F :RTElAY: Some Coamnity Phases. By J.O.Rankin.
The U'Jniversity of Nobraska, Thf Agricultural Experiment Station. Ball. 196.

12. THE SCCIAL AREAS OF OTSEGO COUNTY C(ew York). By Dwight Sanderson and
'arren S.Thompson. Cornell University, The Agricultural Zxperiment Station,
Bull. 422.

13. SERVICE Rr.IATIONS O? TO;N AID C YrMY. By J.H. Kolb.
The University of Wiiconsin. Thc Agricultural Experiment Station, Research
Bull. 58.

14. OCCNCI,:IC A24D SCCUL. CONDITIONS OF NOOPTH CAPOLINA FAY.CE7?S.
3ase& on a Survey of 1,009 Forth Carolira Farmers in Three Typical
Counties of the State. By Carl '. Thylor and C.C.Zianerman. Committee Appoint
ed by tne State Board of Avriculturo.

15. 2Xsc&L-S COF CO!MU1;I'ry EITERPRISE3 I" LOUISIANA. By Augustus W.Hayes.
The Tulane University of Louisiana, Research Bull. No. 3.

If.. -a. SOCIAL A-hCiTS OF RURAL LIE AN) FAFmi TENANTS,. CZAR COUNTY. IOWA.
iy Gco. H.Von Titw--iln. E.L.Kirkpatrick. C.B.Roffer, J.F.Timden.
lo-a Stnte College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, The Agricultural
t.xFvrrwment Station Bull. 'Zo. 217.







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C.

&perrjn4 Addresses of C 4JaAl-.?n Issued as iinmeogrmahs.

1. Decrease in the U. S.Jral Population.
2. Farm Populetion Stulies.
SThe Villa3e ir. Sclationa to the Surrou ding Country.
The SRole of Eural Education in Community Life.
5. Sociological Aspects of Highway Transportetion.
6. The Aierican Farm Comuanity: What it Is and How It Functions.
7. Rurai Life in Awricn Art.
8. Rural and Urban Life in ALmerlca.
9. Can the Farm Family Afford Modern Institutione?

D.

Studies in Progress by the Division Staff.

1. COST-COMsu4P0wON UNITS*
Measures of Family Livitg on Farms. (An endeavor to attain units of
meaa re of a scientific character) By E.L.Kirknatrick.

2. THE 'SCIAL ASFECTtS OF GEINPAL BJSPITALS OB FARM COUTJNITIES.
(A Study of what is beirg done for the farmnner's health). By Wayne C.3ason.
3. THE 1)DIE.NTS OF POPiLUAION TO AND FROM FAP-RS. (An attempt to chart
the monveunts anI render anr ally the service of a report) By Veda B.Iarson.

L.

Studies Unmwblished or in Procrqss By Investifators Furnished by Collegese
Universities a-d Other Azencies in Cooperatior. 'ith The Division of Farm
Pocnlation and Rural Life.

1. A STUDY C? TE IST .S.?."- l-!NSTIITUTICNS IN THE STATE (or in selected counties
of a state) A method,4 constructive in character, of erecting standards
of institutions.

Illinois 11ilo L.Whittakor Northern 111. State Teachers' Coll.
few Jersey Henry Keller, Jr. State College of Agriculture,
Texas T.E.Garnett State College of Agriculture.
Virginia hilson Gee University of Virginia.
Washington Fred R.Yoder State College of Agriculture.

2. MOVE.iENTS O'F OPjLAUIO TO AND FROM FARMS.
(An attecrt to understand the reasons for and effects of rural migration).

Kansas .alter Burr State College of Acriculture.
Missouri S.L.Yorgan State College of Agriculture.








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3. SOCIAL ASPCT5 OF COuEOLIDATE) SCHOOL DISTRICT GROUPS.
(A study of this group as a social unit).


Michiran -


Eten Muwford


State College of Aricalti


ire.


4. THE FAPlR!S STAyfARD OF LIVING.
(A uniform set of studios of statistical character related to cost).


A laba-a -
Conanecticut -
Iowa -
Kan-a 2 -
Kentucky -
Xissouri -
Ohbio -
Nebraska -
New York -


Myrtle Brooks
I. G. Davis
George Ton Tungeln
Walter Burr
W.D.Nicholls
. L. Vo-rpan
Bruce Melvin
J.O.Pankin
Dwight EarAerson


Alabama College.
State College of Agriculture.
State College of Agriculture.
State College of Agriculture.
State College of Agriculture.
State College of Agriculture.
Ohio Wesleyan University.
State College of Agriculture.
State College of Agriculture.


5. SOC IAL AIND ECONOMIC RELATIONS OF THE COUNTRY TOIN AND ITS SURROUNDISG FARM
POIFLATION. (Detailed studies of particular towns).


Minnesota -
New York -
Ohio -
Wisconsin -


C. R. Hoffer
Bruce Melvin
Cecil North
J.H.Kolb


State College of Agriculture.
State College of Agriculture,
Ohio State University.
State College of Agriculture.


6. FAR! HOUSING AIND FARM HOLE CONDITIOC:NS.
(Particularly a study of farm tenant conditions).


Texas -
Virginia -


7. E.Garnett
(Allen B. Doggett. Jr.
(J.B. Fierce


State College of Agriculture.
Hampton Institute.
Virginia Negro Extension Service.


7. U.RA.L MIICIPALITLES.
(A study of prevailing tyoes of Americar local rural governm-nt).


Arkannras-


Thoodort B.Manny


Hendrix College, Arkansas.


S. ADAPTATION OF FARM FAMILIES 0TO TYPICAL REGIONS.
(A st'-udy of social and -conomic adjust:mcent of settlers).


Colorado -


B. r-. Coen


State College of Agriculture.


). 1,?:VY 0F T:iE 2IS-l OF T-? 100 BEST NEGRO FARMERS IN TEaBESS.
(An attcipt to bring biography of the successful to bear on life).


Thoma s Caruthurs


Fl ak University.


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M, E UTAH TYPE OF ADRICUIA'ULAL VILLAGE.
(A social photograph of a single village community).

i taf h Lowry Nelson Brigham Young University.
11. WEAL ORGANIZATION IN.TIH UNITED STATES.
(A study ini social psychology from documents of farm organizations).

North Carolina C.C.Taylor State College of Agriculture.

12. AThIUSB OF oFAJERS TOWARD COOPERATIVE MEETING.
(A' study of the psychology of farmnners).

Minnesota C.C.Zinraerman State College of Agriculture.

13. ThE MICAN VILLAGE.
(A statistical analysis of the population of 150 villages, based on the
1920 U. S.Cenuus Population schedules).
New York Edmnd deS.Brunner Institute of Social and Religious
Research.

A Rural Research Ideal For Each State.

Knowing the farm population of a state in detail, as the animal
Inmbazdry department of a state college knows the cattle of a state,
is an ideal none too high for those responsible for the social problems
of the farm population. Such an ideal means study, research, investigation.
It means acquaintance with the group life of farmers, with their institutions,
bhmes, standards, facilities. And rich acquaintance is not yet in books.
It mast be ferreted out. And there are ways of doing this.

A State Program of Rural Social Research.

1. The rural sociologist and the farm economist are close partners
in farm problems. Each can utilize at some point the findings of the other.
Both of these should first of all know the best things rural in the state.
This can be an elementary first project of social research. Several states
are now making this type of study.

2. The farm population of a state, by counties, should be known
and kept revised year by year, tabulated broadly by race. color, sex, age
groups, temnre, labor status. Sources for a beginning are now provided
by the U.S.Census Bureau report of 190 on Farm Population.

3. T3 e movements of population to and from the f&ms of the state may
very well be made a zajor subject of investigation.

4. The farmer's standard of living, its cost, the distribution of
expenditures among the various wants of his family are also rajor problems
which go along with the economic studies of income and profit-making.
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R. A study of fain. housing is a basic need now; the bousWig of.
tenants and farm laborers especiallyy. V .:
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6. The problem of. whether the American farmer can afford ibO&eir In- ||
attuttions Ie well worth study in detail. N *.

To EncriLent Stati6n DLrector.

The cttontlon of Directors of Agricultural Uxperiment Stations is
called to these research studies. It is a matter of. mrprise b9 god& a i.:o
study can be mado on $2,0 of College money, a study which when once ',
printed in thn State will help other agricultural and economic pslu ... *j .
Isa it not a grave mistake to put off beginning studies of the fta f1am il
expenditures, studies of the alfoarmed or inadequate groapings of farm'
famrilies engeed in collective expenditures and collective well-btl4i a..".
a m-istake to put these off "until the production and marloting studies '
hav been made which are so pressing?" Will you not" do %I W lf lOtlat Wi
of your state a greater service to keep some study of P1MPO'PUL WE AON .. ....
F.RAL LIFE going all the time you ake troubled by the problem of ta -f'
production, farm finance, crop and animal pathology? The Division of :*
Farm Population aM dRural Life welcomes an: inquiry trot you about tbe-.-mUfqll
coct of initial studies. S




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