UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
.BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECDNOMI'S
I IN COOPERATION WITH THE EXTENSION SERVICE
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REVISED JUNE 1948
SUGGESTIONS TO PROSPECTIVE FARMERS
AND SOTTRCES OF' INFORMATTOT
Prospective farmers with little knc.-ridge of farm-
ing-and many experienced farmers a.: well-are fre-
quently at a loss to know where to -;urn for specific
information about farm business and farm life. This
pamphlet is intended as a guidebook to sources of
the particular kinds of information most commonly
Much information is available to the person who wishes to learn about
the agricultural possibilities of different regions. Many State and Federal
agencies publish bulletins dealing with various aspects of this general sub-
ject, and information about the history, geography, resources, Ind agriculture
of a State can be found in good encyclopedias and in State guidebooks such as
those prepared by the Work Projects Administration of the Federal Works
STATE Two departments of each State Agricultural College-the
AGENCIES Agricultural Experiment Station and the Agricultural
Extension Service, which is the educational arm both of
the land-grant colleges and of the U. S. Department of Agriculture-furnish
valuable information and assistance to persons who wish to know about the
agriculture of the State.
EXPERIMENT The Agricultural Experiment Stations investigate the agri-
STATIONS cultural problems of their States. Their published re-
ports, usually the most authoritative information available
on the subjects treated, can be obtained from the Director of the Station,
usually free of charge. Addresses of these officials are listed on page 1i5.
EXTENSION The Extension Service brings to people in rural areas
SERVICE much information about farming and rural home-making
through bulletins on particular farm problems. These too
may generally be obtained free of charge by writing to State Extension
Directors, whose addresses appear on page 15. The Extension Service also
provides through many other means specific information not covered in published
COUNTY The cooperative Agricultural Extension Service is repre-
EXTENSION sented in nearly every county by a county agricultural
AGENTS agent. These agents are well-informed about the agri-
culture in their counties. They can give valuable in-
formation concerning conditions and practices in their areas, and expert in-
. formation about many things prospective farmers or farm purchasers need to
know. In most counties they have the assistance of advisory committees made
up of well-informed, successful farmers and bsinesn who are familiar with
local agricultural conditions and are able to give sound advice B types of
farming suitable to the area, long-term values of farm land, amount of capital
required, sources of credit, necessary size of unitt, sound operating practices
and, in many cases, the number and types of facing opportunities available
within the county.
The Director of the State Extension Service (page 15) can supply the
name and address of any county agricultural agent in his State* In those fe
Counties that have no agricultural agent, the State Director can furnish mias
information regarding agriculture in specific counties. Inquiries should be -
clearly stated as possible.
COUNTY HOME In addition to the county agricultural extension agents,
DEMONSTRATION most counties have county home demonstration agents.
AGENTS These agents carry on educational work with farm fmillse
to assist them in making the best possible use of avail-
able facilities and opportunities for better rural living. They bring to fan
families results of research which are adapted to their Imediate lpoality,
encourage them in commit improvement, and help them to be informed -n na-
tional trends and developments which affect rural living. HFme demonstration
agents are well informed on the problems and opportunities for satisfying
rural living in their counties.
EXTENSION WORK County h-H club agents are employed in many counties to
WITH RURAL carry on extension work with rural boys and girls. In
YOOT other counties such activity is conducted by the county
agricultural and home extension agents in comjunctalo
with their programs for adults. This work is carried on with rural youth be-
tween the ages of 10 and 21 years, organized into clubs. The purpose of the
4-H clubs is to help rural boys and girls use and develop an appreciation for
improved practices in agriculture and homemaking give them a clearer vision
of farming and homemaking as worthy occupations, and train them in workLn to-
gether so that they may better assist in solving rural problems.
OTHER EXTENSION The cooperative Extension Service also employs specialists
ACTIVITIES in many fields such as dairy, livestock, and crop produc-
tion; nutrition; and home management. These specialists
supplement the work of the resident County Extension Agents in keeping them up
to date in their particular specialized fields.
OTHER STATE Most States have a State Department of Agriculture, and
AGENCIES some have a State Land Office or Commissioner, a State
Department of Conservation and Development, a State
Department of Immigration or Information, a State Department of Public Works,
or a State Engineer or other officer concerned with certain phases of irriga-
tion or drainage. Many of these Departents issue publications, and most of
them make annual reports which contain economic and other information. These
reports may usually be obtained from the head of the Departaent at the State
capital. See page 16 for addresses of State Departments of Agriculture
To find out what specific departments are maintained by a given State
GOovernment, the"Book of the States"published by the Council of Stats Governuments
may be consulted at the local public library, or an inquiry may be addressed to
the Council at 1313 Sixtieth Street, Chicago, Illinois.
GETTING FARM EXPERIENCE
Instead of starting right off by buying or renting a farm many inex-
perienced persons have first secured training and experience either by going
to an agricultural school or by working as a farm laborer for a year or so.
SSCHOCLS AND Many of the State agricultural colleges, in addition to
COLLEMES their regular schedules, offer special short courses on
Various agricultural subjects. Addresses of the colleges
will be found on page 15. For young people of high-school age there are vo-
cational agricultural schools in every State; some of these offer part-time
and evening courses which are open to persons of more than high-school age.
War Veterans may take agricultural courses paid for by the Veterans
Administration. States and smaller communities under optional plans In the
Federal law have arranged practical training for would-be farmers; so that, in
Many communities, veterans may take institutional on-the-farm courses, spending
so many hours on the farm and so many hours in a nearby school. Some of the
Veteran-trainees own and operate farms; some operate rented farms; others do
farm work under supervision of practical farmers.
If you are close to the county seat of the particular county usually
you can find the location of the vocational school from the county agricultur-
al agent. Or you may write to the State Director of Vocational Education
Sat the State capital for detailed information on the nature of the agricultur-
al courses offered and the location of the schools.
HIUD If you need experience and decide to start by working on
HANDS a farm, you can apply for work as a farm laborer. See
the county agricultural agent* He may know of an opening
or can direct you to the local employment office. Often i "want-ad" in the
State or local newspaper will get results when other efforts fail.
PHYSICAL FACTORS IN FARMING
PHYSICAL A general understanding of conditions in an area must
GEDOGRAPHY rest upon a knowledge of its physical factors. A fairly
large-scale map of the State in which the area is located,
such as may be found in any good atlas, can supply useful information on the
subject. 'A topographic map, which shows differences in surface levels, is
always helpful, particularly in the case of mountainous or hilly areas. Vari-
ations in altitude often cause striking differences in climate, soil, and ac-
S cessibility of particular locations, and affect the suitability of the land for
farming. The location of mountains, rivers, valleys, swamps, plains, plateaus,
towns, reads, railroads, boundaries of political subdivisions, forests, parks,
reservations, and other features, are all vitally important to an understand-
ing of an area, and can best be studied on topographic maps.
These maps, on scales varying from about 3 inches to the mile to 1 inch
to 4 miles, are available for certain areas of nearly half of the States. They
have been prepared and are for sale by the Geological Survey, United States
Department of the Interior, Washington 25, D. C. State maps of the so-called
public-domain States, prepared by the Department of the Interior, may be
bought at moderate cost from the Superintendent of Documents, Government
Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C.
General information on the prevailing physical conditions in different
parts of the country can be found in the Atlas of American Agriculture. In-
fluence of land relief, soils, climate, and natural vegetation on land use,
and their outstanding characteristics, are discussed, and their distribution
is shown on maps. This Atlas may be consulted in all the larger public and
institutional libraries of the country.
The Weather Bureau, United States Department of Commerce, issues the
"Summary of Climatological Data for the United States, by Sections,' and an
"Annual Report on Climatological Data." These publications contain data on
each State, including the high, low, and average temperatures, precipitation,
and wind motion by the month and year, as well as the frost-free period (grow-
ing season)e In addition, the 1941 Yearbook of the United States Department
of Agriculture, "Climate and Man," contains a vast amount of climatic informa-
tion on all States. These publications are too large to permit free distribu-
tion, but they can be consulted at various libraries over the country.
Further, the Soil Conservation Service, United States Department of
Agriculture, Washington 25, D. C., has published a series of reports under the
general title, "Physical Land Conditions," which contain data on climatic con-
ditions; and the United States Weather Bureau issues monthly and annual reports
of the records of its weather observatories in each State. The latter may be
obtained upon request by writing to the proper weather stations, whose addresses
are found on page 18.
Another good source of general information on the physical aspects of
certain areas is the soil survey reports, usually made cooperatively with the
State Agricultural Colleges, and available for many counties over the United
States. Until supplies are exhausted, these reports may be obtained from the
Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils, and Agricultural Engineering,
United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland,
in limited numbers, without charge
United States Senators and Representatives from the areas covered
by the reports, without charge
Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington 25
D. C., at prices which will be quoted upon request.
Many libraries, the names and locations of which may be obtained from
the Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils, and Agricultural Enagineering, contain
files of these reports. If no file is available, the opinion of the county
agricultural agent will be valuable; also, local farmers can often supply use-
ful information on this general subject.
SOILS A knowledge of the characteristics and properties of
soils is important to prospective land buyers. Soil
survey reports (discussed under "Physical Geography"), when. available for the
area under consideration, will repay careful study, as will the reports called
"Physical Land Conditions," also mentioned in the section on "Physical
Geography." Soil survey reports have colored maps showing the distribution of
the different soil types, and the text describes the soils, their use and
management, and the crops best adapted to them. They are, therefore, valuable
to those who are considering definite locations, especially so if you have some
knowledge of soils. The average person without special training in soils will
do well to study soil reports with the help of county agricultural agents, and
others, who are able to explain such technical publications.
District Supervisors of Soil Conservation Districts can supply much
important information on local soil conditions. These districts are located
in all States. Names and addresses of supervisors may be secured by writing
to Regional Conservators of the Soil Conservation Service. A list of their
addresses appears on page 19.
WATER SUPPLY Quality and quantity of available drinking and stock
water on a farm should always be investigated carefully.
There is probably no general source of information about the drinking-water
supply on any particular farm, but it is likely that neighbors can supply some
basis for judgment. It is always advisable to have well water frequently
tested for purity. Local physicians, or the county health officer, can usual-
ly give information on the location of offices to which samples of water can
be sent for testing.
Some of the western States have areas where the rainfall is totally
inadequate. In such areas, crop farming can be carried on only by irrigation.
The irrigated areas of the United States are mapped and discussed in the re-
port called "Irrigation of Agricultural Lands,"which is issued by the Bureau
S of the Census, Washington 25, D. C. Separate reports for each State in which
irrigation is practiced can be bought for a small sum from the Superintendent
of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. Each State
report indicates the approximate irrigated area, and gives county statistics
relating to such lands. Also, inquiry of the State Agricultural College
(page 15) will usually provide very helpful information concerning irrigation
and drainage, as Jell as other technical problems of farming. In the West,
the State Engineer or corresponding officer usually administers the State's
water laws and should be consulted on rights to the use of water for irriga-
tion and related matters. Information concerning a specific irrigation system,
including amount of water delivered per year, water Charges, and indebtedness,
can usually be obtained from the local offices of the irrigation district or
Farm land in drainage enterprises is mapped and described in "Drainage
of Agricultural Lands," issued by the Bureau of the Census, Washington 25, D.C.
Separate reports for each State in which drainage is practiced can be bought
from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington 25,
D. C. Each report roughly maps the drainage areas, and gives statistics con-
cerning conditions and use of drained lands, and drainage works. Practical
suggestions on drainage for any particular locality, or farm, may be obtained
from the county agricultural agent at the county seat.
ECONOMIC FACTORS IN FARMING
GENERAL ECONOMIC Reports resulting from the United States Census of
INFORMATION Agriculture form one of the best sources of basic infor-
mation on agriculture in this,country. Census reports
now available show, by States and counties, uses of land; principal crops and
classes of livestock; farm mortgages, taxes, labor, and facilities; fruit,
vegetable, and minor crops; value of farm products, and classification of
farms by size of farms, by major sources of income, and by total value of
products. Census reports may be bought from the Superintendent of Documents,
Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C., or may be consulted at
your nearest public library. A recent Bureau of the Census publication
prepared in cooperation with the Department of Agriculture and other agencies,
is called "County Data Book' (House Document 340O; 80th Congress 1st Session).
It is a supplement to the Statistical Abstract of the U. S. and gives important
social and economic facts-in tabular form-about each county in the United
States. Included are such items as number and size of farms, average value
per farm, number of persons per square mile, education levels, principal
sources of farm income and type of farming area for each county. These and
many other items useful in sizing up farming and living conditions in partic-
ular counties will be found in this 431-page book. Because of its cost-
$2.75, from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office,
Washington 25, D. C.-it may be more parctical to get your data from this
report in a nearby library.
Production and marketing data are published in the annual publica-
tion of the United States Department of Agriculture, HCrops and Markets."
Other Department publications which would prove helpful to prospective farmers
are listed in reports entitled 'Agricultural Eoonomic and Statitical Publica-
tions" and "List of Available Publications of the United States Department
of Agriculture." Copies of these reports may be had upon request to the
Bureau of Agricultural Economics, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington
25, D. C. Daily, weekly, and, in some cases, monthly MERK= NEWS REPORTS,
giving current prices and market conditions are issued by U. S. Department
of Agriculture field offices. In order to select the reports for the com-
modity you produce, write for the booklet "Periodic Market Reports." Address:
Production and Marketing Administration, U. S. Department of Agriculture,
Washington 25, D. C. Specialty producers, such as dairy farmers, poultrymen,
and fruit growers, often have their names placed on mailing lists to receive
market news reports regularly. These are more useful to persons who actually
have begun to farm. Much of the same information is relayed to farmers by
press and radio.
The State agricultural colleges (see page 15) are other important
sources of economic information on agriculture for their respective States.
LAND As a general indication of the level of values in a comn-
VALUES unity, helpful information concerning average values of
farm real estate per farm and per acre for all farms, by
States, counties and minor civil divisions, may be obtained from the U. S.
Census of Agriculture as of the date the Census was taken. State and county
data are readily available, as stated in the section "General Economic Infor-
mation." Regarding information for minor civil divisions, this is available
only in photestatic form and must be secured from the Bureau of the ronsus,
U. S. Department of Commerce, Washington 25, D. C. It should be remembered,
however, that because farm real estate values change materially from year to
year, especially during and following wars, dollar values as of a given date
(as shown in the Census of 1945, for example) may not accurately reflect
"The Farm Real Estate Situation," published annually by the U. S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture, gives indexes of farm-land values by States and major
geographic divisions, with graphic presentation of trends in values; and dis-
cusses the chief factors affecting values during the year under review. The
circular may be obtained without charge from the Bureau of Agricultural Eco-
nomics, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington 25, D. C., as long as the
free supply lasts, or from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Print-
ing Office, Washington 25, D. C., for 10 cents. Pointers on how to estimate
the value of a farm on the basis of its future earnings will be found in the
booklet "About That Farm You're Going to Buy." Get a free copy from the
Farm Credit Administration, Washington 25, D. C.
SIZE OF Requests are frequently received for information concern-
FARM ing the typical size of farm properties in various areas
and for different types of farms. Reports of the U. S.
Census of Agriculture showing average size of farms by States, counties, and
minor civil divisions for all farms and by type of farm, provide perhaps the
most extensive data on the subject. (See section under "Land Values" for
S means of obtaining this material.) It should be noted, however, that average
sizes are likely to be misleading if there is great variation in the sizes of
individual farms. Also, in some areas even farms above average size may be
too small. County agricultural agents (see section under "County Extension
Agents") and State Experiment Stations (see page 15), are the better sources
of information as to the most practical size of farms for their particular
areas. The Bureau of Agricultural Economics of the U. S. Department of
Agriculture has data showing desirable sizes of farms of different types for
FARM Prospective farmers and farmers who plan to change loca-
INCOME tion or type of farming often want information relative
to the income that may be expected from proposed farming
operations. The 1945 Census of Agriculture shows gross farm income data as of
1944t by type of farm, and several of the State Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tions have made studies of farm income; bulletins concerning the latter are
available from the Director of the Station (see page 15). The Bureau of
Agricultural Economics, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington 25, D. C.,
is another source of useful farm-income information, including in some cases
the approximate average income that may be expected from a given type and size
of farming operation. But studies have not yet been made by BAE for all types
of farming, or for all locations. Try the State Ecperiment Station first,
especially if you have in mind some particular State.
The production histories of farms in counties taking part in agricul-
tural conservation programs conducted by the U. S. Department of Agriculture
provide helpful data of this kind. County agricultural agents, at the county
seat, usually can supply this information.
COST OF Several of the State Agricultural Experiment Stations
A FARM have issued publications relating to the cost of equip-
ping a farm for efficient operation, copies of which can
usually be obtained from the Director of the Station. The U. S. Department of
Agriculture can supply data on this matter, and the reports of the U. S.
Census of Agriculture show average values per farm of livestock and implements
as of the time the Census was taken. These are generally lower than actual purchat
costs involved in setting up a farm enterprise. First-hand ideas about costs
in a particular county can be had from the county agricultural agent at the
THE Generally the county agent, the neighbors, or State agri-
FARM cultural agencies can help a farmer who needs advice on
technical problems such as care of livestock, use of
machinery, proper soil-building methods, or quality and supply of feed, seed,
and fertilizer. However, advice and information on such matters are frequent-
ly available also from the U. S. Department of Agriculture. The "List of
Available Publications of the United States Department of Agriculture" may be
consulted for published material; if none of the bulletins listed there covers
the particular problem in mind, an inquiry may be addressed to the appropriate
agency of the Department. Specifically, for the following subjects these would
Control of insect pests and plant
diseases ...........................Bureau of Entomology and
Dairy information ....*.................Bureau of Dairy Industry
Economic aspects of operating
problems .......*......... ...........Bureau of Agricultural
Electrical equipment and appliances ...Rural Electrification
Aduinis trati on
Farm machinery and equipment, farm
buildings, feed, seed, fertilizer,
soil composition and plants ........Bureau of Plant Industry
Soils and Agricultural
Farm forestry ....*.............. ......Forest Service
I Livestock and poultry ....................Bureau of Animal Industry
Soil-building methods ..................Soil Conservation Service
The address of all these agencies is the U. S. Department of
Agriculture, Washington 25, D. C.
THE Home life on a farm is in many ways different from urban
FARM home life and new farmers and their families frequently
HOME need help in working out problems of farm-home management.
As indicated in the sections on Extension Service work,
State extension workers, including home demonstration agents and county agents,
are ready to lend assistance when needed. Facts about many phases of homemak-
ing may also be obtained from the Bureau of Human Nutrition and Home Economics,
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington 25, D. C. Answers to questions on
adequate and efficient wiring of buildings, and care and use of electrical
equipment for the farm home may be requested from the Rural Electrification
Administration, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington 25$, D. C.
LOCATING FARMS FOR SALE OR RENT
JOMESTEADING Opportunity for homesteading on the remaining Federal
public domain is greatly restricted today. At present,
only relatively few homestead opportunities are available in the United States.
After more than a century of selection, the most desirable tracts have already
been disposed of, and those remaining must be developed at considerable ex-
pense before they can be profitably farmed. The surface of the greater por-
tion of the public domain (located mainly in Arizona, California, Colorado,
Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, and W.oming) is valuable on-
ly for grazing, and Congress has decided that even that use must be carried on
under Government regulation to prevent over-grazing, soil erosion, and other
damage. An application to make homestead entry cannot be allowed unless the
land has first been classified by the Government as being more valuable or
suitable for the production of agricultural crops than for the production of
native grasses or forage plants. Applicants must swear that they have personal-
ly examined the land and are well acquainted with its characteristics, and
must be prepared to establish their homes upon the land within six months
after the application has been allowed.
Further information concerning homestead laws may be obtained from
the Bureau of Land Management, U. S. Department of the Interior, Washington 25,
FEDERAL Generally speaking, lands served by Federal irrigation
RECLAMATION projects are obtainable only by purchase from individuals
FARMS or other owners. But some public land farm units may be
available on some of the Federal reclamation projects,
which may be taken by qualified entrymen under the terms of the United States
Reclamation Act. A settler who takes a public-land farm unit must be in good
health and have at least $2000 unencumbered or its equivalent in farm goods,
must have had 2 years of farmnning experience, and have a homestead right. Much
of the land being reclaimed by irrigation hasalready been homesteaded and is
now in the hands of private owners. Considerable work remains to be done be-
fore water can be distributed to dry lands included in the project areas.
Farmnning opportunities in such areas are largely in the future. When an open-
ing is announced through the newspapers, application may be made in writing
to the project superintendent, but a personal appearance before a local board
is necessary before an applicant is approved. If a private owner offers land
for sale within a reclamation project area, it is wise to check with the
Bureau of Reclamation to be sure the land actually will get water. Detailed
information on this program may be obtained from the Bureau of Reclamation,
U. S. Department of the Interior, Washington 25, D. C.
SURPLUS Surplus military lands suitable for farming are sold,
LANDS when available, by the Federal Land Banks. These are
lands formerly used for aray camp areas and other Federal
purposes. Information regarding property under Jurisdiction of the Federal
land banks may be secured by writing to the appropriate district office of the
Farm Credit Administration. Addresses of these offices are listed on page 19.
Sometimes a foreclosed farm may be purchased. Federal land banks,
insurance companies that make farm loans, private mortgage companies, ad com-
mercial banks occasionally have for sale or rent farms that they have ac-
quired because of the inability of previous owners to met their obligations
STATE Certain State agencies issue lists of farms for sale or
AGENCIES rent in their respective States (see page 20)e Land of-
fices in States can furnish such information concerning
State owned land (see page 20). State rural credit offices may have farms to
sell or rent (see page 21). The U. S. Department of Agriculture does not
maintain reference lists of private farm mortgage companies or of real estate
FARMS FROM Many farms are sold each year by individual owners-by
PRIVATE OWNERS farmers iho grow old and retire, by those who give up
farming to go into other work, by executors closing oute
estates, and by absentee owners tho inherited the land or bought it as an in-
vestment. Most of the farms sold are from these private sources. Some 200 to
300 thousand such farms change hands by voluntary sale each year.
NEWSPAPERS AND REAL Prospective farmers find out about these farms through
ESTATE AGENCIES real estate agents, and through ads in newspapers and farm
Journals. Often they pick out a good farming county with
likely prospects and go there to live or work for a season before acquiring a
farm. In this way they get first-hand information from the county agricul-
tural agent and others about local conditions and problems. This else gives
them time to find reliable agencies with whom to deal and look around for a
suitable farm at a sound agricultural value. It is always advisable for one
at least to visit a new locality and see for himself before undertaking to bQ
or rent a farm.
GET CLOSE-TO-FARM Information about types-of-farming areas generally may
INFORMATION be had from the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington
25, D. C. But as soon as you decide on some State as a
likely choice for your location, get information to guide you in choosing a
county adapted to your needs by writing to. or talking with, the State extension
S Director (addresses on page 15). Then, talk in person with the county agri-
cultural agent whose name and address will be given you by the State Exten-
sion Director. Get all the advice you can from sources close to the land-
L from those who know local conditions first-hand.
SSOURCES OF CREUET FOR FARMING
Nearly everyone who goes into faming uses credit in one form or
another. Borrowed funds can assist in the purchase of a farm and provide for
its profitable operation. The wise use of credit often means success in farm-
ing; the unwise use of credit may bring about failure. Two major types of
farm loans are made-(l) long-term and (2) short-term. Both private and
goversoental organizations extend credit to farmers.
LONIG-TER The purpose of long-term loans usually is to finance major
CREDIT capital expenditures such as purchase of farms or addi-
tional land, or the construction of farm buildings. As
the term implies the length of time allowed to repay these loans may be from
% to as many as 1o years. They are secured by farm real estate mortgages and
are often called farm mortgage loans.
A careful check of all lenders in a community will usually show where
the loan with the best terms, rate, and provisions may be obtained. Individu-
als, particularly sellers of farms, are one source of credit. However, because
these persons know they may need to use their money at some time during their
life, they are usually unwilling to make a noncallable, long-term loan. The
more important farm-mortgage lenders are the Federal land banks which make
loans through local national farm loan associations; the Farmers Home Adminis-
tration, U. S. Department of Agriculture, which makes tenant-purchase loans
through FH& county offices; insurance companies; and commercial banks.
The Federal land banks operate in every State under supervision of the
S Farm Credit Administration, U. S. Department of Agriculture. Their loans, which
S are secured by first mortgages, may not exceed 65 percent of the appraised nor-
Mal value of the land. The interest rate on loans through local farm loan as-
sociations is h percent. The loans are usually amortized over a period of 20
to 30 odd years. Local farm loan associations handle applications for land
bank loans. The county agricultural agent, as well as the Federal land bank of
the district, can direct applicants to the nearest secretary-treasurer or loan
correspondent for the association.
The Farmers Home Administration, through its long-term, low-interest
S rate, tenant-purchase loans,.may lend up to 100 percent of the farm value to
enable tenants, sharecroppers, farm laborers, and eligible veterans to buy
farms. Loan funds are limited, however, so that only a relatively few in
certain designated areas may benefit.
Full information on long-term agricultural credit extended by the in-
S stitutions under the supervision of the Farm Credit Administration may be se-
cured by writing to the FCA district office. The location of the district of-
fices and the States served by each are shown on page 19. Information about
long-term loans made by the Farmers Home Administration can be obtained by
writing to any of the FHA State Directors. The addresses of these officials
S will be found on page 22.
Farm-mortgage loans of insurance companies usually have long terms,
low interest rates, prepayment and deferred payment privileges, and other
features similar to those made by the land banks, but their loans are not made
in all areas of the Nation. Inquiry of local banks and farm real estate brok-
ers will reveal the names of any companies making loans in that locality and
the agents with whom an application may be filed.
Commercial banks make some farm-nortgage loans. Because of the fluc-
tuating nature of bank deposits, however, loans are usually of conservative
amounts and cover a short term of years.
SHORT-TERM Loans with a repayment term of less than 3 years are cus-
CREDIT tomarily called short-term loans. While many short-term
loans are made without security, a mortgage on crops,
livestock, or equipment is often required. Short-term loans are usually made
for production purposes, that is, to pay for feed, seed, fertilizer, livestock,
equipment, and labor.
Commercial banks are the chief sources of operating funds for farmers.
Short-term loans may also be obtained from production credit associations-
credit cooperatives under the supervision of the Farm Credit Administration.
Credit may be secured from these associations to finance production of farm
products, to buy livestock and equipment, to repair buildings, and for general
agricultural purposes. Interest rates are low and repayment schedules are
planned to fit the needs of each farmer. Addresses of local associations may
be obtained from the county agricultural agent or from the Farm Credit
Administration district office (page 19).
Loans for operating purposes are available also from the Farmers H[me
Administration. These loans are limited to low-income farmers who cannot ob-
tain the credit they need on reasonable terms anywhere else. The loans are
made for 1 to 5 years, and are based on individual farm and home plans showing
how the families can improve their farming operations and become better estab-
lished in farming. FHA supervisors give borrowers practical guidance in sound
farm and home management.
For information about short-term loans of the Farm Credit Administra-
tion, an inquiry should be addressed to one of the FCA district offices
(locations on page 19) Details concerning short-term loans made by the
Farmers Home Aiministration can be obtained fram the Directors listed on page 22.
Credit obtained from dealers is used by many farmers. Ordinarily this
credit is relatively expensive as compared with obtaining a regular loan and
paying cash for the purchases. If a loan cannot be secured from the local bank,
the production credit association, or the Farmers Hone Administration, the
farmer should seriously question the advisability of making the intended
LOANS TO The so-called veterans' "G. I. Bill of Rights" offers,
SERVICEMEN among other things, a guaranty by the Veterans Administra-
tion of 50 percent of loans made by approved lenders to
veterans of World War II. The Veterans Administration does not make a loan,
but guarantees it. Purposes for which the loans to be guaranteed may be used
include the purchase or improvement of farms, livestock, and equipment. The
total amount guaranteed may not exceed $L4,000 for any one individual. On non-
real-estate loans, such as loans for livestock and equipment, the amount guar-
anteed is limited to $2,000. Interest is h percent. Before guaranty of the
loan may be arranged the veteran should have the farming ability and experience
needed for making a reasonable success of his farm, and the farm itself must
be approved as being reasonably priced and satisfactory as a business. The
bank, mortgage company, or other agency to which the veteran applies for his
loan can explain the regulations and help him to make proper application for
S the guaranty. For the booklet "Guaranteed Loans for Veterans," address
Veterans Administration, Washington 25, C., or nearest Veterans Administra-
tion field office.
Veterans of World War II who have adequate farm experience are eligible
for rural rehabilitation Supervised loans made by the Farmers Home Administra-
* tion for farm and home operating expenses, provided they are unable to obtain
adequate credit at reasonable rates and on reasonable terms from other sources.
*I- World War II veterans are also eligible for Farmers Home Administra-
* tion farm-purchase loans to the same extent as if they were farm tenants,
provided there is reasonable assurance they are likely to carry out success-
fully the undertaking required of them under such loans. If a veteran has not
had practical farm experience, he will be expected to acquire such experience
through placement training or otherwise, in order to qualify for a farm-
purchase loan. It is also of the utmost importance that the veteran be able to
locate a desirable farm that can be bought at a price in line with its long-
S range earning capacity. In general, farm-purchase loans are limited to appli-
cants who are unable to obtain satisfactory credit from sources other than FRA,
but a veteran in need of supervision of the type provided by FHA will not be
I denied a loan as long as loan funds are available, although he might be able
to obtain an unsupervised loan from another source. Detailed information on
FHIX loans to servicemen and women can be obtained from the Farmers Home Admin-
istration, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington 25, D. C., or, if you
have in mind any particular location for a farm, write to the State FHA
Director (addresses on page 22). He can give you the name and address of the
county office where you can apply for your loan.
OTHER FINANCIAL AND TECHNICAL AID
BANKS FOR. The 12 banks for cooperatives, supervised by the Farm
COOPERATIVES Credit Administration, make loans to farmers' cooperatives.
Included are commodity loans, loans for operating capital,
loans for marketing and purchasing, and loans for service cooperatives. Loans
are made to small cooperatives just starting out as well as to large associa-
tions. Often a group of farmers by supplementing the capital they subscribe
with a loan from a bank for cooperatives is able to get a cooperative started
to provide a needed service on a sound basis. Information about loans to co-
operatives can be obtained by writing to the bank for cooperatives of the dis-
trict office of the Fam Credit Administration in which the cooperative is
located. A list of district offices is given on page 19.
COMMODITY The Commodity Credit Corporation finances and administers
CREDIT price-support programs for various agricultural comodi-
ties. These operations include the making of loans to
farmers, the buying of certain farm products, the procurement of commodities
for Government disposition, and the transportation and storage of camoditiLes.
Full Information regarding specific programs may be obtained by writing to the
Production and Marketing Administration, Washington 2$, D. C.
PRODUCTION. The Production and Marketing Administration, through its
AND MARKETING Agricultural Conservation Programs Branch, assists farmers
AININISTRATION in carrying out those conservation measures that will re-
build and maintain soil fertility and prevent erosion.
Assistance under the program, either in the form of cash payments or in con-
servation materials and services, may be earned for specified soil- and
water-conserving practices which are best adapted to individual farms*
Farmer-committees, elected by cooperating producers, are in charge of
local administration of the Agricultural Conservation Program, as well as of /
commodity loans (made available through the Commodity Credit Corporation),
production goals, the sugar program, acreage allotments and marketing quotas
when these are in effect for particular crops, and field activities of other
branches of PMA in the administration of programs dealing directly with
ACP farmer-coumittees operate in every agricultural county and comnnmi-
ty in the Nation. Farmers who wish to cooperate with any PMA program should
get in touch with the local committee or with the county ACP office, which is
usually located at the county seat.
RURAL Under certain circumstances, the Rural Electrification
ELECTRIFICATION Administration, U. S. Department of Agriculture, lends
ADMINISTRATION money, principally to farmer cooperatives, for the on-
struction of rural electric lines and, where necessary,
for generating and transmission equipment. Loans are also made to finance the
wiring of rmural homes and the acquisition and installation of electrical and
plumbing appliances and equipment. Information about the possibility ef bor-
rowing REA funds, the location of existing REA cooperatives, or the use of
electricity on the farm, may be secured by direct application to that agency,
whose headquarters are Washington 25, Do Ce
STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES,
STATE DIRECTORS OF EXTENSION SERVICE, AND
DIRECTORS OF STATE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
Note: Except when otherwise noted, these addresses are the same.
Alabama Polytechnic Institute, Auburn
University of Alaska, College
University of Arizona, Tucson
University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
University of California, Berkeley
Colorado State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts,
University of Connecticut, Storrs
University of Delaware, Newark
University of Florida, Gainesville
University of Georgia, Athens
University of Id4ho, Moscow
University of Illinois, Urbana
Purdue University, LaFayette
Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, Ames
Kansas State College of Agriculture and Applied Science,
University of Kentucky, Lexington
Louisiana Agricultural and Mechanical College, University
Station, Baton Rouge
University of Maine, Orono
University of Maryland, College Park
Massachusetts State College, Amherst
Michigan State College of Agriculture and Applied Science,
Department of Agriculture, University of Minnesota, Univer-
sity Farm, St. Paul
Mississippi State College, State College
University of Missouri, Columbia
Montana State College, Bozeman
University of Nebraska, Lincoln
University of Nevada, Reno
University of New Hampshire, Durham
Rutgers University, New Brunswick
New Mexico College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, State
New York State College of Agriculture and Home Economics,
North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts,
State College Station, Raleigh
North Dakota Agricultural College, State College Station,
See footnotes on page 16.
STATE DIRECTORS OF
DIRECTORS OF STATE
EXTENSION SERVICE AND
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS (Continued)
Ohio State University, Columbus
Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College, Stillwater
Oregon State College, Corvallis
Pennsylvania State College, State College
Rhode Island State College, Kingston
Clemson Agricultural College, Clemson
South Dakota State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts,
University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas, College
Utah State Agricultural College, Logan
University of Vemont, Burlington
Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College and Polytebh-
nic Institute, Blacksburg
State College of Washington, Pullman
West Virginia University, Morgantomn
University of Wisconsin, Madison
University of Wyoming, Laramie
1For Extension Service information, correspondence should be addressed to the
Associate Extension Director, P. 0. Box 391, Little Rock.
2Address the Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station at Experiment.
3Address the Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station at Wooster.
STATE DEPARTMENTS OF AGRICULTURE
The Commissioner of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture
and Industries, Montgomery
The Commissioner of Agriculture and Horticulture, Phoenix
The Executive Director, Agricultural and Industrial C"-
mission, Little Rock
The Director, Department of Agriculture, Sacramento
The Director, State Division of Agriculture, State Museum
The Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Hartford
The Secretary, State Board of Agriculture, Dover
The Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Tallahassee
The Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, State Capitol,
The Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Boise
The Director, Department of Agriculture, Springfield
The Commissioner, Board of Agriculture, Indianapolis
The Secretary, Department of Agriculture, Des Moines
The Secretary, State Board of Agriculture, Topeka
The Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Labor and
OFFICEIS STATE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (Continued)
The Commissioner, Department of Agriculture and Immigration,
The Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Augusta
The Executive Officer, State Board of Agriculture, College
The Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Boston
The Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Lansing
The Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Dairy and Food,
State Office Building, St. Paul
The Commissioner, Department of Agriculture and Commerce,
The Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, State Office
Building, Jefferson City
The Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Labor, and
The Director, Department of Agriculture and Inspection,
State House, Lincoln
The Director, Division of Plant Industry, Reno
The Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, State House,
The Secretary, Department of Agriculture, Trenton
The President, State College of Agriculture and Mechanical
Arts, State College
The Commissioner, Department of Agriculture and Markets,
The Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Raleigh
The Commissioner, Department of Agriculture and Labor,
The Director of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture,
The President, State Board of Agriculture, Oklahoma City
The Director, Department of Agriculture, Salem
The Secretary, Department of Agriculture, Harrisburg
The Director, Department of Agriculture and Conservation,
State House, Providence
The Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Bureau of
The Secretary, Department of Agriculture, Pierre
The Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, State Office
The Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Austin
The Commissioner, State Board of Agriculture, Salt Lake City
The Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Montpelier
The Commissioner, Department of Agriculture and Immigration,
The Director, Department of Agriculture, Olympia
The Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Charleston
The Director, Department of Agriculture, Madison
The Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Cheyenne
METEORODLOGISTS OF THE WEATHER BUREAU
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF COMECE
Each meteorologist publishes monthly reports and annual summaries of
the weather conditions in his section. Copies can usually be obtained upon
request. The Meteorologist should be addressed for information concerning the
climate in aiy part of his section. Address: The Meteorologist, Weather
Bureau, U. S. Department of Comerce, of the section in which is located the
State for which information is desired.
Alabama 6 .6
A 1r .
Dist. of Colmbia
Maryland2 a .
. Montgomery, Ala.
. Phoenix, Aris.
SLittle Bock, Ark.
SSan Francisco, Calif
(See New England)
" Indianapolis, Ind.
SDes Moines, Iowa
" Louisville, Ky.
SNoew Orleans, La.
S(See New England)
" Baltimore, Md.
" (See New England)
SSt. Louis, Mo.
* New Jersey .
New Mexico .
New York. .
(See New Englandi)
Trenton, N. J.
Albany, N. Y.
Raleigh, N. C.
Bismarck, N. Dak.
Oklahoma City, Okla.
(See New England)
Columbia, S. C.
Huron, S. Dak.
Salt Lake City, Utah
(See New England)
San Juan, P. R.
Parkersburg, W. Ta.
2lncludes Delaware and District of Columbia.
3Includes Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and
ADDRESSES OF REGIONAL CONSERVATORS
SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
Upper Darby, Pennsylvania
REGION II Spartanburg, South Carolina
RGION III Milwaukee, Wisconsin
REGION IV Fort Worth, Texas
REGION VI Albuquerque, New Mexico
REGION VII Portland, Oregon
Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massa-
chusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island,
New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey,
Delaware, Maryland, West Virginia
Kentucky, Virginia, Tennessee, North
Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia,
Alabama, Mississippi, Florida
Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio,
Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri
Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana
North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska,
Kansas, Montana, Wyoming
Utah, Colorado, Arisona, New Mexico
Washington, Oregon, California, Idaho,
DISTRICT OFFICES OF THE FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION
Information on all institutions under the supervision of the Farm Credit
Administration, including the Federal land banks and Production Credit Corpo-
rations, may be obtained from the district offices. Their locations, with the
district served by each, are as follows:
Springfield, Massachusetts Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts,
Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New
Baltimore, Maryland Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Virginia, Delaware,
Maryland, the District of Columbia, and Puerto
Columbia, South Carolina North and South Carolina, Geoitia, and Florida
Louisville, Kentucky Tennessee, Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio
New Orleans, Louisiana Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama
DISTRICT OFFICES OF THE FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION (Continued)
St. Louis, Missouri
St. Paul, Minnesota
Omaha, Nebraska .
Wichita, Kansas .
Houston, Texas b
* Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas
. North Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigen
* South Dakota, Wyoming, Nebraska, and Ioua
* Kansas, Oklahoma, Colorado, and New Mexico
* a California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona
S. Washington, Montana, Oregon, and Idaho
STATE RURAL CREDIT AGENCIES THAT MAY HAVE FARMS FOR SALE OR RENT
State Treasurer and State Loan Department Phoenix, Aria.
Farm Loan Superintendent, Loan Department,
State Board of Land Commissioners ... Denver, Colo.
Department of Public Investments ... Boise, Idaho
State of Indiana School Fund m e e Indianapolis, Ind.
Farm Lands Loan Commission e a s e Augusta, Maine
State Department of Rural Credit s St. Paul, Uinn.
Commissioner of Lands and Investments m s e m m s a Helena, Mont.
Nebraska Commission of Public Lands and Buildings Lincoln, Nebr.
State Land Commissioner a a e m Bismarck, N. Dak.
Farm Loan Department, Bank of North Dakota a e a a Bismarck, N. Dak.
Commissioner of the Land Office .* Oklahoma City, Okla.
Rural Credit Department, Office of State Land Board Salem, Ore.
Rural Credit Board and Commission of Schools and Public
Lands a e m a e a e m s a s e a e m a a a a e a a Pierre, S. Dak.
State Land Board a e e Salt Lake City, Utah
Director of Investments, State Annuity and Investment
Board e a a a e e a e a a a a a a o o a a Madison, Wis.
Wyoming Farm Loan Board . m a m m Cheyenne, Wyo.
AGENCIES HAVING STATE LANDS
FOR SALE OR LEASE IN THE UNITED STATES
State Commission of Forestry, Montgomery
State Land Commissioner, Phoenix
Commissioner of State Lands, Little Rock
Department of the Comptroller, Division of Tax Deeded Lands,
Sacramento Reclamation Board, Sacramento, and University of
California, Berkeley Veterans' Welfare Boayd, Sacramento
State Board of Land Commissioners, Denver
Commissioner of Agriculture, Tallahassee
Department of Reclamation, Boise
State Auditor's Office, Topeka
Register of State Lands, Baton Rouge
AGENCIES HAVING STATE LANDS
FOR SALE OR LEASE IN THE UNITED STATES (Continued)
Lands Division, Department of Conservation, Lansing
State Department of Conservation, State Capitol, St. Paul
Commissioner of State Lands, Jackson
Department of State Lands and Investments, Helena
Board of Educational Lands and Funds, Lincoln
Surveyor-General, and State Land Registrar, Carson City
Commissioner of Public Lands, Santa Fe
Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh
Commissioner of University and School Lands, Bismarck
Commissioner of the Land Office, State of Oklahoma, Oklahoma
Oregon State Board of Forestry, Salem World War Veterans'
State Aid Commission, Salem
Forfeited Land Commission in each county
Commissioner of School and Public Lands, Pierre
General Land Office, Dallas
State Land Board, Salt Lake City
State Capital Committee, Olympia
Commissioner of Public Lands, Madison
Commissioner of Public Lands and Farm Loans, Cheyenne
STATE OFFICES PUBLISHING LISTS OF FARMS FOR SALE*
State Department of Agriculture and Industry, Montgomery
Florida State Marketing Bureau, 20h St. James Building,
Commissioner of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture,
Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Labor and Statistics,
Commissioner, Department of Agriculture and Immigration,
Real Estate Service Division, State of Maine Publicity Bureau,
Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, 136 State House,Boston
Bureau of Markets, Department of Agriculture, Concord
Department of Agriculture, Trenton
Division of Markets, Department of Agriculture, Nashville
State Department of Agriculture, Commerce and Industry, Columbia
State Bureau of Publicity Service, Department of Conservation
and Development, Montpelier
Commissioner of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture, Richmond
Commissioner of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture, Charles-
*In some cases, farms for rent are also listed.
Farm Security Building, Montgomery j, Ala.
(See New Mexico)
Waldon Building, 7th & Main Streets, Little Rock, Ark.
30 Van Ness Avenue, San Francisco 2, Calif.
950 Broadway, Denver 3, Colo.
300 W. University Avenue, Professional Building, P. 0.
Box 579, Gainesville, Fla.
Room 604, Atlanta National Building, Atlanta, Ga.
14 Federal Building, Champaign, Ill.
212 Federal Building, Lafayette, Ind.
307 Old Federal Building, Des Moines 9, loa
Room h37, New England Building, Fifth & Kansas Avenne,
Switow Building, 218 East Main Street, Lexington 9, Ky.
616 Beauregard Street, P.O. Box 587, Alexadria, Ia.
31 Central Street, Bangor, Maine
E. M.Newton, Jr., Federal Land Bank Building, St. Paul &
24th Streets, Baltimore 18, Md.
2003 Federal Building, Boston 9, Mass.
30h Evergreen Avenue, East Lansirng, Mich.
113 Federal Courts Building, St. Paul 2. Minn.
Masonic Temple Building, Jackson, Miss.
21 N. 10th Street, Columbia, Mo.
47 E. Main Street, Box 754, Boseman, Monzana
1220 "N" Street Lincoln 8, Nebr.
Chester J. Tyson, Jr., 203 Post Office Building, New
Brunswick, N. J.
809 West Tijeras Avenue, Albuquerque, New Mex.
701 1st National Bank Building, Ithaca, N. T.
Raleigh Building, 5 W. Hargett Street, Raleigh, N.C.
Federal Building, 3rd & Broadway, Bismarck, N. Dak.
Room 317, Old Post Office Building, Columbus 15, Ohio
E. Lee Ozbirn, Room 404 Federal Building, Oklahoma City,
Dormitory 33, Swan Island, Portland, Ore.
928 North Third Street, Harrisburg, Pa.
Building M, Munoz-Rivera Park, San Juan, P. R.
Federal Land Bank Building, 1401 Hampton Street, Columbia 29,9
See footnotes on page 23.
ADDRESSES OF STATE DIRECTORS
FARMERS HOME ADMINISTRATION
ADDRESSES OF STATE DIRECTORS
FARMERS HOME ADMINISTRATION (Continued)
Wilson Terminal Building, Eighth & Reid Street, Sioux Falls,
104 21st Avenue, South, P. 0. Box 939, Nashville 2, Tenn.
405 U. S. Terminal Annex, Dallas 2, Texas
Box 2660, Fort Douglas, Salt Lake City, Utah
900 Lombardy Street, Richmond, Va.
231 Chestnut Street, Morgantown, W. Va.
2028 Atwood Avenue, Madison 4, Wisconsin
P. 0. Box 820, Casper, Wyo.
lIncludes Nevada and Hawaii.
?Includes Connecticut, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont.
'Includes Washington and Alaska.
BIT No. 1001
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