The economic limits of cost of water for irrigation, Twin Falls Canal Company, Idaho

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Title:
The economic limits of cost of water for irrigation, Twin Falls Canal Company, Idaho
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Creator:
Teele, R. P ( Ray Palmer ), 1868-1927
Ewing, Paul A ( Paul Albert ), 1883- ( joint author )
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics
United States -- Bureau of Public Roads
Twin Falls Canal Company (Idaho)
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Economics ( Washington )
Publication Date:

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Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 028445512
oclc - 04987277
System ID:
AA00017352:00001


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Wrashiniton. J. C.
Docenrer. 1925.


5 DEPOSITORY
' J S D3EPOSITORY


MUrD SAMSS IEPARTO2II OF R IoUJTWJPS
uneaus of Agricultwtal S..onoaicu and Public Roado








THE SCOKLuIC LIMIS OF COST3 OF WAITZ. FOR TBRIG.AT10:!




Twin Falls Cenal Comparny
Idaho








R. F. Toele, Ugricultural Econo.ist
Bureau of Agric'?.tural Econonics

and

Paul A. Ewing, As-,oc'.ato Irrigation Economist
Btreau of -ublic. Roads






A Freliminar; F..-inort
:o



(The work on which this report is based "a o& n andbr a
cooperate agree-wAt botwoon th,; Brc'auz of Agr icult'2r&u
vZconomic. and Public Foale, anti is a nart of a G:.Lr3al
tu&y of the economic li;iita of thu cost of wTntur or
irrigation carried on by thu cooperating buruan.)







































*i


4







mS IO@SMuO LIMITS Or cOST OF ,i b hRE .zIATIOh TWIN FALLS
jmu?'CUO.M."
.......... r, IDAH"

Nr I. P. Tle. Agricultural Economist, Bureau of Agricultural Economicsa
'ad Pau A. :wing, Associate Irrigation Economist, Bureau of public Roeads

F .. .-'2EODUC'flON

p Jt* he survey on thioh this report Ls based is. a part of a general study

I t fa ming umder irrigation made for the purpose of determining how much

t aers can afford to pay for water. It is obvious that cost of water is

en4 one item in the farmer'e cost of producing crops, end that the permissi-

k he -cost of production depends on receipts. Consequently, It is not possible

S*4 ake a definite statement as to permissible cost of water for any type of

S farming. It is possible, however, to gut comorehensaive data as to costs and

rq turps from farming unler irrigation, ani on the basis of the data as to other

costs and as to returns, .to determine approximately how much net return is avail-

Sable for paying for water. This study was made on t.at basis.

Incidental to the main purpose was the desire to get information ao

to the cost of clearing and leveling land, building farm ditches, utc.

Field work on the project began in the spring of 1921, when surveys

were =ade in the Southwest, in Texas and New Lexico, end itr Colorado. The

schedules used called for much the saer information called for by the Bureau

of the Census in its census of agriculture, and when provision was made for

taking an agricultural census in 1925, arrangements rerc made to have the

Onmrators, when they made the canvass for the Bureau of the Census, get

the additional information needed for this study. A eunple.mrntal schedule

containing the additional inquiries was prepared, and arr 're..ents 'ere made

for having these filled by the census enixrators. Enumerators "ere selected

with care and given special instruction and super-is4on.







-2-


TIN plan were mide for getting two statements: (1) A complete .

statement of costa and returns for a single season. Tbhis applies both .. I

to owners operating their own farms and to tenants, and provides a baas i

for determining the returned to the owners of farms operated by tenants a :

ell am to those operating their own farms, and (2) a Statsement of the

financial progress made by farrere from the time when they acquired, their

farms to the time of enumeration. This, of course, applies only to ferabre

operating their own farnas.

The survey was made in December, I924, and Jsnuary and Febrjary, 1985s

The census schedule called for inventory iteas as of January 1, 1925, and

for production items for the calendar year, 1924. The supplemental schedil

called for a livestock inventory as of January 1, 1924, for additional

information as to farm expenses and receipts from farm products for the

calendar year l124, and for the information desired as to purchase price,

conditions at the time of settlement, and imnorovements made since purchase.

This canvas vwas made in selected districts only. While enuerators

in these districts were instructed to get eupplenental schedules from all

fars on hjch irrigation was practiced, the object was to obtain thoroughly

representative samples, rather than to get complete returns. Consequntly,

e.urnerators were Instructed not to insist on reports from farmers who

o'jectud ta aaswerinr the inquiry. os. or from those rho were unable to give

the irformation asked fCr.

tfinitions of terms used end ex-,lanations of mewtnods followed are

C.V-C. on pa'es 33 ad 3'1. at the close of this report.










n d IN FAILS CANAL OOWANY
i+ i..J 0 a.
OW Tki S *sal Canal Compw yTin Falls county. Idaho. o a

30 'acopsrative enterprise operating the system built by the Twin

*::e.n ta,, d Wetir Company, a contracting company operating under the
|||:.ailt of t Cirey l ct. The present conpoany took over the system about

OofW 2, 1909 But thie Twin falls Land and Water Company wrote the laat
St.l t ntrnatte with settlers some months previous to that date. As

'4 1Wd. Wythe ia, the contracts provided for sale of land to the
.. Orca-oer by the State of Idaho at 50 cents per acre for most of the land,.

i? ti le thE obI Iny sold, water rights for $25 per acre, for State lane,

.tC ulln a relatively small portion of the aggregate, water rights were

alU at $155 per acre, not les than $10 an acre being charged for the
"ad itself. Vater rights for homestead lands and lands taken up under

the Desert Land. At were sold at $35 an acre. Contracts on Carey Act

land 'called for payment in installaments ending in ten years. State lands

wre give fe ve years and patented lands ten years. Carey Act lands were

tOld In blotd of IO to 160 acres. The original contracts had been closed

oft long bafor the.'canvass was made but may of the original purchasers

hA retained their farms and wore on them then. Meay other farms had.

chateed Ownetship, however, and the purchase prices reported for them had
1o reference to the prices paid by the original purchasers. After

termination of original contracts land and water changed hands together,

rather than separately.


-i ., :











The ortnalw contract crovidtL for the incorporation of the Twin .a

Canal opWany.Ltd.. *at any time after the completion of the entire eye.
;itr .:: .: ii
of dai and canals a* hereinbefore provided in the specifications and wli
"=* ........ **;
r ... ,,.ii ii
seven Years from the date of tbis contract, or at any tim prior thef.bemip|^

the consent of the. State Bo.r of Land Commiesloners. Thise took plaie la I Islll

1909. Sheen a water aaer entered into contract for a water right he w.t,..,,...

given a te.0orary stock certificate, and when he had fully taid up he re"i.d .

a permanent stock certificate. The twin Falls Land and Water CorPany tSI
q 4 1
retained control until a majority of the water rights had been fully paid w.

Daring the first year after incorporation of the Twin ralls Ccalt Conpep,

the land company retained control, but thereafter it permitted the temorary
-"
stockholders to exercise a proportionate voice in the control of the' system.

Practically all Lhe stock is now fully paid up.

.7:e comoanya has an. authorized capital stock of $2L0,000, of 240,0.0

shares at 41 par value. The stock : is appurtenant to the land, 1. share per

acre. T.he certificate recites that the owner is entitled to a flow of 1/0
*,, .e.-.
second-foot per acre, whicb is 5/8 inch (Idaho) per acre, for lad ,acs ari

to a water-ri-t contract, and that the holder is liable for asesssenmns in

proportion to the total nu-nber of shares outstanding. The total number... f

share outstanding Is 201,7hg.7T.

The land cocparW appropriated 3.,000 second-feet of water for 240,000

acres. and sold rights caic alated on thu main headgate measurement, but the

&-;unt. sold maue it i-possiable to delier 5/5 inch oer acre: the canal

co-ra-y bou,%; t atora4o in Jackson LaW:u and has entered American Falls Irrt-










401f 'District to make up the defioiencq. To secure its right. to the
baitauo Lals water the canal company issued $?C0,000 In bonds bearing 6

Ver oet interest. This indebtedness was gradually reduced until at time

F q b.Ife:, cavaess It wau.about $120,000. Short-term notes totallinc $66.oo0

r 9 el. outstanding. These bear interest at S per cent, but the holder
S Of thm refunds the difference bet'uen that rate and the current rate at

tiM of payment, usually 6-1/2 to 7 per cent.

A|r:I.. Indebtedness incurred on account of storage at American Falls was
Sat tak'o into account as it is small and cf very recent date for the

AJrimean Fallls construction was not actually under way when the canvases was

| mde. On money borrowed at the bank-, usually 60 day loans, the company pays

8 per cent. Interest on all indebtedness .is met from funds raised by annual

esessmats against the stock.

SAssesssents for all purposes for the past seven years were as follows:

1318, 1919, and 1920, $3 per share; 1921, $2 per share; 1922, $1.,50 per share;
1923, $1.25 per share; 1924, $1.50 per share. The high assessments from
1918 to 1920 were made to pay off a hea-ry indebtedness white times were good,

a .olicg which subsequent rents proved wise. prior to 1917 the assessI3nts
were paid yearly in one installment, since then in two installtmrnts, the

I19& payments being $1 Marc& 1 and 50 cents October 1,

Vater is served in continuous flow. About 800 miles of canale are
: operated by the co=reny.

i Twitn Fails Canal Coa'pany was includedd ir the can"ass to ruprcstnt
the numerous enterprises constructed in Idaho unier thc t-.rr' of the C,,rey
Act a-d because of the extreme diversification of its agriculture. The
S project Wvie settled largely b" farmers from the Middle Tlest. As the statistics
I'I










-* *"; ;
sow later, they carried to Snake River Valley the grain ai4 livestodt
: o ,ii ^B
farming characteristic of their earlier midwesteri Industry, but have 9'1

tended those interests to include the cultlyation on a large scale of

alfalfa, potatoes. sugar beets, and fruit. Nbrqover, the Twin Fails seaG

in recent years has become famous for alfalfa and clover eed crops *11 *i

have brought a great deal of -oney into the sec$ tion and beans faonei A :: ||

special crop gro',m extensively in some parts of the tract in 1924. sa ....Ii..

entire Valley grows potatoes of excellent quality, but the handicap of 1 0 i

hauls to best markets has cut deeply into the profits of many. faarmee

soecializi.gV in this crop. This handicap ise not severe with the seed ai.k "
.
bean crops.

RESULTS OF C3M 3UJRVEY

Schedules acceptable for the purposes of thie study were obtained :

from 1.319 farm., 840 of which were operated by their owners end 79 by

tenants. The total area of the far-is operated by their owners, for Whiath

schedules 'lere obtained, is 60,799 acres. 59,058 acres of which is cove-"
'* .
by water rights. The tenant farms have an area of 43,36B acres, of Tlhti

42,462 acres are covered by water rights. Hence, the whole number of

farra roprosented in the study have a total area of 104liT acres, an of

that area 101,S23 acres are covered by watur rights. The latter area ti

almost exactly 50 per cunt of thu total area of the project t.ich is rep-

rcsLntei b, shares of stock in the corpaV.

For the purpose of analysis the farr.s were groups by the amount of

tr.e excess of receipts from farm products over farn expenditures.





L__







-7-


^': IOf the 0Q. farcs operated Ly owners, 105, br one-eighth of the total

lii .abera norte4 for the season of 1924 expenditures in excess of receipts

ft$ farm products; 318 farms, or 38 per cent of all farms, show net receipts
... | -
fro farm products of $1 to $99, with an average of $492 per farm; 207. or

about one-fourth of the total show net returns of $1,000 to $1,999: 115, or

u11lghtly core tban .one-eighth of the total, show net returns of $2,000 to

$2,99 9; a. 95, oar slightly less than one-eighth of the total, eho.w net returns

$3 G 43 Q or a-er.
The prevailing type of farrmine is the growing of special crops beans,

NA clover. and Ofalf a seed supplemented bv grain, hay, an3 livestock,

hbre than one-third of the total receipts froM farm products comes from these

special crops.

The farms gAre of moderate size, the average for the owner-operated

ffatk being 72 acres. Almost the entire area of these farms is covered

by water righta, and three-fourths of the area ras in-harvested crops in

19214.

Indebtednuess on the farms is N. per cent of the total valwe of farms

and equitplnt.

AllowTing the current rate of interest on net invest-ent, S per cent,

3 per cent depreciation or buildings, and 17 per cent on implements and

manchinery.- the average labor income was $1427 per farm, The lowest two income

groups, containing about one-half the farms, shoved negative labor incomes.











The averas net rorth of the settlers at the tim of settlement
was $5,739. and at the tim of enumeration it wes $10,597, an increase

of S9.5S. The average period of occupanog of the farts reported was OO
9.5 years, making the average animal increase in net worth $511 per fam.
The average is considerably lower-than. it would have been except for thG "III
Large decrease in land values on the farms purchased during the ialaafle

period from 1918 to 1921.
For the season of 1924 the farms operated by tenants ihvad .21wi*
smaller excess of receipts over expenditures than did the farm opetatSe I
the owners, The tenants, however, had considerably larger labor tn s,
because of the smaller hareges for interest on investment and for epreolatto
The tenant farms were larger than those operated by owners, buat the
proportions of the land in harvested crops and under water rights were '
tw o i
practicall, the same for the/grouwo
thegrops.
For the tenant farms a larger part of the income trom fam prodtts
came from beans and seed crops and a smaller part from -lieitock and lIe%
stock products than was the case with the owner-operated farms.
"he gross return to the owners of' rented farms averaged #.7 er a
on the value of these farms; the net return above taxes, insurance, *and
water charGes "as 7.2 per cent, and the net return above these items and
depreciation on building. was 6.9 per cent. '

FARMS OFflATED BT THEIR OWUMERS
Statistics relating to the farms operated by their owners are shown
In Tables 1 to 5.



K_









- 9 -


X also of Farms aAd ase* of Lond. 19224

r Itble 1 gives for each of the tIncome groups the number of farms, average

IrWft amns, average acreage per farm in crops,average acreage per farm In

, and average acreage covered by water rights.

Table l.-Owner-operator farms classified by net returns. I/ 1924:
.....Average size of farms and uses of land, 1924
:! i i : :Ielghted:Farms :Fa"-ru showing net returns of
S: :average :showlng.$l- :-i1,000-:$2,000-:$3,00
m Item :Unit:of all :net : :$1,gg999 :$2.999 : or


": fari
......... _._ ..__ ___ ^ A O A tJ


4B06.. 9- .. .... ..... ........ c:No
: 4
Per farm .................. :acreo

of cros harvested
Iper farm ................:acre
Percentage of area of farms.... :p ct:

of crop failure per farm..:acre:
Percentage of crop acres 2 ....:p ct:

S In pasture..... ......... :acre
Percentage of area of farms....:p ct:
U
Acreage cove red by water rights :
per farm................ : acre:
Percentage of area of farms....:p ct:


!loaniem .Mqqq:


* U *
105 : 318:

54 45:
* U *
* *
* *
27 34:
50 72-:
* 4
20 2:
43 5:

I :
7 6:
13 12:
* U *
* U
52 46:
95 96:
* *
* 6


iPeroentages are computed from the totals


for the groups.


Mist return," as used in classifying farms, is excess of receipts from farm
products over expenditures for farm purposes.

BaMe used in computing this percentage is the sum of acres harvested and acres
of crop failures.

.he table shows that 105 farms reported farm expenditures in excess of

eelpts from farm products, and that 315 additional farms resorted net returns

is than $1,000. Assuminl that $1,000 represents a fair return for the labor

"ls farm operator eand his family, 50 per cent of the farms shnr net returns

s than *aes for their labor, disregarding rent and the part of the family
i'-


207:

74
7)4 :.



57
77

1
2

9
12


72
97


: orer


95

145


120
85

1
1


10


142
9S


115

94


76
51

1
1

10
11


93
99


ao sem :tqqq:


II
*










l 0 -
livingr obtained from the fv-'m Tith nothing foe interest and depreciation...: .i
The largest sint-zle group, however, is the 315 farms reporting net return I.:
between $1 and $9.9, while the group shtwi.g net losses is the smallest of ..
any of the groups except the one shoTrin. net returns of $3,000C or more -. iii
the most profitable of all. Leaving out of consideration the group of It,
losers, ihe number of farms in the several groups decline consistently
with the increases of the net returns.iiii
Explanation of much of the loss of the farus in the losing group Is
fo'.nd In the high percentage of crop failure by them, This was, on .the 'a".1

20 acres in a total of 47 acres in cro-ns harvested and crop failure, being.::I..
per cent of that *total, which is far in excess of the correspond ing pereesnt g

fo r th e o th er g roup s
The avera e size of all farms co-ered is 72 acres. No &tteoc t has .t.i |
rade to correlate size of form and net incoms, but, except for the group showlw

net looses, the size varies fairly consistently with the net return. .
The. percentage of total area of farms which is under water rights t.: .
notably high, buing slightly lo-er 'or the farms shoring net losses tha.e1t ..". .
any other group. Host of the acreagu in pasture ite irrigated as well as tUM .
e-rear; in crors, Pastures average S acros per farm, or 11 per cent. of the "
farm area. '
Value of Far-s and Farm P roertyDebts and Net Inweotmant .
In Table 2 are given average values per farm and per acre for land,
1u3 ,ings, li-estock, implements and machinery, and cash on hand; average
debts per f.arm and per acre, and average net investment per farm and per acre







l. 11 -


t lta .-Owner-operator fax= clsaifloId by net returns i/ 1324:
ras value of farms and farm property, debts, an net investment per farm

.* weighted : rFarms :Faras howinx net return of_


Item


W .,. a aim -a ............... : No .
per tfarm .............. :acre:

S.f land and buildings...:dcl
acriae per acr........... :dol
Iqntage of total value..:p ct
Uofe9 buildings............ :dol
|Lnerage per acre. ...........: dol
?inow tage of total value..:ip c:
f of land................. :dol
L erase per acre ...........: do
;reantege cf total value..:P ct
l of implements and :
U;tachinery.................:dol
Average per acre........... :dol
Percentage of total value..:o ct:
of liveastock............. :dol :
Average per acre...........:dol :
Percentage of total value..: ct:
oB n hand ..................: dol 1
Total value per farm....... dcl
SAveragi per acre........:dol
tbta.. ...... ..............: :40l
Average per acre...........: c.ol
Percentage of total value..:p ct:
Net Investment .............. .:dol
Average per acre........... :dol
Percentage of total valbe..:p ct:


S average :showing
:tnit:of a!' : net :
: : farn.s :loses :


$1-
Cloq


:$1.000-:$2.000-,$3.0CO
,tl.99 ?.2.q99 :or over


S U 3
: 1 C5: 31gs 207: 115: 95
72: 57: & 71: 91 i 5
S : '
12,.22: 10,376: s.403: 12.259: 17.529: 2S,547
179: 191: 15.: 167: 1;3. is"
6; 65: 6U: 83: 55: Sk
2,615: 2,71G: 1,361: 2,49.S1 3,105: 4,65M
3S: 53: 39: 31L: 33: 32
it: 22: 19: 17: 15: 15
10,306: 7.660: 6.539: 9,791: 14,521; 21,S51
14 3: 141: 136: 33: 155:. 151
67: 6j: 65: 6: 70: 69

: 7S2 633: 952: 1,17,'5: 1,657
13: 13: 13: 13: 12: 11
6: o: 6: : 6: 5
1,030: 573: 653: 1,023: 1,256: 2,536
Jut 11: !: 1', 13: 18
7: 5: 6! 7: 6: 8
iG 44 2: i36. 57L: 702: .75
15,S02: 12-,75- iO' 100rO- 14h52' 20,C -T31,555
213: 2:g- __0_ 2?02: 22 .-o 217
4.460oo 4,59?. 3,.C24: 3.41: 5.10: 8,351
62: 85: 9S; 52: 35: bl
29: 33 32: 26: 25: 2
io0,9o42: 7,5li: 6,so6: 11,031.: 15.572: 22,701
151: 14: 1L2: 150: 166: 156
71" 62: 68: 71: 75: 7&


I 5 5 a I
_ ____ ____ ___ __ --__ -:--- __ __ __ -__ _
Lverages per acre and perce.ntagee are coruted from the totr.ls for the groups.

/ Net return," as used in classifying far s, is the excess of receipts from farm
products over expenditures for farm murposes.











par farm. Meh grci&p of famg shor1,,g 't loan bha te hiehestanra.O||s

value per acre of any of the jrou'Ia. Z nxanation of the high valuation 1u$

In' return is -found in Table 1. rhich chore that the groW svfferdo. c

failure on 13 Tper cent of its lan- planted to crops. It is also sigtnfiSa.

that the Froun showing net losses has a hi&.er invetment-in. buitldv.n.p: 4ikV

acre than 'aUs an;' other 2ro1p. 1u is true of investment in iimplarsn to.gK

......................... .. ......j :it!,,fi
n not in parxaid deg~ree. The average Investment per WSFe.f

for b'xildiigs &-nd. for iirnflor'ents ami ma-hinery varies inversely rith the--

net return ., ::,

TV1-o of livestock ner zQcre is lo"er for the farmers who chow B....

lop ses than for an, other gro-an.

Tot-il aluee opr form v-rr conein-tently with net returns except i. .'.In!
..* ... ...
c-pe of fars 1jian':. net .csses, ,-lhcS hare a higher val'.fe haua tie gro'p .

showing net rot-tr.s less then 1,0CU. ,

Average indebtedness of all ffr..rm operated b: their on.nerm is $62

6ere. As the avoroEie per acre v?.e of the farnis is $213, the =eragB

farmer o erc-ting his o'rn farm. '-as en equitLy of 71 per cent of his farmi i

v ale. rlitbtednerEs rE acre of the group shosin-c net losses is the hlOO i

of ,Ln of the ,rouns End the eq-Ait:, eld by thie fcr..wr is correeraondi: ly H
thc lurezt chian.

Costs a-td Ro tnrns. 1924lA

I c- reser'p. for the sane rroup of fares, the full data for

17-% c,''. :r.'n: cort and returns, as wsll as direct expen-ditures and receipts

fr-- :i-r. nro-cts. a-.d conhr.risons be-%"een vartouas tro-s of Itlatm. Sowe

o" t'-. 1.1 .:-Ais tpb.e .rn ',ven Ln ,receding table, but. ar. reAt.ed

s'?rp '.j; pQ-.ti:.fje jt. ; co-ParisonB.







- 13 -


.'

T able 3.-Omwr-operator farms classified by net returns, I/ 1924:
I ,,jAverage cost anM returns per farm. 1I924


SIte-


t,.l... *ue.......... a. o

Itie. . :dol
d bts.... ...................: dol
le t t.................
% mi: 1 t.w 8-60.. ..-f ..... dol

bi"W rest on net investment at
per cent .................. :dol
I Sereeiation bn buildings and :
i|.i, I linery....................: dol
STotal cost...............:dol
P
esioept. from farm products.... :dol
I 0or off the farms....... :....:dol
RIsen of work animals..........:dol
We of farm machinery.........:dol
Other receipts from farm or
equipment.................. :dol
'Total receipts ........... :dol
nes receipts from farm

a waanaps d at.rem ........ .. ... dol
Over expenditures a
MoA in teret on aot ia-
estaent......................... dol
Over expenditures,
Interest on net Invest-
Int, and depreciat4on......... :dol
hzoess total receipts:
Ojer expenditures ..............: dol
Over expenditures,
Lad Interest on net
imame stsit .....*................ : dol
Over expenditures, interest on :
nt investment, and depreciatlon:dol


ils elghted: Farm : -.ar showing net returns of
: average showing:. : : :
Unit:of all i net- t $1- :$1,000-i$2,000-43,00
i farms iloes C qqq. ;1qqq 429 r over
ffl sIloamea *r2 Aan9aa our


*


*

a
*
a


*
*
a
a
*
U
*
U
a
a
a
a
S
a
a
S
e
I
*


15 2:
15.4102:
14.146o.


105: 315:
12,173:10,050:
4.Apq, 244.


a
207:
14,572:
3. 941!


*
115: 95
2o 762: 31. 5
M!q~ S9B59


,Ol 2 ,72 22 IL
1042: 7.581: .06! 1.1 15.572:22.701





10: 199 127 7: 6: 7
1 5403 1315: 905: 1261: 778i 3 5023
a S S U





875: 607: 542: 82: 6. 1,816
a a U
_236; 2114: 1614: 2142: 23 g
2;5114: 2436:i1.6ii: 2.385: 3.S17: 5.261

2.0; 969: 1,397: 2,7144: 4,211: 7.9W0
103: 199: 127: 74: 68: 27
5: 1s it 10: 8i 5
18, 7: 2: 5: 6: 119
1 1 S 8
10: 1: 12: 13: ---: 18
2.941: 1.177: 1.539: 2.a9, _. .29: s.Ig


a
S
U
1,1402:

*

527:
*
S
a
291:
a

1,538:
a
a

6630.
S
1427:
a
a


-1 S
*
a

-346:
a
a

-953:










-959:
-1167:
a
-138:
a
a

-7415:
a
-959:
I


a
*
*
492f
a
w

-52:
a


216

634:
I

90:

-74*
*.14


*

19483:
*
*

6oi:
*

359:
a
1. 5S 3:
*


7061

464:


2,4331 4,957
S

1,17: 3j141


894. 2.719

2,515: 5,126



1,269: 3.310

976: 2.888


Sbt return, as used in classifying farm. is the excess of receipts from farm
products over expenditures for fars purposes.


I .. B -
.. .0 0EI i











Averages for all farce, gt-'en In the first coluan of Table 3, ae w.

of stectakl linjwwemetrc tres.sons e*0isM ce in the pro JetW

for the season of 19 : ,
. 4 1 : .. .:
zie uvera4 excess per.farm o. reaeoptefrom farm prodin otover
*- ,,'. ; : *. .
*expeitit.ret for' farm purt o for the season of 1q24 ie $I,402, which wh,

.................................... .
4 w 4 .. "" ...
'* ao re Rnp f~lrwietf rt~ .'aYvlaes larm op ra'or, above the" reflt'I gS'
,. "'I.- : .. .... .. U .. ... ..... ...U
faiiitvn o into accountt hatd& Ca s
"..:* a *v'- ..:* EEE
his net tinvest'wnt and depreciation. i,ose two kt g x eduM.h ..m. ....
IP ,"- "." "; .. *. -' "" "'* '-" :
L4
S considerably, so that' after ailing for tm A adding to -hiS receipts .
-. 4 tb^ \:' ju .;" .; iin to h. receipts *
from farm products the aount-rf,eceive4 from his. poutside earnings, $103 AS

-hir of his stck a euiP $33 his net return is $427. above resfl i..
'" : -.**' ,."i |
fa-ily :i'tvng obtained from the famr, And ir;ferett and.dedprtibat io".' "
,- -
..... ," ". ." .... .................
.The tab9 shcw similai'cp tparisons for the otber.ine, m romps. .*....
....

Olassification of Firx "S'penditures

In Table-4 are given tie average' e mounts er farm expended ffo. .
: .., .. ;- 4 .'
various. iteras, and the: pereentsged't ;at- hese"amobtatb iireof the avirrArit.
S.; 4 tr "-
.expenditures per farm and average receipts per farn. 'The exp'endt.rea ..
,- *.* :- *5 -r : .. ,
dlste3 const itut~e, to.-: ve age farm$ 97 per cent oS:: .eaNte
o S. ew 49 o
a .
"for fan purposesa ej4 d U- per -ceka of thd recelit's from. farm roductap,,.-: :-.
4 .. .I'

!* : .... .
S, *. .
C 4. *. 9 4 .
.." .- ,* : ,



I:"1

.1
S .. .* **



*..., '





-15"


Table 4 .-rrwr-averator farm classif ted by net retl.rnh I1 19210:
Frincitpal farn a.e.perditurns ner farm. 192-%


'a fsghted: rar.'a
ave rare st 1OW i ;
:Unit:., : rea
- ... -l1s vlO ls


EW. -,lrsc.owi" nFe~t _n rrLsof
S3,.
V 9 :' 2 r
$1- :;JorO-'$2.CYm- :"3$Cfl.'
. eS ., ig -Lj 2 :or vt;S r


..... .......... No :
.or a& pcr far. ............:acre:

btal farm expenditures ...... :dol :
Lpu erase per acre......... :aol

vb&4toal receipt a fror farm
Sproducts............... ..:Col
SAverage per acre. ......... :ool

I ywd................. ........ :dol
|| Percentag. of farm ex- ;
penditures.............. :pct:
Percentage of receipts :
from farm proc.acts. .s p ct
I
L labor ........................ :d l
Percentage of farm ex-
pendl t ures.............. :p ct:
Percentage of receipts :
from farm products...... :p ct:

Annual charge for ,ater,.... .:adol
Perce.atage of farm ex- :
pend. i t res ................. o ct.,
Pe'cent9'e of receipts :
froQ farm t.roducts......:p c':

Interest or debts ............ ":el
Perces:tae of farm ex- :
penriitjros ............. :.. ct:
Percenta-e of receipts :
from farm products..... ct:
*


Item


i,
41.


C
72








123
9
U







_1



210
123
9:







h:
2E'S






21:

119
5:


105
4

1,31?5
214


969 ti,





is
150

IL'7



15

3014

23:


S51
85

6

9:

372


3L


313
93

105
.1 '


397
23
3 9 7:


92

10

7
1140 :
l~o

16

10

72


5
5

222

P5
15


17 :


1,261 :
17 :

29741.:
37

101
S
:



237

9 :


12.2 :
1:
0





2
.


77S
19 :


211
5:

1%5
6:
4















3
10
8~








33
35
10
S-


93


3,023
2-

7,9SO

55



)



7S7

26
20
10

219

7

3
550

19










Table 4 shows that water. iLtereat on Irnebtednece, and taxes

together constituted nearly on-r-half (46 par cent) of all expenditures for:

farm purposes for the averse iarm. Thase three item tend to be constant
4'
regardless of production. They totAl nearly one-fourth (23 per cent) of

the receipts from farm products on the average farm.

Interest on indebteduesc is the largest item of expen l.ture shown"i

for the average farm; for the farm sh .owing net losses it was larger than

for any *Ather group except one in po.nt of pe-centa-e of total expenditre n ::

for farm rp.i-roes, anC: v'as more than one-thiri (31 per cent) of the receipts

from fTar products of that group.

Labor is the second lax est item for the average farm, being about

one-fifth of al.". oe):perdituren for far-% p--rposcs and about one-tenth of

total rceiptr, from far produut3. Thirs item for farms operated at a loss

is higher than for the ave'Lg.a fa:-m.; disre'scrding that group, it varies

con.slatently with the net ircorr.

waxes is third in importance aroneg the expcndit-jres for the average

fari, anl for the farms sh'.winw ant losses it constitutes nearly one-seventh

of all exTre-ntitures for farn p-arpuses aid oxnntly one-fifth of the receipts

from farm products.

The "riscellan. ouz." it.-2mG shown in the table include certain expensaesO,

ruch as threshing, corn--helling, and h;y balne-, which are closely allied

to labor. For the, avur.ie f.rrn they constitute slightly more thnn one-eighth

of all cxpotrieiituren for farm purposes, the percentage varying co:iristsntly

fro- rrnir.' of 10 per cent foa tho far-i operated at a loss to l1 per cent

for the f.jr:3s "sJowinx highest net returns.




S


-17 -


SAutomcbfle, truck, and tractor expenses constitute eight per cent of

Ste total expenditures for iar purposes of the average farm, and four

"Ps, cent of the receipts from farn prolocts. TLie latter proportion is

*% S un per cent in the case of the farms showIng net losses. T'mese expenses

axe only eleven dollars less than the expenditures for feed for the average

farm. These expenses do not include depreciation, which is tjcen account of

elsewhere.

Classfi':atlon of eqe4ip tq from !arm Products

Table 5 gives the average receipts per acre from farm products for

all fawns reported and for the san groups presented in previous tables, azd

also the average receipts per fsarm fro-:i the principal sources of Income.S

By far the most significant items in Table 5 are receipts from beans,

alfalfa and. clover seed. T1hey constituted more than one-third of the

total receipts from farm products of the average farm. and four-tenths of

that total in the case of the group showing highest net income, Moreover,

the iteMs vary both actually and in proportion of total income with the

total income from which the conclus ion seems justified that the farmers on

the project prospered in 1924 in proportion to the degree of their con-

centration on these special crops. 11o such conclusion appears to pply to

any other Item, Although the livestock item varies rith the net income the

proportion represented by the itams in the totals of the receipts from

farm products does not show the same consistent change. This is alco true

of grain.











Table 5.-Omor-operator fern. clasift led by unt returns I/ 192t.4
returns ,;r farma from principal scurces in 192I


7-m


* L :t-lz.nte! Farms :Farw .4ho-iR& net retain


;Unitlof : a


____________*: farg3s
a* a
Farc ....................... :No
Acreage per farm ............ :-.acre:
I
Receipts frora farm products.:dol : 2,
Ave-a.gJ per acre......... dol !
Livect3Tic ................... dol 4:
rzrcentg% of total...... p ct:
Dairy products ..............:dol 3
Percentage of total......:p ct:
Poultry. ......................r. : .
Percentage of total......:p ct:
Poultry productis............: d',l
Percentage& of total...... :p et:
Other livestuck 'rnJuct-s.... 0dol1 1
Percentage of total ...... :p ct:
Mlscellaneoas................ : ol
Percentage of total...... :p ct:
Grain....................... :do]. :
Percente'e of total...... :p ctt:
Hay........................ :dol :'
Perc.-ntage of total...... :p ct:
Sugar b(.:ts................. :631
percentagee of total......:p ct:
Potatocs................... : alol 1
Prreentage of total......:p ct:
Frut-. ..................... dol :
Fercentecge of total......:p ct:
Beans...................... :dol : 71
Pur-c':nti.'gO of total...... :p ct:
Seed (alfraifa aid clover)...:dol : 2
FercenLage of total......:p ct:


: rhorlna i : 1'
$1- .$1106.00-:$2000- l
:lc3Bes. 3ti,99 &&9992.999 10


I




-5:
02:
*


31:
5:.
15:
32;
i:
55:
1:
91:
3:
92:
2:
2:
?I:
5 f
16..
676:

3:
19.
4:
90:
3:
66:
27:
16:
8:

*t


54:

969:.

188:
1w:
19:
1) L:
15:
30:
3:
4S:
5:
3:
2j
1:

123:
13:
58:
6:
24:
3:
40:
4:
79:
8:
171:
18:
56:
5:
a


S
318:
,3;
1.3372
29:
197:
14:
192:
14:
32:
2:
78:
5:
13:
1:
2:
21:
207:
15.
6L:
65:
65-
5b:
4:.
65:
5:
322:
23:
91:
6:


2C7:



37:





311:
12:
535:
37?:







UT:
14.@
341:



12:
38;l


1:
96:
4:
31:
1:
2:
21:
905:



US:
152:
16S:
7-
57:
2:
9U:
4:
152;.
6 :
727:
26:
114:.


4v2,111 .
i. ;Iil


450: 1
4957 1.2



l2: A


4I~ 77-1







112:
33: 11.1




3 :




71*
-, 0 .. I










2S
*s S

1T: 1t 17




26:
221: M(
5:
112;: t




2i:



124: I
a


11

11
r
I'

9
&p
2
a
5,.


1/ "::et return," as used in clascifyiag farrna, is the exceas of receipts from farm
prziuct'i over expenditures for farm purposes.

2, Less than onr-half of 1 per cent. (In all but one case it is less than 1/4 oat
I rcr cent)


--4


Item


I OR i










Catn is second In iro)rtance as reve.mie, being followed in order

'b liavestomk and dairy products. rn tvc case of the a-erage farm these
.... E~m ...... .
...llll Imm iteml totalled 6 per cent nore of the total receipts frcm ell farm

Fohats than the beans and soeds, jut thdir' coamhined percentage was

m .... Ost exactly equal t) that for bears and secds in the cace of the farms

siz e1ing highest net returns,
F[cMS OyT1*!EMD BY TSNANS


As stated in the intirodxct!on, si-tiefactory schedules were obtained

fi24 1479 farms operated by tenants. Assuming that the farris canvassed are

fairly representative of the region, this shows -6 per cent tenancy. The

results of the survey of farms operated by tenants are procented in Tables

t to 13.

Size of Farms Bnd Uses of LanM, 19.'4

In Table 6 are given the averpga sizes of farms, acreage in harvested

crops, acreage of crop failure, acreage in pasture, and acraaEe under rater

rights, per farm, for the farms operated by tenants.

The average size of farms cperatcd by tenants is considerably

greater than the average fcr the owner-operator faims, 91 acres as against

72 acres for the owners. The average acreage in harverted croo. per farm,

69 acres, exceeds the same figure for the owncr-operatcr farms by about the

san percentage. Th.e average acreage of crop failure per farm, on the

other band, is smaller than for the owner-operator farrs. The norcontace

of the total acreage of farm covered by water rights is lightly greater

than for the owmer-operator group.











Table 6.rAvnerae Ssiz of faarms Fed use of las4 for fam operated
by tenavAts. Farms clelu ified by st returns I/ 19 .

: eti4ted;. Farma iNmo shoi g. t 5


Item


:int i Of all


Fares ............................. o0
.Acresg per farm.................: acre
S
Acreage of crops harvested perfarmacre:
Percentage of area of farms .... :p ct:

Acreage of crop failure per farm. .:acre:
Percentage of area of farma....:p ct:
Percontagj of crop acres and :
crop failure............... p ct:
S S
S
Acreage of pasture per farm........ acre:
Percentage of area of farms....:p ct:
a
Acreage covered by water rights
per farm. ....... ... ... .. :a.c :
percentage of area of farrsu... p at:


: showrla~i : :
lnet $1.- :$1.00oo-:42.000-
Ulneses ti*W itl.q999 ;2. 9


!







5



9


89
93


Percentages are coq.uted from totalsfor the groups.


~lns.e. .19'iQ a*1.999 I2~999~


S

52t

U
*
U
2:
ii:
S
5:
a


8:
S;

93:
S
*


U
192:

90
501
73:
U:

7-
*

Si



-67-
99:
*
6:


67:
98:
*


S
150t
921
T:
77t

3:
3;



8;
8:
S
S
31:
99:
a


I

ia, "i

96








10
I




979
1
S"
I



li


::. .: ::.

Ii
..5*i:

.i...:i


a


1/ *Net return," as used in classifying 'arr., is the excess of receipts from fa
products over expenditures for farm purposes.

As would be expected from the more favorable conditions on the tenant

farms, a srraller percentwee of the whole number of farms is in the group .hoewg

net losses, 9 per cent for the tenant farns and 13 per cent for the omwner-opsritr

far-.

The average size of farms, acreage of crops barvested, and acreage under

water rights all vary with the net returns.

Value o4fFarmc and Farm property pebtm. Net
iat and Meturnw. l9*

Table 7 gives the value of farms and farm property, debts, net investment,

,unl cost and returns for the year 12, for fars operated by tenants.









and farm proert!, dOi.ts, 16e C lno% WSWFfl ji LLA>",
_______one coat and returns in 13__ ______
j|---- .,~~~~~~- --.- -_. ------^ t~f~a-.a^Ji^niBL^^
Jutumfl showin neto rctuPm cf
|a tIte :a7Orate ;tra : :.go
I :Unit:of .1. :;rt : I- :I.C1000:$2pO0- or
....______.__..________ farms :l*tIs9 J2'92 oYve-A
M .. .. .. .. ..... :lk~~ ---" 41 1; 2,-, 1PO; 5^ ;
raw Vr f arm.............a......lcre: 91: 52: 65: q2: 121: 151


. Of land and buildings.......:dol
Avnrage per acre................: ol
se of tenant property: :
RM.oents and iaacinery .........: dol
AkraZe per acre ............ :dol
Ureasoc':............ ... ........ ftl
jAverage per acre.............:iol
ON& or. hc-nd....................
ots tenuant property........ :dol
iNt deli t.. ....... .....:....:dol
net inve, tant............ del
ua"t; 19*: :
i 'na expenditures...............:dcl
I terost on net investwent......:dcl
Deprectarion on n iampleents nand : :
nFaehinery.....................iol
Total Cost .................. 10ol
Reosipta. 192 4:
SReceipts fram farm products .... .:dol :
Laor ofA the farmns.............:ol :
SHire of work anr.ra'me ............: iol :
Sire of farm ma.hih.er" ........... dol :
Other receipots roa far. or :
SequiFp-er.t.... ...... ................: do!
1 Tctal rc:eiptc from farm :
or farm 1iropert:".......: do1
excess of receipts fr=m far :i
produI-=s! :.
Over ezpe .it.res......*.... iol
SOver exrpnditures ar.n interest !
S on net investment ............: ci
Over e.apenditw'res, interest on :
Let ln--estie:.t, anddeprcctrcL dol
Excess of total receipt: a
Over expendlLuree ................ :dol
Over exr3n-OtureE arnd Interest :
on net invest7rant .............:drl
Over er.-penditures. interest on :
.et in-eststent. anldepreciaticr:dol


13,71P5: ?7,uE1:,0:flI233'19h47h.2%l15O
y .I f T. i .i i -g10'! 2 156
152: 136: 15: ; 55: i61: 156

750: L'C': 532: 763: 1.00: 1,665
S: 8: 8: 5: 6: 9
775: `76: 53 8: 795S: 1.C99: 1.65e
9: 9: 3: 39. 9. 9
1E3:__ r1; G0:__J7 r1;JI
1 (. :2%* q.3 2 :7= :07b 4
1.^65: C80; 917: 1.h59: 2,33h: 3.h6
25: : 193: 2: J:


1.54^: 1.149:1.331: 1,sL'I 3,CS3:6 '4.675
117. 5: 75: 117: 1SY: 277
: : O : i
1 3. 7? "2'. U,_:_ 3 4o t_.:_Z"
; : :

3,513: 991:1,375: 302E: 3,.25: 9,161
65: 2:'2; 92: 21: 19; 2
1: 5: : I-: ---:
.1: : 1: -- -- -:


13:


2):
*


L33- A.39. .2 5.. 3 :__ i 7_r
_, S
; ::


1.329:

7. ,2_12:

1,0S4:
S




1.292:
S0:
1. 61&


j&reage er acre aad percentpes are co.nut-d from
S"Eat retartas." as Mel In classIfyInq- farms, is
over e-zedilture for farm purposes.


-?59: 5441: 1.'27: 2,137 !1-
S
-312. '169: 1,3.3: .,38: UL2oc

-35I: 379: 1.go: c.l ? o 7 ,6

S S
S
46: 6-9! 1.L6.' 2.^ cC,! .49

-5: 3614: 13?-2: ?.317: 4.211

-77'. 4714: 1.222: 2,147- 3,928

the totais for the orous.
excos1 of incore ronm far" rroeucts


*-J


67:















salderably smaller, $152 per acre. as comared with $179 per acre for the.....

. owner-operator farms.
e : t : .* U
All the items. of value reported:.vary with the net income but d "ebts.A
;~~~ ~ ~ ,.*
do not follow this order w .

The average expen iditure per farm made by the tenant farmers ww :
-. .. "::: : j iM
considerably larger than the average for mqwer-operator farm. This 1s -::,*^

due to the fact that for the tenant farms this itsm Inclutee rent,. S n::!
: :':.: ::: :: :3|i:.:
for the owner farms it does not include interest on net investment. B4HN^

total cost, nhich includes interest on net investment and depreciatioN, :

average for the owner f .ar.s is the greater ......... "

Low receipts seem to kave been the cause of failure on the fawn :...L;

showing net looses, since the expenditures per farc for this group were ,

only slightly larger than for %he next income group. an4 considerably ;

smaller then the average for all farms.


la!sisication of Farm ExIpenditures

The distribution of ferm expenditures on the tenant farms is presentoe

in Table o.









t H!






.2
^ "










E; Table


Item


S :.7Qeigh'ed: Parms :
: ,veragiJ shor.ln& :


Uni t


name .a *%* %a 0 ......S.. 09. 6..... %silo
Acrege per farm ................ :acre:

ta t fae expenditure .........dol
Average er acre......... .. : 1ol
Receipts from farn rruducts.....:dol
Avnre per acre............. :dol
Feod........................... ;dol
Percentage of farm expendi-
tures. ........... ......... ..:p ct:
Percentego of receipt a from :
farm yrodtas..............:o ct:
labor ........................... :dol
Percentage of farm expendi- :
turea ....................... :p ct:
Percentage of receipts from :
farm products ............... :o c:
Interest or deb;s .............. :dcl
Percentage of farm ex-nendi- :
tures ....................... :p ct:
Percentage of receipts from :
farm proluc.9s ............... :p cat:
Ta s ..................... ...... :dol
Percentage oa far- expendi- :
tuares....................... :3 ct
Percentage of receipts from :
farm products ............... : ct;
Rent ............................. 1:ol
Percentage of farm expendi- :
tures ....................... :'p cT,:
FercentLge of receipts from :
farm nro-tucts............. :vo ct:
Auto, truck,and tractor.........: .ol:
Percentage & far= experit- :
t resa......... ... ..........:p ct:
percentage of receipts from :
farm rrot .cts ............... :p ct
Niscell&c' c u .................. :dol :
?Per:en'.ag't of farm expendi- :0
tures ....................... :P Ct
percentrge of receipts from :
fart Tro.-cts ............... :P ct


af all 1
I'nrmnl *


not
1ocspfn


AWrag.'s r acre and percentage: cre co..puted fror. the totals for the various grouns.
l Less t:---n ne-bhalf of one per cent.


S8.-Tenant farms: lrstribution of principa e..pe.nditurem, 19214


O23-


lossea


1 :


o1;
*
1.194:
22:
3.313:
37:
103:

5:
S
3;
33:

12:

7:
13:

1:


19.:

1:

1:
1.317:
*




81:




20:

10:

6:


Ul:
52:
S
1.249:
24!
991:
19%


9:

12;
222:



22:
13:

1:

1:
11:

1:

1:




70:




55:
70:
1;
10:

7:
69:


Fame BhoainPLL not return of_
c-- ~ ~ ... 0, 0

$1- :$1,00-:$-2,000-i or
_ ,.1 __ _.'-__. S owf
192: 150: 5i 45
63; l. 1,91
1.7 31: 1. 811 93..i 4067



27: -6: 40: 51
7: 101;: 159: 133
S
6: 5: 5: 3

1 4: 3-- 2
I: -207: --6: 582
S


12: 11: 11: 12

5: 6: 6: 6
: : 2: 31
1: 1: --- 1


: : :
1: 16---: 49: 41

1: 1: 2: 1


C71; 1,232: 2,102: 3,197
S
65: 67 5: 6:

4'!: 38: 35
6z: 70: 92: 132
5: 3.i
5: L: 3: 3
C S
C
3: 2: 2: 2
123: 1iC: 302: 5144

S 9: 10: 10: -11
7: : 5:
7: 7: 5:











An is to be expected, rent is the largest Itm of exptndltm n
the tenant farm, beinr two-thirdj of tae total expenditures. Hired

labor Is tho next largest iem, *-j ... 12 per cmr-t of the total, intre

and taxes are unimportant for this group. end the tenants have no wetr .

chergen uEnce these are aet by:tho o-ters of the fre..:.

Tht group of. farms showing net losses report higher expenditures .."':

for feed. for lator, and for automobile trucks and tractors than the next .

larger Incomeos groups...

ClarslIficetion of Peceipts from Farm Producti

In Tabla 9 is shown the distribution of receipts from farm produ.i *i

for 11324 eaong the principal sources of income.

As with the ow-.uer-opera-or farse, beans is the leading crop, For
.. .. :- 1 ::'trV "
the tenant farme it accounts for 36 per cent of the total receipts from

farm products, rmd for only ont group were the receipts from beans less

than one-third cf the total receipts from farm prod-acts. Except for the .11

group showing net losses, the percentage of the total. rscei.pts represented

by thu returns from bean- varies with the net returns, baing 44 per cent

of the total for the high.est iucome rc0p. tWith the tenant fanrms also

grain ranks second in L.mncrta.nce. For the tenants hay ranks third, whilt

for the orner liveBstock and ltresto-k products rank ahead of hayr. Mhise i

& s ro.id be exzctud, caince li.-estoc:: goos with the more permanent octpSq

esiocit9d with o.mership.

Tale 10 shows the rn.turns to the owners of rented fanrs.










Table 9.-TenantB- rjocd-ts from principal f!crr prodictU. 19424
__________________________-.-------------- -~l^ra -~ 'r-i~i~. --
flttb.Far-:!g S~'u shm.L retYa Ofi.
.Srii :.i *r 'ii"f"",
I,.." a -:.d sl-l ing !:




I::::: :tem :Uit:of 11 t : 31- :$10CO-.c-:$3CO or
[ _________________________ fsnza *Y.'-6sss L: 9.SL9.I2..2. ovcr

PFarms .......................o 1: 142 50: 31:
We hper farm ............ a:5re 2: 2- 12: 151

necelto. from farn nrod_-ts.:daJ 3,3.3l : 9.31: 3..T;5 3?6-. 5,5>6-: 9.161
37iii, ,,9 4 :5






Average per acre .........: do! 53 19: ;:7 1:
Livem4tacc.....................dol 249 63: 11C: o.45 372: e149
Pareretnte of total......:p Pt t 6: C .: 7: 9
Pouiltr: .................. :dl 32 :: 4o: 34:
Percentage of Itotal......:p ct 1 .2: 1: 1: 1:
Dairy prolucts...............d:'dol : 2-A 102: X14. 280; 407: 333
Percentage of total.......:p c:, 7 :0.': : h : 7:
poultr products ............ : 7 37: : : 107: ES
'I. 1L 3. 3:c o







Peroeatge of total......:p ot: 2 U: 3: 1 2: 1
Other liw'stock prodaucts... .:dol 23 : : I7: 3: 3'4: 162
rercentao of total......:p ct: 1 -- 2j : / :
Grain.........................:oJ. 639 175: 3: 3: 1.: i64
Percenteae of total......:P ct: 2.. :IS: 2: 21: : 10
HaW......................... :dol 356 : ).3U: l't: 57: 702
perc.nta&ge of total.......:p cta: 11 : E 13; 13: [10:
Suegnr .eet...................or: 63 : 6: 6: 52: 163: 39
?erL;en;eg ofC total......:. ct: 2 7: 3: 2: 3: i
PCtutows................... : .o-. : 142 : 6: 70: 101: 195: 6JS
PFervei:e of total.......p ct: : 2: 4: 3: 4: 7
Ptu-L. ..................... :dol 50 : 3'r.: J: 3 0 A.9
Percc .rac ofa tots......:r ct 1: 21: 2 : 1 21: 2
Beans ... ...................3. 10 32: 1OE: : 2.1': %4.L2
Perc-zn- e o0 o -t ......:p t: 35 : 30: .9 34: 1:
tSeed (poaats c.. r).....:o : 7 : 53: ioE 19: 4L7 343
Perccrti&e of total.......p P cu 5: 6: 4: o:

Average vcr e'rt and ?erncn4a# s j-re computed fr:ol totals ftr tthe grct.92.:

il !kne r--:rtea.


2/ Less t.V- Cr--:a-- 3 f f onre _er cent.









- 2 6 ..


Table lO.-Roturns to owners of rented farms. Farrm classified by..
nut r4turnq to tenants, 1 24 /

"31L : n -- : -
*: :;:flc si~tJ 6*.e~r~u :Laria3~iho71izg apTra
r Yd-5rJu Lihav:fDng; : 1 1
Item :Tnit.vf U..L : nut : $1- ;$1,000-!$2'O000-s
_- ---- -. ______a IJ~oeci.s aqI9f :S193 :0m


.'are.s .......................... 0 io
C-teas" u ,,-jr ran'..... ......... : c.Xru:
;erusie o1 vrops harvoEtod.. .. :azre;
Perrnt4-J ,.f aeea irn f1 1 e.:p ct
7alue of '".and end h'Aildi'.re .... iol :
Akebo.% '.-ar acre.............. dAl
e '.r -Cf '.r A i, re .............:d
**r ro r ac(re .. .. .. .. dol
'.v,"r f lzaa ................... do
0vza' r -ra .r aor a.............. dol 1
8o 6s ia. In' : : :
T xe ....... .... ........ dol
In g rrr.. ..... ........ ;dol
".-.*' -1 c;-i 3 fo- o ate ... ad l
ec,.- t 'inar. on bui.ldirn.. o
-'i, al cos. ................... dni:
r.et'j re-r, 1 o2r: :te
F. nt; .................... ?
.Lorace r-'jr acre .........,, dol
Purzcrnt.eit return on value:
Sf v.r f r............... :. ct:
Net return over taxes, :
inruranco, and water :
ch eic.... .......... ..... do!
pcr,-.ntace ret.un 1 .o
vi.-lj of farm...... "p ct:
Net ret,.-n over tuea. :
D-"'i o, ".7. TT er c'.ar-e, :
ar a r e-'tzc-ic.t3on ......... !dsl
v cIc~e reo: u:'n 1" : :
vrili.' c,:" form ... .. ".p rt:


I 41: 192:
91: 52: .6ei
69; 34: 50:
76:- 65: 73:
13,7 5: 7.061: 9.590:
152: i6: 145:
1 ,53: 1.240: 1. 11C:
:! 2hL: 6:
12.162: 5.821: 8.7$0:
134: 112: 129:
I U
196; 04 .
5s: 4;: ':
S137: 75: ,109:

_ ^ : :7; ., ;
F^^ gLJ7'3: ,;
S
1.17: 619: 871:
15: 13: 13:

S S
q.6: 9.3: 8.8:
*
U S
5 4
979: 506: 615:
S S
S S
7.1: 7.2: 6.2:
4 5
S
S
932: 169: 5 2:
S S
G.b. C.6: 5.9:
S S
*__ S


'Wveraoer. ner acre and percentages are co3rui~ed


from the total for the groups.


-. *Jet rt :Pn,M as uzsvd 4.r. classifying farms, is the excess of receipts from fe
;ro4.ucts over experdit-'res for farm purposes.


m


...... ; s51a
92^* 3n
71: .4
77: -7: ... S

14 .. i. |
3,C54: 2.858

12.5C4: 17.1r lj.0 M
137% 1141.?fe

82: O,: 3R

210:
145% f;..^
Ro, n;,ft j


1,232z 2,102s 31.,7
13: 171 19

: g
8.6.. 10,81; 11.4
U
S72: 1,676. tow

6.1: *.6: 9a0


822: 1.605: 2,115k
S S
5c5: 8.2: 847
: i










-at-


The gross return to the average owner was 9.6 per cent on him total

lwnstuant, while the net return wag 6.8 per cent. These high returns

rS through all the groups, the ranja in percentage of grons returns being

only from 8.6 per cent to 11.4 par cent, and the range in net returns

being only from 5.8 per cent to 8.7 per cent.

This does not take into account the increase in net worth due to

rising land values, which may be asswued to be as great for this group

of farms as for the group of farms operated by their owners.

Table 11 presents a comparison of the returns to owner-operators

and. to tenants.,

Table ll.-Comparison of returns to owner-operators and to
.enantsw, 1924

'* U U
: Owner- :
Item :Unit: operators : Tenants
... .*: .'


farms .......................................... No
S
excess of receipts from farm prodi"'- *
Over expe!dilOures ................. ....... : dol
U
Over expenditures and interest on :
net inve st ent .. .......... ....... : dol :

Over expenditures, Interest cm net invest-:
mnt, sa depreciation............... :dol
S S
Excess of total receipts: :
Over ezqpenditures ......................... dol

Over expenditures and interest on
net invmstent........................ :dol
*
Over expiiUtres, interest on net invest-:
Mnt, aMd dereciation................. :dol


8140:


1,402


527


291


1,538


663


427


479


1.329


1,212


1,084




1.0292
11,292


: 1.164


* -













In exees of receipts oar expen4litures the owner-operators shoi

a alight advantage over the tenants. but when Interest on net inveestate

azi dopreciation are taken into account the figures for the tenant

far are arc larger throughout the table. That Is, the labor income at

the tenants is considerably larger. Table 10 shows that the owners of
** 7.i':: :::
rented fasra received a nlt return of 6.8 per cent on the value of theit
3. 7.a8lA
farms, wh.le interest cn net Investment, used in Tables/ei Is computed.

at S per cent, the average rat of interest on iebtedness in the ditrl*.::::::
... *ii : .":g iilii
Zven usi;; this lower rate the advcntaea in labor income Is still with th.. ;

t lfnant,





fans included in the preceding tabulations. The reports from the other

fare UiJ not give al. the information necessary to determine the financial

progress of the farmerE fro.-i tht time of settlement to the time of

rnzjration. The farms are grouped by the years in which settlement

as 1mado. .

Table 12 presents average values for various !tewa for all farai

and for urach of the groups.
.... i "[ : : iii~

:::" iiia i




- 29 -


Table 12,-Owner-operator farms grouped by date of settlement: Financip.Al progress of settlers


Item

Farms.........................................
Acreage in farms............................
Acreage of crops harvested in 1924.............
Acreage ef crop failure in 1924................
Acreage in pasture in 192 4.....................
Acreage covered by water rights................

Purchase price................................
Initial payment. ............................ ..

Cash on hand after payment.....................
Property brought to farms:
Implements and machinery....................
Livestock..................................
Initial net worth..............................

Cost of improvements made since purchase .......
Purchase price plus cost of improvements made
since purchase..............................

Present value :
Land and buildings..........................
Implements and machinery....................
Livestock ...................................
Cash on hand ................................
Total value ..............................
Debts:
Mortgages...................................
Personal. ...................................
Merchant credit .............................
Other debts .................................
Total debts ..............................


:
Present net worth .............................. .dol :
Increase in net worth......................... :dol :

Excess of present value of farm over purchase
price plus cost of improvements ............. :dol

Total receipts from outside employment since :
settlement.................................. dol

Total outside capital put into farm since pur-
chase ....................................... :dol

Total capital taken-out of farm since purchase. dol


1 :Weighted: i: I I : : : :
I :average i Prior: 1903-: 1908-: 1913-: : i : :
:Unit:of all : to i 1907 : 1912 : 1917 1 1918 : 1919 a 1920 : 1921 : 1922 1923 a 1924
Sfarms L: Lq0.: L '- : ._' a --__:____ _____
No : I. G-8: 135: 2521 67: 78: 48: 32: 25 3: 26
:acre: 70: 118: 95, 79i 771 55: 54: 53: 531 793 56 45
:acre: 54: lo6: 72: 60o; 59: k41 431: 41: 41: 4oi 44;' 34
;acre: 2: ---: 5: 2: 2& 1: i 1: 1: --- 1:
:acre: 7: 9: 10 101 9 5: 4 4: 4: 5: 5: 3
:acre: 67: 118: 92: 761 75: 55: 53: 51: 52: 49: 53: 40
; : -8 I ; : ; ;
:dol c 9,539: 3,009; 2,920: 6,o62:10.2641 12,444: 14,557: 14,207: io,463: 7.958: 9,755: 7,453
dol : 4.264: 354: 4o4 2,7721 4,479: 6,2491 6,272N 6,616: 5,519: 3.936: 4,563: 3.255

Idol 691: 7,000: 541: 1,1651 872: 1,345: 5591 923: 1,017: 537: 323: 912

:dol : 249: 1,500" 1031 196: 251:. 2471 2891 287:' 96: 233: 358 369
:dol. 335: 2,000: 1921 2901 4o05 321: 342: 304: 4071 253: 2441 359
.dol 5,739310.854: 1,2401 4,42 1 6,00.7i 5,162: 7,42 8,130: 7,3382 5.0091 5,4988: 4,895
1i I 1, 1 l.
:dol 2,316:11,200; 5,040: 3,908f 2,361: 1,219: 1,1071 852: 550: 351: 4o09: 44
* S t .. S C I U
:dol 11,855"14,209: 8,560: 9,970:12.625: 13,663: 15,664. 15,059: 11,013, 8,309: 10,167: 7,497


.dol a12,475:23,600o17,647;14,1478:12,9091 10,730: 10,7371 10,7148: 9,578: 8,4oo0 9,621, 7.658
:dol : 891: 3,000: 1,17 1 9951 1,0071 638: 7141 T719: 745: 5141 638: 756
:dol : 954: 2,130: 1,391: 1.1051 1,0521 701: 655: 8783 790: 637: 690: 531
:dol : 5142, --- _.581: 620i 522:_ 457: 421:.. 1.07. 446 ,142: 262;l 49
adal: l14. .7 7q0: 7ll. i49 125 2.48 12ig: : q q2 1 6; :4
* a .
:dol : 3,943:12,000: 3,620o 3,873: 3,793: 4,o4s: 5,254: 4,o095i 3,340: 2,456: 4,336: 3,485
:dol : 226: 200: 55I 156: 296: 121: 334: 511: t 4: 112: 89: 236
dol : 15: ---: 15 3: 3: ---: 3 114: --- 105: I1
:dol 8 -. 11 8: 1091 138: 251 --- 92: ---: 192 4"5
idol 2 4.26q:12.200: 1.809: 14.o709 14.202: 4.o ; .626: 4.720:' 9RAI1: 2.i674: 4.6lg: .766


10,597:l6,530';l6.992:13,1311111,2881
4,858: 5,676:15,752: 8,705: 5,251:


620: 9,391: 9,o0b7: ; 4,5o8: .284:


1,008.


1,000:


692:16.000o: 1,34.: 1,118: 708

97: ---: 2,526: 1,942: 779:


5,227: 6,559: 5,722: s .0143: 7,299: 6,598:


8,227:
65.


-2,925:



l,12:4


2144:


6,859,
-603:


-4,927:
31

535

822:

209:


8,722.
592:


-4,311:

207:


1.019:


8,043:
705:

-1,435:

430:

469:


92; 420:


7,299:
2,290:


91:

4211

928.

64:


6,598s
1,110:

-546:


245!


599:

13:


r


876:




























I -














I -
jim


** ,


* I ;.. ;*


i'*.


a.. ~ .


S


9
* I..


* I
S S


:* a


| '..


i:..











There bas been an increase In net worth In all of the groups except

gr019. although t)e Increases for the 1918, 1920, and 1921 groups

r m il. For all farms, considered a a single group, the average increase

f tam has been $I,858. Of this Increase about 6C per cent is due to

J eeas valist ion of: real estate; but izprovewantu since purchase have
* 4 5- -
++:..:the Increas ena +ree in''net worth tedstnb geaterfor thoe whro havezp
l *: .... .. "
ca6t nearly t 0 per cent am wer, as the lnoresed value of real estate.

fo aFor ther 19h15l f1919. l9n 121, and 1923 gt oups the prese nt value

ot fbe farai is less than the purchase jrice plum the cost of improvements.

re porte isdIcate in a general way the inflation of land values that took
tpla.s from 1915 to 1921. and the deflatior that ham taken place mince that time.

The increase in net worth s tends to be greater for those who have

6 piedtc e arms ana the longer, althoujm the I ncrease is not regular. For

each of the ae oups prior to. 191 the average is greater than the o average



-" Ioq &,red wniathte mnt of present d~tebIlts., deere paymnts baein thetto
fore all fcaro. while for i1915 and each subuequet year the increase in net

worth is mch smaller than tahe average for stall years

Tpe average period of occupancy of the farmers now owning the farms

reported is 9,5 years, making the average anraual increase in net north $511

per farm.

In Table 13 certain significant comparisons are made. The sum of the

*.purchase price and the cost of improvements since purchase is compared with

.present valie of farms, Thinamount of deterred, payments on the purchase price

L -4s e-pqared with the anwnt of present debts, deferred payments beinc the

.nearest approach possible to the amount of debts at the time of purchase. The

I aaounts.bf cash on hand and values of livestock and equipment at the time of
I d

701urchas atd at the tine of emuaration' are compared.











Item


Settlere prior t0 1903 (1
At settlement ........
At etu wIration .......


:Purchea prterDefeorredm pa
tplus iumprovea- :mInti prees-
sments v aent debts COm
"DT tYRL* r" .. ", "" "q
,irejent yaluei, -
* Dollars : Dl... :


U
I ~ ~ USC se
it


lU.209


. .655
W, 2M.S


~rnuAp.
-Ia-
~vpS1S
U


S I
S.,' 71p0o: ..
U cern
-A-
-~ Yfltfl. *I


Increase..................: 9.9I
1903-1907 settlers (6f farmm) r
At settlement...............: 3,560
At *nlmeration............. 76 I
Increaae................. :
19O3-lql2 settlers (138 farms) :
At settlement..............,: 9,970 ,
At enufmeratlin..............: 1.475
Increase.......... .. ... 8 ,sm,`
91l3-1917 set-lers (252 farms) :
At 1ettl2aent....,..... ....{ ,. 1.625,
At enumerat on a...... ......: __ 1
Increase.......... A., ,a] -
3I915 settlers (67 farms) .
At settlement.......,.,...t 13,663 t
At enumeration .............i o10138 L .
Increase. ........ ...... 4 2.
119 settlers' (78 farm) :
At settlement ....... 6...&: 169. ,:
At ewumeration.............. l.37.i
Increase......................: 47 i. ,.-


102C settlers (4s farms)
At settlement............... a:
At enunmeration.............. : (
increasee .. ........... 4 -
1921 settlers (32 farms)
At settle,.ent.. ...,. .. .... V.
At enumeration .............. J
Ircrease.................
1922 settlers (25 f&rms)
At settlement. ... .: I
At enumeration..............: I
Increase ...... ... .
lr3. settlers (33 farm)
At settlement ......... .. ...: 1(
t enumeration.............. :
Increase .................
I?2L settlers (26 farmns)
At scLt-tira-hnt..m ... .... .
At qnumeration................
I nc r *,a: to .. .:
a;, -ettiers (70' farmin)
A.t settle nt n ....... .. 11
At enwrteratlon..................: 1


Yncreaie........ .......


5,,059 '
SE .*


L 013
9*578
1 U19;


.1.
a
U
C
S


L,- 55
IT&


* ----


2,51,

94*


.I

I


3p 290

710


* 1
*'fItjj


U C i4

. lU5t..l6


S ., ......0
I


.-6.195.
4.307


6,< 7


U
57


!
C ,
S
U


^.S I~t ;
U
4,285 a 559:
-5.626 93:9'


7,591 ; 92Ys'0" a
4.72o .. 1o
-2:71;" t" 141 -


a


.4

3Wh


aOO


Ml1

U


-971:


5.'275

-1,010


:
SZ
41T<'
U:^9


4 .Sfts
3.516
-i.42q


23,6oo


i


i


q


i


i


m


/


-- -S--





-32-

.. REMISSIBLE OST OF LoAw ID I WAT

Ja *Aated In the Introductory paragraph. it Is not possible to
r U t the valves of land and water. In this project originally land
'.. water were purchased separately but only about one-eighth of the present

hoMlers of farms purchased during the period when this condition existed.
Ir the others the purchase price of the farms covered land, water, and such
Improvements as oere on the farms. It is possible to discuss, therefore, only
tie total cost to settlers. In this project the average per acre, obtained
by dividing the total purchase price by the land in farms, is $136. The costs
of improvements made since purchase have averaged $33 per acre, making a total

cost of $169 per acre.

ltej ameraes ceps of receipts from farm products over farm expendi-
tures for the yew 1924, o6netdering all farms in a single group, was $1,1402
per farm (Table 3). To thi.s was added an average income from outside labor,
hire of work animls, machinery, etc., of $136 per farm, making a total of

$1,538 per farm, From this must come whatever allowance is. made for interest
on investment, depreciation-, -payment for the labor of the farm operator and his
faMtily, and payqnta on debts.
Deducting interest on net investment and depreciation on equipment

there is a balance of $127 per farm for labor income. But interest on net
investment and depreciation are not expenditures, so that the whole net return

Sof $1.538. in addition to the rent and family living obtained from the farm,
is available for zmetoing living expenses, making payments on the place, and
PI making irmrovements. nsO returns are fror fully developed farms representing

a cost of $169 per acre for land and improvements. There is no doubt that on






Sp i .. """"1

the averas these fully-developed farms produce a sitfiLtent retaz to
enable the farir to met etir o'lation and pa oft on tbolt tlb am 41t"
Fro r n an ccounting standpoint, they're masking'te hisr.nt ra rof ritert lil ...
==. .='
is a a iiiii
on their investments and a fair labor ianaoa and no more.
DEWENIT:0113 AM nXPHLiOATIS099 *'"4'"' "
*. ... : .,.:., .,* ,**,l lj
Farm.- The census enumeratoru were imtructea to t It Supp t .......
schedules frwm oil farmer; tAo were irrlgatng all or ay .pqrt..,o tZe.....
farms. Therefore, the Census definition of a farm has bei ffloui&":
.... -r. ,-p ,,. ,,
'A farm, for census ptuposes, Is all the'land which is* directly '
farmed Ry oet person, either by hii own lqbor. aloa. or.wAthtba msiiafs mw ,:
of members of his household, or hired ewployees,**" II
aDo not report as a farm any tract of land cf lees than three aem -ii
unless its products in 19214 were valued at $250 or mpre9 .
Values. The values of farms and .Carm-. property e. tbose given by ,
the farm operators to tb' cens-as enumerators. Enumerators were instruteOd
to accept the far- operators valuatiorna: ulesan .they ho ramon tq belte
that they rere belor the actual values of the farm or were grossly Sn ,1
aggersted. in such cases tiey -vera.to givf, as nuorl !aa.,ther; could:
determine, the amount for which the farm including b:-'lings and improve-
rents,' would' iell under normal conditionss (nwt at-rforpM l-epie. jAs-.a Yt:
eni-erators 7ere local men who were well informed as to locrl 'values throl
their T.;,.-Iedge of transfers, apraisals far loans.; Tt. assesest tr._
taxation.
i ...a "..
Eater rights, in mAny pil-ces. go rith the land, and their value is n
Included in the values of the farms. In other places they meway be owned i
Independently of the lar.i a-nd can be assigned a separe-t) value. In an
arid region 'lafl without water has little value, while- lnd with nter aW
have a high. value; but usually it is not possible to segregate tho value
that should beo ansigned tc the !ani front that that should, 'e aseignrd to, thi
water, and that that should be assigned to the improveme.its made by the
settlers In the way of develornent. There ;leter right-s'9may be sold sep*atOel
from the land there are, usually, enough transfers to fi: values*
'At investment. list investment, as used in thti study, i. the
difference between the suza of the- valufs of the farm, its equipment and t'fl.a
stock, and cash or. hand, ani the s-.= of the debts of all classes.
For covpLtine interest on net irvestnent, the rate used is the anerea
ra-te foend by d-W-lding tVhe total interest 'paid on all classes of indebtednesSt
b, the total amo.mt of debts on uhich the interest is coqputed.






liiiH, .3...


Taxes. Taxes on far-s are not reported for farms operated by
Ialmatmt. For the purpose of carputinq the net ret.r.nn to owners from rented
Sfarms, the ratio of tnU aiour.t of taxes to the value of laniL, hes been
Determined for the farms repocrtci by thoir owners. e&d the rate determined
In this way is used in estimating taxes on rented farms,

SInsuLrance. For farms operated by their owners it is assu-ed that
hIf no insurance was reported there vas nor.e. In cases in which the amounts
of Insurance are reported and the amounts of premiums are not reported, the
pr. iunams are estimated on the basis of average rates co-Wpu.ed trom the
schedules on whichh both are reported. In computing the net returns to the
o waers of rented farms premiums on insurance on buildings are esiintted
an the basis of the ratio between value of buildings and amount of premiums
from schedules on -hich both these items are reported.

Rent, _he census schedule call for the amount of cash rent, while
the suppleental schedule calls for the quantities and values of products
delivered to the owner as rental. When values were not reported average
prices based on other re',orts from the same project were uscd in computing
values.

Farm receipts. 1924, The aoun-ts reported as receipts front livestock
and poultry are th.e net increases froa January 1, 1924 to January 1. 19-'.
taking into account the inventories at tie two dates and purchases and sales
during the year.

For livestock and poultry products and for crops the values of products
sold, and the values of products held for sale constitute recelyt3. The
values of products used or held for family use or for feed or seed are net
included in receipts,

On soae of the projects surveyed sugar beets is an important crop.
he beets are sold on contracts under which the price to be receive by
the grower is determined by the price received for the sugar mads from the
beets, and the full price for 1924 beets was not determined until the fall
of 192% -rfter tthe tabL.ltlo.ti. ha.I- teen rads. In coiputirLn, tnt. v..I u uf
sugar beets the approximate price received for 1923 beetE has toenr. uaed.











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