Family living in 25 farm homes of Askov, Pine County, Minnesota, for the year ending December 31, 1925

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Title:
Family living in 25 farm homes of Askov, Pine County, Minnesota, for the year ending December 31, 1925
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics
Kirkpatrick, E. L ( Ellis Lore ), b. 1884
Hoverstad, T. A ( Torger Anderson ), b. 1868
United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics
University of Minnesota -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publication Date:

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Resource Identifier:
aleph - 028449099
oclc - 505677111
System ID:
AA00017349:00001


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PI

..,. WIZ, IPS TAMIS DPPAICMIN Cn ARIUa
Bureau of Aerioultural Economlos
and
UNIVX..p3 .Y nF IZIDg'S TA
Department nf A grieuuLx're
CooperaI.ing


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fAMILY LEIG IE 2V'FALI HOI V JAS.fV, PINE CCU.CY. MII.WESCTA.
F(R ThE YEAR EIDUI1G DSC. 5B IER 31,1 2-5.



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A Prelminary Report





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Washingtcn, r. C.
J-ne, 127.


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FAMILY LITMG 0T 25 FARM HOMES Of ASKOVe PIl1E COiPY, UMINNESOTA,
Hi F0R THE YEAR L'1DIU DECScmm 31, 1925.






By I. L. Kirkpatrick, Associate Agricultural Economist, United States
Department of Afrioulture, and A. T. Hoverstad. Assistant in Farm
|Uanase'aent, University of Minnesota.
i!:









Results nf a suwamry of the cost or value of the goods used
fnr family living purposes as reported in farm management cost acenunts
by 25 farm families of Askov, Minnesota, aie given in this preliminary
report. LI. The data were tabulated to show as clearly as possible
the different uses of farm family income and the costs or values of
the different kinds of goods recorded in the accounts as used for
family living purposes during the year ending December 31, 1925.

wing to their omission from the records v.iich v;ere kept,
data on the value of gartz-n produce (excluding potatoes) and fruits
furnished by the farm fo- home use were obtained as estimates of the
value of these fonds used during the year. During 1926 a list of
vegetables and fruits commonly grown in the locality was checked
over item by item, with each of 20 to 25 families to determine the
aunts of those counodities used. The average value of garden pro-
duce and fruits obtained in this way, $37 per family for 20 families,
was regarded as typical or representative for the 25 families.


fl. The cost route at Askov, Minnesota, is maintained jointly by the
Section of Farm management, University of Jinnesota and the Division
tf Farm Management send Costs, Bureau of Aricultural Economics, United
States Department of Agriculture. Thd farmers who cooperated in this
project kept complete records of all cash receipts and expenses, in-
eluding farm business, household and personal, of labor usod on dif-
ferent crnps and livestock, of amounts of feed fed to livestock, of
farm produce used in the farm hime, etc. Copies of thosu records were
made by a route man stationed at skov, who visited oarn farm usually
twice a week. He forwarded this material to the Sect in of Form Man-
agement at tho University of M1innesota for tabulation. All the material
was chocked for probable omissions and possible inaccuracies. ef the
o farms from which records of the farm business were obtained two
farms ogre excluded from thip study as untypical and two because "f
omission of expenditures fo family living purposes. All tho figures
tn be presented represent averages for the 25 farms, or farm f&mile. S,
Unless otherwise specified.nos ur__r ur E oi Ut






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Roboription of Looslitr &nd Tpin of Farming[

hskov is tho canter of a Danish colony. It is a small village it
the centre l pzrt of Pine CounAty, ilinnusote. This county is situated ea
tho eastern edgo of the stato approximastoly equt-distcnt from the south |
orn and the extreme northern borders. Aiskov is on tno cmin line of the
Groat northern reilroaid between Duluth, at the western tip Of Lake Su- '
parlor, end tho Twin Citios.
0
Pine County r&s originally covered with a pino forest. It Is&
locrod off before 1900 and tho pines wore rgremoid. 2he second growth
whichh r.rs exists whoro' the lbnd Is unclocred consists Icrgoly of poplar
intormrcl'-'lod vTIth L fjw birch cnd other trees. The pine stumps thct
hLv-3 fl*. been rumovae Lrz well preserved nd Ere -.usuailly blown out
by tho use of explosives vahen the lcnd La cleared. The land In the
vicinity of Askov Is very rocky. The ro-*ka must be removed before the
land is cinved. 2he soil is rod clay loam with some peat soil vrteni
tho lrnd is low.
ii .,












tbrut tr;onty yoers ago & committtoo wrs wsked by a Dcnish
society to select a suitable plroe for ostablt.-hint r colony. After
a survey 0f so-eral tracts nf land, the conmitoee decided upon this
Pino count, trtct which is now the Askov community. They obtained oon-
trtict on r Urlrp aicroago fr,,7u lumber companies at c nominal price. this
knd 'LS he^on f.u rcellod out- in small trLcts of forty or eighty acres to
prospective settlers Lt L v.ry reasonable price. Eabh settler was re-
quired to clo&r five &cras ..ithin eightoos months after purchasing to
insaro the ccTnfittee-men that uctuLl settlers woro boing secured.

T)cirjing tnnediLtoly boccme the predominant enterprise. The
so*.3Vlurs, miEny rf whomr c *me directly to ;iskov frcmn Donmibrk, proved to
bo aexcgl1ont dLirymon. Clovor grows luxuriantly on klnd from which
the brush has boon rorvud, cnd Is the basic crop in the district. It
furnishes the wat s jinsportant feed for tho uziry cows.

Thvn dairy csnt,-rpriso Is by far tho lc-rgost single source rf
inc'wDJ. rcirj products vith potatoes cnd rut&bcbLs LS crsh crops are
the throe connoditles upon vhich those pocplo depend for the bulk of
thelr Lnc:)me. As the ffr-ms arn s.n-ll. Lfnd ciost of tho fcmilias include
sr-mo ciildr-n s.?io L-r- Lablo to x.ork, the important enterprises must pro-
v:de c. vrtit fcr ccnsLiarzblo h~nd itbur. iwiry *LttlO, potctoos and
rutrbifms ruLltfy LdcairLblj in this raspuct. Tne gonoalI plan of farm-
'r.g. is tu r&Lsuj cirv.ir :'cr hzry .n.t corn for sil&go to supply Lhe rough-
Er's for thi cnttlu, cr1n to Fup:'l2iniit i' with &s larga an uacrego of '
FltLtosS Lfnli ruti Crri;s LS tho 'labor supply willl pornit. A crop rotation
.s eCfmr4ltod b:, tihu pronJuctinn of saae orcta. but c largo portion of the
'.n m'ntrr.t-s CA tsd. n..irahsod trom. surplus rrhin sections or supplied
nor,.; ra ",a eiop snn p
.ns rrf by -p r.:a3ts of th iiin indu st"ry. Ho ..y over" farmerr
r~ ;t. i. fs., nor ir, .*ii.)p5 sB"iO poultry but bJcLaao of high food prices
r rr 1 h v ...rr3' n' c..t b r *r.I- nrofitb1. Voy fo shop ro
Sr. :-:ri.' -ne r! product nir. ain il mtrpr iss ozust be maintcinud
f h r'Lt csrul. Urn :i n b prr'f tLb1o. b it ,.skov, f rming is vory
.r lr.thr r^.- ord.d ceuela not survV 1't or n nxt hast esi*t t o







-3-


Cooperation pirys a. lurto p&rt in thu su1c0ss of this coiainity.
A coopcrvtiro cro&aeor, food stora, oov.-to3ting msBociztion, eGg-shipp-
lng unit, atc., ero eatsblihhed to rd3uen eosts and tiioruby raiso in-
P oOas. Bealuos coop-'*cr tivI n sI as 8r r5 nrliC t tons t'i-rI LrvJ coopjrct, Iivd
soletios for social purvc?-)s. A Ntnisn Luthor&n chirch Is tnu cunt-lI
Social orgL.nizition. A first-clae ounsulUidtod icfool provides odu-
I0tiorl facilitioa for the L--iidrun through tnoir hitli school Luni. A
largo p-rcentLgu of rhoe ctu-onts oftr finishing hiog h school ct -skoV
Continue ttolr uduca ;ion In c-d-.v-nood instituti,,rs siswftiuro. Tiho moim-
bars of the co'2tL2nity, both ftcruars cna to.7s's-cp]u, to L lirgu extant
boand toe tnor to 1nrovi U3 thr cn ont art. inz.,j it rt io.r ta n to *3ngcLg
outsiders tc coma oin. 2h j hzvu tLeir onhn. braul tnd tloa club. Occas-
iorwlly rrou orr*-ai-:.os .-o prosmit L da-'.n.tic pity. Such forms of
dnt trttiLvn at sr a riven in "tho community hail ru int'.inod by trao D: nish
Brothorhocd Society.

S 'Orao of th, outst'r-ndlnir fcacrrus of lifo in this DPnish colony
,^ is the ea-idnc, of s ftist's i-n th:t th., poopl.n t-ku in thoir mode
of llfo. They ore not Iriv-'-r. by rn unending djsiro to :P: -) monetary
Gains. p'. rently their oo*oct in life is tc ivo v;ull. Consoqu.-nmtly
thoir earnings c-re used to _mpro-.: their livii.:. conditions. Choir
dtrelllngs -'ro substEntirnl :-nd coTi'ortablo .nc rll thi builaings cbout
the fvrr--;t -d rrj or-in-,ri'. -;.ill paint-d and vull a:,'pt. ScLh fL.aily
see-ms to t1cke' r rito in th L -1aurtiy -na to b, inatur)st )d in the noit1h-
beors evr ce tho .;xt rnt of .cntrlbut in r:.-onJy 'o L id v frLmily that -'ny
hc-n som; us'. ust-l misfortui',. F:rrminf, i, this -srarti is conducted under
severe hzn-ic.;ps %,hequ comperol to th3 prairie socCioUs of tho rnorti.ost
but the .-!ple s-..- "cll sitisfiod end cL.tontod. Thvy Lre ondoe-voring
tc rrnticn E high stznacrd nf living c.-:id -re -n.joyini. chansulvGs. Tho
3knish Ol'lrn .j t /.sknv is n fiue uxraplu o-f hrt ca-n be ccccmplishid by
C-op4,r tive effort Era ccEunuity 7 Aovjlopflait.


?inicinl Srt ,e*,it. F,- rn Bu3sinuss and Famiiy Livirr.

Z su.azry stto-wint cf the pross farm receipts Lna n:perndituros,
the frrm incamo, tha fLrm fLMily income, t'Q vcl,,3 of purchLs.jd tfL.-aily
living goods end tho incro.s-e in cmpit:i, or savings, is sh.ov;n in 2Lbl) 1.

It v;ill b, noted tvht Lho P5 fLrms hzd Ln LVorao izv)st-nunt of
"13,966, not including :aonoy us'd for o.-jrating .xp.nais. Grnss r.c'Jipts
front fErm opo.rtions c.-xint3d to v2,787 puJr furm cund gross farm )xpni.fS
t-oro morn Lhtn t'c- thirtls .s .Lrfgu, or 41,695 por fLr:n for tna y .r.
nus, :n exc"5ss o3f 4'92 in r-?oits ovir )xp]zS3)s is noted, kind this Ldid
to incr-)cs- in ir.n .ntor; vl'-j., riv-s c ftrm in;com of ;l,247 for tao jyJLr.
Sup!2mnn.ctd-i by hucas:h-ld t.nd pJrs'n;l rjoiipts. fhrm fLInaly incu()i LtJ.ants
to 41,438 por t'fily for th: y ,:-r.






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txpondlt'urcs for ftlily goods purchasod, 8614 por ftumihy per '*l
.yYr, rod.e. tho wv iIrbln fcnar fcmll7 inooma to M624 for tioe yoar oni
&n &vmprv). This =y..2 ac- bi rnogrdod as inor s8d cepitcl or as the i
savinps ;ccwnurltoj lurin tI.y ,Oar of s:tudj. A 2ecrt of It rnaq repnr-
SIMft &NvaIlblo &.Lsh or cr'diLL hi t.io henk or oluowahoro to bo drLWn
upon. Auctnnr ;xrt of it roprnsc1nts the mortga-es or other bills paid
(lass int-,rest laid in c-sh. cohread cs u fram 3xpcnao) during tho
yxr. Still nocthjr r: rt y rt v proisint livo stock or machinor; added
t,> th. tf: ti business r'SL -,rc-s during tho y.r.


Tnbl. b ?in&fncil1 s ttt10;;ent. Farm business bnd fLanily living receipts8
tnn ronof.lo&r)s fur thi yL.r 0925. 25 farm ftmilios of Askov,
S- ir-.. (' ur. .. i iinn "sota. -I_


S f& --'-s. utc.
.. .(..j-arbur of f rncj

Fr rmn irv rt.; 'nt, (lr.ni &Lnd buildings, oiupmeurt,
liv. st ck, f o'd, s.spplin.j
Gross r e-- lrts :rnua frmlng
Gr-3: SL X n is .f f'rrm op-r.tior.a
Excs&. *ci *Is fr 'xn f2-'i e,
inv :nrtc.-. ch .Fp, incr,- ,
Par%: i .Jao.
i iu h uld r r.d pJrsor ul r'c-ipts
-arm far 1y i:.con.--
F:n'-Ly 1' :.ri: [(L.a'-.h,.ld rnJ pirson&.l ozponsus)
Ir'T r..0 crpi!L 1 ,' r Lr cuwjl.t*d srvinf s


: Avego ie mounts ro-
: coivod. uxpindod atoe.
* L25)
Av "

13966 :
2787 :
S 1895 i


S 455
* 8-
91

814
: i24 :


?:.,, principal srjrcos ond uses of ftrm fcimily incom3 &,ra sioa,
t-. f- :rili,.s, i.; '. bl .* S !v--n of th fLrunrs hrd djcri: s%., in invlYn-
trr:r vrlC1ttons for L- e/.zr, u d'cri.s L.nounting to ^3? por fcrm for
thi 21S fi r uS. This d crc;, s E-btrcctod from t. evi3rrRo incroLsa in
l:v. ntcr:, v: ljr.t, i on f(r Lh :-5. frins, C493 pur frr-, l1o.vo3 Lun ovuragO
..'. "ntnr:' vljx t ion incr.z.s. of "4F5 pr t'rm. To of th? ftaills
ixparlruncnd dOC r-tS,'S in fir? cLpitil cr &ssurnod cn Lddad indbttdanoss
Jirinr ".L'- ;' r, hLht Is, in; livinr uxp-ns-s of tv.o ftmilios v;ore mora
."tr. th- f-.rn ft--ly rncomn-x. Th-ri t.? #n incro.&so in tno c.pltcrl or
r-.vjr.fr of t-. fl:r r 23 fLiLh.)s during itn' ym.r.


892

1347

1438


624







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"Sais"B. Sources and usos of frmn family income, by farm family, for tho year
I, ; 1925. 25 form fati.lios of jektov. Pine. County. Minnosctc.-
.. [:: .... .. ..... .. ......,-
:......... Form family inoomo a
.. Rose ts Dooro-asod
S hold : Inventory :Incroasod: onpitL1
u : Excess : &nd : chno j ojPurehesod: capital : or
alu1 I : farm aporsonel t fr.mtly or acddod in-
u1Wd]: Total -rocoipts:roctipts Incrumso Docro seg' living : savings :dobt jdnas..
saibor: $ a 3 : A :
25 : 300 514: 214 :: 449 : :149
36 t 409 706 :297 ::1122 : :713
12 j 525 -413 1: 938 :: 299 : 226 :
S"t : 928 4CO : 438 :. 429 : 499
|17 928 1021 .93 : 747 : 181
S 263 9. 515 416 :: 406 : 525 :
S: 8 1008 :1111: :103 :: 701 : 307 :
1 21 1109 141 : 500 75 : :: 500 : 609 :
1 1220 :1031 189 : 802 : 418 :
1 22 a 1285 742 98 445 : :: 653 : 632 :
11 1402 1066 240 96 : 929 : 473
18 a 1403 1074 35 294 :: 749 : 654 :
14 :1418 :14 5 32 :: 124 2 176
19 : 1536 10?5 511 : 53E89 : 947
23 1549 1656 :107 :; 1361 ; 188
38 1598 599 999 : :: 58 :1009 :
32 1599 :1269 330 :: 1443 : 156
24 1658 -1266 22 2922 :: 462 1196 :
16 1712 1811 99 :: 1331 381 :
13 : 1754 368: 1386 :: 972 : 782
18 : 2023 624 : 916 483 :: 583 1440
31 2154 1053 480 621: 1278 876 :
35 : 2159 180o 329 :: 869 1Z9; :
20 : 2363 2047 316 :: 850 1513
10- :2990 :2128 : 8622 :: 993 :19.97 :
Ivor, 1438 : 892 91 493 38 :: 814 : 659 : 35


EZpbinditur-s for Famil:v LivLn.n Purpos-s.


Th, totzl oxpanditurns for ftrnily living goods tad facility is pur-
chasd, avoraging Q614 p-)r family, nr-v boo.n noted in Tiblo 2. :h-, axp)n-
ditaurs for coods Lnd fcacillti ,s Trch&sid r..pr."s int sliLftly mor than
threo-fifths (61.2 p'r cint) of t.Li totLl vwlu, of Ll fconds usod fcr fLmily
living purposes, the r=mcining 38.8 pir ceant of tho f.o[ly living C0ud3,
$515 "'orth p-r fcmilj rw-s furnlsnoad by tn f!:rr. -&no vnI rs rc f t s, 'ccds
are not included in tho fk.m f.r1ly' incori-o.






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Tn, vrwluo of f-mraily llviune oods aMnd fecltijLs is of int.proo":..
frn tho :Ctczndpolnts of :ct-i 1 ozpondit'ur's (household -nd porsonel
xP(flns sa t nd of totLi. vt.lu) of s l gocis usod thotaor purchLsLdo or
tfMilh.1'1i by/ th. f rmi. Ln vioew of thiis loabl) interest tho two sots
of dctAL rn filly livir.g rro prcs jntja .s ipbrzt ily, Trbloa 3 and 4,
by ftmlll.'o crryad :ccordlinr4; to totc1 frrm fttnily incoo t6 in T-blo
2. T. bl.'r 3 tnd 4 Lr.I prjoCuod by Ln exulonat ion of thac pln of 018a-
nIflInm t Inr. nf goodz -ad.


CLa-.sifictior, of Gco'Ji UMod.

T r' rlcin 1 m rouor cf t ooJs roco#nIzzuu in Dw.zirtm..nt ifulletin
14fA r* 'hj U. S. L "t. u f ..rri cuiturL. ; n: I prolimia-rj reports of
-1. 'J .... : L.;,t. cf .k -C'IC.iL 1 .1 Lr. u:: .rsuf'r Lt possibii a s t;iO bes S
rf cil: i..: iC.:Lcn r.f : 'r.ois u.da for fmilj living purpocoas by tbo
.5 flfli -. Ii t-I- qc,.en- of clr 3:ificSt ion, goods &rj groupod on tho
bi 1iZ ,f tn I r.i v l r!-Oa- Lor Cf oEo] foorj to thu stL.ni.ru of ,iv Ing.
T-I. -." ;t -uf tils cr sific: t icn is t%.ofol': (1) 0 unr.ul'3 tho racdor
tc :. *,<- .,ir nrt c.niz. r .Lron -,' t..o ." v lu,5 cf fCe',i for spociflc purposes
r..i (o) rr Lffori r mor L r. ti zf ct ury in".ox to 'ij szr.n ,brd of living
t-j.r it :."'fri.-' b- c.., ct I vrluiu of ll rool-:. Food, clothing, roat,
furr..isL,..( n.. rtt lom., ,. ,.i- rrcc, o f :t 1tY., uIva ncooont, pirsODmil,
i..-ar-)cA (ifi rcn, hcult!') tnd unclcssifia. constitute tho main groups
of' rL'is.

I. t.his pln cf cli :if iicc t ion, uz;od in Dip..rtumont Bullotin
14 W, L.. in, th, r.jncrts ros'iltinf frot.L sW.uL.:s ccaiouctud bj tao survoy
"L '.0 frrn' inclu .cs n.or .ts, ..iry products, aronoy, flour, neal, yagoe-
tA. t113 i.. fru-Lt. furni..jd jy thc fLrm vnluool insofar &s possible at
'.. tlA ".cul i hv.' jrnmut-.t "h.Ld .:-oj b'jon solri. It tlso includes
rrrc.-ir: :U.'J cth.r fr, cJ products purch. :od.

Cict.Inf in-!l .o Z11 l Lrticles of :. ri.:- pp-..prol LCtUL1lJy pur-
c :- A f.r z. '2 ..br:. of Co. f r rmilv turia n'o- yo. r of stuiJ.
C:. uiq -. iL.. r. rrv-1 t b./ 'ij-irn f'or r oh i:..*.bor aof t c f:.mil]y
* c' :t3 r- r ', -,' I- ':j" ikjr of tL s., rrtu rti l.as of cloth-
ns. [c. bc.-n p'rr,:.t:-, n ....t inr. f 'w. C& s ) ..hjru Ln nstisLcto
1 t: I c t..E f clrti.inr :' r tao ,litir; f ::.ily .asB tbk-n.

r' f tf.e fLr fn u-, f'r :Oi ;,etr i- c:wrged at ten per cent
T ",: ; -1 nf n n' js,", V..L- u t ,: viIa e cc,-aucid o determined
L.' ?jm 1%. 1'I r'r :.t. h.i. rn.:WL.. :..;.if' i Z.tt.,iaQ to ccver tazos, in-
i irL:.: .d r'?,':, r.. ,-, L 1 ;i, ... nj tc .aj six ror cont rint, rust on
tn .V' tn '!At.

:..".t r LU ...': i..clO'; mA.s 1 in.strt.mor.ts, fur-
r. r r -. utJnsils
'* :r,,', u ct'.r, .;:. r;.!, t ,, u z ,-: ...,fl, bL .JL'LJ.LFLo, Ueft
*. .. '' 2. f"'t ',' r : ,, t' :..,. I. .C.jr.," L: c iLg.ii purchz.,.d dur-
:.,' ".* ; t C.: : '.r .. h i. th..,' hof:l i- liLt t--kon






- ? -


Operation goosz incUcao fuul furnishud by th, firs, fuAl. so&p,
oloansors, srAd icthec pu.rc sod, hired help In too household, chcrgos
for laundry sent out, End t'lephoo s.orvlacu. 2hoy also include dupro-
k6ltion rnd gasoline, ol1, roptirs, iliosns, insurnaoo :nd othor LoOS-
orles for the cutooobile i.here theso rLrY oharcosblo to household end
? tel ly uzo. Proportion of. tho totiL1 oprbtlon ooct of tha butomobilo
for household uso r-as tbken Ls an ostimrto vohjn thu d&tn wore obtsLnod.

Goods used for tho z.intontno of haclth covir Loctor'B, nurse's
and dentist's sorvions, hospital bills nd modicinta of L.11 kids pur-
ohrsod during tho yo.:r.

Avrucoueant goods iL.clade bocrd &,rnd lodging it high school or
S 0110ios, sohooAl Luad ccllogo toxt books, bpplios tnd tuit in, reading
Ilil nttor in tho hPt, orK nizrtion _nd club duos, sports, vacation trips.
* church 3upgrrt Lnd. bz.ovol'n.cos.

".;: rsoncl good- cover b--rbor's foeE, toilet trticlos, gifts,
c=nWdy nd tobacco.

Insurance roode include prrmiums paid on life, odca;onunt, hor-lth
or acociaonL policies during tno yocr.

Unclzssified roodls iziclude burials, cemetery locs and other
toods, the purpose of vhic'i 13 not specified.

Dissimllrrities in Clrssification: Lsiae from food, house rent,
furniture znd furnishings rxnd maintenance of etie1th values of the prin-
Cipel rroups of Eoods of thu present study z.ra not compsrble vtith cor-
respordirE. values snoT.t in tho bulletin nud the proliminr'j reports re-
forrod to obove. In thi present study oxpendituros for mrny goods cf
mrjor importunco .eru reported under "porsozsl". Undoubtedly, "personal"
ras shotn for the 25 hCrnilies of this study includes irticlos of clothing,
SOmo f'OOts cnd fccilitios ccntrinuting to r.dv:ncomont end cortrin oexpon-
ditures tihch ordinc.rily would be clr-ssud zs lifo or hunlth insurinco.
These difforences in cl-issifieLt ion !o4,U no diffuronco in trio totEl vclue
of di jroodr cbtc-inod from thi use of q othaor achuno of classificr.t ion,
ho-eover. B;sponditur3s fcr all tiosa {'oods enter into the toti l cost or
vrluo of f:nily liviFr no rantttr v.haero thOy L ro cl.stifiod.

3ut there rra minor points of aiff..rconco for inich -llov.Lzco
should bo :xda in the totLl cczt cr vcluo t -11 coods usO f'or f:-nily
liviaw purposes. Tno vr luo of opurztioi guods for thu 25 f.nilius iny
be slightly roduceoa ori:nf to the omission of L; pcrt of nousonold supplies
usually purch-sod with jrocorios ndl to tha rLthor lot. vLluo of furrnishoa
mood (stumns rockonoa in tarms of cost of lcbor in prepLriuig tho for
U30.)





LBtuA the vcluo of oporrtlon Coods Its trthur reduood 1 the
charrLn' of r.11 coss Osf opoy tine their auatomobilo, e11 tno use of tbin
tolophono and fuol for lLfht ncud puwar to tho form business rog rdlew,
of the fkot that part of thasr *iods v'ro usod for fLatly living "
purposes.

Difficulty in dotormbninc the proportion or porcentago of tb
costs, tho rutomobilo costs ospac .1ly, oonstLtutos the principal rF
for oh- rrinp L1I of th.im to Lho firm business.


3igniflt.cu of distribution of ot&.l VI1UO of Goods i
Js.od &8s n irdox of the StLndb-rd of Living.

n'ft usitributico.. of t1n. totC l vw Xaq of foods usoc tmong the priL-:.
cp- 1 -roups of thjs( coJr off'-s c f- riny sttisfifctory motnoa of dootiwi
I i he. ; ill fr;anlin LctUIlJ live. T1o most \sorth-T.hilj Vluos In liftii
gro%; oat of thij uso of L.on-nrtor1cl foods. t.Lt is, eduOcation, rooresii0o
br.'Li so nr., provided of co'irs'q, tirt thj neoUs for food, clothing, sheltOrl
rr.J nti r raztorlrl pools :it.v b~or. mot. "

T"! i.)ltribut ion. of tio vcluo of I'oous U5s-ia Is usu-ll7y o6posd.
in tor-IF -A' th. porcatzf-,J: or proportions thzt th. vLIun of the pri a-
cip;.l rroaps rf pcoi .ro .f th, v& luo of Lii roo.'t. Tho diatrlbution ;ii
of the trtl v: luo of v'r.. iivrlvos sivori.l tiusti ons. Whrt proS etagS
1i: the v; lue of focAs oxf' totUI vi lao of (oodsa sud during the yForz?
Tk.'t pJrc.Rt,r. or )roportion, is the coat of clothing of tho valao of
Lil cof.s? 3irii- rly, v;h.t porc-rn-t1nos Lro tho vtlos of oporation
rools, n-ilth 1 1:tor.t1-co frods, -dviaemo;-t Lool.s, int parsoncil gooct
of tho v. luo of 11 ( uols 'AsoJ? Finally, how do tChso pjrco,.tLges
cnl.4-o, t.iLt is, in:cir-io ,sor .ocreoso, with v.riztions in the incom s
,.fich .r, :vc ilrblo c'r f-,ilj liviWg,.

2h,.i reo-uls of rox.,'ircl studg of tho cost of living LWng -
Spproxim:tt.ly 12,000 v.orkir.l. mon's fzmillos of 92 loclttitLs through-
out tha Unito-1 Stctr-- bout 1918, LZ sho. thrt L-s tho foMily income,
Lr-A CCLso0ruNtly .5 th', tOLL1 vi Iuo of ill r'oods asod incrILSos, a
l rpr proportion of this tlott1 v Iuo is for tha parposas othor than
tool, r.,t, fuel Lt.i li-ht. Or ti.o othr hand, LB tho Income rises
the proport io: t',:Ir.- for the sc-cliod ;;::ocossitios fhlls nutioat&bly.
R,-1 Its of rr. crillor study of th, ccst of li-inc t.aong 11,000 work- ;
lF.r ncn'. i:kilins of the nr:i-cin.l iLlustril onu.tjrs of 33 states
Lt.irt lr0, 5 sncv, the stnr, tro:l., uxzOp t th.t tho proportion for
r :..t rr--x Ins r ,iz'.mt coD;tl]At LS hj i'Whnho n risos. Tho results of
t.'.- rvac.it st'l-I s of trio stL'.'IrZ i cf livinG of 2,886 f&rrm fmilios


Z.F Crst of .'.'l:.T ii UL.'T ,J;iL.-, St't)j., ionthl/ i. bor Rivin ouaruLu
*f r'vrr St ti- ics. U. A. 2 .; r^.a.t of .Lbor, Auf:ast, 1919, p. 119.
5" .t n: Ln':.. : A I1 ,;. i .r ic !s of' Ycri, Elthtoz:th ..zru.1 Report :
: 'rm-lr5:r;. r :.f : r, L 1'zi-3.





- 9 -


by the 3roau of Lrioculturt-l looLomics, /L show prz.otiwaly, tho sLmo
trend as tho rosflts of th- two studios :.M..oL Lmong Lborjrs. In :.inorbl
then, higher lvals of living possible frora hirhur incomes mjon higher
porooLtLges of tho tctal VLlu ) of Loods dovotod to clothing, to furni-
ture and furnishiLs, to t;LM ,.sLite ri.na of health, Lnd to sdvlnooMOnt,
Including oducLtion, riddin" ratteT, cnh'rch support tud recreation.


Volues of Goods .nd Fcilitius Purohrsod
for gFimily LiviuL" Purp"ss.

Tho distribution of tqiu tot.1 v.Iuo of t.oods purohosod among the
principal groups of thnse r'cols for thu i.skov fLrnilis is sho~m in Tblo
3, by f:milios listed in thu s.mo oruor r s in TL.blo 2.

uf the Evorago 3:.pe.-Litur)-s fur Al1 mouis by tho 25 fmiilios N314
per ft-mily 44.1 per cent, Q359 pir fLmily v.ont for food. Loss thfii L
fifth, 17.3 per Cunt ("141 per f:rn ly) v.-s spent for clothing, cbout a
trontioth, 5.2 par court, (42 per fAmilyl vT;S s ipnt for furnishings Ld
oquipmdLt, 7.4 p.r cent, (460 per family) :.Ls sopnit icr th.) ilintonznco
of health Lnd tha romiinder, 26 por cent (V212 pir fLwrily) V.aS spent for
Other purypusos. The cvnraor, sizn of ft mily L..acunts to 5.6 parscns for
the 25 frnl1ios.


Llues of LU. Goods Usd for Frmily Living Purposes.

Tnt,1 vr.l.o of ll'roo is: The avorace vwluc.s of rii goods and
of tho principal [ rrops/i&tTu8 family living parposos Lre shcvn in
Tablo 4, by f: allies listed' in tho ordor in vwnich tney appobr in TLblos
2 and 3. The trvtraeo vtlu. of &ll goods used, the pcrcontgce -f the
totdl vW1.1 of frods furnishedl by the frrn Ln. parchised, the Listribu-
tion of thi otCl vr.-iu3 Wo-ng tho princ'l groups of goods Gra sh..-.n
again in Tzblo 5, in comparison ,ith similar Lvor.Lg.3s for 2,So6 f:.rm
f.miliis studiod by th., s5Jv.oy Mnthod. Thu v.. lu3 of all gooas used .Lur-
Inr thfs y.r by thi3 .skov f:.d:lis, '1,329 per fLnily, is bulow tno cnr-
rospocdir.C LvorcrFo for Lhe 2,886 families, or '1,598 per f::-ily. Loss
of the totrl VLIiu of f&nmily living is funmishod rby the firrm .ith tho
Lsko7 fL.-dlies. It is g51 zorti, or Cnproxi.A.tjly 39 pur coat6 of thI
tl: 1 v:luj of 11 !cois usca, in conpL.risoz, %.itih Q664 vorth or lrncst
4SZ per conL of :hr. ctLl., V.ith the 2,885 f:=ili.s.

Th lo-:. ;cr rverE(o v: lu) of fcods fu-rnishod by tft f:.rm fcr thj
r.res-5it stu4 is -eue pri.a.ril; to lov-or ccsts cr v: luos of foou reported.
T.ns =y -.=n sr.-il-3r iunt itirs of the ifforont kiz-.iJs of focu3 which h
.xy. hriv bjon chLrrod at lo%.or cnzts or prices thn in tno lrc'ur stjuj.


/_4. 7n rla!'rs' Stc.r. rA of Li'vinc, D.pt. d:llotir. 146A, U. S. kIjpt.
V. ArrL cl' x*. 1926.






13 -


?7blp 3. Distrlbutloi. of tot"ti vi luo of gooDa pNr-'WOd Lmong tho prtnolp :4 j
rroups of t..j' ,:oo.sM. 25 fL.. f. 2paij-. of :.skov, Pine County,
_____ 4.lir*.gotz *f. __ ___ .__.______ __._____________^
... ....
S":.l'ij o. evoob 'rc5J(s1i
I Size : : i r. -11Ur.fs : s
?-,,- : : j,.I.t :: il othor
f'Ll,: fri::,, 12' ?r.tl : F of- Cic'thti J :34ip.i HI.h : purpose@
:..'\ L r :1''" r*.- ; ^ ~ ~{51i h : ___ j
:.5 : 7 4, 2: 114 12 : b4 77
S R 1: 22 72. 13 : IC : 639 : 128
1:" : : : lG : 49 : e 27 79
;7 : C2t : i2 : 53 : 5 10 : 106
17 : -,7 1 : : 14 : 222
; : : 406 :', 5 7 : 20: : 67
:23 t' : 7'.L : 2. : LS : 32 : 44 : 52
-.1 : : 0 : : 411 16 1 : 186
S : P2 LJ96 106 : 66 1.7 : 137
:::.53: .o 3 35 : 9 8 : 188
11 : : 3,59 : 2., 58 72 2 20E
i : : 74-. 311 7 : 15 : 9 : 338
14 .: 1;. 5 "32 50 .- 396
I' : .M: Z. 9 : 5 : 10 : 122
I: -,',. Y : ,7 148 : 11 7 : 576
"f ;' : 113 : -7 5 : 118
"r i :," 5-2 : C7 : 67 : 53 94
4 :" 4 A';3 : 2'.4 A2 9 : 29 : 88
A 1 1.31 : 56 : ..5 216 : 8 : 94
: : 97. : : b : 22.- : 6 : 2 ; :7C
: f. c.. 2-7 .7 P 8 W01
S : : :1 7:- .r:,7 : 2 ; 23 : 41 : 645
:'.5 : r, :2 : .,t,.7 : i'r : : -4 : .12
rr : 25" : B : : 131
r : .,.. e." 2&3 : .'1 : 1 : 64
St_ __^ __ ___A'___:' _*____ ___1__ 64__
,'.f. r.' :" kFI... : ^ .i : 1L:.'(n : 212
.** 7
-. : : a.. S.. 2 .* : 7. s I







- 11 -


tbls 4. Values of all rooms used inoluwinc Foods furnisnod by the farm and
ir," purchased and distribution of this Nslue mnonf the principal groups
i of roods. 25 far. fcir lies of Askov. ?ine Oounzt. iinnesot&a. 12b.
_____ ^'_____ o ..JL'.ULP05P.ls. used4. : 2
a S ,lo joot~~~

u Fur- Pur- a : : A11
ut inished: chased: Food 3 other
th- per :per : pur-
lIS tfamleL: familv: 'Petal :Purnished: purchased: jPotel :Clrthing: Rent :peoas


N amber:
35'
36:
12
37
S17 :
as
332
III1' .1
f39
22

15
14a
19 :
lilt
2,3'

3 :
32


13
I',. 18 2
31
35:
20:
I 1 0 "


A A


V p
449 L, 17
1122 1665
299 655
429 806
747 1115
406 C67
701 1181
500 1050
802 1162
653 1261
929 1429
749 1430
1242 2C57
569 697
1361 19 25
589 1125
1443 1966
462 799
1331 2278
972 1390
583 1272
1278 1 .48
869 12869
85C 1306
993 15'.1


0
258
429
123
198
151
182
245
130
213
210
221
169
382
192
291
194
307
241
277
253
331
308
227
281
2I9


C
192
207
]36
0.02

1! 3
390
248
296
333
369
311
564
309
S69
306
522
274
696
548
207
367
367
362
614


-ip
450
636
259
400
547
415
635
378
509
593
590
480
946
501
760
500
329
515
973
801
538
675
594
643
913


di

114
Ly2
49
56
115
47
183
49
106
35
224
76
232
94
148
113
307
62
255
224
67
202
106

283


S


246 : 0 7
77 820
177 : 170
147 203
195 : 258
41 : 164
196 : 167
383 2 228
11C 437
375 : 278
215 : 400
490 : 384
400 : 479
78 : 224
342 : 77b
342 : 170
157 : 673
73 : 149
585 : 465
117 : 248
2-4 : 373
332 739
i7 : 4,*t2
16 : 277
19 E 15C


Aver. : : : : :
_251 : 515: 8 14 :1329: 39 : 6C3 : : 23C 355
Pat. : : : : : : : : :
of : : 1 : : O : .
tftal : 36.8: 61.2: 100.0: F0.5 : 59.5 : '.5.-.: 12.6: 17.3: 26.7


54m5
356
3??
365
2^j1
480
530
36C
62L
500
681
615
308
564
536
523
337
94?
418
689
670
4a-t
456
548


r







- .12 -


Dietrlbutlor. of the values of goods accordLtg to uses fle 2 ..
iveraeo vn blues of the principal Tgroups of goods is shown in Table S e
Insofar as these cjold bo declassified from the data available. a :tl '4
five or six rain m ro-'ps of fyods, food, clothing, rent, fuel, .hol.et
and "all other" ,rs ccmpcrcblo with slillLr groups of roods roeoS ji
nIzed in the stuaj =ado by the survey method.

Fcd_: Food, &mniruntlnp to 4603 par fcamly rnd oomprIsine 45.4 -^
p-ir ana.; of thn tOLL1 VLLu-o of 11 goods, is jy fr.r tho most iLmAportLMa ::
lt'.:,. of family living. V'ith tho 2,806 frmi.ios, food Lmountin; t) to1-"
mrrt '...Q,.. pr f"mLtly comprises p.1.2 per cent of the LTvorrgo Ilue Of :
.11 f'I:-.iAL usod. A-prxirt."ly .0 par cmt, Z2'S,,,orth, of tha food& 1 .
ur-iz-.;.ij by tr- fi r. with tno 25 fcnliuBs, in compLri5on with 67 per
c:nt. nr 41s worth, furnished by th fu r m, with tho 2,886 fbailioI
st-.di.-'i by trQ3 survj.7r m3L,'rcL.

2c'. rzriaon of th. zvurL:o vtlu"- of fcod usoc by the AskOT
f:rii'? 3 Wlth simnilcr LVjrFLO for 26 firm f:.rilios of Ohio for the
yr.:r :-iinr April 1. 1925, rs dos,,rainod by thu housuhola LOCountilg
m.-thnu, is of interest, L5. '2ha Ohio fmilios, suloctid in nine
county:. n, tw, b: sis of the: hcmoru..kir's Intorst in (_nd abilityy to
k-r-p ho ,-4'l,1 rccoants, r"coruod ",625 vY.rth of fond usod auring the
y.r, o., r.n r.v-rL.ro. Al.o. ,t 6E pnjr cent, 4400 wvrt.n, of thin food'
v;z s fuZ.i.fnod Ly thz fLr.-T. r tl th- rmr3 intir, 3226 wotth, zts pro#ided
by j.rr.... purchLso. Thc :'-.,rzefo sizo cf the Ohio ftrnilios WtLs .5
p.rraons.

,' :tnin,: Cos:ts for clothinL i muntin(; to Q1'&l per f:.milly ,re
15.6 r-. cant -f thi v.luo cf L11 roods usud. Clotninf costs for f&S-
ili'i r .1 tnis study ;rL :.otic..: bly lov.rr th:n for tno fr.mili-s of thQ
I:.rf',,r study "'r5 )':r fznily or 1-,.7 P-r cant of tho vw luo Of i1
g',: usud. is i ..'o bl.- tut thi luvwor cost fur clothing for the
Aserv .',l4Is i Is d-.a in. p-rt to thj oniss'ion of cojrtL in :rticljs of
rl .,nie -ir, ifh L y a/ v-i bjr,, r .:c.- raid ana.r "pi rson: 1 coods". Furtobr,
". Wcb: 1. j t1- t .,min,.or -rLl,: of ciothinc, $uca Ls work .lovos,
i. .r.-j ncl'i.,'d unj'.r hnrswrjnla sj' .'li s L.r (:roc ri)s or omittAd ontirt@j,.

Thi ctsts cf clothin'r r4.cd dr-s5) f'or th- 26 Ohio f:milios ro-
f. rr.iJ : Lcv, : r.'nrt :c to u.'.?i pr f. ri ly, on : n : v-jr Cr.0 Clothing
;n r ir.rs fur tn s-' :'r1t'li.s *iff',r fr:, clothing fcr Lh,- Askov fcilltos
-r..j th1 :.,954 fr-.il. is stdl .'i ;. tq. sun-'y nthod in tflt it includes
t,: ri. r'. *; rvkc *. cr:.^.1'tlrF .^ jA lry. tc. cilSsifid ordiiu rily under
I r:; 1 r As.- !'x .it u-r If, r t, 6..s-, rcrds. LmofiOtinfl to Llimost ,11
r :': li, fr : f *x : ,.95r f:.m i *s., r nro jisc.rnibl1 for oithor tho
it f1, o L -A 1


S -. s.5 f .'. .,lj LI"'.v rn r:, rrn, C. E. Lv.ily, Dy.rtmant of
-. .*.* r .. It-














IarE Etal8 wisU0 of gOOus useU durLaj, ono year by 2S
eT, Pine Oointy, flnnosot.;, 1925, V1,329 per fLmily.
Wily 5.6 oersons.


A-ll family llvtle.
Lt incuCling groaorl3s

(10S% vTIlu) of housa)


1 others
Qpact ion
Namitro
ba.oamn. n


:Furnishodg
* bf fL. 2 M TJrchhsodI

S 515.30 813.90 :
a 24'.50 358.70 :
I a 141.10 a
): 27.- :
40.80 .27.40 a


trm sIJLiGSo or
AvorLgn size of


PI
.629.20
603.20
141. 10
230.00
68.20


il roportion
: of tOtL1
I Pct.
100.0
45.4
S10.6
S17.3
5.1


... __266.70 : 2B6.70 21.6
,ood00s (ae. suo .00 : 8.00 : .6
L-nt furaillnh s s 42.40 : 42.'0 : 3.2
o of hoclth : 59.80 : 59.60 : 4.5
Lt 4.5.10 : .5.10 : 3.4


ilnl .l 4 1U6*.sU :
m ".O 8.40 a .6
*Sa)R.Ca St di__ -- 2C., 6b 20.60 a 1.6
IB813c____ ____________2C-60 : 0.60 ;1.
tPi tshd & 2rtsod a .3.68 .61.2a 100. CO 100.0
jw`.age! total vLluo of jtaus used iduriau one yo;,r by 2,886 f-rm I'milios
l ;o aslootod loclit Los ir 11 ststos 1922-1 92*, v,1.59 per family. ivorEgo
iiiiima of ftmlly 4.4 persons.
All family liiva a 68?.70 a 913.30 a 1597.50 1 00.0
od: I nncljding groceries a 40.70 21i8.10 658.80 .1.2
ClOthin : 234.90 23i.90 14.7
Rent (10% rT.lua of house) 193.60 : 19.60 12.5
?uol Z 3.20 42.00 a 5.20 5.3
AIll others a .20 : 418.90 4i9.00 : 26.3
Operrtion roods oxOc. fuel) .20 : 127.70 127.90 6.0
furniture cad furnishn-4-s 0.20 4 0.20 2.5
iIfinteincu 0of hFllth 61.60 61.60 3.8
av.noonent a 104 lO.dO 10.80 6.6
Person: a 2 41.00 : 41.00 2.6
Insurnce 40.80 -.0.80 2.6
SUnor s&Ifio -b 2x;_ 2-28:.70 : 2.70 a 0.2
Pat. of totcl fnarnishrnd & purcLn. a 42.8 a 57.2 a lo.oo 100.0


L=


*
*















W"F." fcVt.JAtLUS XLSLE .alaB UjLPJJUQ WLCUU IWUsUs 4a 115m0 UFPOV AIA.&W7X I
Lre notor (h.vtng boon buil. more recently) and Lro probably are ....::'iii
st Dtt~liy bui1 to combe t the severity of northern winter weather.

IOlI, FPol .LmountinE to -68 per frcmily compriLses 5.1 poer east-, ::|
of t h tot:,l veIlue of L11 goods used. This is loss chan the voale oQff"iL.I
fuajil usedO by tho 2,886 fiLmilios, 85 por family comprising 5.3 pr v
of til rrols u-vd, dco in p.rt tc lowor vtlustions of the wood flutiI|
by th', Crrma. nd to tho omission of fuol for licht &.nd powaor moWng, '
lskolv iCrilios.

L11 othjr rooJF: Expondituro for Ell other coods. mounti 10, .1!iii
r7lioa >:S? per family, coTor 21.6 par oont of the tot&l vYLIuG of 41 .
-00 3. W/Ith th2 2,886 ftrA lieos, 3xpondituras for similar purposes aMNflhi
to Ql0 nur f: mily, or 26.3 por cent of tho tot l vi.luo of u11 good ui6:::::..1.
:.sieo fror th doxnennituro for the miLinteonLnce of ho:-l th ch differet
groups of .toms incluaod undor "b11 other purposes" in tfu two sets @t *.1.:i
fiurj s ro not strictly c-r:,pcrrblo, owing to Aiffic-ilty of oelfSsailitg!!:
th. difflrqnt iteas simll-r'y in the tv.o studies. ..
"::":E:..
It is inturastin.t: to noto tht tho :.vorG3 ozxpeonaUituro for the
nc:irto.znco of ner-olth is about the same for tho two groups of families,
460 U ch t.or tho 25 ,skov families cnd Llmost "62 eLcah for tho 2,886 |
i.-. li- I udiai by the survey m eathod. Expondituros for health goods, :.
fc ilitn-S Lnd sorvicos :-rzount to 4.5 por cent of thj TLluO of 11 ll
'co,'s u.3"1'. in h,) frorr cLso r-nd 3.8 por cont of il Loods used in
tio IEttir cz-., Ex-..n,.itur. for hoQLltnh .insonrnG3 for tho 26 Ohio
f:nilios ,Lount,_t to ,53 p:ir y..)onr.

It 13 Lisn in'.tjrstiflc thrt tno orpondituro fcr furniture and .
f'urnishin;s is bout thj s:..r in bcth instzr.cosa, -.2 per family withl
thJ ,Lskov f.lrri.ias z.ii .,40 por ftnilnl ",.ith the other fLuilios. Theo
fituros :z.y b lss E ccmpzarbblo tacn the fi-ur3s for hor.lth mbintencaoo
roo:s n n.a fciiitios, hCx.ovcr. 7itn thi ALskov f:milios t hay my in-
clj a minor ,-xn.Iniiturds for huusahold supplies which Lro &h&rfod un at
n L-'rLtior. cnsts in th.-, oLn.r stucy. Pha O.-io fcmilios roforrid to a-
L"von r.**crr', Ln r .'xn.riituro .Cf Q6- for afurnituro -.ni furnishings, on
:Lr: 0vnst o.














au. aucju inasurencoe ouina to "Yno I1rOULI U OcAB.L7say juau LmW
Sin lofinltoly spocif-e1L frcup3. In all these ooriparisons of cotucl
4osts some llovwanoe should. be txde for ohcnjes in prico lovols from
yoer to yet.r c1lthoufh these ohenfces 'oro insi4'nificnt for tno throo-
year period Intorvonink bntL-3en the two stuuios.

:. fTrenlus in tho distribution of roods iith increased value of
it. feily living: Ccmoz.rison of tho trunb ia thio ulscribution of tLo
:" win:: TUo of Lt'oods 'with incroaeso in tho oto 1 vtluc of i.ii joous ustn is
of interest. Simnil:r trendAs ro noted in both sots of fi(uros, TLiblo
... 6, 1tru.1 chances in thL pOrcJntaEO L'scrtbution is loss pronounced
S .nd fatk loss rotiulor -;iti the Askov BLsly ovfinl to thi oxtruiaJly s5E11
number jf frailljs in JLtch vblue-cf-famialy-ll-int: or oxpond-ttur3 group.

I'1 "3 proportion that tho vrlu, of fooJ is of tho value of ull
S roods W i deoroasos roug-hly froa: 54.7 per c:nt to *2.7 p3r cant v.Ith
an incr:, so in theo vTLluJ of family living fra.i '765 per fzrily to
oip. 2,278 :--r family. The proportions thzat clothing costs and "Li1 other"
i cests a",' of the tCtl cr-.t aoppe.r to show sl'nht irrecular increases
S)iA the jpoct ion inr re: seems to v,,ry t.i L'iout regard to an increase
S in the -otL1 vrlue of f.rmL-y livirne.


Sunma ry

Careful study End onclysis of the 25 sets of farm maLnagemant
and farm cost accounts hEs revealed a source of information on f.Lrm
fr.ily L4ving nr--ctic&lly complete, except for the record of gLrdon
prcduc -:nd. fr-.its i--.rnishqu by the f&rfl snd uxcupt for cjrtLin items
of hous- -Aid c.ert ion; tolnphona, fuel for lifht -nd poor, tnd opor-
ation o"f she atomobile for- family uso, carrgod .rbitrorily to fLrm
opoar t ion cost s.

Difficulty mot in the clcssificat ion of items of uxpondituros
usually eroupad as porsorsl, in th? L&c'ounts as reported, could bo evold-
od in trn: fut]-'a by hLvinf .-iLm fLriiios J.ho are keeapina L-ccourtsrocord
all itc!-. by nmIg, vhich iterns may then be classified as d-jsirod by thoso
having to Tdo .ith su-.mKry Lnd cn.Alysis of theo Lccunts.

If :he fLrrcrs ".no .re keeping f- rm mnanLr.-rnant or flrM ortLn-
izartion t ccrn-ts cn be induced to kuop records of .f-o coats of th.o
Cccds. frclit ijs znd services coihsuWod i nnuslly for fL-m.ily purposes,
6Iso, rth-rc .ill soon bj L.v: iliblo bWsic and t Lm-ly infor. LtIon on the
cxzenditura or tha use of fir.a inctmn. Znho uso ts t-.11 .s tnLi attain-
r. n:t of either f:trr or fmiliiy incoru is L .)Lrt of tnu b&sIc objoctivo
in fc.rr.int. L.rn tusinoss operations LdL frm fLrilly living Lrd buth








OP 16-


: : ... ..." ... ::.:
:: ": :


essential perts of the ssi proeaS, tho isl t tW'
sad nt isfcticn= to ba alatud thro'ih tin o iiptgi0f 00I
Formors rio keep farm cnLfsaset cost reoads W 4K W Im
also oeapleto lcords of thV wtnloa kilt" of gob&:m:.... A
vioos censumad m =nally for %&mf y 11ving Prpoegose. e .q1..
Yzkurs or otahor members of the f.am hJousohoL4 aro esge .i 1...p
keeping track of there thl moasey goos, aid of the 0Q ..th
thioh it provide,.


Table 6. Dlstrtbut-on of svorage vsluo or oost cf GMi4d-8.. '
Gmong the most important crToups of goods bly ste D:
in ta vYAlu3 of family living. 25 foam fi11iS oC
County, Hinsot in ounpriswa with fanT bel3lit
loc!littee in 1i stt)s. ...t.
&L..2 f ml1ijfl jy A, -co. I-io Cc r.Q-- flr InvfOta .


i Sizes_
Velr~o ir a a of s
f~ally ii.ng:F~mi-a fu-a: 1
roup -liCs Li. z
a Nn. Prs. *e
Bolc.r $09 : 5 4.4:
9. .- ;".9 : C :5. 0.
1?. >- -.9" : 7 4.9 :
"A i,.9 : R 6.5
1800 W099 a 4 7.2
21CC & oojr a 1 12.flj
TotL :.. 25 r.6 a
B. 2. fat. ru f :ai ies of:
Bclox; '-'; a 568 3.0 .
600- Wq 9 Z: 2b0 :3.4
900 1199 : r.79 3.7 :
I='4 1., a .'.14 4.1 :
15' D 1799 : 492 4.6
1 "Y.d9 ;a 32 4.6 a
210( .Z359 ; 196 5.3
V1Ir E699 116 :5.4 :
27^;0 29c9 a 83 5.? 7
^,n? & C':Jr : 136 : 6.2
T ,:_-?fRG6 4.4


__ .Vla'o o oast o0 ME"r;
S"ro0ortiLan tI


nothia

7.7
10. a
10.4
12.9
11.3
11.2
10.
in U
11.6
11.9
12.6
13.8
15.1
15.4
15.8
15,5
15.5
16.0
16.4
14.7


Storage :
mrlu I : Food .4
s Pat. t
755 I 54.7 :
1105 : 45.6 :
1342 : 4E.1 :
1603 : 46.3 :
1974 : 40.6 *
2278 : 42.7 a
13?9 a 45.4
s lcted loalitlos
436 iA 14.4
779 a 52.1 a
1055 47.6 a
133S a 45.3 3
1639 a 43.0 0
193; 39.d a
2240 : 37.2 a
2529 26.2 s
2854 : 33.6
3779 : 0. 7
159C : 1. 2a


g

*1m T.
xe.6 ":lil

14.53


i.Al -;,ll


s 12.

S13.5 t
12.6 .
12.3 .
13.1 *
* 10^. -i- -n-i
* 12.5 t-


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
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3 1262 08921 593
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14.7




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