Farm population associated with size of farms

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Farm population associated with size of farms
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics. -- Division of Farm Population and Rural Life
Galpin, Charles Josiah, b. 1864 ( joint author )
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics
Publisher:
s.n. ( Washington, D.C. )
Publication Date:

Record Information

Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 028429542
oclc - 26608036
System ID:
AA00017346:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text





UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
3w1mu of Agriultural Ecnonomiec


FARM POPULATION ASSOCIATED WITH SIZE OF FARMS

WITH VALUE OF FARM LAND AND BUILDINGS

WITH MORTGAGED OWNER-OPERATED FARMS

WITH LOCATION OF FARMS ON KIND OF ROADS


Bued on the 1925 Census of Agriculture


Wahinston, D. C.
Deonb 1, I30


I s 'i r; ,

~ ~ ~ ~ -_'-? sr^
1T T

LIBRAly
PLO*IDA LIBITaTv
STATION
GAINEXVILL,.FLOW1DA


.ii... : : i ....
it"
::: .. : : :::'
ii!!iH ii ii:: iidiii :




!i:i' :% iiiiiiliiiiiii





















MAPS

Far. Population by States, 1925.
Average Size of Farms by Counties, 1925.
Average Value per Acre of Farm Land by
Counties. 1925.
Average Value per Acre of Farm Buildings by
Counties. 1925.
Average Value pcr Acre of Farm Land and Buildings
by Counties. 1925.
Average Value per Farm of Farm Land and Buildings
by Counties. 1925.
Value of Farm Land and Buildings per Capita of Farm
Population by Counties. 1925.
Average Value per Farm of All Farm Property by
Counties. 1925.
Value of All Farm Proporty per Capita of Farm Population
by Counties. 1925.
Mortgaged Ownor-Operatcd Farms by Counties. 1925.
Farms Located on Unimproved and Improved Roads by
Counties. 1925.
Farms Located on Concrete, Brick, or Macadaa Roads
by Counties, 1925.


Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 3.

Fig. 4.

Fig. 5.

Fig. 6.

Fig. 7.

FPig. 8.

Fig. 9.

Fig. 10.
Fig.11.

Fig.12.








PAN3 POPULAlTION ASSOCIATED WITH SIZE OF FARMS; WITH VALUE OF
FAN LAND AND MILIGS: WITH MORTGAGED OWNER-OPERATED
FARMS; WITH LOCATION OF FARMS ON KINDS OF ROADS

Based on the 1925 Census of Agriculture



IiH1'1i : ~ By C. J. Galpin. Principal Agricultural Economist.
|:1 Division of Farm Population and Rural Life



The accompanying set of maps presents several aspects of agricul-
ture obtaining in the United States in the year 1925. and recorded pt,-
tiutically in the agricultural census of that year. It is believed that
aded interest will attach to the rural situations portrayed, when the
percentage that the farm population living in the counties which contain
the particular conditions depicted in each map is of the farm population
of the united States, is also indicated and becomes associated with the
geographic descriptions. It will prove informing also to associate
broadly with these various geographic situations the number of the farm
population in each State in 1925.

It is obvious that. in matters of county taxation, or the equiva-
leot of county taxation, for the maintenance of county institutions, fa-
cilities, and services, the whole farm population of a county is theo-
retically affected alike to their advantage or disadvantage according
as the value of the farm property of the county, for example, is high or
low. For this reason it is significant to know the percentage of the
4ta population of the United States which is contained in counties
olaracterized by similar farm property values.

The percentages of farm population that are offered herewith in
connection with the various maps were obtained in the following manner:
From the 1925 Census of farm population, as distributed by counties, the
farm population figures of all counties that in the particular map fall
in the same class, were added together, and the percentage which this sum
is of the total farm population of the United. States, was computed. In
the case of the mortgaged owner-operated farms (Fig. 10). however, the
figures of population living on the owner-operated farms of all counties
that fall in the same class, were added together, and the percentage which
this sum is of the total population living on owner-operated farms in the
United States, was obtained.

The groupings or classes of data graphically portrayed in figures
2 to 12 are more or less arbitrary. In some cases, choice was limited
by the census data. In general, it may be said that a few categories
were selected rather than several more. as less discursive and more ef-
fective. In some oases, the intervals are not equal, for reasons largely
, contingent on the fewness of the classes.











sAw tLmla sara pupuItaU Us tiUe uWs1 OWlauw 6sW swe., I aU'a5 .an1M
to the agricultural census of that year, was 2.981.60. The New England
States, the Mountain States. and the Pacific States had a relatively mall
farm population (see fig. 1). in round numbers all together 2.700,000.
And yet the combined approximate land area of these States .s 40 per
cent of the total land area of the United States. If we consider the
remaining 60 per cent of the land area. it will be found that it is di-
vided into approximately equal parts between the region comprised in fit-
teen northern States and the region comprised in sixteen southern States,
each area containing nearly the same number of white farm population in
1925. while in the same northern States was a colored farm population of
90.000. and in the southern States, a colored farm population of 4.300,-
000.

Farm Population and Size of Farms

The number of farms in the United States, according to the agri-
cultural census of 1925, was 6.371,660, of which 2,417,227 (that is. 37.8
per cent of the total) were farms of less than 50 acres each, and 5,222,-
082. (82 per cent of the total) were farms of less than 175 acres. As-
suming the average number of farm population per farm as holding true ap-
proximately on these farms, 10,877,521 farm people were living on farms of
less than 50 acres, and 23,499,369. on farms less than 175 acres. It
will be noted that this manner of calculation counts all the persons liv-
ing on such farms, and only those who do live on such farms.

There is now presented another type of association of farm pop-
ulation with size of farms. By reference to the map (see fig.2) show-
ing average size of farms by counties, we are enabled to present, from
the figures of the agricultural census of 1925. a distribution of the
farm population of the United States, so that the total farm population
living in counties, the average size of whose farms is classified as
"under 70 acres." "70 to 120 acres," "120 to 170 acres." "170 acres and
over," may be had in percentages of the total farm population of the
United States. The reader is cautioned against confusing these two
types of calculation; for manifestly the number of people actually liv-
ing on farms of less than 70 acres may differ from the total farm pop-
ulation of counties whose farms average less than 70 acres. The Census
of 1925 defined farm population as comprising all persons living on
farms.



2 -






^B .m^Te.... m ci.riautoa or raze po.la&t.On mentioned above in connection
!.!th lante 2 is as follows:
l8.0 per oent in the counties where the average size oat farms is
less than 70 acres
43.5 per oent In the counties where the average size of faris is
70 to 120 acres
17.2 per oent In the counties where the average size of farms is
120 to 170 oacres
15.7 per cent in the counties where the average size of farms is
170 acsores and over

I The precise statement of the distribution is in this manner:
I A total far population of all counties, the average size of whose farms
S a 1925 was less than 70 acres (indicated in fig. 2 by plain white) was
U .6 per oent of the fans population of the United States in 1925; and
s|1 Ialarly for each of the other groups.



||||lfi mrs Population and Average Value per Acre of Farm Land

The total value of the farm land of a county, divided by the number
of acres of farm land in the county, obviously gives the average value
per acre of the farm land of the county; but plainly not all the farm
population of the county live on farms whose value per acre of farm land
Is either as low as the average for the county or as high as the average.
Sboe live on farms of lower-value land, some on farms of higher-value
i land. For lack of data on the number of farms in the United States the
S value of whose land per acre is "under $14" (see fig.3) or from "$14 to
....I ," from "$28 to $42," or "$42 and over." we are-unable even approxi-
S mately to estimate the total farm population in the United States living
H on farm whose value per acre is under 614, for example. However, we
are able to distribute the farm population of the United States, so as
to show what percentages of the total farm population live in counties,
the average value of whose farm land per acre falls into the above men-
|. tioned classes. Caution is offered at this point, therefore, that in
| using these figures one should discriminate the known fact from the un-
i known.

'm By reference to Figure 3, one notices that the average value per
acre of farm land of many counties in the Mountain States, where the
m farm population is sparse, is under $14; that falling either into the
I class "under $14" or into the class from "$14 to $28," are several States
S almost in their entirety; that only one State falls wholly into the
class "$42 and over."

:I3
I,==
==.=






r... i( i










w. per oWU. i n ouuLeS wnere tne aveage veus per soare or ram
land la under $14
29.2 per cent in counties where the average value per oacre of fam.....
land is from 314 to W28
21.2 per cent in counties whore the average value per acre of ftom:: .
land ie from 628 to '642
40.4 per cent in counties where the average value per acre of fart
land in 42 and over. :

The precise statement of the distribution is as foliows: The total
farm population of all counties, the average value per acre of whose fan
land alone In 1925 was less than $14 (indicated in fig. 3 by light-alie 1 ...ii.
shading) wan 9.2 per cent of the farm population of the United States
(28.981.668) in 1925; and similarly for each of the other groups.



Farm Population and Average Value per Aore of Farm BuildingsI.

Although Figure 4 compared with Figure 3 indicates a broad coin-
cidence of high-value farm buildings per acre with high-value farm land
per acre. some exceptions will be noted. The data presented offer no
clues to explain the coincidence or the exceptions.

In presenting the percentages of farm population associated with
the four classes of average value per acre of farm buildings, the caution
is repeated to discriminate between the precise facts that are given, and
any unwarranted inference.

The distribution of farm population in connection with Figure 4 is
as follows:

18.3 per cent in counties where the average value per acre of farm
buildings is under $6
29.9 per cent in counties where the average value per acre of farm
buildings is from $6 to $12
18.1 per cent in counties where the average value per acre of farm
buildings is from $12 to $18
33.7 per cent in counties where the average value per acre of farm
buildings in $18 and over




-4-







J





the precise statement of the distribution is as follows:

The total far. population of all counties, the average value per
*i|are of whose farm buildings alone in 1925 was less than 56 indicated in
F1Igucre 4 by light-line shading was 18.3 per cent of the farm population
o-.Of the United States In 1925; and similarly for each of the other groups.


Farm Population and Average Value Per Acre of Farm Land
Hrand Buildings

SThe combination of farm land and farm buildings, as presented in
S Figure 5. offers a more complete economic situation affecting the farm
population of the counties falling into the four classes than does either
SFigure 3 or Figure 4. Therefore, for purposes of information, the as-
sociation of the farm population living in the counties falling into the
four groups, apparently offers a wider use than either Figure 3 or Figure
4.

The distribution of farm population in connection with Figure 5 is
as follows:

9.6 per cent in the counties where the average value per acre of
farm land and buildings is under $20
28.9 per cent in the counties where the average value per acre of
farm land and buildings is from $20 to $40
21.0 per cent in the counties where the average value per acre of
farm land and buildings is from $40 to $60
40.5 per cent in the counties where the average value per acre of
farm land and buildings is $60 and over

The precise statement of the distribution is as follows:

The total farm population of all counties, the average value per
acre of whose farm land and buildings together in 1925 was less than $20
(Indicated in fig. 5 by light-line shading) was 9.6 per cent of the farm
population of the United States (28.981.668) in 1925; and similarly for
each of the other groups.



Farm Population and Average Value Per Farm of Farm Land and
Buildings

A close comparison of Figure 5 and Figure 6 with each other and
S with Figure 2 will prove informing. Similarly a comparison of the dis-
tribution of farm population in connection with Figures 5. 6. and 2 will
S broaden the base of knowledge about farm problems in the United States.


-5-







sooiationa of farn population are pertinent in connection with Figure 6,.

The distribution of fars population in connection with Figure 6 is
as follows:

14.8 per cent in the counties where the average value per fanrm of
farm land and buildings is under $2000 m
27.4 per cent in the counties where the average value per farm of
farm land and buildings is from 62000 to 63999
32.9 per cent in the counties where the average value per farm of
farn land and buildings is from $4000 to $9999
24.9 per cent in the counties where the average value per fars of
farm land and buildings is 610,000 and over '|
""'ii'iii~iii
The precise statement of the above distribution is as follows: .

The total farm population of all counties, the average value pet ;
fars of whose farm land and buildings together in 1925 was less than
52000 (indicated in fig. 6 by light-line shading) was 14.8 per cent of i
the farm population of the United States (28.981.668) in 1925; and sim- :
ilarly for each of the other groups.



Farm Population and Value of Farm Land and Buildings Per Capita
of Farm Population

In connection with Figure 7. the distribution of farm population
is as follows:

5.4 per count in the counties where the value of farm land and
buildings per capital is under 5300
23.6 per cent in the counties where the value of farm land and
buildings per capital is from 5300 to $600
32.6 per cent in the counties where the value of farm land and
buildings per capital is from $600 to $1600
33.4 per cent in the counties where the value of farm land and
buildings per capital is $1600 and over

The precise statement of the distribution is as follows:

The total farm population of all counties, the value per capital
(per capital of farm population) of whose farm land and buildings in 1925
was less than S300 (indicated in fig. 7 by light-line shading) was 5.4
per cent of the farm population of the United States in 1925; and simi-
larly for each of the other groups.



-6-







: Farm Population sad Average Value Per Farm of All Farm
Property
: "
In connection with Figure 8. the distribution of farm population
I as follows:

13.4 per cent in the counties where the average value per farm of
all farm property is under $2300
25.1 per cent in the counties where the average value per farm of
all farm property is from $2300 to 4300
37.6 per cent in the counties where the average value per farm of
all farm property is from $4300 to 112000
23.9 per cent in the counties where the average value per farm of
all farm property is $12000 and over

The precise statement of the distribution is as follows:

The total farm population of all counties, the average value of
whose combined farm property per farm in 1925 was less than $2300 (in-
dicated in fig. 8 by light-line shading) was 13.4 per cent of the farm
population of the United States in 1925; and similarly for each of the
other groups.



Farm Population and Value of All Farm Property Per Capita of
Farm Population

The distribution of farm population in connection with Figure 9 is
as follows:

7.2 per cent in the counties where the value of all farm property
per capital is under $400
26.8 per cent in the counties where the value of all farm property
per capital is $400 to $800
29.4 per cent in the counties where the value of all farm property
per capital is $800 to $2,000
36.6 per cent in the counties where the value of all farm property
per capital is $2,000 and over.

The precise statement of the distribution is as follows:

The total farm population of all counties, the value of whoso com-
bined farm property per capital (of farm population) was in 1925 less than
$400 (indicated in fig. 9 by light-line shading) was 7.2 per cent of the
farm population of the United States in 1925; and similarly for each of
the other groups.


-7-










to farms operated by owners. Tenant-operated farms are omitted from ..
sLderation. In faot. no similar mortgage debt data are available intb06
agricultural census of 1925 for farms operated by tenants. Persons usiur
this map are cautioned, therefore, against interpreting Figure 10 to ml..
that it gives mortgage debt information as to all farms. For e le
the irregular strip of territory reaching from Canada to Mexico maati''.!r
with the heavy black bands, indicates not that 60 per cent and over Of
all the farms in the counties so marked bear a mortgage debt. but only 1::
that in this area 60 per cent and over of those farm which are operated:W
by owners bear a mortgage debt. ':

It should be noted, furthermore, that no information is presented
in Figure 10 on the amount of the mortgage debt in question. The value ,iii
and uses of Figure 10 and of its associated farm population information
depend solely upon the bare fact of some mortgage debt on farms of ownero-
operated farms; and upon the relative scarcity or frequency of mortgaged ii
owner-operated farms in various sections of the United States; and upon
the relative percentages which the population living on mortgaged owner- .
operated farms is of all population on owner-operated farms. 'eI

The following figures on tenancy will help the reader interpret :
Figure 10: The percentage of tenant farms in the whole United States was, i
in 1925. 38.6 per cent; in New England. 5.6 per cent; in the Middle At-
lantic. 15.8 per cent; in the East North Central, 26.0 per cent; in the
West North Central, 37.8 per cent; in the South Atlantic, 44.5 per cent;
in the East South Central. 50.3 per cent; in the West South Central, 59.2
per cent; in the Mountain. 22.2 per cent; in the Pacific, 15.6 per cent.

The population on owner-operated farms in connection with Figure 10
is distributed as follows:

18.9 per cent in the counties where the mortgaged owner-operated
farms are under 20 per cent
40.8 per cent in the counties where the mortgaged owner-operated
farms are from 20 per cent to 39.9 per cent
32.3 per cent in the counties where the mortgaged owner-operated
farms are from 40 per cent to 59.9 per cent
8.0 per cent in the counties where the mortgaged owner-operated
farms are 60 per cent and over




8 -








The precise statement of the above distribution is as follows:

The total population on owner-operated farms of all counties, the
number of whose mortgaged owner-operated farms In 1925 was less than 20
per cent of the total number of owner-operated farms in the county (in-
dicated in fig. 10 as dotted areas) was 18.9 per cent of the total pop-
ulation on owner-operated farms of the United States In 1925; and simi-
larly for each of the other groups.



Farm Population and Farms Located on Unimproved and Improved
Roads

The information conveyed in Figure 11 is limited, but still sig-
nificant. All that is indicated in the graph is the counties in which
the majority of the farms adjoin unimproved roads, and the counties in
which the majority of the farms adjoin improved roads. In no county is
the number of farms on unimproved and improved roads the same. Figure 11
should be compared with Figure 12. Readers are cautioned against Inter-
preting Figure 11 as showing areas in which there are only improved roads
and showing areas in which there are only unimproved roads. The map at-
tempts only to indicate the location of counties in which a majority of
the farms of a county was on unimproved or on improved roads.

The farm population is distributed in connection with Figure 11 as
follows:

42.7 per cent in the counties where 50 per cent or more of the
farms are on unimproved roads
57.3 per cent in the counties where 50 per cent or more of the
farms are on improved roads

The precise statement of the distribution is as follows:

The total farm population of all counties, in which in 1925, 50 per
cent or more of the farms were on ("adjoined") unimproved roads (indicated
in fig. 11 by light-line shading) was 42.7 per cent of the farm popula-
tion of the United States in 1925; and similarly for the other group.


-9-









The fare population Is distributed in connection with Figure 12 as 31
follows:

65.8 per cent in the counties where 0 to 5 per oent of the farns::.
are on concrete, brick or macadam roads 'i
10.9 per cent in the counties where 5 to 10 per cent of the farm i
are on concrete, brick or maoadam roads
11.1 per cent in the counties where 10 to 20 per cent of the farms
are on concrete, brick or macadam roads
12.2 per cent in the counties where 20 per cent and over are on
concrete, brick or macadam roads

The precise statement of the distribution in as follows:

The total farm population of all counties, in which in 1925 the
number of farms on ("adjoined") concrete, brick, and macadam roads was
from 0 to 5 per cent of all farms in the county (indicated in Figure 12
by light-line shading) was 65.8 per cent of the fara population of the
United States in 1925; and similarly for each of the other groups.


- 10 -



















*


*-0
4..a


-91


2.117


Flurw Ia&f~Iuw irqwwda
form popuatlen in fMeuwidw


FIount I (Nce. 14985)


. i... ....... ii ii





















AVRG4IEO AM YCUTE,12















4-J














AAVIERAGE :VALUE PER ACRE OF FARM LAND, BY COUNTIES
a 1S2a


p


FIcumRE 3 (NEG. 19470)


ii "".....

*":";ii
i !,





































AVEAG VAU __-,A~EO A~ uLI
















,Jii ...... .. ........


AVER E VALUEiiiRiiCRiOriFARMiLANiAND BUILDIii
%1 1BY1 iiiiiiSO








=DOLLARS.=i
imi &iiiii i0 iitr




... ............. .......... ...






AVERAGE VALUE PER FARM OF FARM LAND AND BuILDINGS
BY COUNTIES, 1925























DOLLARS
nowwom
MOM AW *AN




Ftov*g 6 094. 90242),
...... ....

#
I AlfiLm






r" .::..


1^VALUE OF FARM LAND AND BUILDINGS PER CAPITAL
^^^ ^fOF FARM POPULATION BY COUNTIES. 1925


FaGauRe 7 (NEc. 19471)







AVERAGE VALUE PER FARM OF ALL FARM PROPERTY
BY COUNTIES, 1925













DOLLARS

m 2JW 6 4JW







Fucuma 9 (Nao. t9473)



fA








VALUE OFALLi FARM PROPERTY PER CAPITAL
FARM POPULATION BY COUNTIES, 1925


~i~x


'ii


Fiuuat 9 (fe. 19472)


.. DOLLARS
PERCPIT... ......

...... .....~i









MORTGAGED OWNER-OPRTDFRSQYCUTE
192





7a&m









RMS LOCATCP ON UNIMPROVED AND IMPROVED ROAD$

try COUNTIES, 1925




IT


















warnme



pow w
a* 0090











21347)

.. .. ...... .... .. ... .........
.. .. .. ... ...





i iAH Hmsi L O C T E O N C O C R T 'sIR|K O R 1Aio OD
iiiiii~~~~~ ~~B iiiiiiiiiiiii 1925iiiiiiiiiii





..........................................I ......
iiiiiiiiiii~ii~iiiii~~iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii~iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiio ffiiiii
H8
i71
i i iii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii.iiiiiiiiii...
i~iiiiii~iiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiii41
s Mill




Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID E7OQY5G7K_8QGKV5 INGEST_TIME 2014-04-21T23:14:39Z PACKAGE AA00017346_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES


xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID E2A50WEP6_YTLLIL INGEST_TIME 2014-04-25T02:40:43Z PACKAGE AA00017346_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES