A study of the variable composition of cotton seed

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A study of the variable composition of cotton seed
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e:.P


A SENDY OF THE VARIABLE COMPOSITION OF COTTON SEED


A Ptuimlnary Report


WMdumtm, D. C.
Much, 1961


. .. ::". ,'".. .




"L ::: :.:










A STUDY OP THE VARIABLE COMPOSITION OF COTTON SEED


By G. S. ieloy, Senior Marketing Specialist,
f Division of Cotton Marketing





Introduction

The idea that all cotton seed are of equal value in the hands of
the oil miller, unless they have spoiled or become damaged is rather
prevalent in the minds of growers, and still exists in the minds of
somo of those engaged in the crushing of cotton seed. During the last
ten or fifteen years the more progressive of the oil millers have
appreciated the fact that cotton seed varies widely in composition and
therefore in the quantity of the extractable products, and they have
taken advantage of this information in their purchases of seed.

Because of these variables and in the absence of a method of
grading, considerable confusion as to the basis of purchases has ex-
isted in the industry, and the producers and dealers in cotton seed
have not received value conmensurate with the quality of the different
lots of the seed produced and offered for sale to the oil mills.

A number of efforts have been made in the past to devise a
method for grading cotton seed for crushing purposes, but pone of the
plans heretofore suggested has proved practicable. In the Spring of
1929 a plan was reported by the author, 1i/ in which the two chief
Ingredients of cotton seed, oil and armonia, wero reduced to similar
terms so that the quantitative relation of any lot of cotton sueed could
be determlnod relative to a basis description of seed.

The grade, or percentage relation, is determined by the following
forsnuila: Twecnty times the percentage of oil plus fifty tires the pcr-
centage of armmonia, divided by 5.55, equals the index or grade. Grade
100 ia the basis for price quotation. Cotton socd having a Grade above
100 are premium seed, and those having a grade below 100 are discount
seed.

This plan for trading cotton necd was ndontod by the '".tlcnal
Cottonseed Products ALsoriatior. at its annual convoa.tion in. "',': Orleans
in Kay, 1930, and became a trading rule covf.ring pu-c:.a's- s .-Vtt-n
seed produced in 1930. P/


SMCloy, G. S., before thc- Intcrstate C, ttons(u' "r.., r' -.. :> r.i*in,
and published in the Cotton 01.il T-eess, urne, 19i-9.
2/ Rule 40. Trading Rulos Nat.onl !ottonsocd r-.i-u *t Ausa ii t'p.Io,
Taac-1931.


adflh: ......









saMpics of the seed to dotormino the percentages of oil and asuionla. s
It thus becazm necessary to determine the factors that might affect th i
sufficiency of the saumplo and accurate methods of analyzing samples of
cotton stood. For this purpoacse an intorbureau committoo was appointed,
known as the Committes on !ethods of Sampling and Analyzing Cotton '|
Seed. 3/ I"

On A'rll 14, 1930, nt Hot Springs, Arkansas, this committee
presented a prcliminery report of its findings. This report was the
basis of Rules 240 and 270, governing the sampling and handling of .
cottonsood samples and analyzing cotton sood, which wore approved by .I
the Amcrlcan Oil Chemists Society and adopted by the National Cottonsoee
Products Association at their conventions in lay, 1l30. .::

Tho duta prosuntod in this report show the wide range of varia-
tion of the to o principal ingrodionta, oil and anmonia, found in different
lots of cotton scod, and demonstrate the desirability of grading this
valuable acoed crop of the South. Heretofore, purchases have boon made on '
the estimated avcragu value of the seed produced in thc various sections i
as might be affected temporarily by local climatic or cultural conditions.


Variations in Ccrapositlon cf Zotton Seood of Difforont Crops i

A study of the variations in composition of cotton acseed produced
in each county of each Stato in tho Cotton Bult has becn undortakon in
the hope that some facts might be found regarding the factors influonc- i
ing thz claborLtion of oil and srEonia in cotton scod. This is the first
study of this kind that has bccn made and little or no information rela- :
tivo to pr-vious season s is available with the exception of some incom-
picto ronorts from "*ccLs County, Texas. For this county sufficient
dt.ta, -ovcring sccd rrodue.-d In tho years 1928, 19.9, and 1930 are avail-
able for .nrtial comparisors.

For thc o.urr,'s of thob'c studies, .nch analysis of cotton sooeed
has t-con trijr iLd as cov,.ring coripr.rahlc quantities of soeud. The
era.p.yscs L.mro nrocur-d thrnimfh the coopc-ratior. of the official chemists
dossl natcd by the National C.ttor.s-od Products A-saoclation and of the
ch:ti.Al 1.bArr.-torics cnr.r.cctd with suv-rtrl of tho cottonseed oil mills.

For th, iurnnsc of sh-'.:iF tV.. relationship of relative percent-
n-rs 'nf oil a-d rua'niu in th- 3c'.,d to trudo, thc analyses for each
scs.:. '-.avc 1-ccn Fru:n.ri Lr.ts -Inssc- Vc.tsd or. oil content, each class
rt.r: ,-:. ', L r',.nr-, o 1 ', r ccnt in oil rontcnt. l'..rcaftcr those
,'-lsi s r.r'.. rcfrrAd to Hy nunt-.r, s 'lass 15, to include those. analyses
i- ';: 'Vh t .c nurrc-.tAi4. if oil '.s vct-oon 15.,0 rIcr cent and 15.99


7/ G..:mC..tthT,., ssts' Jt ofr. i ". ", 3i.Jr, W C. S. Jmicson and

3. A. LUiorr rsf tihe Pr ,u, of "..n'stry and Soils, and ,tloy
of *q ,c .4..rY ..i c.f I.i r. al t .ra l 7. I. S .- i-S Chel man.


- LI-






ii aIn the first colum of Tables 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 are
shown the peroentges of all analyses mado which foll into oach of
Sthe e classes.

Il ..Of the cotton sood .grown in Nuccos County, Toxas, in 1928 tho
1 Lowest class Into which any of the analyses floil vias class 10, and 2
I per cent of the samples analyzed feloil in this class.

STho lowest class of cotton seeood produced in 1929 was class 14.
SOf tho aaplo andlyzeod that year,. 3.5 per cent fell in this class.

The lowest class of cotton seed oroducod in 1930 was class 15,
and 1.8 per cent of the analyses floil in this class.

The lowoaest oil content reported for seed produced in the year
1928 was 10.57 per cent, and the highest was 18.57 per cent. (Table 1.)
Of the seed produced in the year 1929, the loncat oil content reported was
21.41 per cent. (Tablq 2.) In the your 1930 the lowest oil content was
found to be 15.55 por cent, and the highest, 20.24 oDr cent. (Table 3.)

Although there is a wide range of variation in the armionia
content in each of thcso classus, especially in class 17 in the year
1930 (Table 3.), where the variation in ammonia content was from 3.34
par cent to 4,70 per cent the. inverse ratio 4/ between the percentage
of ammonia and of oil is apparent from the colurms of weighted average
oil and weighted average in onia for the crops of both 1929 and 1930.

Cotton seed produced in Nuocos County, Texas, were bought and
sold on grade for the'first tixne during the season Df 1930. The grades
givon in Tables 1 and 2 (1928) (1929) have been calculated to show
what grades would have obtained if the grading of cotton seed had boon
in operation during thoso seasons.

The available yields of oil ',orc calculated by the formula: 5/
Percentage of oil multiplied by 2,000, minus 65, equals pounds of
available oil. Difforunt lots of seed produced in Nueces County, Texas,
in 1928 varied In available oil per ton of aeood from 146.4 pounds to
308.4 pounds. In saced produced in 1929 the variation in available oil
ranged from 215.4" pounds to 563.2 pounds.. The variation in available
oil in cotton seed produced in thi year 1930 was marc narrow than
during either of the tno -provious oars, ranging from 246.0 pounds to
399.8 pounds.

The available .8-pcr-ccnt-amronia cake (41.13 p-r cent protein)
per ton of seed was calculated by the following formula: 5/ F7-rcentage
of ammonia multiplled by 0.925, rraltiplied by 2,00C, and divided by 8,
equals available pounds of 2-p r-cont-amronia cuke.


47/ eloy, 0. S., Gradng Cotton Scd, Oil and Fat industriCs, e-nntembcr,

5 Standard of nanufacturinr efflc!-.r.cy cf the a*iorfl Cnttoncd
Products Association and *jxrricrin 01il Chcr.lsts Society.


-7
- fl -









u b!) eI iiiiiiii. .... L Yisif42is f cctt n e d ;m ie as 1


?i ri anit 0,7i,0
i i!ua3 I n Oil ': ntmit Olk a mtont da- a

1iii Miirii m i
Per 4fmt., Per cent Per cent 7ier cent Per cent Per cent
11):!i!~~iiiiiiiiii~~~i!!iiiiiii~iiiiii 2.oiiiii iii ~~~ ii ii ~~ i i 10.iibi7 10.9ii4-07 4.43i75.2iii.0i10.i4 4.25 ii.6
i i ii i.i i i iii iii ii iioi 1 1.i!!!9i i4........ ....................... ..................... ......... ..
IL ooo 1"".99 4.Z5iiiii 4.G9iii iii5i 8 M 5 4 5
..................................3.................. iiii1 3 .9iii9ii 4 .3i................................................... ....... ............................................. .............. .
iiiiii~~iiiii~~~iiiiiiiiiiG.:,)~iiiii~~~iiiiiii 1iiA iiii or)iiii i4.9 i.3 4.71iii 90.1i 95. -1-54. 39 .
16 2nm l0 1.m99.7 112 551m.0 9.
A......................... 16.00iiiiiliiiiiiiliiiiiii~i 16.99iiiiiiiii 4.1 4.8 97.4 102.7 16.4 4.5 100.2
11 iiii1i .00iiiiiii 4.2Di4.65 99.8 105.4i17.44i4.45 10i.9
113 )) 1~))))) 10))))))ii))))ii 6 1 1i.00 18.6 4.17 4.51D 103.5i10i.i 18.i5i4.40i105 A
iiii ii i i )ii ii iiiii i i i i i i 1)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 7))) )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ) )))))j))))))))))))) )))))))))))) jj)))))jj) j))j-i i ii ~ i ) i i i ii
.....................................................................1i))).)))))))] iiiiiiii)))))))i). 0 7 4 0 7 ))4 9 4 7 5 2 1 0 8 3 1 6 1 6 4 4 9 9 8 .7)) )))))))))))))))) )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))) )) ))))) )))) )))))) ))))) )))))))))) )) ) ii)i) ))))) ))))))

((((((()((((((( ii iiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii ii~ iii iiii ..

)iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii~ iiiiiiiiii .))))) .........)))))))))))) ))))))) ))) ))))) )))))))))))))))))))))) iiiiiiii i )) ) ) ) i~ iiiiii%))))))))))))) i i i ... ..... ..
ii ii ii ii i ii i ii ii ii ii i ii iii ii iii i i ii i ii i iii i ii iil ii ii i ii i iiiii ii ili i ii ii i ii i ii il i iiii i ii i iii..........................











Table 2. Anulyses nf 603 sa0iples of cotton seed grown in Niueces County, Texas, 1929


Parcar.tQe n g-
t.iaSs In1 Oil content AMnonia content _____ Grude Weighted avernges
ci 9Miniun Maxiu Minimum ximum Minirmn u xxirunh Oil -Arnsin-_ I Orrdo


i

14 3.

1:' 7. ?d)
ii
1 u | ^*.*7 ]
I I

17 I 21. 1

I'j Ii

I 1i',. 6 I
!7
Zr,' 11.7



_ 1__ L -----I
-i i i

"I. ,uus 1 0".0 I


Per cunit Por cent

14.02 14.99

15.00 15.99

16.00 16. 9 J

17.00 17.T9a

18. DO 18.ig9

1 -d. 10Y 1'j.9q

:)0.00 -0.'j9

-: -0 2 3.41


Por cent


3.95

4.05

3.b9

3. 3C

3.67

3. 67

3.Z&

4. C7


Per cant


4.50

4.3B

4.51ol

4.51

4.4 5

4. V

4.32

41.03


86.5

91.6

9L.4

96.7

98.9

103.0

105.3

109.4


34,0

96.4

100.3

103. G

108.1

110.1

111.2

113.4


I Per cent

14.57

15.56

16.53

17.52

19. 16

19.54

20.41

21.30


--- -I-


4.51


86.5


a ________________ 1


113.4


17.89


Per cent

4,12

4.22

4,17

4.15

/..04

3.97

3.84

i .84


4.07


85.6

94 .1

97.2

100.5

102.9

106.2

108.2

111.4


101.1


14 2


a1 .41


-.5 -















T,-ble 3. Lnulyses of 1016 s.mnpiaen of cotton seed riMn in Nueces Counrty, Tex:, 19M30


Koea tai'oI
:i .j3 in vOil content Arnoni.i content IGrade e___ ihtad t va-eresU
S ss Tir, inun | '-xi:mr. :'i n ir.ur. |^.,xit ur, I',ni: 11 nun Oil ._mon .- Or:..d.


i.8

2a .4

a.0. 7



01.6




100.0


Pur ctrit Yor cent

15.:i5 15.99

16. On 16.99

17. 0 17.d9

10. (X) Iu. 9j
18.00 1th'tJ

19.-%0 1.9

2,0. 1 0. 2)a
lrnfob 20 .2,A


Per cent

4.11

3.95

3.34

3.(U

3. CJ

3.70


Per cent

4.56
4.55

4;. Gr)

4.70

4 .02

4. uZ
*..35

'2.59


93.C.
S5.2


9rb.2



103.1

i16.3


V7.0

102.?

105.5

lOb.3

101. *Z

111.6


- B I ~I


-.70


u93.3


111.


Per cent

15.70

1G. G2

17.-laI

18.54

19.21

f.o.12


17.40


Por cent

4.30

4.34

4.3L



4.15

-4.04

4.35


_______________ A I U I


65.3

99.0

102.5

105. 1

106.6

108 .9

101.9


- 6 -


16

17

16




lj
ci 3 o


-V


3.34







t The available 8-per-cent-amnonia cake in different lots of
Seed grown In tuseees County, Texas, during the year 1928 varied from
S841.1 pounds to 1142.3 pounds, a spread of 301.2 pounds. During
the year 1929 the available 8-per-cent-amonia cake In different lots
of cotton seed in the county varied from 830.1 pounds to 1042.9 pounds,
or a esorsed of 212.8 pounds. 'rhile the range of available oil in the
S seed produced in 1930 narrowed, the range of available 8-per-cent-anmonia
oake widened, the range being from 773.2 pounds to 1086.8 pounds, a
spread of 313.6 pounds.

Table 4 presents in surnmary form the range of avuilnble oil and
of available 8-per-cent-armnonia cake, the spread, and the weighted
averages of the seed produced in Nueces County, Texas, in each of the
three seasons,.


Table 4. Available oil and 8-prr-cent-annronia cake per ton
of cotton seed grown in Nueces County, Texas, 1928-1930


Available oil, Available cake,
Year per ton of seed per ton of seed

eeightod Weighted
Min. Max. Spread average I:in. Max. Spread average
pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds

1928 146.4 308.4 162.0 258.3 841.1 1142.3 301.2 1038.3


1929 215.4 363.2 147.8 292.8 830.1 1042.9 212.8 941.1


1930 246.0 339.8 93.8 283.0 773.2 1086.8 313.M 1006.0



Possible Influence of Rainfall on the Conosition of Cotton Seed
*
In L!ueces County, Texas, the harvesting of cotton begins the last
of July and is Dractically comnietod by the end of Senteriber. Therefore
the growing season for cotton may be regarded as ending with July. For
the purpose of studying the climatic conditions that nirht influence the
development of the plant arnd the elaboration of oil and protein in the seed,
the year ay be considered as begi.-inrg with August and cr.dir.g with the
following July. An examination. of the m'ar. monthly tenpratures during
the period August, 1927, through July, 153C, shows no significant differ-
ences, but there are significant differences 'n the ra-.rnfull. (T.hle 5.

In Table 5 the data have b.-en grouped by mnrntM and periods of
the year. The months August to Deccnbcr Lre grFukod togett.cr to show the
moisture conditions during harvest us eoll Es t:'.e pre-ceacon moisture
supply for the crops of the following year; January to May, inclusive,
to show the distribution of procipitation d'.rirng the growing period of


- 7 -








the cotton plnt.m; J and July, to sNw the distribution and emunt
of rainfall during te period of growth and cdevelophent of the bolls.

The 1928 ecop of cotton seue! was -rovn on a total of 18.95
inches atof rainfall, of which 7.48 inches fell !n the months of january,
February, Larch, April, and tay. Tho fruit was matured on 7.32 inches,
whirh fell in June and July, 6.9 inches of which fell in June.

The 1929 crop of cotton send wns rowrn on a total of 3957.08 inches,
of which 7.96 inches fell from Januury to !'.ay, inclusive. Tho fruit was "......
matured on 5.37 inches, which fell in June rind July, of which 1.59 inches I
fell in June.

The 1930 crop ofeotton seed was prown on a total of 21.38 inches, 4
of wh'ch 9.24 inches fell from January to i.y, inclusive: The fruit
was mautrued on 1.98 inches, of which C.69 inches fell in Juno.

Considering August and Suptorbor is the principal 'harvest
mnornt,, the three crops wore harvested under precipitations of 17.18
inches In 1928; 5.24 inches in 1929; a.nd 4.4 inrhos of rain in 1930,.

The distribution of the rainfall during the months of January
to ?May, inclusive, was more uniform in 1930, and possibly more nearly
ample, than in either 1929 or 1928.

The nrecipltatlon in the month of Juno is possibly significant,
esrezially since heavy rainfall is frequently followed by heavy boll
wccvil infestation. In Juno, 1928, 6.99 inc'h-s fell; in June 1929,
1.59 inches; and June, 1930, 0.69 inehes. The; soed Droducod ia 1928
w:r: the most irregular in composition, tkr^se -reduced in 1930 were
the most uniform in composition, and those 'rodu-ud in 1929 wore
intcrrmodlato in regularity of connosition.





i


- P' -







Table 5. PrecipiAtion in uheeec Counte, rTex a
1927 to 190


t~ -.


Month





September

October

Ncvanber

Dec e fiber

Pre-seoson
subtotal

Janut ry

Febru. ry

kL.rch

apyril1



Ddvelonrient
subtotal

Growi.th
subtotal

June

July


Eoll-rk tur-
ing sut-
totLI.


Total


1927-8

"Inchaes
1.35

z.93

1.99

3.11

.;. 09


11.L7






1.03

0.50

2.00

7.486


1928-2

Inches
"i. 29"


15.,.J

*..07



4.78


29.12


S0.6

0.013
O.OJ

1.06
i. ou

.63

5.3'


7.'96


- I


l8. 9.1


& .9..

3. Z


7.52


26.27


7.08


l.b9

?. 78


5.27


zI's~-v C

inches
1.5'J

"..05

1.69

3.07




i.'. 14.



).75

0.3c

2.21





1. t8






O.'j9

l. 3'


9 9-


42.65


A-.. &


1930

3inc het
).32

?1 7

7. T


' '.3- -
b.;3. ,"J^


- 9 -










4.1 iW bMF 1WIM UWUM ^DL'%SIAIABWt Aid f'WW 0 'JUIllFeJ g &UQUQ g JI11 &bWG WWW *I
bought and sold on grade and therefore were perhaps more completely J
analyzed than aoed produced during any previous season. Anproximately, iii
one analysis was made to ovary 50 tons of seed available for crushing. *i1
A record was kept of the datos on which each lot of seed analyzed was '|
produced at the gins. Tables 6, 7, and 8 show those analyses classified
and tabulated according to the months in which the seed were produced.

Of the saced produced in 1930, 45.6 per cent Was harvested in
August; 44.7 per cent in Septembor; and 9.7 par cent in October.

During the month of August, 1930 (Table 6), one half of one per
cent of the cotton seed analyzed wcro found in class 15; 14.2 por cent
of the shipments fell in class 16; 46.7 per cant in class 17; 34.3 per
cent in class 18; 3.8 per cent in class 19; and one half of one per
cent in class 20. The lowest oil content of any lot of seed enalyzod ws
15.76 per cont, and the highest was 20.24 per cent,

During August the lowest actual moisture content reported, 5.70
per cent, was found in class 17; and the highest actual moisture content,
11.98 per cent, was found in class 16. The lowest weighted average
moisture content was found in the seed in class 15.00. A gradual increase
in the moisture content is shown from class to class, the highest
iwclpFhted average moisture content, 8.77 per cent, being found in class 20.

Those comparisons mirht indicate that annroximatoly 8 per cent
moisture in the seed is normal for cotton seed in "ucces County, Texas,
and thit subnormal moisture is correlated with retarded elaboration of
oil in the seed.

The ann-onis content of different lots of seed dcliv.red during
A4-ust ranged from 3.69 n-r cent to 4.61 per cent.

The -.oifhtod average oil content fcr the month was 17.76 per
cer.nt; annonia content 4.34 per cent; and grade, 103.1. Only one
analysis of soed delivered durire August showed that the seed contained
in oxress of 1.8 por cent free fatty acids. This lot of cotton seed
contained 2.9 par cent free fatty acids and may havo been seed held
over from tho previous season.

During Sontenribcr, 190 theo lowest oil content in any lot of soed
7;.s four.d to be 15.55 par cent, and the highest, 16.88 per cent.
(TfTtl 7.) Both the low'oat an onia contenr.t, 3.34 per cent, and the
highest anonia content, 4.70 p-r cant, in seed produced in the season
of 19:0, -was found in sacd dolivored in Sc-'tomber. Both wore found in
eliss 17. Tho only other analysis during tho season sho-.inr excess
fruo futty acids occurred in Sc'tenb-r, the content boing 1.9 par cent.

Thc weighted svuruao oil ,ontcnt of soaed analyzed dropped from
17.76 rcr -ont in August to 17.1$ per cent in Sootembcr and to 16.87
r- f ",T-.t ir. CO tob- r.


- 1c -







Of the seed produced in'August, 1930, 3.8 per ce.t was in class
19, and one half of one per cent of the analyses fell in class aW, but
no seed produced in Nueoes County, Tcxus in either Saot'jnibnr or October,
1930, was found abyvo 9lass 18.

The percontate of the anulysos thut fall in, class 1 incraoscd
from 0.5 per cont in August to 1.9 ptjr crnt in S.o'to. br.r, und to 7.7
per cent in October.

The average available oil par ton uf surd (Table 1) ;oxn 290.2
pounds in August, 278.6 pounds in Setcr-.ncr, and 273.4 pounds in Octohb-.r.

Theo a rrge, available u'-p-r-oont-ar.: n'u clc rcr ton of socd
was 1003.6 pounds in August, 1910.b pounds in *Sr.tbrmbcr, and 9.j2.0
pounds in October.

Availat.lo oil our ton in diffor nt lots of so:d nLalyzod shn-cd
a rsnmo af 89.6 pounds durinc- kuw.ust, 6u.6 rounds durirE S;".t-rtb r, and
69.2 pounds during October.

In the saed nroduced during A'ust,.n diff:rcncc c' : 16.7 rounds
per ton of sooeed was fuund in avnilablo 6-,Dr-corr.t-E--Loni c:kc. In acseed
produced during St"-te:b .r, tho spread in av:.ilabld -p r-c'r:t-tr.mu-niu
cake was 313.C pounds. In siod produced during Oto'tr, tlu; snroQd
between different lots of se.d' in available 8-por-ccit--arionla crkc rjas
120.3 pounds.

Tho voichtcd rvor cr'o Dorc.-n-tugo of caEnonina incrcqscd fr'-,m 4.34
pcr cent in Auust to 4..37 pcr cent in S DVt.Lt-.r and drprT-;d tV. 4.29
ncr cent in Octobur.


-' 11 -











Thble























Percenting





1.4& 17.00 Li.9V 4.1 4.56730 98. 8.971.8 ..49..9





Claaa30 100.0 155 16.80 3.34 x.70 943.3 108.3 4&.17 10-5 17. 18 4.37 11173
i iiiiiiii @ iiii-iii i1i3iiiiii i


















7..tF 8. .lys M" StIplid3 of cotton sood priduved in :;'uLcos County, Tex.s, Cct or 1630


__________________________ I- I


1i.4 _J-..un*


VA Irhtnd i.vQTR:i;Ra


1il hnto t Ic-I-- ----B
oil c'innt __', ,oni_ cotont LIL- ruae 1 ILU1f1bu.l' --"- I :


!'r X. ?7'l.1. l .fl.flun. I s.L Iase a- & -
v1 1- i -I Pn[ T I I Per


93.7

95.9

S99.3


96.6

101.5

103.7


ru~r
cont

7.066

7.20

7.06

-9 rfn


cent

A.90

9.88


9.7%


6snt

15.58


16.60

17.-40

Ic0 La


cent




4.51
4.9
4' P1


i ,10\ 18.7 4.1 ..0 3. u .Y u- -po.,-.- .-..


93.7


100.7


6.68


9.Ma


16 .67


4. 29


%i.4


98.7

101.3

ins5


99.4


cent

8.42

8.13

8.08

6.10


8.13


-14-


"in.


crnt


153. ?AJ
1. n t




17.00


in
Cl; s9




7.7

^B3

3-i.'




00. 0
.34 .t,


ILGO *


?ur
c.jnt

lb.99

16.99

17.A9


"i SA





IL;i

1.3

17

18
;.n1
cl'.-s -o


Per
* Por
cont

4.11

-. '7

4.16


Per
cant

-:. 37

4.59

*.,'9


15. 5


i8.71


4.07


4.59


_____________1___L__ 1 ---- I-- ----.---'-----------


..: .......:........:......:..... ..........


... _____


q ........


^ ..T ^ _


L | | ]..


--am I I -


tIiI --







Table 9. Available oil and 9-per-cen.t-nnmor.Ia cake per ton
of cotton seed grown in u'eces County, TexLB in 1930


Availsl-le oil
per ton of seed


Swot. 246.0


Sporead
roulmds
9. u


66. G


U'eithted
. ave rae
r.unC

290.2


&75.6


69.2 1273.4


-Avvi liable ct..ke,
n'r ton of seed


!oin.
pounds
A- _


;o X.
"*oui's.cis


SSrarend


*.-reirhted

pounds


t53. I lOtu.0 i212.7 1003.6


77?3.9. 10E6.8 313.G 1010.5


941.1 1061.4 1 C.3 992.0


Table 10 is a suwmary of c--culated relative values of the oil
and ca's yields from the cotton seed produceded in :.ueces County, Texas,
in 1933.

That portion of the description of Pasis Cotton Seed 6/ which
affects thu grade of cotton seed roads as follows: "Seed shall analyze
19.Q0 nur Tent oil and 3.5 m,:r cent awionia or its cquivalont". By the
formula previously stated this description will five available yields
of 715 pounds of oil and 809.Z Dounds of -.cr-cent-a. -onlia cal:e. For
the vurnose of this study the departures, more c:nd less, from these
pounds of oil and ca':e considered as basis yields for each class of
analysis is given in rnspcctive columns.

The =onoy value, loss, or gain, on the departures front the basis
yields, for both the oil and the cal:e are sh-own in asi-ronriatc columns,
the oil being calculated fcr tho nirpose .-if comne-rison-, -t C.5 cents,
eand the ca:e at 1.4 ccats a nour.d. "P'23.0C pur ton is the assurmcd 9uota-
tion for Basis CGtton Seed. Tc'. rromiums and discounts for prade used
are found ty consid--ri4- the rrudes c!f sr.d a 'L.rc(.r.tw .s of t'-c quota-
tion foar atsis Cotton Sccd in c-tc-rriin'4 th .rico t-aid vor ton of seed.

In class 15 t:o wc.fttcd aver-1f credo w-.s .'1.3 -'.d t:.cr. wus
a not loss of C2 cents :-ter t':. owr thcr average crnrdu d:-count in th.3
class.

In class 16 t3 c wii'ht.ed VivurL'(, gr.'-, wn 'J0.0 en tJ9.' is
net loss of 14 coants p'r ton in cxrcsz of th; grade d i6e,,int.


76T-,- 7-t--7-----va--:73-,-7 s- -_-
S4Rul 40. ?r'-11: ub, Mu'-':, .r.al t'ttors.ud rry'-4.ts A- *c..ctic.n,
1)30 1931.


- 1.5 -


!'in.
bounds

250.*2


Avg.


- aX.
nounda

339.8


31.6


Oct.


240.0


-a-


--9---!-


309.2


- __ __ ____ I


=










In clias 17 the v:eichted LverNge grde w-s 102.5 and there ws
u :.et glr. cf %.3 cents per ten in excess of the grade premiums.

i less 16 the weighted averce grbde wus 105.1 und there was
Li :.et guin nf 60 centB per tNn in excess of tLe f rmde preciiun.

Ir. 1Ibsa 19 the weirhited vergee grade w,.9s 106.6 bnd there was
u :.et .irf ref 86 eits in excess cf und bbnve the grade pretAium paid
InA t)i&3 iduss.

Ir. :-las 20 the weighted nven.ge gr-de tns 108.9 and there was
a .et gh-in in excess of the grade prer.iur did of "'1.1C per ton.

F-r tho se.-son there -.as net ,bin -f 23 cents on the products
bt.tve the ,veru'e gnde premniuis pirid er tn of seed.







Tuble 10. Coai:.r t1ive vt-lieos of cotton soud p.roducud
in N.,ec E loult., 'Zx ", t,..con of' IO30


t 15 1 L 17 S. 6 r0__ clsa
1A '
PnoAtt;o of uli 1.o 2. o2 .;u.9o 9 ..o.1l 1.60 O..3 10O.00
_m~lyseaa in class ^________ ______ _____ ________ ____ ______
.eigbted ..vercge
oil content, 15.70 10.G32 17.-.9 l..3. '1 .21 2,0.1 17. .0
per cent
W'eigted, u epug
ar10oni. content 4.50 ,W.3 i.38 ..33 .9.15 :.0. I-.55
-er cent _____ ____ ____ _____ ____ _
!vsilable oil,
2.41able oi, <;9.00 267.4;0 .;"A.60 30.L. ,0 319. -2.-D 357.-,0 ,83.00
pound a _______ ______
Pounds of oil 6 -
less than 3150
more thlan 315 _____ _____- _____- _____..

o UO. 065 ___ ______ _____ _____ _____
Qcin on oil, 2 ~ A
f %0.0u5 '0.27 '0.. 6
-v-.ildble b per
cent ar-.onid 99..30 1003.60 1012.L0 loni.50 .ZIJ9.C 'j.C.2 100 .90
cake, poundss ________
Pounds of ,.cke .
e h5.00 I.a .30 203.5-1 l m..) 150.Z, 12-.O 1116.bO
more thL.n BQf. 3
Guin on C .C, :.2-, -1 2.7Z12 '3 ',210 5 2.' 7 5,
* ) y\.S. ^ ___ __ __ __ _____ _______f_____
rehted e ve 95.30 9ja.o0o 102.50 105.10 10C.G9 ilrF L.0 lMi.O
gr-de
Gride discounts, -
b&s.s 23.00 .--i.7123 --.,
Orude ;reinuns, 4... 1.17 U,. 1-. ;0..
b.ss .,3. 00____ _____
Net loss, per i -. -
ton 0 Led *
Not gaiapr per ( I ..0.e3
ton of Coed ________ I


- 17 -







Conclusions


The principal conclusions to bc icachod from these data.
rc: i

1. Cotton sacd vary widely in their content of oil and snammia,
* a-aaon, fia well &s from season to season.

2. Thcro is no toaitivo relation between the content of theo oil,
eaonla, or moisture in cotton snoo.ds i

3. The oil and *.he anzonia content of cotton so&d vary widely I:s..:..-xi
relation to each othcjr.
"'I

4. Low oil and arionia content is not necessarily the result t..
noisturo .ont,_nt.

5. Tho woiehted avorapts of oil and armnonia arc frequently in S:
iny rso rat'o.

6. A grading Dlen, based on comabina'ions of oiL and ammonia habe
dcvisod for rmasuring the relative value of different lots of wtfta '..Iwj
ac Li.

7. Losses and gains in oxesss of prado discounts and iramiums
1nA,;ir-tc tVat discovnrts should widon with decreesos in grado, and tmEA
,r-.m.tus should widen Yith incrcas-is in frao!e, if the nrice quoted i
Basis Cotton So-d boars a relation to the vuluo of the products obtil*h.
.iO, tVhe r.ork:',nf rost, ov.rhced, and profit in handling.m

D'ris;,m tho s-& arin of WC thorc was a rangc of 15 Vrrdes botivae-
the lowest prndo of cotton seed and the hi-Fhcst prado. This wu ld
in.d catc that undM r the c'.,rrcnt rsta of nromiumas and discounts there.I "
ai diff-.rcr.e of 1i.' pcr cc:t of thc Basis Cotton Sood nricc in the vAu"I
of diffcr.nt lots of cc:ttor sn-d nroducod in 'iecos County, Tebas. ,l

9. Tiz wiK.ttd evorangc- gr.dc of tho cotton socd produced in NUGcfi WioW;|sio i
T"nunty, T?-as, for tLe season of i'?., was 101.9. Those who sold cottee
s,.d oroduced in Nu-.ccs County, Tcx:s, to the cotton scod oil mills, ,i
t.cr.fore ro;:civ:d zun nvc!ru-. .remiun of 1.9 prcr cent above the aVeorq :*::Biii
mu.ttation for the bssa grado. ,.


- IP. -




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