Design thinking as collaborative learing in education: Observing student behavior through the design thinking process

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Title:
Design thinking as collaborative learing in education: Observing student behavior through the design thinking process
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Project in lieu of thesis
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English
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Myers, Laurie E. Herrman
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College of Fine Arts; University of Florida
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Gainesville, Fla
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Abstract:
The purpose of this research was to discover what behaviors would occur in a middle school art classroom when I created and implemented a curriculum unit based on the Design Thinking process. I became particularly interested in implementing this process when I discovered first-hand success in the Design Thinking course, under the instruction of Brian Slawson, during UF’s Summer Studio Intensives. I used action research as a logical philosophy of study and discovered the Design Thinking process was very effective in encouraging positive, collaborative behaviors as well as creative thinking in students. Through Design Thinking, collaboration naturally inspired unity and success. Design Thinking is a human-centered method for making life better for others by collaborating through the opportunities of technology (Innovation, Design Engineering Organization, 2012). Throughout history, people have come together to successfully problem-solve obstacles in life. In this research, I discovered students developed and displayed positive character behaviors such as leadership, respect, and perseverance when using the Design Thinking process. I also found that shorter, quicker time-periods and projects encouraged more active involvement and enthusiasm. Through Design Thinking, my students created solutions to personal problems, school problems, and improving everyday life. The results of my project, observations, photographs, and video footage are available on my website http://laurieemyers.weebly.com/ .
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Art Education terminal project

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University of Florida Institutional Repository
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University of Florida
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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 1 DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION : OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS By LAURIE E. HERRMAN MYERS SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE: ELIZABETH DELACRUZ, CHAIR CRAIG ROLAND, MEMBER A CAPSTONE PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2013

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 2 2013 Laurie E. Herrman Myers

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 3 Acknowledgements I would like to thank Dr. Elizabeth Delacruz and Dr. Craig Roland for being readily available, helpful, and encouraging. I thank my husband, Jamie, for his unwavering patience and work to keep things normal while I conquered this goal. To my children; Mylhan, Adalie, and Chloe this is for you! You can do all things through Christ who gives you strength. I would also like to thank my entire family, friends, and colleagues for all your support and patience I could not have accomplished this without each and every one of you. Thank you!

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 4 Summary Of Capstone Project Presented To The Graduate School Of The University Of Florida In Partial Fulfillment Of The Requirements For The Degree Of Master Of Arts DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION : OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS By LAURIE E. HERRMAN MYERS May 2013 Chair: Elizabeth Delacruz Major: Art Education Abstract The purpose of this research was to discover what behaviors would occur in a middle school art classroom when I create d and implement ed a curriculum unit based on the De sign Thinking process. I became particularly interested in implementing this process when I discovered first hand success in the Design Thinking course, under the instruction of Brian I used action research as a logical philosophy of study and discovered the Design Thinking process was very effective in encouraging positive, collaborative behaviors as well as creative thinking in students. Through Design Thinking, collaboration naturally inspired unity and succ ess. Design T hinking is a human centered method for making life better for others by collaborating through the opportunities of technology

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 5 (Innovation, Design Engineering Organization, 2012). Throughout history, people have come together to successfully pr oblem solve obstacles in life. In this research, I discovered students developed and displayed positive character behaviors such as leadership, respect, and perseverance when using the Design Thinking process. I also found that shorter, quicker time period s and projects encouraged more active involvement and enthusiasm. Through Design Thinking, my students created solutions to personal problems, school problems, and improving everyday life. The results of my project, observations, photographs, and video foo tage are available on my website http://laurieemyers.weebly.com/

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 6 Contents Acknowledgements ... ...................................................................................................................... 3 Abstract ............................................................................................................................. ............. 4 Contents ... ................................................................................................................... 6 Introduc ing D esignThinking ......... ............................................................... ................. 8 Statement of the Problem.................... ................................. ...... ........................................... 9 Purpose of the Study ................................................................. ............ .............................10 Research Questions ....... .. ...................................................................... ........................... .. 1 1 Significance of the Study ..... .................... .......... .................................... .......... ..... .......... .. 11 .............................. ........................................ ............................... ... ...11 Definition of Terms...................... ........ ................................................ ............... ..............12 Literature R eview ......................... ................................................................. ............................1 4 Introduction and History o f Design: When Has It Been Used ............................................... .....................16 The Design Thinking Process: How Does It Work..................................... .....................17 How D oes Design Thinking Fit into Education Theory .. .. ................................................20 Concluding Though ts: Why Is All of This Relevant.. Research De sign ................................. ... .................................................. .............................. ......... 23 S 8 Data Collection Procedures ............. .. .......................... ....................... ..............................29

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 7 Data Analysis .. ...................................... .. .. .. ......................... ............... ..............................29 ........................................ ... ....................................... .............................. 30 Limitations of the First Observation: Design Thinking encour age Second Observation: 4 Third Observation: Shorter projects create more enthusiasm Fourth Observation: Fifth Observation: Groupings chosen by the teacher are more successful ........ ......... ....... 3 6 Discussion and Conclusio n Significance of my Findings and Re feren ces ... .................................................................................................... ............................... 41 7 52 Author Biography .... ....................................................................................... .............. ................ 53

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 8 Introducing Design Thinking In classrooms t hroughout the nation, many students are sitting aimlessly in their seats attempting to sit still, trying to ta ke struggling to remain as mandated assessments thre aten to drive funding for education. standardized test. As pressure mounts for all students to meet a specific standard on these assessments, more emphasis is placed on the preparation ne eded to meet this goal at the expense Ferreira, 2009, p. 138). Common assessments and raising test scores have become the primary topic of concern at faculty meetings. A vital inquiry regarding the effects of standardized testing is teachers spend inordinate amounts of time teaching to tests that might have a minimal connection 12). I have some ideas of my own. I want to teach kids how to think instead of what to think. We must equ ip our children for the future. prepare students to be responsible and respectful leaders Kids deserve the opportunity to solve problems S tudents are becoming complacent with easy access to the I nternet Could it be kids are just accustomed to information being given to them rather than what they might discover? Kids have a thirst for learning. By providing direction and likelihoods for meaningful learning, students will rise to the occasion. I want to provide my students with a safe environment where they can explore, question, collaborate, succeed, and fail. Through these opportunities, I believe students are more likely to experience meaningful learning and ultimately s ucceed. Based on my concerns for future generations and 25 years of teaching experience, I decided to study the Design Thinking process and its effects on the behaviors of my students.

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 9 Statement of the Problem The problem motivating this ca pstone research involves the lack of unique opportunities for students to exercise their creative imagination work collaboratively, and problem solve in a traditional school setting This problem should be studied because it is my belief that many students becom e jaded and uninvolved in school learning. Perhaps by the way individuals learn, possibly due to the pressures of standardized testing or to other forces, it seems to me b oth students and teachers have l ost their connection and passion f o r education. Addressing the variety of learning needed to support all students and providing opportunities of discovery over lecturing is (Benson, 2003). Fast Company is a business magazine focusing on technology, business and design. Fast Company online site is dedicated to innovation and creativity in order to produce success in business and design. The professionals of Fast Company have the same concern about taking the focus off testing and on to preparation for the future. Teach ing kids Design Thinking will equip (Fast Company, 2012) Our world desperately needs leadership in achieving sustainable social justice, not simply learning the answer to a test question. Am erica needs massive change in our understanding of the learning experience, not simply in our exam results. Simply put, to change the world, we need a generation of new minds equipped with new ways of thinking. We need to drastically shift our conceptio n of education and then completely transform how we facilitate learning. (Fast Company, 2012) I believe educators understand th e premise that students do not all learn the same way However, in my experience, I realize it is difficult to plan and implement lessons with a range of teaching styles Bringing a variety of learning styles together with the opportunity to work

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 10 together and explore, I think, is critical to the success of our education system. The Design Thinking process naturally encourag es students of all learning styles and intelligences to work together toward a common goal. As the process is student led, kids are given opportunities for learning and growth through creative brainstorming, problem solving and leadership. My capstone res earch project explores the philosophy and process of Design Thinking and the effects the process can have on my student behavior and success in the classroom My study seeks to answer the questions: How will using the Design Thinking process affect student behavior? How does a Design Thinking approach impact student motivation, responsibility, collaboration, and leadership in the classroom? If given more open ended opportunities to plan their own lear ning, will children behave in more creative ways in my classroom? I found the answers to these questions and more as I implement ed Design Thinking into my 7 th grade curriculum. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to accomplish the following : (a) introduce Design Thinking as a collabora tive effort to make life better at Rolla Middle School better and (b) to observe and document the behaviors of my 7 th grade students as they participate in the Design Thinking process. The outcomes I expect ed from this study include: (a) positive behavior s (i.e. respect, acceptance, and responsibility ), (b) natural leadership (c) creative problem solving, and (d) collaboration towards a common goal. I al so hope d to observe enthusiastic and actively involved students. Furthermore, it is my desire to share these findings with others in hopes to prepare students for the future -above and beyond standardized testing. Sharing these conclusions could prove beneficial to the success of students as well as teachers in all subject areas.

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 11 Research Questions Using a participatory action research method of investigation the following specific research questions guide my investigation. 1. What happens when I introduce Design Thinking into my classroom? 2. How can Design Thinking facilitate creative problem solving behaviors in 7 th graders? Significance of the Study I believe that the incorporation of Design Thinking in the classroom is significant to the future success of score driven style of education, students do not experience as much opportunity to collaborate brainstorm, take control over their own learning, or problem solve. Understanding how the Design Thinking process works helps stud ents use it more effectively Experiencing the effects of this process has had a substantial impact on my own teaching methods and learning within my own classroom. The process introduces skills needed to take action when challenged with a problem This type of problem solving and collaboration can only benefit education. Assumptions I believe the Design Thinking process is one which will encourage many positive behaviors I also am confident these experiences will position these student s to experience success. Given the opportunity to explore and brainstorm, I think, prepares students for future success more so than merely preparing for standardized testing. As an educator, it should be my primary concern to prepare my students to be responsible, independent, motivated adults. I can assist children by boosting their social skills, leadership opportunities, independent thinking, and

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 12 creativity through Design Th inking. My assumption is : as students are given the chance to exercise collaboration and creative problem solving; they will become more active as attentive, interactive, and passionate learners. I assume my students will exhibit enthusiasm, responsible be havior, strong leadership skills, creative problem solving, positive behavior, collaboration, and success through Design Thinking. Definition of Terms The following terms are used in this paper: Area of Special Interest (ASI) is a portion of Pride Time at Rolla Middle School. Students participate in ASI classes when they are not attending RtI. ASI classes are taught by counselors, principals, exploratory teachers (art, industrial art, library skills, computer technology music, physical education, and h ealth education ) and paraprofessionals ASI courses are one semester long, providing students to participate in two different interests. Design Thinking is a human centered approach to innovation which draws from collaboration in order to integrate the ne eds of people, the potentials of technology, and the re quirements for success ( Innovation, Design Engineering Organization, 2012 ). Through empathetic research, students define the problem they would like to address. Students then brainstorm to come up with a creative solution in which encourages a prototype. Finally, ideas are tested for feedback (kdtconsulting.org/design thinking, 2012). Pride Time (RtI/ASI) is a time devoted to providing additional instruction to students in a small group setting for all students at Rolla Middle School Students can be selected by teachers to clear up confusion, to close the gap, or to create challenges ( rolla.k12.mo.us 2013) Pride Time meets three days per week for 30 minutes. This flexible program switches stu dents every two weeks of six sessions.

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 13 Response to Intervention (R t I) is part of Pride Time at Rolla Middle School. RtI is a system of early identification and support of students with learning and behavior needs. The RtI process begins with high quality instruction and general screening of all children in the core area classrooms ( rti network.org, 2013). Students struggling with specific topics are provided with interventions in small groups to accelerate their rate of learning.

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 14 Literature Review Introduction and D efinitions Archimedes once said, ough and I can move http://thinkexist.com para 1 ). Each person brings his/her own lever of tools, skills, and point of view to any team. Combining energy and intelligence with the right lever can generate an extraordinary, powerful force (Kelley, 2005 ). By working together toward a common goal, people can make the world a better place. Through Design Thinking, individuals can contribute their expertise to a group in order to design something better. Design Thinking facilitates this process, and not only encourages, but subtly demands each person become part of the action. Design Thinking is ab out collaborating with others in order to bring change through a better, more effective design (Berger, 2009). Merriam Webster dictionary defines design to webster.com). Much more than style, design as perceived by the authors I encountered, is a way of viewing the world in a way to make it better. In the 2 009 book Glimmer 1 Warren Berger designer must be able to see not just what is, but what might be p. 3). This literature review will contain my findings from diverse sources and answer the following questions: what exactly is Design Thinking how has it been used in the past, how it works a nd; why is it important to education. The major claims I will be talking about include: design has been around for much of history; the Design Thinking process of collaboration is an effective method of problem solving and; implementing Design Thinking in schools will provide assurance for a successful future. 1 Glimmer is about the history and future of design. The book relates to this research project in that it shows how designers approach problems and arrive at solutions.

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 15 Background of Design Thinking Design Thinking is a human centered approach to innovation which draws from collaboration in order to integrate the needs of people, the potentials of technology, and the re quirements for success ( Innovation, Design Engineering Organization, 2012 ). C ollaborating with others in order to bring change through a better, more effective design is part of the problem solving process of Design Thinking (Berger, 2009). In education, Design Thinking is about helping students identify what their levers may be and serving human need. The Design Thinking process is a process in that students are asked to work collaboratively, in groups. As a teaching method of education, collaborative learning involves groups of students working together to solve a problem or accomplish a task. Collaborative learning is built on the idea that learning is naturally a social act where learning occurs through conversation (Gerlach, 1994). But Design Thinking also differs from collabo rative learning in that the Design Thinking process asks students to jointly identify and solve specific problems, conduct research, and generate possible solutions to the problem they identified. The actual Design Thinking p rocess blends art and science a nd is driven by human empathy (Kelley, 2005). Design is a way of solving problems and reinventing the world. In his book Glimmer Warren Berger collaborated with top designer Bruce Mau shared how great designers think. In Glimmer Berger described how design could potentially improve our world through the use of innovative principles of design : personal, universal, social, and business For Berger, principles identified in his collaboration with Mau are intended to show ways to im prove how people think, work, and live. Challenges are met by people who look at the problem in a fresh way and see a glimmer of possibility for how things might be done differently (Berger, 2009). According to es a designer when he/she truly begins to

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 16 (2009, p. 12). Berger further argues that Design Thinking can play a major role in addressing issues in almost any challenge problems. It is available to everyone not just designers. These glimmer moments open up a whol e new world of possibilities (Berger, 2009). Through empathy, definition, ideas, and prototypes ; people collaborate to solve problems. Although not a new concept, collaboration through design (a fundamental aspect of Design Thinking) has not always had significant impact or even acceptable in education (Fast Company, 2012) History of Design : When H as I t B een U sed? The beginnings of modern design exploration can be traced to Galileo in the early seventeenth century through his writing Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences (Buchanan, 2001 ). In his writings, Galileo discusses the design in the great collection of machi nes and instruments of Venice. The influence of the Bauhaus in Europe (1919 1933) and then in the United States as the New Bauhaus of Chicago incorporated design into the arts (Droste, 2002) Design has been an i mportant aspect of business thinking since first edition of his 1969 book Sciences of the Artificial Fast forward to his 1996 third edition, Simon sta ted ( p. 111). In the 1996 edition, Simon discussed the lack of teaching design in most disciplines. According to Simon, s chools have been absorbed by academic propriety which called for tough, logical formal, and teachable subjects. The damage to professional competence cau sed by the loss of design from professional curricula gradually gained 1996, p.

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 17 112 ). Simon stated a of design in engineering as well as natural science which has si n c e been influential to education (p. 114) Emerging in America around 1975, d esign r esearch centers worked through collaboration between faculty and students researching the science and practice of design. A large part of this design teamwork was directed towards increasing the abilities of computers in order to support design (Simon, 1996). However, t he specific Design Thinking method bec ame popular from th e work of David Kelley at Hasso Plattner Institute of Design also known as d.school at Stanford University in the 1980s ( Brown & Wyatt 2010). Kelley found himself always adding the word David Kelley Design created Apple Bill Moggridge and his firm, ID Two, developed the first laptop. IDEO Innovative Design En gineering Organization, was formed in 1991 as David Ke lley Design and ID TWO combined (Berger, 2009). Focusing primarily on tradition al design of consumer products, IDEO began switching gears by 2001 Instead of creating consumer products, IDEO took on the challenge of designing consu mer experiences (IDEO, 2012). I n an interview with Business Week Kelley suggested that most people are trained in analytical thinking, but there is part of the brain that can take creative leaps (2012). These creative leaps are the innovative momentum of design. De scrib ed as a methodology, Kelley asserted that the Design Thinking process is a new tool to add to your tool belt, a new way of thinking. The Design Thinking Process : How D oes I t W ork? Typically presented in three overlapping spaces and five or six areas of consideration, the Design Thinking process is relatively simple. H owever, it can be used in brain storming and problem solving even the most complicated problems.

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 18 The design thinking process is best thought of as a system of overlapping spaces rather than a sequence of orderly steps. There are three spaces to keep in mind: inspiration, ideation, and implementation. Inspiration is the problem or opportunity that motivates the search for solutions Ideation is the process of generating, developing, and testing ideas. I D EO, 2012 ) C alling the system spaces instead of steps, is intentional, because the se three things are not always completed in order. Topics may return to inspiration, ideation, and implementation as a group works through brai nstorming and problem solving. The process can seem chaotic to those experiencing it for the first time. But through the life of the project, participants become aware that the process makes sense and results are achieved, even though its form differs from typical linear, milestone based processes ( Brown & Wyatt, 2010). Even though designers do not always progress through the thre e spaces in a specific order, the process typically begins with the problem or topic at hand; the inspiration space. Whatever inspires people to search for sol utions obviously motivates them and creates a starting point. The inspiration space set s the fram ework of the project, goals and objects Topics such as human need price, necessary technology and marketing are considered. This space is the creative realm from which ideas develop the world and observe the actual experiences of smallholder farmers, school children, and Wyatt, 2010). This type of observation assists in the design process, by building understanding and credibility. p. 9 ).

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 19 Idea tion, the second space of design thinking, allows for thoughts and concepts to be explored. People who make up a team should have a variety of interests and backgrounds in order to demonstrate quality and work effectively Through a diverse team of people, divergent thinking provides innovation. Moving into a structured brainstorming process, interdisciplinary hundreds of ideas ranging from the absurd to the obvio p. 34 ). Ideas are made visual, often written on sticky notes, so the team members can comprehend the variety of concepts. As many ideas as possible are presented with judgment being excluded. The best ideas will be evident advocate is important to the brainstorming process. Innovation is a vital part of the design thinking process. Kelley claimed iller in America (2005, p. 2 ). Bringing people together to investigate new ideas without hindering any possibility will bring remarkable results. After a definite plan is in place, i mplement ation may begin How does implementation occur? Once the best ideas are developed into a solid plan of action, implementation begins. Brown and Wyatt (2010) elaborated, implementation process is prototyping, turning ideas into actual products and services that are then tested, iterated, and r Prototyping helps the teams determine challenges and unplanned concerns as well as validate the future success of the project. Prototypes may be cheap or expensive, simple or complex, recognizable or indistinguishable. Once the project nea rs conclusion, prototypes become more comprehensive A communication strategy, usually storytelling through multimedia, is also developed once the prototype is done. Throughout the three spaces, six areas define a focus.

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 20 Within the three spaces of the Design Thinking p rocess 2 displayed below, more specific direction is achieved through six particular method s: empathize, define, ideate, prototype, and test. Observing the audience in which the designing will occur is part of the development of empathy. Defining the problem precisely helps bring the team on the same page where ideation can evolve. Brainstorming for creative solutions is the heart of ideation. F inally, b uilding some to show others and allows testing for feedback. How D oes Design Thinking F it in to Education Theory ? Design Thinking involves collaborative work toward a common goal. framework of learning and development noted collaboration through nearly everything people do, beginn ing with dependence on caregivers (John Steiner & Mahn, 1996) The Vygotsky School is based on people giving each other respect and working together to ov ercome problems. Vygotsky scholar, Blunden believed i f people c ould agree on what needed to be done then it d id were expressed. As long as a common idea is shared, there is no (2001). Lear ning and using collaboration to solve problems 2 Permission to share T he Process by KDT Consulting Figure 1. The P rocess kdtconsulting.org/design thinking (2012)

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 21 score driv en education, students have fewer opportuni ties to work together, problem solve or brainstorm. Students have become used to being g iven the needed information as educators are pushed to teach to the test According to reformer, Ted Sizer, S tandardized tests provoke a kind of drilling mentality. It's a game. And so students learn the game Diane Ravitch, historian of education, believes the current assessment methods may be training a generation of children who are deterred by learning, thinking it only concurs with meaningless work te st preparation, and test taking (Ravitch, 2010). A rt educator, Elizab eth Delacruz offered me an insightful opinion when I concluded that kids I encountered in the classroom today seemed lazy, compared with kids of earlier years : I wonder if it s not that kids are lazy, but that they are habituated by adults to having things done in advance for them and spoon fed to them such that they don't get practice making decisions, making open ended explorations, putting forward plans of their own, etc. S o maybe the problem is the way we teach and through our methods, we force kids to take a back seat in their learning. ( E. Delacruz, personal communication, October, 26, 2012) The c all for humans to be engaged in relevant educational practices is not novel in education, as educators have long sought to embrace both the liberal arts and humanities in education In fact, John Dewey e xplored the relationship among ar t, science and practice in 1929. He suggested science as art, rather than science as primary and art as secondary (Dewey, 1938) So, more than 80 years later, Design Thinking continues to connect art and science, and grow s in importan ce to educators insofar as Design Thinking connects and i ntegrates useful knowledge from both the

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 22 arts and sciences a s a way to solve real world problems (Buchanan, 1992). Buchanan explains he liberal arts are undergoing a revolutionary transformation in twentieth century culture, and design is one of the are Buchanan finds that integrative, active disciplines of understanding and communication, knowledge can be sensibly extended to serve the purpose of enriching human life. According to Buchanan (1 992), Neoteric arts both externally and in its internal character. Kelley adds that [Design Thinking] principles can revive creativity in K The process is re latively simple to follow and very much student driven. According to Kelly, Based on his work at Education Program and Stanford Hasso Plattner Institute of Design in which they developed and implemented a collaborative unit for schools to h elp kids develop the skill set to incorporate desi gn thinking into their lives. Kelley finds that th new 2009). Finally, benefits of a Design Thinking approach in education are t hought to extend to society. Go l d man and Roth assert that t eaching students how d esigners tackle a problem Through design, children learn they have the power to change the world (Goldman & Roth, n.d.). Concluding Thoughts : Why I s A ll of T his R elevant? As this literature review shows, Design Thinking is thought by proponents to be relevant not only to the business world but also to contemporary education and to the overall future success of society. With standardized test scores sha ping school culture and impacting funding for education, students are given fewer and fewer opportunities to create and think on their own.

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 23 Ask a child a question and he/she is quick to access the Google search bar. Give a student a problem to solve, and t Answers are at fingertips through the digital age of smartphones, tablets, and laptops. Or worse yet, teachers and textbooks are seen as the authoritative source of knowledge in schools, and students demon stration of learning or mastery of subjects areas are both pre determined and predictable. Design Thinking requires a shift in thinking and behavior. T hrough the t eaching of the Design Thinking p rocess of identifying problems, collaboration, research, and ideation, students are given the opportunity to take control over their learning and work together toward a common goal What better way to develop meaningful learning, social skills, positive character traits, and independence from the spoon fed phenomena than using the Design Thinking process? I have been made aware of my responsibility as an educator to provide students with a quality art education. A quality art education fosters the confidence necessary to develop into responsible, thoug htful, engaged citizens who are poised to problem solve and work collaboratively. Through the Design Thinking process, I believe that my students can address meaningful problems through teamwork. I hope my students will truly learn, develop their own thoug hts, and express who they are while embracing the world around them through the application of the principles of Design Thinking. Research Design My research questions focus ed on introducing Design Thinking into my middle school art classroom and how it wou l d influence student behavior. Students in my 7 th grade Pride Time class were studied for a period of six weeks. Various t eam building activities were presented at the beginning of the study to instill unity and comfort among the participants (see Appen dix E)

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 24 Students learned the Design Thinking process through discussion, video, and a sample group activit y The sample group activity involved using the Design Thinking process to creat e a n original and useful app for an iPod student created iPod.

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 25 Next, s tudents were asked to keep a log for 24 hours of things they found challenging ( see Appendix D) Once the log was completed, a large group discussion produced common problems. Students individually wrote down their most significant issues and posted them together on a large piece of black paper Of the many challenges presented, students selected the following as bei ng the most important : transportation to and from school, crowded hallways, lockers, feeling tired, crowded gym, and announcements. I randomly grouped 3 5 students together through different color cards. Given the topic of how to make life better for a sev enth grader, students collaborated on deciding which topic to tackle. Over the course of three class Figure 3: Brainstorming with sticky notes

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 26 periods, teams defined an d focused on the problem and then began brainstorming to come up with creative solutions. I encouraged students to continue research outside of class by interviewing others, engaging in online discovery, and making observation s over the weekend Through a large group discussion, we talked about how some things can seem worse than they are. I asked each group to come up with tw o positives about their problem. I believe this was important because of the topic involving ways to make their life better. I didn't want everything to seem negative. The study took place in my classroom; a public school setting in a middle school art room. I use d the method of action research to study what happened in my classroom. I collect ed and acted upon my observations, analy sis and plan in order to enhance my art curriculum (May, 1993) I organize d analyze d and present ed photographs, student works, reflections, and a teaching journal on my professional website. As far as analyzing this information, I found trends and themes through the active engagement involved in the topic at hand, talking about the subject content specific convers ations, and time on task during the project I found my students to be engaged through active collaboration, participation, and conversations at all times However, I found the students displayed more enthusiasm when the issue to problem solve and brainstorm was shorter as in the creation of an original app This observation led to a few short term projects after tackling the problems of 7 th grade life. These shorter projects included new inventions for transportation and desi gning the camera of the future. Grouping students by commonalities as well as mixing boys and girls also proved more successful.

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 27 Observing my students enabled me to identify particular behaviors which helped me analyze the success of this project. Specific behaviors I saw during this active collaboration include d respect, responsibility, acceptance, and leadership. Students also gradually became less dependent on asking me questions. The fear of failure was evident in the beginning of the study but became progressively less significant throughout the brainstorming process. On days where I started the class with warm u p or team building activities, positive behaviors were more obvious. Figure 4 : Team building activity, the Human Knot

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 28 Subjects I studied the behavioral effects of 7 th grade students after Design Thinking wa s implemented into my classroom. The students demonstrate d a diverse group of socio economic background s and ranged from age 12 to 14 The majority of these students we re Caucasian A few students in this group spo k e English as a second language and we re of M iddle E astern and East Indian descent. Afric an American and Asian students wer e the minority of this group. Figure 5 : Students demonstrated a diverse group of socio economic backgrounds.

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 29 Research Site The research of this project took place in a public school in a rural community in Missouri. The school is considered a middle school and educates approximately 900 students in the 5 th 6 th and 7 th grades. The rural community population is 19,506. An engineering university within this town attracts a diverse group of cultures. Data Collection Procedures My research metho dology was action research. Action research is a form of investigation that helps teachers improve their own teaching. I believe action research was the best choice for my study because it is very appropriate for educators seeking to improve an understanding of a situation in order t o increase effectiveness (Department of Library Science & Instructional Technology, 1999). I believe that t he practicality of making a better learning environment by evaluating the effectiveness of Design Thinking in my classroom will improve my curriculu m. Action research has help ed me explore factors to predict success or failure in my classroom The data sources I gather ed include d photographs of the classroom, instructional materials, still and video images of students working, student artwork, student writings, plans, and sketches, informal interviews with students and teachers, and my own teaching journal reflections. Data Analysis Through a ction research I create d my curriculum plan, act ed on the plan, observe d reflect ed and revise d the plan both as it unfolded in re a l time and at the end of the unit of study I found myself revising the plan; acting on the new plan in my subsequent teaching, and continuing the cyclical process of observation, reflection, and revision (Department of Library Science & Instructional Technology, 1999). This self reflective inquiry both help ed me remai n

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 30 organiz ed and facilitate d my work as I develop ed new strategies. I document ed student collaboration, student artwork, progress of prototypes, and student s reflections about their experiences. I a nalyze d this data by creating a tally sheet of the behaviors and outcomes I observe d. From this tally sheet I compare d the behaviors exhibited by the students each week. I found trends, themes, similarities, and commonalities of student behavior during the Design Thinking process. I also video recorded the students in order to review their behavior. My plan period follow ed the group in which I conduct ed my research This gave me ample time for consistent documentation of student behavior and observations. A t the end of the four weeks, I gave the students a survey to better understand their thoughts about the process of Design Thinking. Documentation In order to document the s tudent activity in this project, I continue d my role as a teacher, but also took a step back and watch ed I const antly walk ed around the classroom but allow ed some independence of my students while being aware of their behaviors To document my observations of student behavior, I photograph ed the students at work as well as their finished prototypes. I also video recorded the students while they collaborate d thus captur ing their behavior and conversations. My teacher journal was placed on a blog on my professional website alo ng with the photographs. I also use d a system where character words we re already written on a piece of paper, so I c ould quickly check off what I observe d (Appendix C) These documentations w ere critical to my analysis of the project. However, there were some limitations. Limitations of the Study

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 31 I believe as children grow to be adults, they will be more successful in all aspects of life if they learn and experience Design Thinking. Because this was not something I could prove in the short amount of time of this project, I had to settle for personal observation. Pride Time (ASI/RtI ) is the first 30 minutes of three days per week. In small group settings during Pride Time, students experience extra help with a difficult concept or an extracurricular activity designed by the teacher. This was an excellent situation for me to complete my research because this class is separate from my art classes where I already have my curriculum in place. The Figure 6 : Students constructing a prototype for a staggered bell schedule to reduce crowding.

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 32 population of my sample was small, including 25 students in an ASI (Area of Special Interest) class. Our meeting times were comprised of eighteen, 30 minute sessions. These periods rotate d some of the students in the group every two weeks for a semester. The inconsistency of student presence and the nature of the schedule inhibited stability in learning the Design Thinking process. I found it necessary to post and revisit the process frequ ently. Due to the inconsistent presence of students, I found it helpful to create and make available a worksheet type paper so the teams could have it to brainstorm and use as a reference (Appendix F ) The limitations of this research included: a restricted timespan for the study to be conducted; a very small group of students; an inconsistent population of students; limited to one classroom, and; a slight language barrier among some of the children. Wo rking with an inconsistent population of students every two weeks provided more variety but created more challenges for collaboration. The small group of students may or may not have been a good sampling of the student population at my school. Because I wi ll not be able to observe if behaviors continue outside of my research, I will not be confident that Design Thinking truly encourages positive behavior or improves grades or test scores. A small number of my students were not fluent in English. However, th e slight language barrier did not become a factor. Findings The main purpose of my study was to observe the behaviors of my 7 th grade students as they participated in the Design Thinking process. I had two important questions: What happens when I introduce Design Thinking into my classroom? How can Design Thinking facilitate creative problem solving behaviors in 7 th graders? Mo st of my observations were expected but exciting while some of the behaviors I noted were surprising and interesting.

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 33 F irst Observation: Design Thinking encourages positive behavior From t he very first Design Thinking class, only positive behaviors were observed. Students showed interest and enthusiasm as they learned they would be experimenting with a unique and specific style of problem solving. One student named Rachael 3 Good character traits such as responsibility, acceptance, leadership, perseverance, consideration, and cooperation became evident in each student. Students did not argue or ever respond in a negative manner. I only witnessed two kids seriously debating why one idea was better than the other. However, they settled on a combination of their ideas without my suggestion. I was pleasantly surprised to the open ness of all ideas and the ease in which students c a me to agreements on final decisions. T wo of the quietest girls unexpectedly displayed leadership to solving a problem after others 3 All student names are fictitious. Figure 7: Students brainstorming a new and improved playground

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 34 were unsuccessful. Watching my students collaborate to create their prototypes was so exciting! I was simply amazed by the work my students did together Each day they impress ed me even more. They seem ed to enjoy what they were doing as they smiled and laughed. Yet, at the same time, each took their jobs seriously, all without complainin g. I also observed positive w ords, sharing helping each other, focus, brain storming, and leadership from even the quietest kids. Second Observation: The environment plays an important factor in success I was reminded that both the physica l and emotiona l environment is crucial to student success. After 25 years of teaching, I understand the importance of greeting my students at the door each day. A couple of days I was preoccupied by a phone call and then distracted by the needs of a neighboring teacher. Although these situations were necessary to attend to, t he behavior of man y of the students was different than usual. I became aware of having to repeatedly remind them of simple expectations like making their way to their seats and keeping their hands to themselves. I also believe the energizer s used as warm up activities helpe d get the kids interested and excited Many students would ask what their warm up would be each day. If I displayed obvious disappointment As far as the physical environment, a few students need ed assistance finding supplies. This observation led to adding images to the words label ing some of my supply drawers to make the room more visual and accessible. The rows of drafting tables were often inhibiting to group work. Upon several occasions, students rearranged the tables into small groups, worked in a larger space on the floor, asked to work in the hall, or moved to what we call our Harkness Table. This table is based on the 1930s philosophy of Edward Harkness to make class more involving, s mart fun and the s ubject more interesting ( tip.duke.edu 2013) With each new art

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 35 class, I empower my students with the expectations around the Harkness Table S tudents naturally collaborate rather than compete with each other when sitting at the table discovered over the year s of having a Harkness Table in my classroom, that students seem to more easily and work. The table also provides a safe place to learn and interact. I had not considered the Harkness Table being an asset to this study but have now learned that just placing students in a circle or oval encourages posit ive interaction regardless of a designated table. Thir d Observation: Shorter projects create more enthusiasm I envisioned my students tackling a big project. I discovered they wer e more open to and more excite d about smaller projects that took less time or had less time in between meetings They displayed enthusiasm and interest about each project but were more focused when three days were used to tackle a problem as opposed to six days. The Design Thinking process allows students to move from one phase to another and back again with little down time. The biggest project, the playground conundrum, carried over to the next rotation of Pride Time. Getting the new team members up to sp eed and finding it necessary to revisit collaborated ideas between rotations hindered some of the earlier enthusiasm. This noticeable challenge led me to returning to a shorter problem. I made a variety of useful materials available to eliminate barriers t o success. In the more involved project s which addressed personal problems of 7 th grade and the playground project, stu dents had to go on location, work outside of class, and have computer access. This was very challenging for 7 th graders because of the inconsistency and short time of the ASI class. I've found my students are more responsive and enthusiastic if the projects are shorter. Between snow days and only meeting three days per week, the inconsistency p rovided some challeng es. Adjusting to shorter, quicker problems to solve ignited the enthusiasm.

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 36 Fourth Observation: Boys and girls solve problems differently Through my observation, I discovered more of the girls addressed solv ing problems through talking, writing, and sketching. The boys we re quick and eager to solve problems by constructing three dimensional prototypes. One young man named Paul said, enjoyed building The girls often need ed a little encouragement to move to the prototype step, especially if it was three dimensional. The boys would rush through the first steps just to be able to build their design. When I mixed girls and boys together, teams were more successful than if gen ders were separated. Fifth Observation: Groupings chosen by the teacher are more successful I quickly learned that allowing students to gr oup themselves did not generate as much success. This reminded me of why I was not a fan of collaborative learning over my years of teaching. When students grouped themselves, they were typically off task and more critical of me students would be left out. Interestingly I did find students would invite individuals into their group if I publicly asked the lone student which team they were o n. I also discovered creating games in order to group students by commonalities created m ore unity and acceptance. Some of the ways I assembled kids were by common traits such as: birth month, eye color, number of siblings, height, and favorite subjects.

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 37 Discussion and Conclusion Design Thinking is basically an exploratory process that, when done correctly, will make unexpected discoveries through a collaborative process (Brown, 2009) It is essentially a human centered innovation process emphasizing observation, collaboration, quick learning, visualization of ideas, and rapid prototyping ( Lockwood, 2009). The process involves three overlapping spaces and five simple areas of consideration: e mpathize, define, ideate, prototype, and test. A team of people work through the areas of consideration in order to solve a problem or make something better. This collaborative method is vital to productivity in the business world. However, Design Thinking has become mo re popular in education. Teaching the Design Figure 8 : Student success through teacher controlled groupings and facing each other. Limitations were evident through physical placement of tables.

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 38 Thinking process to students can give them the opportunity to work together for the common good. I believe this method is an effective way to develop meaningful learning, social skills, positive ch aracter traits, and independence from the spoon fed phenomena. With this capstone, and through action research, I h ave discover ed what happens when I introduce Design Thinking into my classroom. I have investigate d Design Thinking and the influence it ha s on character development. I am confident it will improve my curriculum and assist my students in positive behavior, brainstorming, and creative problem solving for years to come. I am hopeful that in sharing my research with others, Design Thinking will become commonplace in all subjects in education. Interpretations of my Findings Based on my observations and research, I believe the Design Thinking process is a very effective way to teach students how to think instead of what to think. I have see n this process encourage positive character and behavior. I have witnessed excitement and a passion for learning as students took control of their own learning. Thinking seems to be a much better way to learn becau Through collaboration, problem solving, and brainstorming, students displayed enthusiasm, natural leadership, and acceptance. Significance of my Findings and Recommendations Educators of all subject areas who are interested in developing meaningful learning within their classrooms s hould become familiar with and implement Design Thinking. Twelve year old happier to learn this way than just sitting down and doing As my research reveals, this process provides

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 39 opportunities for students to learn they can be successful even through failure. Learning to problem solve and brainstorm t hrough this effective method will provide assurance for a successful future for individuals and for society. centered approach, driven by human empathy, can bring change through building relationships and by combining ideas. Author of Glimmer Warren Berger provided me some interest ing answer s when asked about Design Thinking in education: I think it would be good to teach design thinking to kids. Whether or not it's called by this name, I think it's important for kids to learn creative problem solving -how to think about a prob lem, learn more about it, ask the right kinds of questions, come up with ideas, and then try to act on those ideas. If kids can deeply absorb some form of this process, it can help them throughout their lives. Start with teachers: help them understand w hat's going on with design thinking, why it's important and effective in today's world, and help them to grasp the basic principles. Once they've taken that in, they will be the best ones to figure out how to transfer it to kids, how it should be present ed, which parts are most useful / relevant to their students, etc. I think if the teachers truly understand & believe in it, they will figure out how to teach it. (W. Berger, personal communication, May 6, 2013) I am excited to fully incorporate Design Thinking into my curriculum of journalism and art. I will make it a priority to educat e other teachers to consider it as well. My suggestions will

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 40 include my findings of successful grouping, emotional environment, physical settings, and the length and cons istency of addressing problems. As Berger communicated, how Design Thinking is presented can be determined by the teacher. This suggestion in itself securely incorporates meaningful learning. Through the plethora of new information onli ne, my contact information and documentation recorded on my professional website, other educators have easy access to integrate Design Thinking into their own classroom. Figure 9: A p layground prototype Figure 10: E xample prototypes solving problems with lockers, transportation, crowded places, and being tired.

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 41 R eferenc es Archimedes. Retrieved from http://thinkexist.com/quotation/give me a place to stand and a lever long enough/411159.html Arts Education Partnership. (2004). The arts and education: New opportunities for research Retrieved from http://www.aep arts.org Barrier Ferreira, J. (2009). Producing c ommodities or e ducating c hildren? Nurturing the p ersonal g rowth of s tudents in th e f ace of s tandardized t esting. Clearing House : A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas. (January February 2008), 81 (3), 138 140. Beckman, S. & Berry, M. (2007). Innovation as a learning process: embedding design thinking. California Management Review. 50(1), 25 36. Benson, E. (2003). Intelligent i ntelligence t esting: Psychologists are broadening the concept of intelligence and how to test it. Monitor on Psychology 34(2), 48 51. Berger, W. (2009). Glimmer New York: The Penguin Press. [Video file]. Retrieved fr om http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BmeFlWkrHf0 Blunden, A. (2001). The Vy otsky S chool Retrieved from http://webpages.charter.net/schmolze1/vygotsky/ Brown, T. (2009). Change by design HarperCollins Publishers Inc., New York, NY

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 42 Brown, T. & Wyatt, J. (2010). Design thinking for s ocial i nnovation. Stanford S ocial I nnovation R eview. Retrieved from http://tamarackcci.ca/files/desi gn_thinking_for_social_innovation_ _ssir.pdf Buchanan, R. (1999). Design research and the new learning. Design I ssues (Autumn, 2001), 17(4), 3 23. Buchanan, R. (1992). Wicked p roblems in design thin king. Design Issues (Spring 1992), 8(2), 5 21. Department of Library Science & Instructional Technology. (1999). Action research. Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven, CT. Retrieved from http://www.southernct.edu/~brownm/act1.html Design. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.merriam webster.com/dictionary/design Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and education Kappa Delta Pi. Simon & Shuster. Dick, B. (1999). What is a ction r esearch ? Retrieved from http://www.aral.com.au/resources/arphome.html Droste, M., & Archiv, B. (2002). Bauhaus: 1919 1933 Taschen. Gerlach, J. M. (1994). Is this collaboration? Collaborative learning: Underlying proc esses and effective techniques, new directions for teaching and learning doi: 10.1002/tl.37219945903 Goldman, S. & Roth, B. (n.d.). Taking design thinking to schools. Retrieved from http://stanford.edu/dept/SUSE/taking design/index.html

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 43 Innovation, Design Engineering Organization (2012). IDEO Retrieved from http://www.ideo.com/about/ Jana, R. (Host). (n.d.).Design thinking can be learned [V ideo file]. Retrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/videos#video=xhNXBrMjqu9x8m5wJL8yo8 79_pIMSxF John Steiner, V., & Mahn, H. (n.d.). Sociocultural approache s to learning and development: A Vygotskyan framework Retrieved from http://webpages.charter.net/schmolze1/vygotsky/ Kelley, T. (2005). The ten faces of innovation: Ideo's strategies for defe ating the devil's advocate and driving creativity throughout your organization (1st ed.). New York: Doubleday. problems. Fast Company New York, NY: Mansueto Ventures, LLC. Retrieved from http://www.fastcodesign.com/1663416/teaching kids design thinking so they can solve the worlds biggest problems t hinking from IDEO [Audio file]. Crosscurrent Public Radio. KALW News. Retrieved from http://kalwnews.org/audio/2009/10/15/desi gn thinking ideo_13900.html t hinking in the c lassroom [Audio file]. Crosscurrent Public Radio. KALW News. Retrieved from http://kalwnews.org/audio/design thinking classroom Lockwood, T. (2009). Design t hinking New York, NY: Allworth Press. as art education? Studies in Art Education, 64 (1), 14 19.

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 44 Merrow, J. (2001). Testing, a ssessment, and e xcellence. An excerpt from Choosing Excellence: Scarecrow Press. Retrieved on November 22, 2012. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/schools/testing/merrow.html Ravitch, D. (2010). Stop the m adness. Adapted from The Death and Life of the Great American School System: How Testing and Choice Are Undermining Education Basic Books. Retrieved from http://www.nea.org/home/39774.htm Rolla Middle School (2012). Rolla Middle Retrieved from http://rolla.k12.mo.us/schools/rolla_middle_school/response_to_intervention/ RTI Action Network. (20 13). Retrieved from http://www.rtinetwork.org/learn/what/whatisrti Sacks, P (1999). Standardized m inds: The h igh p rice of A t esting c ulture and w hat w e c an d o to c hange i t. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books. Simon, H. (1996). The sciences of the artificial (3rd ed.). Cambridge, MA : The MIT Press. Stanford Social Innovation Review. (2010). The origin of design thinking. Retrieved from http://www.ssireview.org/articles/entry/design_thinking_for_social_innovation/ Stanford University. (2009). Taking design thinking to schools. Retrieved from http://stanford.edu/dept/SUSE/taking design/presentations/Taking design to school.pdf The K 12 lab wiki. (n.d.). Retrieved November 4, 2012, from https://dschool.stanford.edu/groups/k12/

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 45 The Process. (n.d.). Retrieved November 5, 2012, from http://www.kdtconsulting.org/ Tingley Tyler C. ( n.d. ). Educating with the harkness table. Retrieved April 21, 2013 from http://www.tip.duke.edu/node/576

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 46 Appendix A

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 47 Appendix B

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 48 Appendix C

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 49 Appendix D

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 50 Appendix E

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 51 Appendix F

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 52 List of Figures with Figure Captions Figure 1: The Design Thinking Process Figure 2: Original apps and iPod created by students Figure 3: Brainstorming with sticky notes Figure 4: Teambuilding activity the Human Knot Figure 5: Students demonstrated a diverse group of socio economic backgrounds Figure 6: Students constructing a prototype Figure 7: Students brainstorming a new and improved p layground Figure 8: Teacher controlled groupings. Limitations through environment Figure 9: P Figure 10: E xample prototypes, lo ckers, transportation, crowded places 39

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DESIGN THINKING AS COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN EDUCATION: OBSERVING STUDENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE DESIGN THINKING PROCESS 53 Author Biography Laurie Herrman Myers has been teaching art in Missouri since 1988. Her teaching experiences include 5 th grade to adult in the areas of art and journalism She is a graduate of Rolla High School in Rolla, Missouri Laurie completed her Bachelor of Science degree in education from William Woods University in Fulton, Missouri with an emphasis in art and English. A lifelong participant in the arts, Laurie especially enjoys drawing, painting, and photography. Her other hobbies include kaya king and four wheeling with her family.