Territory of Florida (Second Edition), 2


Material Information

Territory of Florida (Second Edition), 2
Series Title:
John Lee Williams Papers
Physical Description:
Williams, John Lee, 1775-1856
Creation Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Lawyers -- Correspondence -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Historians -- Correspondence -- Florida   ( lcsh )
History -- Sources -- Picolata (Fla.) -- 19th century   ( lcsh )
St Johns -- 12109   ( ceeus )
Escambia -- 12033   ( ceeus )
Leon -- 12073   ( ceeus )


Papers, biographical sketch, correspondence, newspaper clipping. This collection contains miscellaneous papers related to John Lee Williams. The longest item is a 300+ unpublished manuscript, intended to be an expanded and revised edition of his "Territory of Florida" (1837), in which he devotes more space to the Second Seminole War. There are also biographical sketches, minor receipts and deeds, and letters written by John King of Charleston to William's stepson, Washington M. Ives, concerning property in St. Augustine.
Civil engineer, lawyer, Florida pioneer, historian.
Florida". He quit his law practice and gathered quite a reputation as an eccentric who was known for his walks around the dangerous Indian territory around Picolata, but was never harmed. A story of his evasion of a group of Indians who murdered a troupe of actors is included.
Source of Description:
Originally derived from archival-level ALEPH record 028340846 ( OCLC: 50656958 )
Funded by the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC) as part of the Pioneer Days in Florida Project

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
P.K. Yonge Library of Florida History, Special Collections
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
System ID:

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Nv ,1497. Sebastian Cabot, sailing under the flag of England, first discover-
ed the coast of Florida and sailed along its easternshore, but did
t not land to examine the interior of the country. -
'- 1512. Twenty-two years afterwards, Ponce de Leon, a Spanish adven-
turer of Hispaniola, was led, by the fictions of a Carib girl, to ex-
plore the country in search of a fountain, which she stated would renovate
old age and restore departed youth. But old age and infirmities grew upon
him during his search, for which he was never so fortunate as to discover
a remedy. He landed at a place called Punta Tanchi, now Cape Sable.
It is the southernmost point of Florida. It was on Easter Day, and the
country being covered with a verdant foliage, induced him to bestow upon
it the name of Florida. In attempting to penetrate the interior of the
country, which is low and marshy, he lost many of his people, and the rest
re-embarked, greatly distressed for want of food, which they could not
obtain till they arrived at the islands.
1516. A second voyage made by de Leon, to search for gold, was not
more successful, for being attacked by the natives in their swamps,
they lost several brave men, and the remainder were obliged to retreat on '
board of their vessels.
1518. Two years after, Luke Valasquez sailed from Cuba and landed
at St. Helena, S. C. The natives received him in a friendly man-
ner, and supplied his crew with provisions. He returned their kindness
with apparent civility, and invited a great number to go on board his vessel
which they had no sooner done, than they were seized and bound in chains.
Some few jumped overboard and swam to the shore, where immense
numbers being gathered, they were fired on by Velasquez, and many of the
astonished natives were wantonly killed and wounded. Velasquez having
arrived at Cuba, disposed of his cargo for the purpose of working the
Mexican mines. Numbers of them had starved themselves to death
others died of grief. The white motister was so well satisfied with
1520. his success, that he tried the event of another voyage, and it were
greatly to be wished that all kidnappers might meet the same
punishment. The natives were not a second time deceived, but fell upon
them as soon as they had decoyed them from the coast, and killed two
hundred. The rest fled to their vessels and immediately set sail, but
S. ?encountering a terrible storm they were shipwrecked and all prished
except Velasquez himself; he was picked up, and returned to pass the
remainder of his life in misery and remorse. Spanish historians assert that
he incurred the King's displeasure, and was recalled.
1524. Florida had by this time acquired considerable importance in the
: ; eyes of the Spaniards. They could not conceive that any people



oinorth latitude, dines towards the centre in form of a disyi 'e bord I of
which is raised towa s the coast. Near Cape Florida, th border from
twe e to twenty miles fomi the sea beach. It is form of the sa /e cal-
careos rock which skirts, the Gulf of Mexico as far est as the A apalache
River. This vast basin i filled with marshes, wt savannas, i tersected -^
by exte sive lakes and lago ns, forming a labyr th which take/i togeth,
is called t e Everglades. ". It is drained on every
side by rive s of different dimen ons. The t. Johns drains i/on the north,
The St. Lu ia, Greenville, Jupit New ivr, Rattones a/ Miami on the
east, and Sn e, Swallow, Delaw r Caloosahatche, an Macaco on the
west. Behin Cape Florida, the des approach within twelve miles of
the coast. Th inlets may her be as ended in one dat, notwithstanding
the swiftness of heir current
On reaching th level of e glades, a va t grass meadow is expanded,
apparently as bou less as the ocean ; you hen ass on the winding la-
goons from six to tx e miles westwardly a. L *-s-
qpp4 and you ar tt in an unexplored grassy7 a e to which you can dis-
cover no bounds. It l by extends near to the eastern shore of the Gulf.
SThe grassy borders of t s lake is usually covered with water during the
winter season, not so deep however, as to hijle the grass which is very thick
and tall. During the sum er, the groltd is often dry and hard for ten
miles from the timbered lan This tr t is at all times'stocked with wild
game, and would afford a perior r nge for cattle. On viewing for the
first time, this singular region, was 1 d into many reflections on its origin
capabilities and future destination as it recently risen from the ocean ?
Is the land still rising on the bord f.nd encroaching on the lake, from the
masses of grass and other plants abundantly produced from this very pro-
ductive limestone rock? /
Could it be drained by deepe ng th natural outlets ? Would it not open
to cultivation immense tract of rich vegetable soil ? Could the water
power, obtained bydraining' be improve to any useful purposes? Would
such draining render the country unhealtl ? Can the Spanish tradition be
true, that pearl fisherieshvere formerly esta lished in these lakes ?
Many queries like tlese passed through ur minds. 'They can only be
solved by a thorou.4h examination of the whole country. Could the
waters be lowered ton feet, it would probably rain six hundred thousand
acres ; should this'prove to be a rich soil, as wou seem probable, what a A
field would it opn for tropical productions! Wha facilities for commerce !
La Vego relays that pearls were abundant among th. natives of Florida at
the time of the invasion of De Soto.. An old manusc ipt in my possession,
asserts that'a governor of Florida appointed a commis i-n, for the purpose
of seekirli pearls in t -lakes, and that they were successful. ) ./"',, /,(

/ ,^ i ... r



should fight with so much determination, unless they had mines of gold to
defend. Francis de Guerray obtained a grant 'of the country from the
King of Spain, but dying soon after, he was succeeded by de Allyon, who
raised forces and invaded the country. Instead of gold mines, he found
0-only swamps filled with armed savages ready to attack them at every
natural defile. He soon fled from the coast with the loss of half his
1528. Four years after Pamphillo de Narvaes, succeeded to the honor of
sacrificing himself, and a small army of adventurers to the prevail-
ing thirst for gold. He set sail with 400 foot, and forty horse, from St.
Jago de Cuba, and arrived on the coast of Florida on the 12th day of April,
and took formal possession of the country, for the King of Spain. It is un-
certain at this period, at what place Narvaes disembarked his troops, but
from the length of time he spent in traversing the country to Appalache, he
must have landed as far south as Charlotte Bay. He landed in a deep bay,
in sight of Indian wigwams, but the natives had deserted them. He proceed-
ed inland with his forces-, and struck another still larger bay, and soon dis-
covered savages, who offered him corn. Among then he discovered some
wooden cases containing dead Indians, covered with skins, ornamented with
Paintings, together with pieces of cloth, and sprigs of gold. On being in-
formed that the gold was brought from Appalache, Narvaes immediately
ordered his troops to march thither by land. His treasurer, Cobeca de
Vaca, endeavored in vain to dissuade him. He commenced his march on
the first of May, with 300 foot and -1 40 horse;, having distributed to each,
two pounds of biscuit, and half a pound of pork. Fifteen days they tra-
versed a desolate country, void of inhabitants and food. They at length
reached a large river, which they crossed, partly by swimming, and partly
on rafts ; the opposite shore was inhabited by Indians, who fuirnished them
with corn. Having rested and explored the coast, they found it shoal and
without ports. They then proceeded 15 days without any signs of an in-
habitant, till the 17th June, when they fell in with a tribe of savages,
whose sachem was clothed in a deer's hide, elegantly painted. The Indi-
ans took them to their town, and supplied them with corn and venison
informed them that they were enemies of the Appalacheans, and pointed
out to them the course to pursue. After exchanging presents, the
Spaniards departed, and travelled six days through swamps and marshes,
a almost impassable. On the 25th they reached Appalache, an inland town,
and at once fell upon the natives, without warning or parley, and slaugh-
tered them without mercy. The town consisted of forty comfortable wig-
wams, well stocked with corn, skins and garments made of bark cloth.
20 -

' 1 ,4 ;


But they found no gold. They continued 25 days at this village, during
which time, they were twice assaulted by the natives.
Narvaez divided his troops into three companies and directed them to
scour the country, but their labor was vain ; they discovered neither gold
nor food. They kept the Indian Chief in chains, and travelled south for -
nine days, when they reached another savage town. .During this route.,
they were constantly harassed by the savages, who continually lurked
about their camp, and killed many of their horses during the night. On
approaching the town of Auta they were attacked by the natives, and a
bloody battle ensued, in which many Spaniards, but more Indians, were
slain. The wild troops at length were broken and the town sacked and
plundered. A great quantity of corn, peas, gourds and fruits were found
.which furnished a seasonable supply to the starving Spaniards.
De Vaca was then despatched with an exploring party to examine the
coast. In three days he returned with information that the sea was distant,
and that the deep bays were lined with dismal swamps and marshes.
Their horses were nearly all destroyed, they could proceed no further by
land, and they had no boats to convey them to sea.
In this distressed situation they moved slowly down the river, and at its
mouth killed the few remaining horses, made boats of their hides, and
twisted ropes from the hair of the manes and tails, cut up their shirts for
sails, and by the 20th of September they set sail in five boats, directing .
their course towards Mexico. During this extreme exertion, the natives
retaliated upon them the cruelties they had before inflicted at Appalache.
Ten of the Spaniards were picked off while they laid at Auta.
They set sail on the 22d of September, but made little progress. They
wandered seven days in unknown bays. At length they found their way
into the open sea, and stretched northward along the shore, but they suffer-
ed excessively for want of water. Fish they caught in considerable
quantities, but no fresh water could be found near the beach, and they he-
sitated to penetrate into the country, from fear of the savages. At length,
with great difficulty and danger they weathered the southern point of a
long cape, (South Cape,) and again approached the continent. Here the
natives appearing friendly, they ventured on shore, and were supplied with
fresh water and fish. This treatment lulled them into security, and they
went to rest after so many sufferings: but in the dead of night the Indians
made a sudden and fierce attack upon them, and rescued the imprisoned ,
chief. The Spaniards broke in confusion and fled to their boats, which
they were happy to regain, short as they were of provisions and water.
Narvaez here received a severe wound.
They sailed three days, and then were again obliged to put in shore for
water. Here they took the precaution to exchange hostages with the na-

.. '* / ^


tives, before they proceeded to the watering place; but the savages soon
retook their hostages, and kept the Spanish hostages prisoners.
Narvaez was obliged to run out to sea and leave these men to the mercy
of the enraged savages. The surf beat so violently on the coast that they
k-were obliged to keep far from the shore, where they were soon separated by
stress of weather, and but erie of them was ever heard of afterwards.
That commanded by Cabecca De Vaca was driven upon an island, where
they found about one hundred Indians, who at first attacked the Spaniards,
but being allured by some gaudy-presents they became friendly, and supplied
them with water and provisions. These, however, were soon exhausted and
the Spaniards were again obliged to proceed on their voyage. Their suf-
ferings were extreme, for a great length of time, on a barren coast, lined with
savages, and fifteen, only, of the eighty soldiers that embarked at Auta,
under DeVaca, reached the province of Mexico.
It was customary at this period for the Indians on the coast of Florida, to
.destroy all their prisoners. A singluar exception to this practice, soon after
occurred. Among the few of Narvaez soldiers, who were so fortunate as
to escape, there was a, man named Ortez, active and enterprizing, who
among others, got back to Cuba in a small boat. In detailing the events of
their defeat to the wife of Narvaez, she was led to suspect that her husband
might have been abandoned by his troops, and might still be living on the
Florida Coast. She prevailed upon Ortez, by a great reward, to return
and search for him, and fitted out a small pinnace to convey him back to the
hostile coast. Ortez returned, but being watched by the natives, he was
taken prisoner.
While on the point of being sacrificed, the daughter of the Indian Chief
interceded in his favor, and obtained him from her father, and he lived
several years with her. But being honored with the defence of a burying
Ground, where some chief was lately deposited, he suffered a wolf to disinter
and drag out the body, and although he pursued and killed the wolf, yet he
was a second time sentenced to death, when his wife again privately re-
leased him, and directed him to flee southward until he should reach the
confines of the Tampa Bay,; where he should find Macaco, a powerful
chief, a friend of hers, who would protect him. He fled accordingly, and
found an asylum from his enemies until the conquest of De Soto.
1539. It was eleven years, before a leader could be found to reassert the
Spanish claim to Florida. Ferdinand De Soto, a brave Spanish
cavalier who had greatly distinguished himself in the conquest of Peru, and
thus rendered himself an object of suspicion to the ambitious conquerors of
"that important kingdom, was induced to relinquish the path of glory, at the
price of a million and a half of dollars.

HIearing the country of Florida described, and the destruction of his
countrymen lamented, he seemed disposed to make an essay, to redeem the
national honor. He therefore applied to the King for permission to fit out
an expedition for that purpose. His petition was readily granted. He
proceeded to purchase seven ships, a~nd three cutters, which he armed andw
equipped for the expedition. He enlisted one thousand men, three hundred
of whom were cavaliers, well mounted on excellent horses ; he sailed in the
spring of the year, as far as Cuba, where he made some stay, and here he
married the sister of the famous Bovadilla. He at length proceeded to
Florida, and landed at Tampa Bay. The country bordering this bay was
Governed by an Indian chief, named Hiriga, who also gave the same name
to the province, as was the custom among these people.
De Soto forbid his followers to molest the natives, as they had shown
no hostile disposition towards the Spaniards, and he was desirous of
cultivating their friendship. But Porcello, one of his captains of horse, had
observed the old chief Hiriga, to enter a deep swamp, very frequently, and
he thought that he might distinguish himself, by seizing the old man and
conveying him to his general. He therefore watched an opportunity to
surround the swamp, with his squadron, and beat up the old man's quar-
ters. Hiriga was not to be surprised, he poured a shower of arrows on the
Spaniards, accompanied with hideous yells. The horses were frightened,
and fell into confusion, and Porcello was obliged to retreat. He became a
subject of sport to his companions, which mortified him to such a degree,
that he begged a cutter of the General, to convey him out of the camp ;
this was granted to him, and he returned to Cuba.
Soon after this event, a reconnoitering party was sent under Col. Mu-
caco, to explore the interior of the country. They were one day suddenly
surprised by a small party of men rushing upon them. Taking them for
enemies, Mucaco0 ordered a charge, when one of the assailants cried out, in
the Spanish language, begged them not to kill their countryman. Muca-
co was astonished, and withheld his men from the assault. An explanation
ensued, and Ortez, of whom we have before spoken, made himself known
to his countrymen. He had remained a prisoner twelve years, had acquired
the language of the country, and was from this period, of infinite service to
de Soto, in his intercourse with the natives.
Mucaco, the chief who had protected Ortez, governed a Province which
was situate fifty-one miles east of Hiriga, and was near the present Indiana.
town of Hichapucksassy. Through the mediation of Ortez, this chief be-
came the-friend and ally of the Spaniards. He also induced his kinsman,
Uribarricuxi, who governed the next district, to become also an ally.



Acuera, was the next province, it was divided from Uribarricuxi, by a deep
swamp, beyond which it extended northwardly sixty miles. De Soto also
acquired the friendship of Acuera, and during twenty days that the Spanish
troops traversed his dominions, he supplied them with abundance of food.
. The province of Acuera, probably embraced the Indian towns of Oakahum-
ky, or Piclaklakaha.
The next province entered by the Spaniards was called Ocala; it must
have been the neighborhood of Fort King. For thirty miles they marched
through a country of tall pines. more fertile than the lands near the sea.
The population was more dense, and the lands were well cultivated. For
some leagues, the houses were thickly scattered along the road, before they
reached the town. Ocala contained six hundred houses. The chief was
friendly, and supplied the Spaniards abundantly with walnuts, sun-raisins,
beans, millet, and other provisions. For eighteen miles beyond Ocala, the
lands continued fertile, with pleasant rustic dwellings, the country spotted
with ponds and small streams.
The Spaniards left Ocala, and marched twenty-four miles in two days.
On the evening of the third, the weather being fine, they marched all night,
and early in the morning they reached the town of Ochili, perhaps Chichile.
This was a large town in the province of Vitachucco, and must have been
south of the Allachua prairie. It was fortified with pallisadoes, it'contain-
ed near five hundred houses that of the chief, was one hundred and twen-
ty feet long, contained a great many rooms, and was placed on an artificial
De Soto here departed from the pacific course which he had hitherto pursued
towards the natives. His army dashed suddenly into the town, the aston-
ished inhabitants flew to arms, and made a short resistance ; it was wholly
useless against the arms and discipline of their invaders, they submitted won-
deting what kind of enemies had assailed them. De Soto then endeavored
to conciliate them with kind treatment, and believed that he had secured
their friendship.
Vitachucco was governed by three brothers, who alternately assumed
the reins of Government, during which time they resided at the Capital,
while the other two retired to the country. At this time the last mention-
ed brothers came into the city, appeared friendly, and presented vegetables
(legumes) to the troops, who with great pleasure returned their good will.
,Two days march brought the Spaniards to Vitachucco, the Capital. Here
the chief received them in a very friendly and hospitable manner, and
lodged De Soto in his palace.
SThis town contained about twenty houses, for the chiefs, that were very
large, and a great number of smaller ones. Here the Spaniards continued





four days, during which time, some of them discovered that great quantities
of arms were brought into the city, and that large bodies of men were con-
cealed at a short distance, behind a copse of woods. De Soto was immedi- -
ately notified of these facts; he concealed the information from Vitachucco,
who continued to treat his enemies with great hospitality.
On the morning of the fourth day, De Soto led forth his troops in order of
battle, attended by Vitachucco and a large guard of Indians. Just as they
were emerging from the wood into a large prairie, Vitachucco snatched De
Soto's sword and made a violent pass to stab him. De Soto parried the
stroke, and beat the savage to the ground; he was saved by his guards,
and a fierce battle succeeded. Six thousand Indians occupied the wood
and the prairie, they fell upon the Spaniards with hideous yells, and the
battle raged most of the day. The Spaniards were faithfully supported by
their Indian allies, especially by the Uribarricuxians, who fought most
bravely. The Vitachuccans were at length driven into an extensive grassy
lake filled with water, where the Spaniards could not follow them. De
Soto placed sentinels around the borders of the marsh, and rested on the
field of battle. During the night the Vitachuccans rallied in the marsh,
,and broke into the prairie, but great numbers of them being killed, the rest
In the morning De Soto proceeded on his march towards Osachili, the
Tallahasoche of the Seminoles, near Mico, in 'Hamilton County, twelve
miles. At evening they encamped on the banks of a large river. Tbis
river (probably the Suwalnne) separated the provinces of Vitachucco and
Osachili. On the western side the natives had assembled in great numbers,
to oppose the passage of the Spaniards. Early on the next morning the
troops were in motion; several large rafts were constructed, on which were
pushed over one hundred fusiliers, and sixty cavaliers with their horses.
Their landing was sharply disputed, but the natives at length gave way
before the fire-arms and discipline of their invaders, and the whole army
followed in quick succession. A beautiful country opened here to the
Spaniards; the earth was covered with corn, vegetables, grapes, and nuts.
The capital of the province was at no great distance. It contained about
two hundred houses ; the possession of it was sharply and resolutely con-
tested by the inhabitants, but the Spaniards at last forced a passage and
entered in triumph. De Soto, by great kindness, soon quieted the fierce
savages, and when he learned that the Appalacheans were making war
on Osachili, he volunteered his services to assist in conquering that rice
and powerful province, where, he took it for granted, that he could spend
the winter in peace and plenty. He spent but three days at Osachili -t
recruit his troops, and to collect a stock of provisions for the journey. On
the morning of the fourth day they commenced their march for Appalache,

and in three days they hal progressed thirty-six miles, through a barren
country of pine trees, destitute of inhabitants. On the fourth day they
arrived at an immense swamp (Oscilla,) covered with weeds and vines,
with water from two to six feet deep. It was more than two miles across;
tne-devious path which led through it had been fortified by the Indians in
the best manner their ingenuity could suggest, by floating logs, trees and
brush across it, and fastening them with vines and wythes. They also
dug many holes under the water and stuck down sharp stakes to maim
the horses. De Soto was anxious to avoid this place and to find another
crossing. He therefore encamped his army, and sent an exploring party
of two hundred infantry and thirty horsemen to examine the country, but
the swamp continued in front of them, with no other pass across it. On
their return, De Soto drew up his army and made a desperate attack with
his whole force, but was beaten back and obliged to retreat to his camp.
The battle was renewed the next day, with no better success. The
pass swarmed with Indians, who closed in with the Spaniards,hand to hand
and fought with desperation, and being perfectly acquainted with the
ground, had many advantages over their invaders. Besides, they had
twelve years before successfully attacked Narvaez in this very place, and
felt certain of defending the pass.
On the third day, De Soto placed himself at the head of his troops and
led them to the charge, and was bravely supported by Col. Mucoco, at
the head of his guards; they bore down all opposition and after six hours
desperate fighting, they forced a passage through the swamp and encamp-
ed on the western side, upon a low savanna. Here they rested the next
day and sent out reconnoitering parties, to examine the country. These
parties were constantly waylaid, and many of the solders were severely
wounded by arrows. They discovered that another swamp (Mickasukee)
lay before them, at a few miles distance. During the night, the savages
hovered about them, howling like wolves, but made no attack. At an early
hour in the morning the army took up the line of march, and having reached
tlje odier swamp they made no stop, but plunged in amid the. howling
savages, who received them with a perfect shower of arrows.
Every obstruction, that savages could invent, was here opposed to the
Spaniards, and they fought for their last stake, like brave men. The fire-
looks and horses of the Spaniards confounded them. Inch by inch, the
passagee was contested, until every obstacle-was demolished. and the
Spaniards at length found themselves again on solid ground. At two
.o'clock in the afternoon a small village was gained, on the west side of the
swamp, where the army encamped for the night. The Indians gave them
Sno rest, but attacked the sentinels in every direction. At day light, they



proceeded towards the capital, through rich and highly cultivated lands.
Fields of millet and other vegetables covered the ground. Scattering
houses formed an irregular village the whole way.
Towards evening they arrived at a deep brook, with tall trees of hard
wood on its banks; here the Indians kept them at bay another night.
The Spaniards made several unsuccessful attempts to carry a palisade,
but at each attempt they were beaten off by the Indians, who fought with
desperation. Early in the morning, De Soto made a final assault and
forced a passage.
From this place they marched without farther opposition, over highly
cultivated fields to Appalache, the capital of the province. It was situated
sixteen miles from the first swamp, (probably on the western side of Mick-
asookee Lake.) It contained two hundred and fifty large houses, hand-
somely built, and the adjacent country was thickly sprinkled over with
Small villages of 60 to 70 houses lay in; different directions, to the dis-
tance of six or eight miles. Provisions were abundant for men and horses.
Fish in particular were caught in great quantities in lakes and streams7
both here and at Ochili. Reconnoitering parties were sent out to examine
the country in various directions. They found the country fertile for 20
miles generally. Towards the sea it became cold and and wet, and north-
ward and westward piney and thin land. One party, under Mucoco, dis-
covered the bones of Narvaez' horses at Auta Bay, thirty miles
When De Soto had become quietly settled in these quarters for the
winter, he despatched a party of twenty cavaliers under the command of
Dalhusco, to Hirigat ordering the vessels to be brought round into the mouth
of the Appalache River. This service was performed at great risk.
The party escaped pretty well, by the rapidity of their movements, until
they reached the Big Swamp, here they could not evade an attack; it was
a pass always guarded by the natives, but the intrepidity of the Spaniards
beat down all opposition, and the swiftness of their horses soon bore them
out of danger. At Osachili they were obliged to construct a raft to bear
them across the current; here the Indians collected again and showered
arrows upon them, but they landed without any loss, and arrived in safety
at Tampa. The vessels soon after set sail andarrived in safety at Appa-
lache River, at a place called Auta.
About Christmas De Soto despatched Maldonado with a small body of
infantry, to explore the coast to the westward of Auta. He returned in_
January and informed De Soto that he had discovered a good harbor, of
excellent depth, 180 miles to the west, which the natives called Ochuse,



/ ^r)


and that there were considerable signs of gold in the neighborhood. De
Soto was much pleased, and despatched MaldonadQ to Havana for warlike
implements, as well as for tools to work the mines. The Indians, in the
meantime, often attacked the Spaniards, and beat up their quarters in the
" adjoining villages, but they were usually repelled. About this time a
young Indian was brought before the governor, who had been taken
prisoner at Napetaka. He stated that he was a native of the eastern
coast, at a country called Yupaha. That it abounded in gold, and he went
on to describe the process of extracting it from the ore so minutely, that he
imposed on those who were best acquainted with the subject. They stated
to De Soto that it was impossible for the Indian to describe the matter
so correctly, unless he had seen the process of smelting, refining, &c.
This raised the spirits of the whole army, and De Soto determined to march
for Yupaha in three days. Every man was ordered to prepare for himself
provisions for a journey of 60 leagues. These consisted of corn, dried
grapes and dried persimmons, with a little dried fish. They marched four
days over a barren country, when they arrived at a large river, rapid and
deep, (the Flint, in Early county, Ga.) They obtained a large canoe, and
with the help of a long rope crossed the army over in a day and a half. On
the 11th of March they arrived at an Indian town, called Copochique.
Here the Indians became very hostile, often attacking the foraging parties,
and were sure to cut off all stragglers. When pursued they threw them-
selves into marshes, where it was in vain to follow them. De Soto left
this place as soon as provisions were renewed, and marched to Toalli,
which he reached on the 21st of March. At this place the houses were
covered with reeds ranged like tiles, the walls built of pales, and so plaster-
ed as to appear like stone. In these houses they built large fires, because
the winter was rather cold. Their granaries were raised on four posts,
with floors made of canes. Both in their dress and buildings, these people
were more civilized than the Indians near the coast. Their deer skins were
dyed of beautiful colors, and from the inside bark of a tree they made quite
a handsome kind of linen cloth.
They staid but two days at Toalli; on the 23d, they approached
Achesi; the inhabitants retired, but the Chief being sent for, he appeared
before de Soto, and made a handsome speech, desiring to know what the
Spaniards sought in his country, and whether he could serve them. De Soto
Told him he was the son of the sun ; that he had left his abode, to seek the '
greatest land, and the richest province in the country. The chief said,
that Acuta was the richest country, he knew, and that he would send
gguides, and an interpreter to assist him.- Soto was much pleased, and di-
rectly set at liberty, all the prisoners he had taken at Achesi. At the same
.. .. 21 .


time he set up a wooden cross, and explained it to the Indian, who promised
to treat it with great respect. The next day they marched to Allaraca ;
and on the tenth of May, they reached Acuta. The cassique of this place,
sent 2000 Indians to Soto, with provisions, consisting of paniers, loaded
with cakes of dried persimmons, and a great quantity of dogs, which were -
killed and eat instead of mutton. The natives supplied themselves with
abundance of wild game; but the Spaniards had not time to search for it.
Soto staid but two days here ; the Chief gave him 400 Indians, to carry
his baggage, and he proceeded to af Indian village, called Cofaque, and
thence to a larger one called Potofa. The country as far as Acuta, was
found by the Spaniards, to be flat andI wet, covered with pine trees, and
rough bushes. But from Acuta to Patofa, it was a delightful country, of
hard timber, with cultivated fields, and fine streams of sweet water. The
natives were friendly, and cheerful. They told Soto, that there was no
rich country, to the eastward of them, to their knowledge. To the north
wes;t, they said that the province of Coca, was fertile and populous. But the
chief said, he would supply guides, to go with the Spaniards in any direction
they should choose. It is not stated what course was chosen, but it is pro-
bable N. W. La Vega states, that the young Yupaha Indian led
them into a wild barren country, where there were no roads, and finally told
them he did not know where he was. Soto was enraged, and determined
to kill the guide, and give him to the dogs ; but Ortez representing that he
was the only Indian that could understand the native language, Soto
smothered his rage from necessity. For nine days, the army continued in
this wilderness ; at length, their provisions failed altogether, and the soldiers,
and horses became weak from fatigue and hunger. They had crossed se-
veral large rivers, which were rapid and deep, and they at length, came to
one, which ran to the S. W. (the Chatahooche,) and which in their feeble
state, they could not cross.
SWhile the troops rested, the General himself mounted a\ horse, and
with a few soldiers, rode the whole day in search of a road, but returned in
the night quite disheartened, not having discovered the least trace of a
human residence, or trail. The next morning, he called a council of war,
to consider whether they should proceed, or retreat. The latter was op-
posed, because the country was exhausted, and the Indians ready to fall
upon them. It was concluded to reconnoitre the country more extensively,
and a party was sent out for that purpose, but they returned in the evening *
without success. The next day, Macoco, Danhusco, Romo, and Labhillo,
each at the head of a party of cavaliers, were directed to take different
routes, and explore the whole country. Several hogs had been brought 4
over by the army, and bad multiple very fast; they had attended tbe camp
during all the marches, they were now put in requisition, and afforded


about, half a pound of flesh to each man, for a short period. The Patofa
Indians were dismissed ; they departed with much regret, at leaving the
S Spaniards in so much distress.
On the fourth day Danhusco returned, with the pleasing intelligence,
That he had discovered an Indian town, thirty-six miles down the river.
This intelligence revived the spirits of the whole army they immediately
formed the line of march, and in three days arrived at Aymay, where they
found extensive granaries filled with corn. The inhabitants fled, but Soto
took four prisoners, who informed him that another town, called Catifachi-
que, lay near that place. The General proceeded in advance of the army,
and on the way took three prisoners, wvho informed him that a great lady
governed the country. The General sent a messenger to present his cornm-
pliments, and offer her his friendship. She in return sent her sister, to bid
him welcome. Her majesty soon after appeared, in a large canoe, full of
Indians, and an awning supported by a lance, shaded the poop. Her seat
was formed of two cushions, where she reclined, surrounded by her women;.
many other canoes accompanied her. Soto stood on the bank to receive
Usher; she landed and made a very handsome speech to the General, and
:hen presented him with many presents, especially a necklace formed of
very large pearls. Here the army rested several days, and were supplied
with fowls, and other provisions in abundance, and here the army wished to
make a final settlement. The country was rich in nuts, mulberries, and
persimmons. The natives were a tawney, plump, well made people, well
clothed in their style of dress. They were much more polished in their man-
ners, than the coast Indians. The river was navigable, and they were not
more than two or three days journey from the sea.
It is difficult to trace the course of the Spaniards from Apralache to
Catafachique. It is pretty certain that the latter situation was upon the'
Chattahooche River, about two hundred and fifty miles above Appalache.
They appear to have marched northeastwardly at first, and it is difficult'
to determine when they should have changed their course, unless it was at
the time they lost the road. It appears that the Chiaha, in Chicasa coun-
try, was at this time twelve days journey to the north, and the sea three
days journey to the south ; these data with the description of the place ofr
their stay, must designate the place to be on the waters of the Chattahooche.
But Soto could not be detained here, the riches of Peru swam in his imagi-
nation, and.he prepared for new toils, conciliating his troops, by stating that
"qhe provisions of the whole country here would not supply them for one
month; that he must at all events, meet Maldonado at Ochuse. That in
,ease of any misfortune, they could return here, when the Indians- would
have their fields replanted.

. I .. '
/ .^


On the third of June, they left Catafachique, taking the queen along;
she had been greatly dissatisfied with the conduct of the Spaniards towards
her people. Soto's conduct towards her was very inhuman ; he ordered
that she should walk on foot, with her attendants, alleging, that she wish-
ed to escape, aid with her people to leave him without guides or laborers.
She endeavored to sooth him, by ordering the Indians to carry his baggage;
they obeyed her orders with great alacrity. The country was wretched.
They passed a village called Chatague, whose chief presented Soto with
two deer skins; they were all he could give. They had come from Ocala,
one hundred and thirty miles, eighty of which were a perfect desert. They
now had to pass a mountainous country, two hundred and fifty miles to
Hualla. During the march, the queen gave them the slip, and carried off
with her, a casket of reeds, containing pearls of great value. Parties were
sent in pursuit of her, in every direction, but in vain.
In five days after the army arrived at Quaxulla, but found so little pro-
vision, that Soto sent an Indian to the chief of Chiapa, requesting him to
send provisions to refresh his troops. This request was granted, and
twenty men were sent, loaded with mulberries and other provisions, which
were presented to him. The country from Catafachique to this place
abounds in fruits. For five days they marched through a desert; they
were then met by fifteen more Indians loaded with corn from Chiapa, who
informed Soto that much more was at his service, as well as himself, his
people, and his country. Soto sent a messenger to return his grateful
The town of Chiapa was situate on the banks of a large river ; (the Mobile)
opposite was an island, one mile long and two bow-shots across. The lands
on the .river borders were sown with rice. Such was the friendly deportment
of the Indians, that the horses were turned loose to graze, and the Spaniards
encamped in groups among the trees, without order. This relaxation was
a great relief to both troops and horses : the latter became fat in a short
time. For thirty days the army enjoyed this necessary repose, and the
hospitality of the' Indians remained unchanged, until Soto was prevailed on
to request the chief to send some of his men to carry the baggage of the
Spaniards, on their march. The chief drily replied, that he would propose
the matter to his subjects. But the inhabitants all left the town and fled to
the island, fearing the Spanish horse. Soto was about to pursue them, but
the chief came to excuse them, and offered himself as a guide. The Gen-
eral took sixty men and the chief, over to the island, and explained the 0
matter to the natives, who agreed to return.
While these matters were transacting, the chief of Acoste came to offer
Soto his services. The General, as usual, inquired for gold. Acoste told

him that farther north, in the province of Chisca, copper was found, and
another metal, purer and more lively; but though more beautiful, was little
,alued, on account of its softness. Soto was charmed, and ordered the
troops to be ready to march for Chisca. In the mean time he sent forward
%-i express, to learn whether the mountainous country could not be avoided,
by taking' a circuit through the low country.
Soto now took leave of Chiapa, making him some valuable presents and
proceeded to Acosta, where he arrived on the 12th of June ; and having
pitched his camp at a small distance, he entered the town with eight men
only. He was respectfully received by the chief; but while they were in
conversation, some Spaniards entered the town to look for corn, and not find-
ing any to please them, they began ransacking the houses. This conduct
was so highly resented by the natives, that they gave them a good drub-
ing with their clubs. Soto saw his danger, and being in their hands, made
a merit of necessity, and snatching up a stick, joined the Indians in beating
his men; despatching, at the same time, a man to the camp, to bring up
the horse, without delay, to his assistance. He then took the hand of the
chief, and insensibly led him, in conversation, towards the camp, until the
horse rode up and surrounded them both, and took them into the camp.
The chief and several of his principal men were confined until he agreed to
furnish guides for the army, and also until his express returned from
Three days after, the express returned and stated, that the country was
utterly impassable ; that the road shown them, by the guide was mountain-
ous, rocky and barren. On receiving this information, Soto directed his
march to Tali, and the chief having furnished guides was set at liberty.
They arrived at Tali on the ninth of July, and were kindly received, the
chief giving them provisions, and sending some of his subjects to carry the
baggage. For six days they marched in the province of Cosa and reach-
ed the chief town, on the 16th. The chief of Cosa came out to meet the Span-
iards, in great style. He was seated on a kind of palanquin, carried on the
shoulders of his subjects ; surrounded by his troops, attended by musicians,
singing and playing on some singular instruments. The chief was dressed
in a robe of martin skins, with a diadem of feathers on his head. He re-
ceived Soto with much civility and they entered the town together, well
pleased with each other. The Spaniards were made welcome to the houses
,nid granaries, which were well filled with corn, beans, gourds &c., and the
trees were loaded with two sorts of plumbs, and persimmons. The houses
of the town were placed in the midst of cultivated fields. Rivulets of charm-
ing water meandered through the fields; their banks were clothed with
, grass and flowers, and luxuriant vines hung in festoons from the tops of the





trees. Soto had been.acustomed to carry a chief along with him, until he
entered the territories of another; making use of such of the natives as
chose to follow him, for the service of the army, dismissing them when hew
arrived at another province. But the Indians of course were indignant
when they beheld their chief kept in confinement, by strangers, who hadi
been treated so liberally, and they fled to the woods for shelter, against such
oppression. Soto sent armed troops to intercept their flight, and several
severe conflicts were had, before they could be humbled, to perform the
drudgery of the Spaniards. Their chief finally persuaded them to submit;
Cosa was abandoned on the 20th of August; Soto marched first to Talli-
muchasse and thence to Itava, where he was obliged to wait for the waters
to decrease, in a river whose banks were overflown. When the waters had
sufficiently fallen, he marched to Ulliballi. This town was fortified with palli-
sadoes; a beautiful stream skirted its borders. On the other side of this
stream, dwelt the chief, who was surrounded with so many Indians, in war-
like attitude, that the Spaniards were induced to guard against surprise.
Soto sent messengers to the chief, requiring his attendance, and he came
without delay ; bringing with him several male and female Indians, for the
service of the general. The Spaniards marched next to Toasi. In a culti-
vated country, the army usually progressed about eighteen miles a day, but,
when in a barren country, they increased their speed as much as possible.
From Toasi they arrived in five days at Tallisse. It was a large town, sur-
rounded with a well cultivated country. Here the chief of Cosa was dis-
missed, with presents. Soto permitted the army to repose here for twenty
days. He then marched for Tascaluqa and encamped in a wood, near the
town. The next morning, he sent Lewis De Moscoso to wait on the chief.
Moscoso found him seated on cushions which were raised on a fine car-
pet. He was surrounded by Indians; the most considerable of which,
were allowed to approach pretty near him; the rest were kept at a respecta-
ble distance. A servant held an umbrella over his head; it was made of
deer skin, so, beautifully colored, that it looked like taffety ; it was, about
the size of a target. He was a great warrior and had rendered himself
terrible to all his neighbors, and his dominions spread over wide extended
and populous countries. He was large and well proportioned.
As soon as Moscoso had made his obeisance, the squadron of horse,
which attended him, performed many evolutions : riding at full speed, close
up to the chief, making passadoes to and fro. The old man observed them&.
with fixed gravity, but without any surprise. In the mean time, Soto ar-
rived. The chief making no motion to meet him, he went up and took him
by the hand and set down by him. The chief then rose and made an elo-^
quent speech, offering his services to the Spaniards. Soto thanked him and



told him he should be under the necessity, of taking him along with the
army, to the next province, to which he submitted, and the army marched
the next morning. In two days, the army reached Piache ; it was situated
on a large river, over which, they passed on rafts, made of cane reeds.
Soon after a Spaniard pursued an Indian woman who attempted to flee into
the woods, the Indians killed the Spaniard and relieved the woman. Soto
declared to the chief, that he should be kept prisoner, until the man was
found and restored. The chief submitted and requested Soto to permit one
of his Indians, to go forward to Manilla, one of his towns, which lay upon
the road, to order provisions to be got ready for the army. Soto readily
consented, but suspecting treachery, he sent a Spaniard to watch the mo-
tions of the Indian. This Spaniard met them, before they reached the
place and informed the general, that the Indians were collecting in great
numbers and with very hostile appearances, at Manilla. The army reach-
ed that place, on the eighteenth of October. The Indians had erected palli-
sades around the town; no resistance however was made, to his entrance.
He kept eight of his foot soldiers and a few horsemen about him, as a
guard. He entered a house with the chief; when they were seated, Tas-
ealuca used his endeavor, to persuade Soto to proceed no farther into the
country : Soto, refused. The old chief withdrew into another house and re-
fused to return.. S3to sent for him, but he fiercely answered that he would
not return, and advised Soto to retreat out of his dominions, without mo-
lesting him any more, Soto was aware of the danger of his situation, he
, therefore waited on the chief and tried to sooth him, but Tascaluca turned
from him, with disdain, and refused to answer him ; nor would he see Soto
any more.
,The Spanish officers were consulted; they advised to offer the chief his
liberty, if he would furnish guides and baggage carriers, to the next province,
and a chief was requested by Soto, to convey the message to Tascaluca.
The Indian peremptorily refused ; a Spanish officer resented the insult; a
scuffle ensued, in which the Indian was killed. This was the signal for a
general attack. The Indians showered arrows from all quarters on the
Spaniards, who charged them in turn, but in vain, they were too numerous
and too well sheltered, by the houses-, Soto was obliged to retreat. The
Indians pursued, with true savage fury, wounding Soto and all of his guard,
killing five Spaniards outright. They then attacked the Spanish baggage,
which they took and carried into the town, releasing and arming the Indian
Barriers. The Spaniards here lost all the riches they had collected among
the Floridians, consisting of rich pearls, robes of fur, arms &c.
-1 The moment Soto reached the plain, and obtained a reinforcement of ca-



valry, he made a charge on the Indians, with such fury that he slew three
with his own spear, and pursued them to the palisades.
A monk, a secular, and a servant, were left in the town ; seeing the tumult,
they barricaded the doors of the house, which they occupied. The Indians
mounted the roof in order to uncover it, and play their arrows on the Spa.
niards. The army was- brought up by Mascoso, to the pallisades. A halt
became necessary, and a consultation of the officers, whether to storm, or
besiege the town the former, although more dangerous, was resolved on.
The best men were dismounted, the army was formed into four battallions,
and each was led to attack one of the gates. The Indians, resolved to die
rather than to submit, urged their old Chief to take the baggage, and re-
tire to the woods ; he complied, though very reluctantly. Soto was soon
apprized of the retreat, he ordered the battalions to extend their lines so as to
surround the place, and to set it everywhere on fire. The signal was then
given to engage, and a horrid carnage ensued. The Indians fought most
bravely, and repulsed the Spaniards, several times. In the midst of the
fight, the monk and his companions found means to escape, but two brave
Spaniards, who protected them, were cut in pieces by the savages. The
fight lasted several hours, the sun was hot, and the thirsty Spaniards drew
off to drink at a pool, near the palisades. It was nearly half blood, but they
were forced to drink it. They then returned to the charge with renewed
vigor. The indians were driven from their pallisades, Soto entered at the
head of the horse, and scoured the streets, while the soldiers set fire to the
houses. The miserable inhabitants, attacked at all points with unusual
weapons, were no match for the Spaniards, who, with their sabres, swept
them aWay in files ; but they fought hand to hand, until they were nearly
exterminated, and the few that remained, cast themselves into the flames
and perished. Two thousand five hundred Indians were killed, and many
wounded, but all the clothes, arms, and baggage, except what they had on
their backs, and in their hands, was lost.
This was the first severe loss that the Spaniards had sustained, since
they landed in Florida, and it was a severe mortification to Soto, who had
just received intelligence of Maldonado's arrival at Ochuse, now Pensacola,
with the tools for mining. His present situation was seven days journey
from Ochuse. He had marched his army ini a circuit quite round the
northern parts of Florida, in the space of one year ; he had discovered no
mines, and the pearls he had obtained, were all lost. He came to a con-
clusion, to repair his loss, before he let it be known to his countrymen ; heft
therefore forbid Ortez to mention the arrival of Maldonado, to the troops.
After recruiting his men and horses one month in this fertile country, h
collected his troops, and on the eighteenth of November, he marched north,


still in search of gold. We shall not follow his perigrinations
1553. out of our own region, except to mention that he proceeded as
jVMay 1st. high as the Cumnberland River, then turned west, crossed the
lMIississppi, and reached Red River; in the course of two years,
.,om this period. Here Soto died from fatigue and disappointment.
After the death of De Soto, the Spaniards elected Col. Moscoco, their
General. He immediately proceeded to build boats, and collect provisions
to enable him to evacuate a country, where, instead of finding gold, they
had found diseases, hostile enemies, and total ruin. As soon as the annual
floods had rendered the river navigable, they descended it, entered the Mis-
sissippi, and thence proceeded to the Gulf of Mexico. They were pursued
down the river by the natives, and attacked at every opportunity, but without
any material loss. After entering the Gulf they proceeded westward to the
river Panuco, in Mexico, where they joined their countrymen, with three
hundred and eleven souls, the sole survivors of the gallant army that
1553 invaded Florida. Maldonado having waited a long time at Ochuse,
Sept. and learning nothing from De Soto, he returned to Cuba with the
10. fleet.
The Spaniards, at length became discouraged, at so many fruitless
attempts to settle a country that yielded only misfortunes, and the natives
remained undisturbed for twenty years.
1562. At this period, religious persecution raged in France. The Hu-
gunots under the protection of Admiral Coligny, conceived the pro-
ject of withdrawing from their native country, and of seeking an asylum ia
the wilds of America., To effect this purpose, application was made to
Charles IX, who readily granted them two ships, which were manned with
zealous Calvinists, commanded by John Ribault, an experienced navigator.
They set sail on the 18th February, 1862, intending to enter the River
Santee, but they made land about the lat. of St. Augustine. They proceed-
ed north, and entered a large river on the first day of May, and therefore
pamed it May River. They left this river and proceeded north, and finally
disembarked at a place near where Beaufort now stands, and erected a fort
which they named Fort Carolin. They found the country pleasant, abound-
ing in mulberry and persimmon trees, and inhabited by a race of hospitable
Indians, who supplied them with food for the rmerest trifles.
Ribault being desirous to establish a colony there, while he returned to
France to report his success, twenty-six of his crew volunteered to stay
And keep possession of the fort, and Albert, his Lieutenant, was left to com-
mand them. A little field sixteen rods long, and thirteen wide, was stock-
4led in around the fort. It was near the middle of July, when Ribault set
sail for France; on his arrival he found the country so involved .in broils

and confusion, that he could draw no attention to his colony, which was
neglected for two years. In the meantime, Albert visited the Indian Prin-
ces in his neighborhood, cultivating their friendship and paying every attend
tion to their wants, and such was his success, that they readily supplied his
people with provisions, and made them many presents of pearls, crystal*
silver, &c. The Colonists, however, were licentious, lazy and quarrelsome,
.and to preserve peace between them and the natives, he-was obliged to ex-
ercise a very strict discipline; this they would not endure. Among the
Colonists, was one Lachan, who was a popular demagogue; he endeavored
to reduce some of the Indians to slavery, which Albert would not permit,
and compelled him to do justice to the natives. A mutiny was the conse-
quence, in which Albert lost his life. The Indians then refused to supply
them with provisions, and none being likely to arrive from France, the Col-
onists resolved to leave the fort, and return to their country. They chose
Nicholas Bornu for their Captain, and having constructed a small vessel,
and collected a very small quantity of provisions, they set sail for France.
They had not been long at sea, before they were becalmed, and remained
in that situation for twenty days; this reduced them to a state of starvation.
They cast lots to select one who should be butchered to sustain his compan-
ions, when Lachan the mutineer offered his throat to the knife, which was
accepted. Soon after this, they were discovered, and picked up by an En-
glish ship, which landed them on the coast of England. They were con-
ducted to Queen Elizabeth, and their account of Florida, first turned her
attention to this country.
1564 Early this year, Coligny obtained permission to send three ships
to Florida, under the command of Rene Lardoniere, who had before
accompanied Ribault in the first expedition. A great many volunteers
of respectable connections flocked on board this expedition, which was
well supplied with arms, provisions, and tools for agriculture. They ar-
rived at Fort Carolin in the month of June, but found it abandoned. Lar-
doniere distrusting the natives, left the place and sailed south to May River;#
here he built a small town, fortified it with palisadoes and a rampart of
earth, and named it also Carolin. It was about six leagues above the
mouth of the river, on the south side. The friendship of the natives was
assiduously cultivated, and they supplied the colony with provisions and
afforded them every facility for exploring the country. Lardoniere improv-
ed this peaceable disposition by settling the petty disputes of the natives,-
soothing their rough passions, and in preparing their minds for exploring
the interior of the country, where he designed to search for gold, which
was, at that time, the universal passion. Small quantities of the preciouot
metals and some pearls had been discovered, and the natives pointed to the
S* Probably the St. Johns.




S. W. as the direction from which they were procured. Two of his best
officers, with a strong escort, were despatched on this service, who pene-
trated to the Mississippi River, but they found no gold. In this expedition,
however, the French exhausted all their trinkets and goods, so that they
ftd nothing to offer to their neighbors for provisions ;-a famine was the
consequence. Lardoniere had sent a vessel to France for provisions, but
it never returned. He fitted out two more; the crews mutinied, turned
pirates, and cruised against the Spaniards.
Had the governor on his first arrival employed his men in the cultivation
of the soil, all the necessaries of life might have been procured independent
of the natives, and all these evils would have been avoided. A council was
now called, and they resolved to build a brigantine, sail for France, and
abandon Florida. At this time an English vessel, commanded by a Capt.
Hawkins, sailed up the coast. This vessel Lardoniero purchased at a
reasonable price, and after dismantling the fort, prepared to sail for his
native country. This was prevented by the appearance of Ribault with
nine vessels equipped with all the supplies necessary for the
1565. colony. Ribault now assumed the command, re-established the
fort, renewed a friendly intercourse with the Indians, and was about
to get up another gold seeking expedition, when a Spanish fleet appeared
on the coast, and furnished the Frenchmen with other employment.
At this time France and Spain were at peace. Philip the Second had
leisure to reflect on the importance of propagating the gospel among the
heathen of Florida, a patrimnony granted to him by the Pope on that
condition. Don Pedro Menendez de Avilla was appointed Adelantado, who
is said to have equipped at his own expense twenty sail of vessels for the
expedition. It was at this time that Charles the Ninth gave notice of
Ribault's establishment on the east coast of Florida; this information at
once fixed the course of the Spaniards. Volunteers flocked on board the
fleet, zealous to destroy the heretics, so that in a short time Menendez
found himself at the head of three thousand men. The fleet had scarcely
sailed when they were overtaken by a storm, which sunk and destroyed
two thirds of them; the balance were collected at Porto Rico in so shat.
tered a condition, that a general despair pervaded the troops. But Menen-
dez revived them by assuring them that the Almighty had reduced their
numbers that his own arm might achieve the victory without any human
did. Ribault had arrived on ithe Florida coast but a few days before
Menendez. Four of his ships were too large to enter May River, and lay
at anchor off the bar. Menendez hoped to have taken them with the six
ships still left him, but Ribault slipped his cables and ran to sea, where he
was closely pursued by Menendez for a short time, when he returned to the


coast; fearing to enter the river with his small force, he retired down the
coast and entered the Inlet at St. Augustine, where he disembarked, and
laid the foundation of the first permanent town in North America. Ex-
pecting an attack from Ribault, he fortified the post in all haste, determining
to defend himself until reinforcements could be obtained from Cuba. -
Ribault was not behind him in exertion; he returned to May River,
collected his whole force, withdrew from the fort all the artillery, arms and
men, except eighty, who were mostly invalids. These, with the women
and children, he committed to the care of Lardoniere, and sailed in pursuit
of Menendez. He found the Spanish vessels anchored off the bar of
St. Augustine, and bore down for them, expecting to make them an easy
prey, when he was struck by a sudden tempest, which forced his fleet down
the coast, and finally wrecked the whole near Cape Canaverel.
Menendez saw the tempest continue and was satisfied that his enemy
could not collect his vessels on the station short of several days. He therefore
selected his best mem with eight days provision, and marched across the
country to attack fort Carolin, which he knew must be undefended. The
fatigue of traversing these forests and wet swamps was extreme, but he
arrived in the forest, in the rear of the fort, without alarming Lardoniere.
Here the Spanish historian states, that Menendez prepared his men for the
attack, by, kneeling and praying for success. From prayers they rushed
to slaughter, and very few escaped the onset; seventy women and children
are said to have escaped death and submitted to slavery. Lardoniere with
about twenty men leaped from the parapet of the fort and made for some
small vessels which had been left in charge of young Ribault, which hav-
ing reached, they dropped down the river out of the reach of the enemy.
Those who escaped instant death were hung to the limbs of a tree and left
for the buzzards and crows to feed upon. Menendez had a stone monu-
ment affixed near the spot on which was written "Not as Frenchmen, but
as Heretics." This scene of horror was left immediately, lest Ribault
should return and attack the post at St. Augustine. On his return he was
hailed as a conqueror. Te Deum was solemnly chanted. He soon learn-
ed that the Frenchmen were on the coast below the Matanzas bar.
Ribault had collected about six hundred men from the wreck of his fleet;
a considerable quantity of small arms had also been saved. With this force
he might either have reached his fort, or have attacked Menendez in his,
with a fair prospect of success. But the extraordinary reverse of fortune, hacL
broken down their spirits and distracted their councils. They finally con-
cluded to surrender themselves prisoners at discretion. They formed into
two companies ; the first consisting of two hundred men, proceeded up the?
coast as far as Matanzas Inlet. Here they were met by Menendez who

had, with forty soldiers sailed up the sound to reconnoitre. A French sol-
dier was sent across the inlet to learn what terms could be obtained ; the mes-
Henger was detained. The boat was then sent across for ten Frenchmen,
who were taken behind a sand hbl and murdered. And in this man-
ir were the two hundred men decoyed across the stream, by tens, and all
massacred' and left on the sand, to be devoured by the birds and beasts of
In two or three days Menendez again repaired to the scene of butchery
with his main force, where he was soon met by Ribault with the balance
of his wrecked companions. Here'Ribault endeavored to enter into nego-
ciations to ransom himself and his men. Menendez treated him civilly
and offered him food, but demanded unconditional submission. Although
Ribault was shewn the carcasses of his murdered men, still he had the
madness to submit, and induced one hundred and fifty more to follow his ex-
ample. They were murdered to a man. The rest of the French retreated
back to the wrecked vessels, built a small fort and began to construct a
small vessel to bear them from the coast. The natives informed Menendez
of their situation, who fitted out a fleet of small craft and attacked the fugi-
tives, who were obliged to abandon their fort. They however rallied on a
sand hill out of the reach of the large guns. To these Wenendez offered
terms of peace and safety. Their leader would not listen to any terms, but
finding a majority disposed to surrender, he with about twenty of his follow-
ers fled to the woods and they were never heard of more. The rest beingO
too insignificant to injure the Spaniards, had their lives spared.
Thus the whole colony was destroyed. All France was indignant when
informed of this infamous transaction. But the king seemed satisfied, and
no public notice was taken of the matter till 1569, when the chev-
1569 alier Dominique de Gourgas, revenged the insult offered to his na-
tion, at the same time that he gratified his private revenge.
De Gourgas was a Catholic, born of a respectable family in Cominges,
at Mount Marsan. His youth had been spent in arms, and his reputation
was of the first order. In Italy he served against the Spaniards, by whom
he was taken prisoner, and consigned to the gallies. From this situation
he was released by the capture of the galley by an Algerine pirate. The
prize was soon after retaken by a vessel of Malta, and De Gourgas restored
to liberty. He then betook himself to the seas, and in several cruizes
against the Spaniards he acquired considerable wealth. He had just
retired to private life when the news of the Florida massacres reached
France. He immediately sold his property, purchased two gallies and
Tender, under pretence of trading to Africa. His first care was to pro-
cure one of Lardoniere's men who knew the coast, and had acquired the



i n


Indian language. One hundred and fifty picked men, many of them gen-
tlemen adventurers, were enlisted for a cruize of twelve months.. His pur-
pose he kept a profound secret, until he reached the coast of Florida. Ih'
a masterly speech he then informed his crews of the object of his voyage,
pointed out to them the cowardly atrocities of the Spaniards, and the dj'
graces that their nation had sustained from suffering the murderers to go
unpunished. His fellows showed their readiness to revenge the wrongs of
their countrymen.
The fleet soon entered the river and passed the forts without suspicion
salutes being interchanged as though they were Spaniards. De Gourgas
not thinking himself safe to attack his enemies until he could collect rein-
forcements. The Indians were numerous on the coast, and as they
knew Lardoniere, they were greatly rejoiced at meeting their old friends,
the French, and-readily combined their warriors with them,, for the purpose
of revenging the injuries done to both parties by the Spaniards. Besides
Carolin, the Spaniards had built two other forts, nearer to the mouth of the
river, and had mounted on the redoubts the cannon taken from the French;
the whole were garrisoned with four hundred men. Gourgas left his ves-
sels and marched hiscombined forces down the north bank of the river to
attack the forts in the rear. He calculated to have reached them before
day light, but the paths being intricate, the sun had risen just as they
came in sight of the lowest fortification; they turned again into the woods
and led the troops in a circuit across a small river, and were close upon the
fort before the Spaniards discovered them. A few cannon were fired from
the ramparts, when the Indians rushing forward, scaled the palisades, and
being closely followed by the French, the place was soon taken. Gourgas
made no delay here, but jumped into a boat, crossed the river, followed by
the Indians swimming, and in a few minutes another fort was taken by
storm. Fort Carolin still remained; there the Spanish governor resided,
with a garrison of three h hundred men. Gourgas learned from a prisoner
that his forces were estimated much higher than they really were, thought
it good policy to attack the fort before the terror of his arms should be dis-
sipated by a knowledge of his weakness ; he therefore collected eight skiffs,
and compelling a Spanish prisoner to act as guide, he came early on the
next morning in sight of the fort; after planting groups of Indians around
the place, in every copse of wood, to cut off the retreat of the Spaniards,
Gourgas led the French to attack a low situation which he had discovered
in the fortifications. This was immediately carried. The governor senf*
sixty men to guard the spot, but they were all cut in pieces by the assail-
ants. This event frightened the governor so much, that he attempted ^
fly to the woods with his garrison; there they were intercepted by the
Indians, and scarcely a man escaped death.

On entering the fort, they found some of the skeletons of the former co-
lonists hanging to the limbs of the trees, and .the stone engraved, JNot as
Frienchmen, but as hereticks." Gourgas ordered the bones to be buried,
and the Spaniards to be hung in their places, and affixed this label, 1 .Not
1& Spaniards, but as murderers." Gourgas being aware that his force
was too small to hold possession of the country, joined the Indians in de-
molishing all the forts, and then embarked his troops for France.
1574. When the Adelantado Pedro Menendez, heard of the destruction of
his garrisons at Carolin, his indignation was great, but his enemy had
escaped him. He thoughtit better to preserve his force entire at St. Augustine,
than to weaken it by rebuilding those places that he had held at so uncer-
certain a tenure. He continued to govern that post for twelve years, during
which period he was indefatigable in reducing the natives of Florida, to the
catholic faith. At his request, the King of Spain, sent out, missionaries
from most of the religious orders; but the greatest number, and the most
enterprising, were franciscans. These men were sent among the Indians,
in every part of the country, and by the mildness of their manners, and by
teaching the arts of civilized life, they acquired a complete ascendency over
them; so that at the time the Adelantado left Florida, the King of Spain
was acknowledged; and the catholic religion was professed by all the tribes,
from St. Helena on the north, to Bocca Rattones on the south, and from
the Atlantic, to the Gulf of Mexico.
1578. On returning to Spain, Menendez invested De las Alas with the
authority, and title of Governor of Florida. He assembled a coun-
cil of the province, and imparted to them his instructions, which had been
left by the Adelantado. In pursuance of the advice of this council, he des-
patched embassies to all the.tribes of Indians, for several hundred miles to
the west, and north of St. Augustine. In this he was so successful, that all
the tribes east of the Appalachicola River, received into their towns
1581. Spanish garrisons, and many Spanish families to instruct the
1583. This year the Chickasaws, Tacoposcas, Apacas, Tamaicas,
Apiscas, and Alabamas, joined in allegiance with the Spaniards,
1584. and during the next year, the Chischemacas came into the same
terms, so that the Spanish authorities were acknowledged as far west
as the river Missisippi, (Empalaqada) and north one hundred and forty
Leagues to the mountains of Georgia. It was at this period that the Mis-
sionary establishments, and convents were founded, whose ruins are at this
time a subject of curious investigation, in the middle district of Florida. It
was here that the see of Rome chartered a great religious province, under
the order of the Francisqans, it was called St. Helena, and all the minor




establishments throughout the province, were represented at the great
Francis.an house, at St. Aug-9stine.
1585. Some private adventurers, about this time, fitted out a fleet o4
twenty-six vessels, in England, to cruize against the Spanish cornm-
merce. Sir Francis Drake, was appointed Admiral, Forbisher Vice, aa
Knolles Rear Admiral.' This fleet sailed in September. They sacked St.
Jago ; raised a contribution of twenty-five thousand ducats on St. Domin-
go, and took Carthagena, after a hard fought battle. From thence they
steered for Florida, doubled the cape and sailed up the ,oast. On
1586. the eighth of May, they espied on the shore a tower, which appear-
ed to be a look out station. The Admiral suspected it to be some
Spanish establishment, ordered the pinnaces to be manned and landed the
troops on an island. On marching up the shore, he discovered across the
sound, a fort, and farther up a town, built with wood.
General Carlisle, of the land forces, took a skiff and crossed the sound to
reconnoitre. Although very cautious he was discovered by the Spaniards,
who took the alarm, and after discharging a few cannon, fled, believing the
English were at their heels. The General, however, returned without dis-
covering their retreat. At length they observed a French fifer, crossing
the sound in a little boat, playing the Prince of Orange's march; he inform-
ed the guard, that he had been taken prisoner by the Spaniards, and that in
the recent panic he had recovered his liberty, and offered to conduct the
English to the fort. Drake then crossed the sound, and took the fort,
which was deserted. .It was a wooden entrenchment, enlarged by palisades
of cabbage trees. The platforms were made, by placing large pine trees
horizontally across each other, and earth rammed in to fill the space. This
fort was called St. John, and fourteen pieces of brass cannon, were found on
the platforms; a chest of silver was also found, containing two thousand
pounds sterling, intended for the payment of the garrison, which consisted
of one hundred and fifty men.
The next day he marched towards the town, but some unfavorable rains
intervened, so that they were obliged to return, and embark in the pinnaces,
and so proceed up the sound. On approaching the townthe Spaniards
made a show of resistance, but on receiving a volley from the fire arms,
they fled into the country, leaving the town defenceless. The Admiral had
intended to attack St. Helena, but the surfs on this shore are dangerous,
and he had no pilot on whom he could depend; he therefore sailed for
1665. Captain Davis, an English Buccanier, sailed from the West
Indies to attack St. Augustine, and meeting with no opposition, he
plundered the town, although it was fortified by an octagon fort, and two


round towers, garrisoned with regular troops. It was about this period that
the English made a permanent settlement at St. Helena, on the banks of
what was at that time calledMay River. The Captain General of Cuba,
was by the court of Spain, ordered to dislodge them, but it Was never
S done.
S1680. This year, the Spanish Governor of Florida, Don John Menyers
de Cabrana, become jealous of the Yamasee chief, Nichosatly, whose
tribe was, at that time, very powerful in numbers and in bravery, possess-
ng many flourishing towns in various parts of Florida. This chief resided
near the new settlements of the English at St Helena. He denied that he
had afforded any assistance to these new settlers, and professed much loyalty
to the King of Spain, and allegiance to the catholic church. Yet he was
condemned as a traitor. He exhibited a very christian temper, forgiving his
enemies, and exorting his friends not to revenge his death. Nothing could
appease Cabrana, and Nichosatty was publicly executed. The English
took advantage of this event, to excite the Yamasees to a fierce war
1686 against the Spaniards, who were shortly driven from all the islands
north of St John's River. Cabrena was soon after recalled and
punished by the King of Spain, but from this period the Spanish influence
declined among the natives of Florida.
1689. During this year an English colony was settled on Ashley
River, where Charleston now stands. This settlement was patron-
ized by Governor Sayle. It was also during this year that Monsieur
Bienville planted a French colony on the Bay of Baloxi, opposite Ship
Island on the Gulf of Mexico, and the Spanish court despatched Count
Ariola to establish a fortified post at the entrance of Pensacola Bay to
check the progress of the French. The post was named Anchusa, from
an ancient Indian name of the bay. Ariola built a square fort with
bastions, a church, and a few dwelling houses, near the site of the present
fort of Barrancas.
1693. The Count de Galvez, Viceroy of New Spain, being informed
that the affairs of Florida were in a bad situation, he despatched
Don Andrea de la Paez with an armament to Pensacola Bay; he landed at
Point Sequenza, on the west end of S. Rosa Island, where he planted a
small village. He then made another establishment across the bay on the
site of Pensacola. To this bay Don Tristan de Luna had given the
name of St. Maria, and De Paez added the name of the Viceroy de Galvez.
Before De Paez left Pensacola he erected a castle for its defence.
1702. By this time, the English settlements in North and South Caro-
lina had become strong and wealthy. Governor Moore, of South
Carolina, projected an invasion of Florida. To promote it, the Legislature



voted two thousand pounds sterling. Six hundred volunteers were raised,
and six hundred Creek Indians engaged and armed to accompany them.
Several schooners and other merchant vessels were impressed as trans-
ports to convey the troops to Port Royal, the place of rendezvous, where
the governor in person joined the expedition in the month of September.
Col. Daniel was appointed second in command, and was ordered to take
with him one division of the army and to proceed through the inland pas-
sages to the St. John's River, and from thence to scour the country to St.
Augustine, and to attack that city in the rear, while the governor should
enter the harbor and assault it in front. Col. Daniel was an officer of spirit,
he pushed forward, entered and plundered the town before Governor Moore
arrived. But the Spaniards had collected provisions and withdrew into the
fort of St. Mark's with their most valuable effects, and prepared for any
emergency. On the arrival of Moore, the fort was regularly besieged with
a force against which the Spaniards could make little resistance, and they
lay quietly within their walls. Moore directly found that his artillery
was altogether too light to injure the place. He therefore despatched Col.
Daniel in a sloop to Jamaica for cannon and mortars. During his absence
two Spanish vessels hove in sight. One of them carried twenty.-two and
the other sixteen guns. Moore was struck with such a panic, that he fled
through the country by land, and abandoned his whole armament, ships,
stores and all, to the Spaniards.
Col. Daniel soon after returned, and was entering the harbor when he
discovered that Moore had raised the seige. He narrowly escaped capture.
The Creeks were indignant at the conduct of their ally and abandoned the
English with disgust. When the Governor returned to Carolina, very se-
vere reflections were cast upon him. The expedition had cost the colony
six thousand pounds sterling, which they were not then in a condition to
pay; and this great sum had purchased nothing but disgrace. In order
to defend himself, Moore was obliged to keep himself surrounded by armed
troops, and with these he put down all opposition.
1704 Two years afterwards, Moore wishing to retrieve his character
with his countrymen, applied to the Legislature to furnish him with
troops to attack the Appalache and Yamasee towns in the western part of
Florida, but they refused. They told him that he might raise volunteers
and make war on the Indians if he chose, but declared their inability to
supply him with funds. He therefore collected about twenty-five resolute
Carolineans and proceed to the Creek nation, whose various tribes had long
been at war with the Appalache, Yamasee and Attamasco Indians. He
soon engaged one thousand warriors to march under him. With this army7, *
he proceeded down the Flint River and entering Florida, made his first


HsSoTRY. 179

attack on Lewis fort, situate about twenty miles from the sea and east of
the Oclockony River. The Governor of Appalache, was Don Juan Mexia.
The fort was garrisoned by four hundred men, a number amply sufficient to
have defended the place against any number of men who were destitute of
,, artillery, but led by a foolish spirit of chivalry, he marched out to meet the
Creeks on .their own ground. A terrible battle ensued, which terminated in
'the death of Mexia and nearly all the Spaniards under his command. The
fort was taken and burned. A scene of general devastation succeeded, mon-
asteries, convents and missionary establishments, sunk in succession beneath
the flames, and such of the inhabitants as escaped the tommahawk and
scalping knife were driven into captivity. Fourteen hundred Yamasees
were driven into Georgia, some of them were made slaves and the balance
were settled on the north side of the Savanna River. From this time the
Spaniards abandoned middle Florida except the fort on the Appalachicola
River, below the junction of the Flint and Chattah'ooche, which was present-
ly abandoned and the armament and stores removed to St. Marks, a new fort
which was begun at the forks of the Appalache at the request of the Uche
tribe of Indians. This was never finished, but a garrison was kept there
until Florida was given up to the United States.
1706. This year the French and Spaniards under Mons. La Febour,
entered the port of St. Augustine on their way to attack Charles-
ton. After taking a part of the garrison from the fort they sailed for Carolina,
but on their arrival they found the country so perfectly defended by Gov.
Johnston, that they found it necessary to retreat, after loosing three hundred
of their best men. The combined fleet retired to Havanna.
1715. On the 31st of June of this year, a Spanish fleet of fourteen sail
of galleons on their return from Mexico through the Gulf of Florida,
ran foul of the reef near Carysford, through the ignorance of the Admiral
Don Rodrigues de Torres. Every ship but one was destroyed. The
Captain of the ship that was saved disobeyed the signal of the Admiral and
bore away. An immense treasure was lost. The Spaniards, some time
afterwards, fitted out a company of wreckers and divers, and sent them to
attempt a recovery of the specie and bullion that was on board the galleons,
were very successful, and raised a large quantity of the treasure.
1716. The English in Jamaica, learning how the Spaniards were
employed, fitted out two ships and four sloops, under the commandof
Captain Henry Jennings, who immediately sailed to the Florida Keys,
Anchored his fleet, and sent three hundred men on shore to attack the
Spanish guard, which consisted of sixty men, who fled into the woods and
,abandoned to the English three hundred and fifty thousand pieces of eight,
which was carried in triumph to Jamaica.

1717. This year, the Spanish authorities in St. Augustine procured a
general combination of the western Indians against the English
settlements of the Carolinas. The Yamasees, Creeks and Appalaches,
attacked the southern frontier; while the Congarees, Cataubas and
Cherokees, killed, burnt and destroyed the western settlements. Governor
Craven, however, fortunately brought their united forces to a generalA
battle, near a place called Saltcatchers, and totally defeated them, and
pursuing his success, he drove them all across the Savanna River and ended
the war. The Yamasees, thus humbled, retired into East Florida. For
a long time they cherished the most deadly hatred against the Carolineans,
and for many years they occasionally sent out scalping parties, who cut
off the frontier families, and usually inflicted on them the most cruel
1718. This year Governor Ayola was succeeded by Don Antonio de
Benavuedi Barini y Malini, who put a stop to the hostilities against
the English, and it was thought that he treated his Yamasee allies with
much ingratitude. He published an ordinance exiling them to the distance
of 6 leagues south of the city of St. Augustine and also to the same distance
from the Fort of St. Marks in West Florida. This fort had been erected by
Governor Ayola at the special request of the Uche and Yamasee Indians,
that resided near Coweta. At the beginning of this year the first garrison
of Spanish troops took possession of it, and fortified it with cannon, in order
to protect the natives from the frequent incursions of the northern Indians.
The Yamasees remonstrated with the new Governor against his order;
stating to him, that, although they had at one time joined the English, to
wit, after the execution of their chief Nichosatly, yet they had since re.
pented of that fault, and fought against them in behalf of the Spaniards.
They said it would be a previous act to drive them from their fields of corn,
and their houses, while the English were their enemies. That they revere-
ed the catholic King, and the holy church, and desired to have its rites ad-
ministered to them, that they were content to live in peace with nall nations.
Malina was immoveable, and instead of granting any favor to their reason-
able requests, he sent Captain Lewis Ortagas, with an armed troop to
quicken their obedience.
The Yamasees complied without further reply, abandoning their fields
almost ripe for the harvest, their cattle, horses, hogs, furniture &c. Many
of these poor wretches died of hunger, fatigue, and broken hearts. Great
numbers of women, children, and infirm persons, were left on the island of .
St. Mary's,- being unable to travel. These were presently discovered by
the English, who pursued the fugitives in their launches, on which they'
had mounted swivels; these they brought to bear on the miserable starving



rabble, who had not a tree or bush to protect them, but were murdered in
cold blood. Four hundred were thus slaughtered; and of three thousand
that now survived, more than two-thirds died in less than a year, by hunger
Sand diseases.
Thus was this once powerful and warlike nation, almost annihilated by
those friends, for whom they had fought and bled in vain. The English
soon occupied the fields thus abandoned. They planted a town on the river
Jordan, which they called Savanna, and the surrounding country, they
called new Georgia.
1718. During this year also, the French established a fort on the north
shore of St. Joseph's Bay, and planted about it a small settlement.
The fort was named Creveqoeur; but the Spaniards protested against this
settlement, as an invasion of their rights, and the next year it was abandon-
ed. The same spot was afterwards occupied by a garrison, sent there by
the Marquis Salino Vive, under the command of Don Gregorio Salinas
Barrera, but it was soon afterwards also abandoned by them, and the fort
1819. About the latter end of May, Mons. de Serigny, Governor of
Louisiana, sent Mons. Chateaugue, with eight hundred Indians, to
invest the fort at Pensacola. It was built about twenty-two years before
by de Pez ; but little progress had been made in settling the country.
Mons. de Serigny proceeded himself, by water, with three ships. The
Philip, and Thoulouse, carried each twenty-four guns, and the Hercules
fifty six, and bore the Admirals broad penant; they also carried out four
hundred men. The Spaniards made a show of resistance, but fired only
two or three shots, before they beat the chamade, and had the privilege of
marching out, with their arms and baggage; their arms were, however, to
be delivered up on the esplanade. It was also agreed that they should be
sent to Havanna, in French vessels. Accordingly the Thoulouse, and
Marischal de Villier, which were about to sail for France, were ordered to
land the Spanish garrison at the Havanna. They sailed on the beginning
of June, but when off the Havanna, they were captured by a Spanish fleet,
that were destined to break up the settlements of New Georgia. The
ships were taken into the Havanna, and fitted up to return with a new force
to Pensacola, to which place the whole fleet was now ordered. They
arrived in August, with eighteen 'hundred troops, six hundred of whom
were regular forces. The French withdrew the companies of two ships
into the fort. They were summoned to surrender, but refused. However,
a mutiny was soon after raised, which resulted in a capitulation, without a
Sgun being fired. The garrison consisted of two hundred and eighty men.





About the month of September Morns. Champslen appeared off the bar,
with six ships ;-the Hercules, of fifty-six guns ,'the Mars, of sixty; the
Triton, of fifty-four, the Philip, of twenty-four; and the Union, of thirty-
six; with a brigantine. The Spaniards having heard of their arrival at
Dauphin Island, were prepared to receive them. They constructed on the
western point of St. Rosa Island a stockaded fort, with ordnance and men
to defend it. But it was found too weak to withstand the heavy artillery
of the French ships. It was soon battered in pieces, and most of the gar-
rison killed. The Spaniards then drew up their fleet, consisting of eleven
small vessels, and fought gallantly until all their ammunition was expend-
ed: then they were obliged to strike their colors. The fort continued the
action warmly for two hours longer, but finally sent out a flag and offered
to capitulate, as they greatly dreaded the Indians who had invested the
fort by land, under Mons. Bienvilie. The French refused any other terms
than a surrender as prisoners of war. These terms being accepted, the
fort was given up on the 17th of September; six hundred men laid down
their arms. The French immediately demolished the fortifications, burnt
up the houses, and left the place a scene of perfect desolation.
This year a dispute arose between the governors of St. Augustine
1725 and South Carolina. The Spaniards charged the English.with in-
truding on their lands, and the Englishmen charged the Spaniards
with enticing away their negroes, and in urging the Yamasees to murder
the frontier inhabitants. Gov. Malina recalled Antonio Macono, with
those Yamasees that had survived their banishment, and having armed
and equipped them, despatched them across the country into Georgia,
where they ravaged the frontier settlements with horrible carnage, sparing
neither age nor sex. Col. Palmer raised about three hundred militia and
Indians, and entered Florida with a resolution to retaliate these injuries.
He burned and destroyed nearly every settlement in the colony, to the very
gates of St. Augustine. The inhabitants flew to the fort for refuge, but
the poor Yamasees were most of them killed or made prisoners. The
Spaniards saved nothing except what was protected by the guns of the
fortress. Among other devastations, the Georgians plundered the chapel
of Nostra Seniora de la Lache, which stood without the walls of the city,
stripped it of the gold and silver ornaments, and took the infant image from
the Virgin Mary and carried it as a prize to Col. Palmer, who lay at Fort
Mosa, two miles north of the city. He cast the image into the field, and
angrily told the soldiers that the Spaniards would one day punish them for
their sacrilege. Palmer well knew that without cannon he could make no
impression on the fort, he therefore retired with an immense booty, in cattle,
horses, and other plunder.



1740. Fifteen years elapsed before any event of importance occurred
Sin Florida. The spirit of enmity was kept up between the Spanish
r and English settlements, by the Spaniards sheltering and protecting the
negroes who ran away from the English colonies. This, they said they
were bound in conscience to do, in order to convert them to the catholic
religion and save their souls. General Oglethorpe, Governor of Georgia,
projected an invasion of Florida, and wrote to the other colonies for assist-
ance;. They raised four hundred men and sent them to him, under the
command of Col. Vanderdussen. He also engaged a large body of Creek
Indians, so that in May he rendezvoused at the mouth of St. John's River,
with more than two thousand men of all kinds. Commodore Price, com-
mander' of the English ships of war on that station, acted in concert, but
neglected to blockade the harbor of St. Augustine in season.
Oglethorpe selected four hundred men and a party of Indians, with
which he invested Fort Diego, situate on the Plains of that name, twenty-
five miles from St. Augustine. This fort, after a short resistance, capitu-
lated. In this fort he placed a garrison of Eixty men under the command of
Lieut. Dunbar, and here the General committed an error, which in the end
rendered the whole campaign abortive. Instead of pushing directly to St.
Augustine, and taking the Spaniards by surprise, he returned to St. John's,
where he wVas joined by more troops. While there, the Spaniards received
into the harbor six half gallies, with a number of long brass nine pound
cannon, and two sloops loaded with provisions, -and all the cattle in the
country were driven into the town. Thus provided, the Spaniards bid
defiance to }heir invaders. ,
Oglethorpe marched his army in a few days to tCe Fort Mosa, two miles
north of St. Augustine ; this being destroyed, he proceeded to reconnoitre the
town. The observations he made, and the report of prisoners tended
much to discourage him. The fort, that had been a long time building,
was now in a fine state of defence, from the cannon lately received;
besides, the town was entrenched with ten salient angles, on each of which,
more or less cannon were mounted. The garrison consisted of seven hun-
dred regulars, two troops of horse, and four companies of armed negroes,
besides militia and Indians. It was utterly in vain to think of carrying the
place with his means; he therefore changed the siege into a blockade.
The shipswere moored across the harbor, and lines were established around
the town by land; Colonel Palmer with a company of Highlanders and
forty-two Indians, stationed at Fort Mosa; with orders to scour the woods
and intercept all supplies of cattle, &c; and for greater safety, they were
^ directed not to come to action, but to keep strict watch, and encamp every
night at a different place. He sent Col. Vanderdussen to erect a small


battery, on Point Quartell, and he, with his regiment of Georgians and the
main body of Indians, passed- over to Anastasia Island. From a battery
erected at the north end he intended to bombard the place.- Capt. Price p
stationed one of his ships off the mouth of the Matanzas River, to preverit
supplies from that quarter. With the assistance of the sailors, cannon
were soon mounted on the batteries. The Spanish garrison was then
summoned to surrender. But the Governor answered that he should be
happy to shake hands with the General in the fort.
Oglethorp was indignant, and renewed his exertions to reduce the place ;
his batteries opened a hot fire, and a great number of shells were thrown
into the town. The Spaniards returned the fire, with equal spirit, both
from the fort, and from the half gallies. But the combatants were too far
distant from each other, to do much execution. Capt. Warren, a brave
naval officer, offered to attack, and carry the allies in the night: a coun-
cil of war was called, to consider on the subject, but the plan was relinquish-
ed, because the water was too shoal, to bring up any heavy vessel, to cover
the attack, and the galleys laying under cover of the guns of the fort, it was
thought, that the risk was too great. The Spanish Governor observing
that some embarrassment had relaxed the fire of the besiegers, he sent out
a detachment of three hundred men, with some Yamasees, against Col.
Palmer. They surprised him at fort Mosa, while asleep and unguarded.
The Highlanders, with their Colonel, were cut in pieces; a few only escaped,
who obtained a small boat, and joined the Carolina regiment, at point
Quartell. The Spanish historians, assert that Col. Palmer was killed by
Wakona the Yamasee Chief, on the spot where he had cast the infant
image into the field.
Another misfortune soon followed: a Cherokee encountering a Spaniard,
cut off his head, and brought it to Oglethorp, but he spurned the savage,
with abhorrence, and calling him a barbarous dog, bid him begone. The
Cherokees said, that the French would have treated them very differently.
They soon after drew off, and left the place.
Soon after this, the ship placed off the Matanzas sound, was removed.
Immediately several small boats entered, and brought several hundred men to
reinforce the garrison ; with an abundant supply of provisions.* The troops of
Oglethorpe now lost all hope. They were enfeebled by the heat of the cli-
mate ; dispirited by sickness, and fatigued by fruitless exertions, in a despe-
rate cause. They deserted in large bodies. The fleet being short of provi-
sions, and the stormy season approaching, the Commodore judged it impru' *
dent to risk the ships any longer on the station. General Oglethorpe him-
self, fell sick of a fever, and the flux raged in his own regiment. The siege
was raised, and the troops retired to Georgia.
This is denied by the Spanish historians.

v/ 7


The General was blamed for his delay at Diego, foi want of energy,
in not attempting to carry the place ; for placing so small a party at Fort
SMosa, exposed to the sallies of the enemy. The General alleged, that he
'was not supported by the troops, that he could place no confidence in them,
-6 that Palmer was lost on account of disobedience of orders and negligence.
SIt is not probable that he could have taken the place, with double the force
he possessed, unless by surprise.
1742. Two years had scarcely elapsed, when the English colonies
were, in their turn, made to feel the terrors of invasion. An army
of two thousand men was raised in the Havanna, and Antonio de Rodondo
Appointed Adjutant General, and Don Manuel Montianb General of the
army. They were embarked in a number of vessels, which put into St.
Augustine, about the. middle of May. It was however, discovered, by
Captain Haymer, who was cruizing on the coast. He immediately gave
Advice to General Oglethorpe, who sent to Glen, Governor of Carolina, re-
questing assistance. He at the same time, despatched advice to Admiral
Vernon, in the West Indies.
The people of Carolina, had lost all confidence in Oglethorpe and refused
to send troops to his assistance, but, in as much, as Georgia had proved a
great barrier against the Indians, it was thought necessary to fit out some
vessels, to cruise down the coast and see what could be done, for their re-
relief. Oglethorpe made every possible exertion, to prepare for the event.
He procured great numbers of Indians, from the Creek nation, with whom
he was very popular. A company of Highlanders joined him, anxious to
find an opportunity of revenging their companions, who were massacred at
Fort Mosa. A company of Rangers also joined him at Frederica, where
he fixed his head quarters. The Spanish fleet hove in sight on the last of
June. It was under the command of Don Manuel de Monteano, governor of
East Florida. It consisted of thirty-two sail of vessels, bearing more than
three thousand men. The fleet came to an anchor, outside of St. Simons'
bar, and boats were sent to sound out the channel. After which they entered,
with the tide, and stood in for Jekyl, (called Oboloquina sound.) The batte-
ries on St. Simons were opened upon them as they passed, and the fire was
returned, by the fleet, until they were out of reach. They passed up the
river Altamaha. There the enemy hoisted a red flag, at the mast head of
,the largest ship; landed their forces upon the Island and erected a battery,
mounted with twenty, eighteen pounders.
SThe Spaniards had a fine company of artillery, commanded by Rodondo,
.and a well disciplined regiment of negroes, whose officers dressed, ranked
band associated with the Spanish officers, without reserve.
Oglethorpe found that his situation on the island of St. Simons was too

... ,
. / *

...... 186.. HISTORY-

dangerous, he therefore spiked his cannon, burst the bombs and cohorns des-
troyed such stores as could not be carried away, and retreated to Frederica; de-
termined to act on the defensive and with the greatest caution. He kept one ft
part of his troops busily employed on the fortifications, while the balance scour-.
ed the woods, in every direction, to avoid surprise and to check any incur- ,1
sions. His Indians often fell upon the outposts of the enemy, and at length
they brought in five prisoners, who informed him of the enemies force.
His provisions were bad and scarce, but this he was obliged to keep secret,
from his own troops. He still expected assistance from Carolina. And
while the enemy commanded the river and harbor, no supplies could be ex-
pected. His whole force, Indians, militia and regulars amounted only to
seven hundred men. He exposed himself to the same fare and the same
fatigues as the meanest soldier.
Several attempts were made to force a passage through the woods, in
order to attack thfe fort of the Georgians ; but the deep morasses and thick-
ets were so lined with wild Indians and fierce Highlanders, that the Span-
iards said, that the Devil could not get to Frederica. In two skirmishes
with the exploring parties of the Spaniards, the latter lost one captain, two
lieutenants and one hundred men, taken prisoners. Monteano then sent
some gallies up the river, with the flood tide, to reconnoitre the fort, and to
attract the attention of Oglethorpe to another quarter. A party of Indians
were placed in ambush to prevent their landing.
About this time an English prisoner escaped from the Spanish camp,
and informed the General that the Cuba troops and the Florida troops had
quarrelled, so that each had formed a separate encampment. He immedi-
ately determined to surprise one of them. Being well acquainted with the
woods, he marched out in the night with the Highlanders and ranrigers, in
all, three hundred men. He approached within two miles and halted the
troops, going himself forward with a small party to examine the situation of
the enemy, but he was betrayed by a French deserter, who fired his musket
and gave the alarm. Being thus discovered, he retreated back to Frede-
rica, perfectly aware that the deserter would discover his weakness to the
enemy. Oglethorpe was greatly troubled; but on reflection he determined
on a plan to avert the consequences. For this purpose he wrote a letter
to the Frenchman, directing him to use every art to induce the Spaniards
to make an attack on Frederica, by stating its weakness and defenceless
situation. But if he could not succeed in that, by all means to prevent them
from retreating, if it was only for three days, until the arrival of. sixr
British ships, when he expected to give a good account of the Spaniards
This letter was confided to one of the Spanish prisoners, who was bribedW!
to deliver it to the Frenchman. The Spaniard, as was expected, gave the



better to Monteano. Various were the speculations and conjectures that
this letter created; some of the officers believed it to be true, and that the
Frenchman was a spy, others gave no credit to the matter, believing it all
4;` j hoax. The Frenchman, however, was put in irons, and a council of war
was called. While the Spanish officers were in conclave, consulting about
ithe letter, three ships sent from Charleston appeared off the coast. This
c-'' -corresponded so well with the letter, that every man was convinced; a
general panic ran through the camp, the Spaniards set fire to the fort and
embarked in perfect confusion, leaving behind them several cannon, and a
large quantity of provisions and military stores. The wind opposed the
entrance of the Carolina ships all that day; before the next morning the
Spanish fleet had slipped out, and were under way for St. Augustine. In
this affair Oglethorpe retrieved his character with the colonies, both for
personal courage and military skill.
Monteano was fifteen days on a small island, with three thousand men
and a powerful fleet, opposed to seven hundred troops of all kinds; lost
S several 6f his bravest men, with several cannon and many stores, and gain-
ed nothing. On his return to Cuba he was imprisoned and tried for mis-
conduct. General Oglethorpe was also recalled and tried on nineteen
charges, brought against him by Lieut. Col. Wm. Cook, who owed his
preferment to the friendship of the General. He was honorably ac-
1743. The next year Governor Oglethorpe retaliated upon the Province
of Florida another secret expedition. He proceeded by land from
St. John's River, attended by a numerous collection of Creek Indians. He
proceeded with great caution to the neighborhood of the city of St. Augus-
tine, where' he planted an ambuscade, and then took possession of .a small
fort that had been erected to protect the King's workmen. A troop of
/ cavalry was sent out to succor the workmen, and by accident the ambus-
cade was discovered. Had this not been done, the cavalry would probably
have been intercepted, and the gates would have been entered by the enemy.
This stratagem having been frustrated, Oglethorpe perceived that an
assault would be useless, he retreated back to Georgia after spending in the
fr Province seventy-five days.
SA Yamassee chief, Pedro Christano, applied to Governor Monteana for
( permission to attack the Georgians on their retreat through the narrows of
S Fort George and Talbot Islands. But the governor thought it not prudent
to make the attack until the enemy should be- dispersed over the frontier
Settlements. He then furnished Christano with arms and ammunition, and
supported him in several bloody incursions, until all the settlements of the
English were broken up, as far as St. Simond's Island. '

/ g-


1748. A treaty being concluded between Spain and England, the war
ceased. But the English immediately pushed their settlements
south as far as the mouth of the Santilla River. Notice was immediately
sent to Governor Monteano, but he paid no attention to the subject. /*
1755. This year Don Alonzo Fernandez de Herreda was appointed
commandant of the Fort at St. Augustine. He ordered Captain
Don Leo Joseph de Leon, with a company of mounted dragoons to go and
recover the invaded territory. On the first summons, the English agreed
to retire immediately, and being satisfied with their apparent willingness,
De Leon returned. But the English kept their ground. The ambassador
of Spain soon after obtained an order from the Court of London command-
ing these intruders to withdraw, but the order was never enforced.
1763. This year the King of Spain ceded Florida to Great Britain.
There was but six hundred inhabitants in the Province, besides the
regular troops, and they were very poor. Nearly all of them removed to
Cuba, and left the country to be parcelled out among the half pay officers
and disbanded soldiers, who had served in the American campaigns. Emi-
grants also arrived from Great Britain and from many other parts of Europe.
Several of the English nobility settled plantations at Hillsborough River,
on the St. John's River, and on Amelia Island. A few also settled at Pen-
Lord Rolle obtained a grant of land on the St. John's, which he named
Charlotia. To this pace he transported nearly three hundred miserable
females, who were picked up about the purlieus of London. His object
was to reform them, and make of them good members of society. They
all died in a few years.
1767. Doct. Turnbull tried a different speculation. He sailed to the
Peloponesus, and for the sum of four hundred pounds sterling, obtain-
ed permission from the Governor of Modon, to convey to Florida, a large
number of Greek families. In 1767, he arrived with one small vessel, and
took as many Greeks as he could obtain. On his way back from Modon
he put in at the islands of Corsica, and Minorca, and recruited his number of
settlers to fifteen hundred. He agreed to carry them free of expense to
find them in good provisions and clothing, and at the end of three years, 4J
to give fifty acres of land to each head of families, and twenty-five acres to
each child. If they were dissatisfied, in six months, he agreed to send
them back. They had a long voyage, of four months; many of the old -
people died. Twenty-nine died in one vessel. They arrived in the fall
season. Sixty thousand acres of land, were granted them by the Governor
of Florida. They built huts of palmetto, to shelter them through the win-
ter, and in the spring they planted provisions. Their settlement was named



New Smyrna. It was about four miles west of Musquito Inlet, and seventy-
four miles south of St. Augustine. After a sufficient quantity of provisions
.Were raised, Turnbull, turned his attention to indigo. In five years, they
had nearly three thousand acres of good land, highly improved, and in one
year, the nett value of the indigo crop, amounted to three thousand one
hundredd and seventy-four dollars. Turnbull, however, did not fulfill his
agreements, with these people, his avarice seemed to increase with his
prosperity. He selected a few Italians, and made them overseers and dri-
vers. The rest, men, women, and children, were reduced tothe most abject
slavery. Tasks were assigned them, as large as they could possibly per-
for'n during the week. The food of the laborers, was seven quarts of corn
per week, for the whites, and ten quarts a week, for the negroes, a number
of which had been placed on the settlement; to the sick, three and a half
quarts were allowed.
Most of the Minorcans, and Corsicans, had brought a good stock of
clothing with them; when that was worn out, they were furnished with a
suit of osnaburgs, each year. One blanket, and one pair of shoes, for the
whole term of service were given to the men, but the women had no shoes,
although many of them had been accustomed to live in affluence, in their
own country. In this state of slavery, was this people kept for nine years.
The tyranny exercised over them, was not exceeded, by the savage Spaniards
of St. Domingo. The three last years, no clothing was given them at all,
but they were permitted to buy it at a public store, and the debt thus incur-
red, was assigned as a reason for their confinement. On the most trifling
occasions, they were beatenexcessively, and the negroes were usually chosen
as the instruments of diabolical cruelly. They were often compelled to beat
and lacerate those who had not performed their tasks, till they died. After
scourging the skin from their backs, they were sometimes left naked, tied to
a tree all night, for the musquitoes to suck their blood. These usually
swelled up ready to burst, with their tortures. If induced by despair to run
away, they were stopped, and taken up by the negroes on the neighboring
plantations, who were paid for returning them. Some wandered off, and
died in the forests.. At the end of nine years, six hundred only were left, of
w fifteen hundred and their natural increase.
1776. Some time in the summer of 1776, several English gentlemen
,_. from St. Augustine, on an excursion down the coast, called at New
Smyrna, to see the improvements, especially a very large stone building,
thatiwas commenced for a mansion house. In the course of conversation,
some of them made the remark, that if the people knew their rights, they
would not suffer under such slavery. T/ajs was remarked by an intelligent
boy, who told it to his mother. The old~ady summoned a counsel of her
friends in the night, and they devised a plan to gain more intelligence.


Three of them were to ask for a long task, in order to gain time to go
-down the coast to catch turtle. This was granted them, as a special fa-
vor. They were assisted in finishing their task, by their fellow slav,
They then set off for St. Augustine, by the coast, and had to swim the
.Matanzas. They arrived safely, and the first man they met, was Mr.
Young, the Attorney general of the province. They.made known to ht"
their business, and he promised to protect them. A change of Governors
had lately taken place ; Governor Grant, had been superceded by Governor,
Tonyn, Grant was supposed to have been connected with Turnbull, i the -
slavery of the Minorcans, Greeks, &c. Tonyn, on the contrary, had i.
his power, to render himself popular, by doing an act of justice, to theseibg
injured people.
The envoys returned, with the glad tidings that their chains where bro-
ken, and that protection awaited them. Turnbull was absent, but ttier
feared the overseers, whose cruelty, they dreaded. They met in secret,
and chose for their leader, a Mr. Pallicier, who was head carpenter of the,
Mansion House. The women and children, with the old men, were placed t,
in the centre, and the stoutest men armed with wooden spears, were placed
in front, and rear. In this order, they set off like the children of Israel, .
from a place that had proved an Egypt to them. So secretly had they con-
ducted the transaction, that they had proceeded some miles, before the over-
seers discovered that the place was deserted. Some of them were well
pleased, and joined them. Others informed the tyrant, who was at some
distance from the place. He rode after the fugitives, and overtook them,.
before they reached St. Augustine, and used every exertion to persuade
them to return, but in vain.
On the third day, they reached St. Augustine, where provisions were
served out to them, by order of the Governor. Their case was tried before
the Judges, where they were honestly defended by their friend, the Attorney
General. Turnbull could show no cause for detaining them, and their
freedom was fully established. Lands were offered to them, at New
Smyrna, but they suspected some trick was on foot, to get them into Turr.-
bull's hands, and besides, they detested the place, where they had suffered
so much. Lands were therefore assigned them, in the north part of the hA
city, where they have built houses, and cultivated their gardens to this day.
Some by industry, have acquired large estates; they at this time, form a
'respectable part of the population of the city.
1781. This year Don Galvez, Governor of Louisiana, and Admiral Sa-
lano entered west Florida, and laid siege to Pensacola. The place
was strongly fortified, and General Campbell, at the head of a thousand
regular troops, defended the place, for a long time, with great bravery.
Fort St. Michael commands the town, and harbor. The officer of the day oh-


Serving that the gate of the principal Magazine was often opened, opposite the
Spanish camp; ordered it to be closed, and another opened on the opposite
side. While some fixed ammunition was taking out, to serve the ordnance,
a bomb struck the eastern glacis, and rebounding back, it entered this back
gate, exploded, and blew up the magazine. The principal redoubt was
carried away, and several lives were lost. Count Galvez availed himself
Sof this misfortune, and immediately occupied the place. Dispositions were
now made, to take fort St. Bernard, by assault. General Campbell, aware
that the place could not be defended, entered into a capitulation. He ob-
tained the most honorable conditions, and surrendered the city.
The Floridas had been the most important acquisition which the English
had obtained by the French war. These provinces rounded off their em-
pire in America. But an attempt to oppress their colonies, was punish-cl
by the loss of those colonies and the Flbridas besides.
1763. Very great improvements were made by the English, during the
twenty years they held possession of the country. TIhey encourag-
ed agriculture, in the east and west, by offering bounties on Indigo. Similar
bounties were shortly after, given for the increase of naval stores., The
country became cultivated to a great extent. They had commenced the cul-
ture of the sugar cane, and the manufacture of sugar and rum in East
Florida, was nearly as far advanced as it is at present Some of the iron
machinery, of their/sugar works, have been dug out of the ground, be-
low Tomoko, and again appropriated to the purpose, for which it was origin-
allyv intended. Some of the old boilers had wild orange trees of consider-
able size growing in them.
The re-cession of the country to Spain operated as a blight over the whole
land. The English population removed, as the Spaniards had done before
enmasse; abandoning their gardens,- fields, villages and towns. They
sought shelter among the islands of the West Indies, and many from com-
petency and ease were reduced to penury and want. A military govern-
ment succeeded. A sparse population who barely existed onItheir pay,-c
wholly inattentive to improvements of any kind. Their gardens, fences,
fields and houses were suffered to grow up, with briars, or rot down, with
Time, or were burned up for fuel. In the' space of forty years, the once
- flourishing settlements of Florida, dwindled down to two dirty towns,
which, with all their dependencies, could not muster six thousand inhabit-
The persevering Minorcans and Greeks were an exception; they continu-
ed to fish, make canoes and cultivate their gardens, and still do the same,
without any perceptible change.
1792. Considerable disturbance was this year occasioned b1 an English-
man named Bowles. He sailed from New Providence in- 'a schoon-
.. '.

/ .-*: w_/
,/ IV ^



er with about sixty adherents. 'They landed on the Musquito coast, and pro-
ceeded to attack a large Indian store, situate on the west bank of the river St.
Johns, called Hamblys store. In order to facilitate the expedition, Bowles
took with him from the vessel several iron swivels, but his progress had
been observed, by the retainers of the house of Penton and Lesley, proprie-
tors of the trading house, and they anticipated the attack of the marauders,
by garrisoning the store with fifty Spanish troops and a large number of their "-
own negroes.
Finding the place too strong, Bowles sought for subsistence at Cuscowil-
la, a Seminole town commanded by Payne, a very intelligent Indian. His
men being broken down by fatigue and hunger, deserted him. Finding that
Payne would not protect him, he fled to the Creek nation. There he mar-
ried the daughter of Perryman, an intelligent Indian, and there he was join-
ed by Daniel M'Girty, a white subject of East Florida. They made the
Creeks believe, that the stores established by Panton Lesley and co., had
been sent by the English, as gifts to the Indians, and that they had a good
right to take and make use of them. Kenhutry, Little Prince and several
other chiefs were induced to join him. They established their head quarters
at Mickasookie old town.I While here, a small vessel arrived at Appalache,
with goods for Bowles; with these he made liberal presents to the Indians;
whom he told, that they were part of the same goods, that the English
had sent to Panton for their use. The house of John Forbes and co. had
much influence with the Seminoles, they sent a Mr. Forest, to collect a
body of Indians, to take Bowles prisoner. Kennard, Payne, Bowlegs and
White King, with seven hundred Seminoles joined him, and they proceeded
with the expedition, to Mickasookie. But M'Girty was on the scout, and
gave notice to Bowles, who escaped to Oclockony River and hid himself.
When the Seminoles arrived, the Creeks professed to give up all hostile
views, and offered to go to St. Marks and make a treaty. The proposal
was acceded to; they went to St. Marks, and under the direction of the
commandant, they entered into a treaty to retire home in a peaceable man-
ner. The Seminoles dispersed. Peiryman and Kenhutry returned to
Mickasookie, where they were met by Bowles. He immediately led them
to the great store on Wakully which they took, carried off the goods, and
destroyed the store. A scene of drunkenness and confusion succeeded for
several days. At length an armed schooner called the Sheerwater, arrived
at the fort; she was deeply laden with dry goods for the store. Bowles
had immediate notice of it. He placed a large number of Creeks in am-
bush, where the river was very narrow, and when the schooner entered
the river, the Indians" rose and took the vessel by surprise. During all
these proceedings Bowles professed great friendship for the Spaniards.

,.1. -

But when he found that the garrison at the fort of St. Marks were off their
guard, he made a sudden assault and took the place. Here he rioted for
several weeks with his Indians, until Gov. O'Neil arrived from Pensacola,
with a detachment of Spanish soldiers and retook the fort. He found
SBowles and all his Indians drunk and happy. He drove them off, bat
punished none of them. Orders were, however, sent to take Bowles ; he
fled to the hickory ground in the Creek nation, where a reward being offer-
ed, the Indians gave him up. He was conveyed in chains to Cuba, and
confined in the Moro Castle, where he is said to have died.
1811. In January, Mr. Monroe, Secretary of State of the United States,
wrote to Gen. George Matthews and Col: John McKee, informing
them that he had appointed them Commissioners to carry into effect certain
provisions of a late act of Congress, relating to the provinces of Florida.
By this commission they were instructed to repair as privately as possible,
to Folch, Governor of Pensacola, in the first place, and to accept from him
a voluntary cession of the province, if he should deliver it up. If he
would not, should there be room to entertain a suspicion, that a design
existed in any other power, to occupy the provinces," the Commissioners
were then directed to occupy them by force, if necessary. They were
also invested with discretionary powers to arrange the subjects of debts,
land titles, offices, and laws :--To remove the Spanish troops, to pay money,
etc. The conduct they were to pursue in regard to East Florida, "was
to be regulated by the dictates of their own judgment," always recurring
to the above instructions as the paramount rule of their conduct. All
ordnance and military stores were to be held as Spanish property, to be
accounted for by the United States. If the governors should insist on a
re-delivery of the provinces at a future day, the Commissioners were di-
rected to stipulate accordingly.
In pursuance of these instructions, the Commissioners prQceeded to Pen-
sacola and St. Augustine, and made these propositions to the Spanish gov-
ernors, but they refused to surrender the provinces. By this time, however,
an idea had been generally circulated through Georgia and Florida, that
the United States intended to occupy the provinces at any rate. It is said
that Gen. Matthews and Mr. McIntosh gave currency to the idea.
S1812. In the month of March, a large collection of Georgians and Flo-
ridians, with all the wood-choppers and boatmen in the neigh-
borhood of St. Marys, met at the dwelling-house of Col. Ashley and or-
ganised a provisional, government, and chose John Houston McIntosh,
Esq., Director. He appointed Col. Ashley commandant of the troops.
Boats were then collected to.convey them to Fernandina, a town on the
Spanish shore, Tiere nine American gun-boats, under the command of


Commodore Campbell, formed a line in the harbor and brought their guns
to bear on the fort. A flag was then sent to Don Jose Lopez, who com-
manded the fort and the Island of Amelia, demanding of him the surrend-
er of the place. He entered into a capitulation, a. copy of which here

"ARTICLES OF CAPITULATION, made and entered into between Don Justo
Lopez, Commandant of Amelia Island, in the Province of East Florida,
part of the dominions of his C. M. Ferdinand VII, on the one part ; and
John H. McIntosh, Esq. commissioner, named, and duly authorised by
the Patriots of the district, of the Province, lying between the Rivers St.
John's, and St. Mary's, including 'the islands of the same, on the other
part, viz
1. In consequence of superior forces, all communications and other re-
scources cut off from St. Augustine, being impossible to defend the port and
town of Fernandina; Don Justo Lopez, agrees to surrender the said port,
and town, to the forces of the Patriots, with all the arms, public provisions,
money, &c., that are in his possession, and all the duties owing to Govern-
2. The Commandant and troops, shall march out with the honors of
war, and after laying down their arms, shall receive their parole not to take
up arms against the Patriots, during the present contest.
"3. Individuals -who are considered bona fide residents, who have grants,
or just claims to obtain lands, or lumber by memorial, or evidence, or pur-
chase, shall have them fully guaranteed, and in case of memorial, havino-
complied, or not, with the conditions specified.
4. The property of persons, of every description, shall be considered
sacred, and neither examined, or touched, but remain, and be used in the
same manner, as before the capitulation.
"5. The island, twenty-four hours after the capitulation, shall be ceded
to the United. States of America, under the express condition, that the port
of Fernandina, shall not be subject to any of the restrictions in commerce,
which at present exists in the United States; but shall be open as hereto-
fore, to British, and other vessels, and produce, on paying the lawful ton-
nage, and import duties; and in case of actual war between the United d
States and Great. Britain, the port of Fernandina, shall bh open to British
merchant vessels, and produce, and considered a free port, until the first of
May, 1813. ,
"6 The inhabitants, who have been bona fide residents of the district
and have had permission to cut lumber, shall have the same continued until
the first of May, 1813, to the exclusion of others, and exactly as heretofore.



"7. All vessels of every description shall be protected, and clearances
given to any port, as before, (excepting to the coast of Africa,) as well as
all vessels of every description, arriving before the first of May, 1813, which
have cleared from a Spanish pert', three months before the capitulation, and
being the property of Spanish subjects of this Island.
"8. All British, and other merchandise, which has been regularly enter-
Sed, according to the laws and regulations of the Spanish Government, shall
be exported from here, and admitted in the ports, of the United States free of
duties, until the first of May, 1813 ; and all vessels now owned by Spanish
subjects, of this island, shall have the right, and receive registers in the
same manner as American vessels.
"9. The inhabitants of this island who wish to remove shall have
twelve months time to sell their property, or remove it, as may be most
agreeable, without molestation, and in case of war between the United
States and Spain, in said time, said inhabitants shall be allowed to appoint
agents to sell their property.
Fernandina, at 4 o'clock P. M. 17th March, 1812.
George Atkinson, Justo Lopez,
George I. F. Clarke, John H. McIntosh.
Charles W. Clarke,
Archibald Clarke.

Fernandina is, at this time, an inconsiderable village, on the North West
point of Amelia Island. During the memorable embargo, this place was a
resort, for vessels of all nations, wishing to procure American productions,
provisions, and lumber, in particular. At the time of this revolution, the
town contained about six hundred inhabitants, and was rapidly increasing.
Smuggling was carried on to a great extent, and the slave trade was fostered,
by speculators in human flesh, from all quarters. There being five fathoms
on the bar of St. Mary's, at high water, it affords -gleater facilities for en-
trance, than any inlet on the coast; and the harbor before the town, is
capacious and .safe.
The day after the capitulation, Lieut. Ridgely was appointed by the di-
rector, to take command of the place, and Col. Ashley, with three hundred
men, were marched towards St. Augustine, by the Cowford, now Jackson-
ville. From this place, a detachment was sent to the Laurel Grove, to
seize Zephaniah Kingsley, Esq. one of the most able planters in Florida.
When brought to head quarters, he was offered his liberty and protection,
,on condition of joining the Patriots, and was threatened in case of noncom-
pliancee with imprisonment, and confiscation of his goods. He joined them,

0 '.'1
.. t i --'


and was a distinguished partizan, until the whole revolution was checked
by the government of the United States. Ashley then proceeded to Fort
Mosa, within two miles of St. Augustine; where he was reinforced by
Col. Smith, with one hundred American regular troops. Here the Patriots
became dissatisfied with Col. Ashley, and deposed him, and elected William
Craig, Esq. a planter, and one of the Spanish judges, as commander.
Ashley retired with his staff, carrying with him, a large number of horses,
that had been collected from the plantations in Florida.
About the middle of June, Estrada, Governor of East Florida, pr. inte-
rim. fitted up a schooner, with one twenty-four pound, and two twelve
pound cannon, and two gun boats, to attack Fort Mosa. The schooner
came to anchor before the fort, and began firing, before the gun boats could-
arrive, little execution was done for some time; at length, a ball passed
through the old fort. The Patriots having no cannon, were unable to de-
fend themselves, and retreated to Four Mile Creek, where they encamped.
In a short time, Craig removed to the St. John's River, and established a
camp, called New Hope.
Here a deputation of the Seminole Indians arrived, and offered their ser-
vices to the director. They were met in council, by General Mathews,
McIntosh, and Kingsley, who advised them to remain peaceably in their
towns, and not to interfere with the quarrels of white men. The young
warriors, headed by Bowlegs, took this as an insult, and presented them-
selves before the Governor of Florida, who received them with open arms,
and supplied them with arms and ammunition. They immediately planned
an attack, to sweep the settlements on St. John's River, and then to cross
the St. Marys, and carry fire and sword into the heart of Georgia.
The invasion of Florida, under the direction of General Mathews, an ac-
credited Agent of the American Government, excited the attention of the
Spanish and British Ministers, and strong remonstrances were made to our
Government, by Don Onis, and Mr. Foster. In consequence of which,
General Mathews received from Mr. Monroe, a letter, stating that the
President disapproved of the invasion of Florida; inasmuch as neither of
the contingencies had occurred, which were to precede all offensive mea-
sures. His conduct was attributed to a laudable, but mistaken zeal, for the
public welfare. His commission was superseded by the appointment of
Mr. Mitchel, Governor of Georgia. Who was instructed to direct his ef-
forts, in the first instance, to the restoration of that state of things in the pro-
vince, which existed before the late transactions." To communicate with
the Governor of East Florida, and to act in harmony with him, in the at-
tainment of it. But inasmuch as the people, who acted under General
Mathews, relied on the countenance and support, of the United States Go-

24 ,


vernor Mitchel was directed not to expose them, to the resentment of the
Spanish authorities, but to require full assurance and satisfaction of their
safety: and to apprize alLthe parties concerned, of his full reliance on it.
Governor Mitchel was also requested to use the greatest delicacy towards
General Mathews, who, the Secretary observes, "is held in high estimation
by the Government, for his gallant, and meritorious services, during the
American revolution, and for his patriotic services since that time." Ge-
neral Mathews withdrew from Florida, and Governor Mitchel, on the 9th
of May, wrote to Governor Estrada, in conformity with his instructions.
While these communications were passing, Captain Williams of the Ma-
rines, kept open a communication between Col. Smilh, at Four Mile Creek,
and Colonel Craig, at Camp Hope,
In the meantime a company of negroes was collected in St. Augustine
headed by a free black, called Prince. They were sent to form an ambus-
cade in an impervious thicket, called Twelve Mile Swamp, through which
the convoy under the. command of Captain Williams had to pass. It was
on the 12th of May, about 8 o'clock in the evening, that the wagons enter-
ed the swamp. They were escorted by Captain Williams, attended by
Captain Fort, of the Milledgeville volunteers, a non-commissioned officer
.and nineteen privates, besides the drivers. They'had but just entered the
swamp, when a deadly fire was poured in upon the escoit, some of the
horses being killed, the wagons blocked up the passage. The non-commis.
sioned officer was killed, both Captains were wounded, Williams mortally,
he was shot in eight places; six privates were wounded. On the second
discharge of the regulars, a charge was ordered, but the negroelfled into
the woods. After this affair, Gov'ernor Mitchell ceased to communicate
with Estrada. He wrote to the Secretary of State requesting that a
reinforcement might be sent, that St. Augustine might be attacked, and
shewed no disposition to withdraw the troops from Florida.
On the lth of June, Governor Kintelan wrote to Governor Mitchell, stat-
ing that if Colonel Smith did not remove from Four Mile Creek within
eleven days, he should be obliged to resort to disagreeable measures to
compel him. Mitchel answered that the arrangements for the withdrawing
the troops were making, but were stopped by the wanton attack on
Williams; that now he should await further orders from the government.
The President finding that Congress would not support him in the occupa-
tion of Florida, determined to abandon it. Gov. Mitchell was, therefore,
very politely superseded by General Pinckriey about the middle of
About the 20th of September Col. Smith removed his camp to Davis'
Creek, twenty miles north of St. Augustine; the troops had dwindled to two


, hundred and seventy, and many were sick, all of them nearly naked.
The Seminoles, under Bowlegs, were ravaging the country, burning houses
and orange groves, and driving off slaves and cattle from every quarter.
Certain information Was received that Payne, the civil chief, finding it im-
possible to check the young warriors, who called him an old woman, for
withholding them so long at bay, had finally taken command of one party,
which was destined to sweep the St. John's settlements and meet Bowlegs
at the head of another party in Georgia. Col. Nunen, Inspector General
of Georgia, was a volunteer among the Georgia troops in Florida. He
solicited permission to march at the head of a party of volunteers and attack
the Seminoles in their towns. Permission was granted him, though with
considerable hesitation, as it weakened the posts at Davis' Creek and New
Hope. One hundred and ten men, many of whom had been discharged,
volunteered their services in this expedition. About twenty of them were
marines from Captain Williams' company, the balance were from Hum-
phrey's riflemen and Fort's infantry. They rendezvoused at Laurel Grove,
the seat of Mr. Kingsley, who sent them in his heats to Judge Facio.
Here they received an order to join Col. Smith at Four Mile Creek, from
thence they accompanied the party to Davis' Creek, and were then again
sent to New Switzerland, the seat of Judge Facio. They were marched
the next day to Picolata, and crossed the river. In three days they arrived
within seven miles of Payne's Town, situate near the great Allachua Savan-
na; here they were met by a party of Seminoles, consisting of one hun-
dredi and fifty, headed by Payne and Bowlegs, who had just set out on their
intended0wvar expedition. It was about twelve o'clock. Col. Nunen im-
mediately formed his little army to receive the Indians. Capt. Humphreys,
with the marines, was placed on the right. Captain Fort, of the infantry,
on the left, and Lieutenants Reed and Broadnax formed the centre with
twenty-five choice men. Two fallen pines shielded the centre in a partial
manner against the enemies' fire. The right was defended by a pond, and
the left by the head of a swamp.
Payne and Bowlegs led the principal part of their Indians from a swampy
and very gallantly formed them in two columns, in full view of the Ameri-
cans, and each took the command of a column. Payne was conspicuously
mounted, on a white horse, and displayed much judgment during the ac-
tion. The Indians commenced firing from the swamp, in rear of their
main body. A smart firing continued about two hours, to very little effect.
Nunen finding that the Indians kept close to their swamp, ordered a hasty
retreat. The Indians pursued them with great joy and some confusion,
when Nunen charged suddenly upon them; killed a great number and
Payne wvas himself mortally wounded. In a few minutes there was not


/** 4
K.* ^


an Indian to be seen. The Americans then begun cutting pine trees, for
the purpose of a fort; but half an hour before sunset, the Intians under
Bowlegs, returned with a large reinforcement. They rushed from the
Sswamp and charge within one hundred yards of the American line. They
were received with a cool and incessant fire, which continued with little in-
termission, till about nine o'clock at night. It .was very dark, each party
fired at the flashes of their opponents' guns. Five times, the Indians at-
tempted to force the centre, approaching within twenty paces yelling like
devils, but Reed and Broadnax kept their men behind the breast work, and
poured in such deadly discharges of buck shot, that the Indians finally re-
tired, carrying off all their dead and wounded, except six, which they proba-
bly could not find. Nunen had but one man killed, he received a ball in his
forehead, while peeping over the log. The men although extremely fa-
tigued, fixed up their logs in form of a pen, and encamped in it. The Indians
besieged them on all sides, and kept them eight days in that situation, killing
all the horses except one; that the Georgians killed themselves and eat him,
having destroyed all their provisions.
A straggling fire was occasionally heard, and some ineffectual attempts
were made, by the Indians, to cut off small foraging parties. On the third
evening after the battle, eight men under the command of Lieut. Reed, were
detailed to scour the woods, for provisions. They fortunately killed a large
bull, about twelve miles north of the fort, and conveyed it in, without moles-
tation. In the night of the eighth day of the seige, Nunen ordered a retreat,
despairing of receiving relief Eight wounded men were placed on litters,
and the fort was silently evacuated, while the tents were left standing. At
day light, they had proceeded about six miles. The Col. being sick, they
halted till afternoon. Here Captain Humphreys made an exertion, to draw
off the troops and leave the Col. and the wounded men behind, but the
troops would not consent. About three o'clock, they again proceeded to-
wards Picolata." The Indians had discovered them, and fifty of the best
warriors, under the young Governor, were placed in ambush in a hammock,
beside the. trail, where the troops had to pass. They had proceeded about
three miles, when the Indians rose upon them. At the first fire, three men
fell, two were killed outright, and the other mortally wounded. Nunen or-
-dered a sudden charge, which effectually dispersed the Indians. They
were seen no more. The young Governor was killed.' The retreat was
Continued eight miles farther, although the troops were almost famished.
They encamped on a ridge of ground between two ponds, where a breast-
work was hastily thrown up. An express was sent forward to procure pro-
visions, and foraging parties sent to a short distance to hunt. Two
alligators were killed and eaten. On the fourth day, it was determined to

* ( /{/}


conceal the wounded men in a hammock, for the troops had not strength to
carry them, while they should attempt to roach the settlement. This step
was rendered unnecessary by the arrival of sixteen horsemen with provis-
ions. The wounded men were mounted, and the detachment arrived in two
days at Picolata with seventy-five men.
During the first battle, seven men, including the quarter master, surgeon
and rear sentinel, deserted, and took away with them the best horses.
They reported that the whole detachment was cut off. Mr. Kingsley
raised twenty-seven, men and sent then to pick up any stragglers they
might find, and to collect intelligence. This party reached the battle
ground the night of the retreat. Seeing the tents unmolested, they enter-
ed the fort, but were surprised to find no occupants; they concluded that
the garrison was killed, and therefore retreated, as fast as possible, the same
path they came.
Nunen's expedition deranged the plans of the Seminoles, altogether.
The loss of Payne was a serious misfortune to them. They were never
successful afterwards. They kept small parties constantly abroad, taking
cattle and horses, as well as negroes, from the patriots. Mr. Kingsley's
plantation was besieged for nine months; about forty negroes and all his
cattle were stolen. These injuries were again retaliated on the loyalists ;
they, also, took every species of property they could carry off, and burnt
and destroyed houses, fruit trees, and crops of every description. East
Florida became a scene of universal desolation, from which she has never
yet recovered.
1813. In the month of May, the American troops were withdrawn
from Florida, and Fernandina was delivered to the Spanish au-
thorities. At the same time a general pardon was proclaimed to all per-
sons concerned in the insurrection.
1814. In the month of August, Col. Nichols brought into the bay of
Pensacola, a British fleet, from which he manned the forts of Bar-
rancas and St. Michael with troops, and hoisted the British flag. On the '
31st, he published a proclamation, dated at" Head Quarters, Pensacola,"
in which he called the people of Louisiana and Kentucky to join his stan-
dard, and release themselves from the slavish yoke of the United States.
The Indians were abundantly furnished with arms and ammunition, and -
commissioned to butcher the defenceless inhabitants of the frontier states
ten dollars a-piece were offered for the scalps of men, women, or children. -
On the 6th of November, General Jackson, with five thousand Tennessee
militia, and a considerable Indian force, arrived in the neighborhood of
Pensacola, and sent Major Pierre with a flag, to inform governor Manre-
quez of the object of his visit. On approaching one of the fortifications, the


flag was fired on by the cannon of the fort, on which the major returned.
General Jackson, with the adjutant-general and a small escort, immediate-
ly reconnoitered the fort, and found it manned with British and Spanish sol-
S diers. He returned, encamped for the night, and prepared to carry the
town by storm in the morning. On the morning of the 7th, he marched
with the regulars of the third, thirty-ninth, and forty-fourth infantry, part of
General Coffee's brigade, the Mississippi dragoons, part of the West Ten-
nessee regiment, commanded by lieutenant-colonel Hammond, and part of
the Chactaws, commanded by Major Blue of the thirty-ninth, and Major
Kennedy of the Mississippi troops. Jackson had encpamed on the north side
of the town, on the Blakely road, which passed by the forts St. Bernard
and St. Michael.
The British naturally supposed that the attack would be made
1814. from that quarter, and were prepared to rake the road with their
Nov. 14. batteries; to improve this idea, a part of the mount ed men were
ordered to show themselves in that direction, while the army was
marched past the rear of the forts, to the east of the town, undiscovered,
till within a mile of the streets. They were now fully exposed to Fort
St. Michael on the right, and seven armed vessels on the left: several
block-houses and batteries of cannon defended the streets. They however
marched into the town with perfect firmness, and with trifling loss. As the
centre column, composed of the regulars, entered, a battery of two cannon
was opened upon it, with ball and grape, and a shower of musketry from
the houses and fences. They had made but three fires, when the battery
was stormed by captain Laval, who was severely wounded, but afterwards
recovered. k The fire of the regulars soon silenced the musketry of the Eng-
lish. Governor Manriquez met the troops in the streets, and begged Co-
lonels Williamson and Smith, the first officers he met, to show mercy to
the town ; which request, by orders of the general, was granted, on an
unconditional surrender of the town and forts. This was agreed to 'and
the citizens, with their property, were protected : the fort St. Michael was
withheld till twelve o'clock at night. On the morning of the 8th, the fort
of Barrancas was blown up with a tremendous explosion, all the cannon
spiked except two, and every combustible matter burnt to ashes. This act
enabled Nichols to escape from the harbor with his fleet. Captain Wood-
bine and the Red Sticks were conveyed by Niqhols to the Appalachicola
^ River, where strong fort was built, about twenty-five miles above the
mouth, and nianned with three hundred troops, to which there was an im-
mediate resort of Indians and runaway negroes. A small fort was also
built, about two miles below the junction of the Chattahoochee and Flint
Rivers, and one mile south of the old Appalachicola fort.


The principal fortifications of the harbor being destroyed at Pensacola,
General Jackson evacuated the town, after holding possession only two
days. Major Blue was despatched, with a thousand mounted men, against
the forts on the Appalachicola, while the General proceeded to the defence
of New-Orleans.
The Spaniards immediately commenced rebuilding the fortifications at
Earrancas, in which Nichols proffered his assistance, but the governor an-
swered him, that when he needed any assistance, he would call on his
friend General Jackson. The conduct of the General appears to have
been satisfactory to the Spaniards. At parting, he notified them, if
any injuries had been done to private property, to draw on him for pay-
mernt: no demands were made ; and although many thousand dollars da-
mages were in 1825 proven to have been suffered, yet General Jackson
always insisted, that five hundred dollars of damage had not been sustained.
About the first of August, 1816, Colonel Clinch received advice from
General Gaines, that he had ordered a supply of provisions, two eighteen
pounders, a five-inch howitzer, and a quantity of ordnance stores, to ascend
the Appalachicola River to Camp Crawford; and in case any opposition
should be made by the negro fort, lie was instructed to reduce it. He im-
mediately despatched Laforka, an Indian chief, to the bay, for intelligence.
He returned on the 15th, with news of the arrival of Lieutenant Loomis in
the bay, with two gun vessels, and two transports, laden with provisions,
ordnance, stores, &c. On the 17th the Colonel descended the river with
one hundred and sixteen chosen men, in two companies, the one command-
ed by Major Muhlenberg, and the other by Captain Taylor. On the same
evening, he was joined by Maj. M'Intosh, with one hundred and fifty Indians '
and the next day, by Captain Isaacs and Mad Tyger, with a large body of
Indians, badly armed. The meeting was accidental: the Indians were on
a long projected expedition against the negroes, with an intention of restor-
ing them to their owners. A council was held, and an agreement entered
into, respecting the campaign. The Indians were ordered to keep parties
inadvance, and secure every negro that could be found. On the 19th
they brought in a prisoner taken with a scalp, who said that the black
commandant of the fort, and a Chactaw chief, with a party of men, had re-
turned the day before to the fort from the bay, where they had taken a
boat and killed several Americans. On the 20th, at two o'clock in the
morning, Colonel Clinch arrived] within cannon-shot of the fort, and landed
behind a skirt of woods. Major M'Intosh was ordered to surround the fort
with one-third of his men, and to keep up an irregular fire, while Laforka
was sent to notify Lieutenant Loomis of the arrival of the troops. The
enemy retired within the fort, and kept up a constant roar of artillery,
which did no execution, except to frigthen the Indians.


On the 23d, Lieutenant Loomis sent intelligence that he' had ordered out
a watering party, who were attacked by the negroes and Indians ; that a
midshipman and two sailors were killed, one sailor taken, and one made his
. escape: he asked-assistance to convoy up the boats. In the evening, the
Indians demanded a surrender of the forts, but were treated with great con-
tempt by Garcon, the coiimminandant, and the negroes, who hoisted a red flag
with the English jack over it.
On the 24th, Lieutenant Wilson was ordered to descend the river with a
party, to assist in bringing up the boats. On the 26th, they arrived within
four miles of the fort; and the Colonel went on board the gun-boat 149.
After reconnoitering the river in company with the commander of the boat,
he ordered Maj. Muhlenberg, and Captain Taylor to cross over to the west
side of the river, with their companies, to erect a battery; while Lieutenant
M. Garrick, with a party of men and the main body of Indians, were left
to secure the rear.
The battery was immediately commenced ; the vessels were ordered up,
and the transport Similante was directed to be in readiness to land the artil-
lery under cover of the night. At six in the morning, the two gun-boats
sailed up in handsome style, and made fast near the battery. In a few min-
utes after, they received a shot from a thirty-two pounder : it was immedJ-
ately returned in a gallant manner. On the fifth discharge, a hot shot from
gun-boat No. 154 entered the magazine, and blew up the fort-the explo-
sion was awful, and the scene horrible beyond description. The fort con-
tained about one hundred men, and two hundred women and children: not
more than one sixth part were saved. The cries of the wounded, and the
yells of the Indians, rendered the confusion most dreadful. The fort was
situated on a beautiful high bluff, with a large creek below, and a swamp
above, which rendered an approach with artillery extremely difficult. The
parapet was fifteen feet high, and eighteen thick, and was defended by one
thirty-two, three twenty-four's, two nine, and two six pounders, with an
elegant 5- inch howitzer.
The. property taken and destroyed, amounted to two hundred thousand
dollars ; three thousand stands of arms, and six hundred barrels of powder
-. were destroyed; one magazine, containing one hundred and sixty-three bar-
rels of powder, was saved by the victors.
The negro force had been rapidly increasing for one or two years, from
"t runaways their fields extended fifty miles up the river. The Chactaw
-chief, and the negro commandant, named Garqon, were put to death by the
On the 30th, the ordnance and stores, were sent to Camp Crawford, in
small boats.

On the 1st of September,, Colonel Clinch received notice that a large
Seminole force was descending the river to attack him. He immediately
placed himself in a position to receive them; but they dispersed without
making an attack, or even showing themselves to the American troops. ,
TheSeminole Indians, together with many vagabond Creeks, excited by
Nichols and Woodbine, began, soon after the establishment at Appalachi-
cola, to commit depredations on the frontiers of Georgia. General Gaines,
stationed at fort Scott, demanded the murderers; the Seminoles refused to
give them up.
A requisition was made on Georgia for five hundred more troops. The
Seminole force was estimated at two thousand five hundred troops. The
whole force under General Gaines, when joined by General Glasscock from
Georgia, and six hundred Cherokees, amounted to two thousand five hun-
dred. But the Georgia militia were raised for a term of two months only;
they were scarcely collected before they were dismissed, without having
effected any essential service.
In December, General Gaines despatched Major Twigs with two hundred
and fifty men, to an Indian town near Flint River, with orders to bring the
chiefs to the fort. He arrived early in the morning, and was fired upon by
the Indians; he then returned their fire, and killed four warriors, and wound-
ed many more. In the cabin of Neamathla, the chief, was found a British
uniform, of scarlet cioth, with gold epauletts, and a certificate, signed by the
secretary of Nichols, stating that Neamathla was a faithful British subject,
&c. In a few days after, Colonel Arbukle, with three hundred men, was
attacked about twelve miles from Fort Scott ; one of his men was killed,
and three wounded. The Indians were defeated with a loss of ten killed.
General Gaines despatched Lieutenant Scott, with fifty men, down the river,
to meet and support Major Muhlenberg, who was ascending with two boats
loaded with provisions. The Seminoles formed an ambuscade on the bank
of the Appalachicola, about a mile below the junction of the Flint and Chat-
tahoochee Rivers, at a place where the boats had to pass near the shore. On
the first discharge, Lieutenant Scott and the best of his men fell: only six
men escaped ; four of these were badly wounded: there were seven women
on board, who shared the common fate of the soldiers. Lieutenant Scott
had met MVajor Muhlenberg ; and had left twenty of his men, receiving as
many sick, and the women, with some regimental clothing, and was return-
ing to the fort. Two covered boats were sent down the river, under the -
command of Captain Clinch, to support Scott; he passed the scene of ac-
tion on the night after the engagement. On the 15th, the transports, under
Major Muhlenberg, were attacked by an Indian force, amounting to twelve
hundred, placed on both sides of the river.




The attack was continued, with little intermission, to the 19th; but no
impression was made, as the boats were fortified with bulwarks, to secure
the men from the enemy's shot. During the four days of the attack, two
men were killed, and thirteen wounded. The boats finally arrived safely
at Fort Scott. About this time, Captain M'Intosh was attacked in a small
house, twelve miles from Fort- Scott ; although surrounded several days, he
defended himself without loss. The Indians at length retired with consid-
erable loss, and the party was called into the fort.
On the 22d of January, 1818, General Jackson concluded a treaty with
the Creek Indians ; and in February, the Creek warriors agreed to march,
under their chief M'Intosh, to fight the Seminoles in Florida.
About the 1st of March, General Jackson arrived, at Fort Scott, and took
command of the southern army. M'Intosh, with his Creeks, marched
down the west bank of the Chattahoochee, with provisions for six days only.
On the 12th of March, they arrived at Chaubulle Creek; the waters being
high, the Indians were obliged to leave their baggage and provisions, and
swim a considerable distance, as the swamp was six miles wide. Hitche-
taw town, commanded by the Red-ground King, Econchatti Micco, was sur-
rounded; but he escaped. The Indians were starving; but here they ob
trained food, and then pursued the fugitives; came up with them, and took
fifty.six men, and one hundred and eighty women and children: the rest es-
caped. A quantity of cattle were taken.
On the 26th, General Jackson left Fort Gadsden, and marched towards
the Mickasookie towns, in East Florida. On the 14th, he met an abundant
supply of provisions. His force consisted of five hundred regulars, one
thousand militia, and eighteen hundred Indians. M'Intosh had not joined
him with his seven hundred Creeks. On the 1st of April, the Mickasookie
towns were destroyed, and the Fowl towns directly after. The Indians
made little resistance. One thousand head of fine cattle, and many thousand
bushels of corn, were taken. Jackson then proceeded to St. Mark's: the
fort surrendered. Arbuthnot, the prophet Francis, and another Indian chief,
were taken here. The two latter were immediately hanged. The fort was
strongly fortified, and mounted twenty pieces of heavy ordnance. The
garrison were sent to Pensacola. M'Intosh here took about one hundred
SIndian prisoners.)
At Mickasookie, three hundred scalps were found; fifty of them were
Suspended over the square, on a painted war-pole. They were of every
description; men's, women's, and infants' : and most of them fresh.
Early in Aprili General Jackson marched for Suwanne, where about .
two thousand Indians and negroes were collected, acting under the orders
1of Arbathnot, who had a schooner, loaded with arms, ammunition, and


military stores, lying opposite the mouth of the Suwanne River, in Wa-
kasasse Bay. On the approach of our troops a show of resistance was
made but the main body of the Indians fled to St. Augustine. They
were pursued some distance, when a camp of negroes was .discovered in
the night; they fought desperately, and did not give way until eighty out
of three hundred and forty, were killed. Three hundred Indian women
and children, and a great many cattle, were taken prisoners; and the In-
dians killed many more, to prevent their falling into our hands.
Arbuthnot, ignorant of the proximity of Jackson, approached the camp
in a canoe, with t\vo negroes and an Indian, in the evening, and was taken ;
some boats were then sent down the river, o ,, and the schooner seiz-
ed. On the 1st of May a court martial was held on Arbuthnot and Am-
brister, of which General Gaines was president. The charges were, ex-
citing the Indians and negroes to commit murders, and supplying them
with arms and ammunition; and, secondly, acting as spies. They were
both found guilty ; Arbuthnot was sentenced to be hung, and Amrbrister to
be shot. The sentence was immediately executed. Arbuthnot was the
bosom friend of Woodbine.;+ had been in every part of Florida, exciting
the Indians and negroes; and was the author of this war. Ambrister
was, in appearance, a fine young man, about twenty-five years old, and
was a lieutenant of engineers. He was sometimes called Warburton. He
died like a weak woman.
The Indian war being thus despatched, the General discharged the Ten-
nessee volunteers; and, with the regulars and friendly Indians, marched
for Pensacola....
On the 13th of April, M'Intosh met M'Queen, with a party of Seminoles
and fugitive Red Sticks, thirty miles east of Mickasookie ; a running fight
took place ; M'Queen retreated, and M'lntosh pursued, about three hours
killed thirty-seven, took one hundred women arid children and six men pris-
oners, and seven 'hundred head of cattle. VlPIntosh then joined General
Jackson at Suwanne.
About the last of this month, Lieutenant Eddy was attacked by a party
of Indians, while ascending the Escambia River with a boat loaded with
provisions: he had one man killed, and two wounded. Major Young, at
Fort Montgmery, put himself at the head of seventy-five mounted men,
and pursued the murderers within one mile of Pensacola, were ho encoun-
tered them at the bayou Texar, killed thirty, and took seventy-four prison-
When Jackson had arrived in the neighborhood of Pensacola, and learned
that the governor had refused permission for boats loaded with provisions,
Woodbine was lately murdered with his family, at Campeachy, by negroes.-(1837.)

bearing the American flag, to ascend the Escambia, to furnish his troops-
while they had issued provisions, arms and ammunition to the savages-he
determined to enter the town again, and expel the treacherous Spaniards.
SThe governor was apprised of his approach, and sent to warn him that he
would be opposed by the whole Spanish force. The General said he
would answer him the next morning, and continued his march. At nine
o'clock the next morning he took possession without opposition. The
governor had abandoned it, and taken shelter in the fort of Barran-
1818. Three days after, (May 28) the army was marched to the Bar-
rancas, and a situation taken about four hundred yards'wvest of the
fort, where the men were set to work during the night, to erect a breast-
work. In the morning it was discovered by the Spaniards, who commenced
firing on it with two twenty-four pounders; the firing was returned with' a
howitzer. At three o'clock a flag was sent by the fort, and a capitulation
followed. The governor and garrison were sent to Havana.
Captain Girt was sent with a company to scour the country .between
the Pensacola and Perdido Bays; and Captain Bowles to perform a
similar service about the Uche and Holmes' old fields, on the Chactaw-
Colonel King was left in the command of Pensacola, while Gen. Jackson
marched with the volunteers to Tennessee.
A treaty of amity, settlement, and limits, was at length concluded
1819. between His Catholic Majesty and the United States, by which the
two Floridas and the adjacent islands were ceded to the latter.
West Florida then extended westwardly to ihe Appalachicola River. The
exchange Of flags under this treaty took place on the 17th of June 1821,
when General Jackson was appointed Governor of the Floridas, with very
ample legislative, judicial and executive powers.
Soon after the arrival of Governor Jackson at Pensacola, he received
information that the Spanish ex-governor, Calleava, was about to send to
Cuba certain papers and documents relating to the titles of lands, in viola-
tion of tle second article of the treaty of cession: he proceeded to make a
S demand of them. The ex-governor not complying in the manner and form
that was thought proper, an order was issued for his imprisonment, and he
was committed to the calabosa, some boxes of papers were seized, and
Calleava was soon after released. Several Spanish officers feeling them-
selves insulted by this degradation of their late Governor, sent to Governor
Jackson a spirited remonstrance. This was so highly resented by Jackson,
that he issued an order of banishment against twelve of them, and they
were hurried from the Territory with the loss of nearly all their property.



'82. ci. \


It having since been suggested to our general government that many
important papers relating to land claims were still detained at the Havana,
they sent an agent to examine the archives, and to collect other evidences
on that subject. This agency was continued some years at a very great
expense, but probably to little advantage'
Governor Jackson removed the dividing line between East and West
Florida, from the Appalachicola to the Suwanne River, thus rendering
them more equal in size; and established in each, courts with civil and
criminal jurisdiction. At the same time he published several ordinances
for their direction in the distribution of public justice.
1822. On the 30th of March, 1822, Congress passed an act, erecting
into a territory the two Floridas ; and his excellency, William P.
Duval, was appointed governor for three years. A legislative council was
formed, which held its first session in June. At this council, West Florida
was divided into two counties, Escambia and Jackson. East Florida was
also divided into Duval and St. Johns Counties. Congress had, at their
last session, established a Superior Court, to be held in each district of the'
Territory, corresponding to Jackson's division.
The Legislative Council, in June, 1823, passed an act, appointing Dr.
William H. Simmons, of St. Augustine, and J. Lee Williams, of Pensacola,
Commissioners to locate a common seat of .government. In October of the
same year, they fixed the site, near the old fields of Tallahasse, the centre
of the Fowl towns. In 1824, the town was surveyed, and the public offi-
ces were soon after removed to that place ; where the-seat of territorial
government has since been established.
Two more counties were this year established. Gadsden in West, and
Monroe in East Floiida. The first embraced the country between Appa-
lachicola and Suwanne Rivers, and the other all the tract of country below
Charlotte Bay and the Gulf south, together with the Florida Keys. This
year Congress extended the term of the governor to four years.
1824. The Legislative Council this year established the counties of
Walton, Leon, Al4achua, and Nassau. Congress established also
a Court of Appeals, to be held by the several judges of the-Superior
Court, each year, in January, at the seat of government: and the Territory
was divided into three Judicial Districts. The Eastern, to extend to the
Suwanne River; the Middle to the Appalachicola ; and the Western com-
prising all the country west of that river.
The Court of Appeals has been found of very little use. The judges
having once decided the causes in the Superior Courts of each district,
usually confirm their own judgments.
1825. The counties of Washington and Musquito were this year laid


The privilege of electing members of the Legislative Council, was, this
year, extended to the citizens of the Territory, by Congress, and the gov-
ernor was empowered to divide the Territory into thirteen election dis-
1827. Jefferson County was, this year, set off from Leon.
The Southern Judicial District, was this year established, to em-
1828. brace the Florida Keys, and the south end of the Peninsula, as far
as Indian River and Charlotte Bay. Hamilton and Madison Coun-
ties were set off from Jefferson.
The privilege of electing all officers of the Territory, civil and mil-
1829. itary, except 'such as are by law appointed by the President, was
this year conferred on the citizens of the Territory.
When Ponce De Leon visited Florida in 1512, the natives were repre-
Aeih. -A
Assented to have been a,brave and warlike people, who wanted neither cour-
age nor ability to defend themselves.
In the succeeding invasions of Velasquez, in 1518, and of Pamphillo de
Narvaez, in 1528, their bravery is equally well supported, but little more
of their character is developed. The Spanish historians of that period
were so engrossed in detailing the disasters of their own countrymen, that
they did not trouble themselves to examine the character, policy or resour-
ces of their enemy.
In 1539, Ferdinand de Soto invaded Florida with an army that bore
down all opposition, and for four years swept the face of the country like a
Sdesolating tempest. During this invasion the Indians did not exhibit less
bravery than heretofore, but they had to contend with a distinguished chief,
and men accustomed to overcome all opposition; besides, De Soto carried
with him a train of artillery and four hundred horses, neither of which had
before been seen by the Floridians, and they were utterly astonished by
their power and effects. Notwithstanding these disadvantages they fought
many battles with desperation, hand to hand with lheir invaders, and in
some instances, were killed to a man rather than retreat.
In this campaign De Soto was accompanied by men who were capable
--of making correct observations as to the character, manners, policy, and
resources of the natives. One of these, a Portuguese gentleman, has
-Vvritten a history of the invasion, which is now extant; the others were
carefully examined by Garcilasso de la Vega, the historian of the New
World, and by him their narratives were committed to writing. Both of
these writers have painted the natives minutely, and apparently with faith-
ful colors.
2 7


It is not easy to determine, from what quarter the Florida tribes derived
their origin ; or whether they were all connected with the Natchez. At the
time the French settled in Louisiana, this nation extended up the eastern bank
oftheMississippi, from near its mouth, to the Ohio River. Their traditions bore
marks of probability, which have been confirmed, by the discoveries lately
made, near the Gulf of Californa and on the Rivers Gila and ,Yaquisila.
These traditions state, that the Natchez came from the South West, from
a pleasant country and a mild climate, where they spread over an extensive
territory of hills and plains, on the latter of which, their cities were built of
stone, the houses several stories in height. Some of these people having
been conquered by their enemies, their Sun,or Cacique, sent some of his sub-
jects to discover a place of retreat; on their return, they reported so favor-
ably of the Mississippi country, that a large colony was sent to take posses-
sion of it, where they resided in peace for many years. In process of time,
the chief, Sun, came with the balance of the nation, stating that warriors
of fire, who made the earth tremble, had visited their country, that the
Natchez had assisted them to conquer their enemies, but the strangers then
endeavored to enslave their allies; but rather than submit, they had aban-
doned their country, and joined their fiiends on the Mississippi.
Whether these people extended over Florida at the time of De Soto's in-
vasion, or whether their example had tended to civilize the neighboring
tribes, it is not easy to determine, but they were certainly far ahead of the
other American savages, in civilization and all the arts of life. Those in
the interior of the country, were also more civilized than those of the sea
coast and islands.
At the time of De Sotos' invasion, the country must have contained, ac-
cording to La Vega, five times the number of inhabitants, that it does
at this time; this would have rendered wild game scarce, and would
have necessarily induced the natives to adopt habits of industry and im-
provement. At the same time, the abundance of fish and turtle on the sea
coast, would lead to an erratic and idle life. The lands on the sea coast are
also much poorer than those near the heads and sources of the rivers.
There is no doubt that the mildness of the climate and the facility of pro-
curing vegetable food, both tended.to improve the social habits of the.
people. Accordingly, at Ocala, perhaps near Fort King, La Vega des-...
cribes a town of six hundred houses, and a few miles farther, another at
Ochile (Chichila) of five hundred houses, enclosed with a regular palisado,
and containing some buildings one hundred and twenty feet long. At the
capital of Vitachucco, the cacique raised an army of six thousand men in
four days. for the purpose of repelling their invaders. These people sub-,
sisted on fruits and grains, the produce of their industry, and they had abun-



dance to spare to the Spanish army of twelve hundred men and four hun-
dred horses.
After the evacuation of the country by the Spaniards, the inhabitants
were greatly diminished during the invasion vast numbers had perished,
both by the sword and by their extreme fatigues, in consequence of their
A being obliged to convey the Spanish baggage from one province to another.
Indeed, they were so much weakened, that their enemies gained advanta-
ges over them, which they never could have done, but for these disasters.
In 1564, Philip the II of Spain, conceived the project of converting the
Indians of Florida, to the Catholic faith. For this service, he selected several
missionaries, from the several orders of Spanish Friars, the most numerous
as well as the most intelligent, of < were Franciscans. These he sent
under the protection of three thousand men, commanded by Don Pedro Me-
nendez De Avilla, who was appointed Adelantado. The fleet anchored in the
sound west of Anastatia Island, about the middle of September and a vil-
lage was immediately commenced, on the western bank of the sound, and
called St. Augustine. A convent was also established for the missionaries
and called St. Helena. From this place, they extended their labors over the
whole country, as far west as the Mississippi and north to the Appalachean
mountains. Few men have been more zealous or more successful than
Menendez and his successor Alas, in the propagation of the Catholic faith.
During the twenty-five years which they resided in Florida, they established
several hundred societies of Indians, who sent regular deputies to the great
convent of St. Helena. The mi.-ionary posts were establishments of much
importance; they were permanent stations where some special missionaries
were permitted by the Indians to reside, to preach and to instruct the chil-
dren of the natives, in the Spanish language, religion and the arts of life.
In order to assist in these labors, several Spanish families were permitted also
to settle at the posts ; they often encouraged marriages between the young
persons of each nation, until they became like one people; the country was
extensively improved, and became very populous and very prosperous.
At this period, Florida was divided between the Appalaches, who
dwelt west of the Suwanne, and the Yamasees, who spread over the dis-
S trict between the Suwanne and the Atlantic, extending as far north as
South Carolina; these nations had long been at war with each other,
but were reconciled by the Spaniards, and lived from that time in friendship
andt peace. ,
De las Alas succeeded Menendez, as Adelantado of Florida; the same po-
licy pursued by his predecessors, was improved by him. In 1583, he
united under the protection of Spain, the Chickasaws, Tocaposcas, Apacas,
Tamaicas, Apiscas, and Alabamas ; and during the next year, the Chis-
chemacas joined the confederacy.


In 1680, de las Alas was succeeded by Don John Menyers de Cabrane.
He became a bitter enemy to the Yamasees, suspecting them of being too
friendly with the English of Carolina ; so far did his resentment extend,
that he publicly executed their Cacique, Nichosatly. The English
taking advantage of this event, engaged the Yamasees in a furious war
with the Spaniards, which continued several years, until Cabrane was re-
callcd to Spain. He was succeeded by Ayola as Governor.
From-this time till 1704, a space of fourteen years, the Indians of Flo-
rida were alternately courted by the Spanish and French colonies in West
Florida, and some of the young warriors were induced to take arms, but
the body of the natives, remained peaceably at home, cultivating their
lands. From this happy state, they were at length roused by the invasion
of the Creeks, under the command of Governor Moore, of South Carolina.
Two years before, Moore had attacked and beseiged St. Augustine, but
was driven from thence with disgrace. To wipe off this stain, he, with a few
more daring Carolinians, put themselves at the head of one thousand
Creek warriors, who had ever been the enemies of the Florida tribes, and pro.
feeding down the Flint River, their first attack was made on Lewis's fort, on
the east side of the Oclockony River, and about two and a half miles west
of our Tallahasse; this fort being carried, the whole country was swept of
inhabitants, to the gates of St. Augustine. Many were destroyed, and the
balance carried as slaves to the north side of Savanna River, and made to
till the land. Two or three succeeding inroads cleared the islands and
coast of the Gulf of the Muspa and CJoosa tribes, as far as Cape Sable,
Sand the Florida keys. The ruins of the Spanish monasteries and other im-
provements are still seen through middle Florida, and have for a long time
been subjects of wonder, to inquiring travellers.
In 1717, Governor Ayola succeeded in reconciling the Florida Indians
with the Creeks, and planned a general attack upon the English settle-
ments, in Carolina. The fragments of the Yamasees, and Appalaches,
were united with the Creeks on the southern borders of the English settle-
iments; while the Congarees, Catowbas, and Cherokees, fell upon their
western borders. The Indians being totally defeated by Govcrnor Craven,
the confederacy was "dissolved, and the Florida Indians retired under the
walls of St. Augustine.
The next year, 1718, Ayola was succeeded by Malina, who put a stop
to the Indian incursions against the English. He even drove them from
their homes, near St. Augustine and St. Marks. This latter fort had been
built by order of Governor Ayola, at the particular request of the scattering
natives, and the Uchees who had removed from the neighborhood of
Coweta, and was intended both to protect a trading house, and guard


against the northern Indians. The natives were also ordered to remove
from the neighborhood'of the English colonies, and were compelled by an
armed f6rceto abandon their fields, then nearly ripe, and to encounter star-
vation in the forests, exposed to those enemies that the Spanish cupidity
had created against them. The consequence was, that vast numbers of
W them, men, women, and children, died of want and disease.
After this, the surviving natives having retired to the southern part of the
peninsula, rested from war; but in 1725, Governor Malina, got embroiled
with his English neighbors. He then sent to Macono, the Yama-
see chief, to assist him, and defend the catholic faith against the heretics.
This was ever the prevailing argument with those dupes of the catholic
church. They forgot their injuries, and returned to fight the English; and
they ravaged the frontier settlements of Georgia, with fire and sword, until
Colonel Palmer again drove them for shelter, under the walls of St. Augus-
tine. Trifling incursions were kept up between the Indians and the English,
until 1748, when a treaty between Spain and England laid the Savages at
In 1763, when these provinces were ceded to the English, the natives
generally, retired from the towns, and commenced raising horses and cattle,
in the deep forests. Here they continued to increase both by natural popu-
lation, and by accessions from other tribes. The country was extensive,
and became full of game: the climate was mild and produced many fruits;
all these circumstances tended to invite the neighboring Indians to collect
and settle, especially around those pleasant prairies and old fields, abounding
in peach and persimon orchards, and wild orange groves. By degrees they
grew to a small nation, and were called Seminoles, or wander-ers.
Except some trifling disturbance made in 1792, ,by an Englishman
named Bowles, who joir.ed the Seminoles, and excited them to some acts of
hostility against the Spaniards, Florida remained quiet, until the Americans
under Mathews, and Mclntosh, invaded -East Florida, during the years
1812, 13, and 14. At this time, being excited by the Spaniards in St. Au-
gustine, their young warriors could not be restrained, but contrary to the
advice of Payne, their civil chief, they committed many depredations on the
. American inhabitants. They were at length attached near their towhs, in
Allachua, by Colonel Newnan of Georgia, where Payne was killed, and
Many of his warriors were cut off. .
In 1818, the Creek Indians under McIntosh, their chief, attacked, and
burned the Fowel towns on the borders of the Mickasookee.Lake, and short-
ly after, General Jackson broke up the main force of the Seminoles, near the
Suwanne River, taking most of their women and children. The remaining
warriors under Bowlegs, a brother of Payne, being wounded, took refuge un-
der the walls of St. Augustine.

214 INDIANS. '

SPayne was the civil, and Bowlegs the military chief of the Seminoles ;
they were the sQns of Cowkeeper, a distinguished chief of East Florida.
After the death of Payne, the eldest son of Solachoppo, or Lqog Tom, suc-
ceeded him, but dying early of a debauch, his younger brother, Micanopy,
became chief of the Seminoles. His father resided at Wealusta, or Black
Creek, and owned many cattle, aud some slaves. He is a large fat man, .A
rather obtuse in intellect, but kind to his people and slaves. One of them,
Abraham, has long been an interpreter, and as such accompanied his mas-
ter, and a deputation of Seminoles to Washington City. After his return,
Micanopy gave him his freedom; he is a sensible shrewd negro, and has
ever been a principal counsellor of his master. Jumper was a Creek, and
one of the leaders at the massacre of Fort Mimms, in 1811. He came to
Florida after Jackson's campaign, and married a sister of Micanopy ; since
that time he has continued with the Seminoles.
In 1823, 18th September, a treaty was concluded at Moultrey Creek, in
East Florida, between the United States and the Indians of Florida, by
which the latter agreed to surrender all their improvements in the Territory,
except a part of the eastern peninsula, where they were to reside for twen-
ty years. To this district they were removed during the winter of 1824,
except some of their chiefs, who were granted reservations in West Florida.
Hicks, one of the chiefs of the Mickasookies, removed with them, and
retained the principal control of them till 1825, when he is said to have
been shot or poisoned by some of Jumper's partisans. .The Mickasooke
Indians were principally Creeks, who, at the close of the campaign of 1818
had taken refuge in Florida; they had settled on the borders of the Micka-
sooke Lake, the Oscilla River and Tallahasse; their settlements were
usually termed the Fowel Towns. Neamathla, a fugitive Creek, was their
principal chief. Hicks lived near San Pedro Lake. Nea'athla was
opposed to the treaty of Moultrey Creek, but Hicks was in favor of it.
Neamathla was with difficulty' induced to sign the treaty. Two miles
square of land on Rocky Comfort Creek, embracing the, Tuphulga village,
were reserved to him. He never resided on it, but returned to the Creek
nation. The Mickasookies always expressed great unwillingness to leave
the middle district of Florida. After settling on the Peninsula, they peti-.i
tioned the government, through their agent, Col. Humphreys, to extend'
their lines farther north, which was finally granted, together with addition-
al issues of provisions; still they continued dissatisfied, and during the
years 1835 and 6 many of them were disposed to emigrate, and had their
agent then been permitted to accompany them, it is believed that the
whole nation would have left the Territory; but he was soon after supersed-
ed by Major Phagan, and he was in turn succeeded by General Willey



Thompson. Complaints were often made by the inhabitants of Allachua--
that the Indians stole their cattle, and one or two acts were passed by the
Legislative 4nicil to restrain them within their boundary lines, and to
. prevent any intercourse or trading'between them and the white inhabitants
of Florida. In May, 1835, an Indian named Olapotha Hajo, who had a
camp at the head of Salt Spring, on the west side of Lake George, came to
Switzers, a new plantation at the mouth of Silver Spring, and shot one of
the laborers, a Captain Farnham, through the left shoulder. Farnham
recovered, but it was evidently the intention of the Indian to kill him, as he
took deliberate aim with his rifle. The plantation where this took place
belonged to General Clinch; the family of Switzer soon after abandon-
ed the country, and the Indians, about nine in number, presently aftercame
and robbed the house of such articles as they could carry away, and then
burned the buildings to the ground, taking away with them a negro
boy, who soon after escaped and returned to his master, Mr. Woodruff.
About this time, Mr. Kerr, a public surveyor, while running lines west of
Lake George, was fired on by the savages and driven off. Near the same
period, Captain Willy, of the schooner Jane and Mary, ascended the St.
John's as far as the mouth of the Ocklawaha, with a cargo of ammunition
and military stores for Fort King; the schooner was visited first by a few
Indians, but afterwards by more, until about the third day their numbers
amounted to forty or fifty. They grew impudent, and camped nearly
around him. The schooner was well armed, but the crew consisted of the
Captain and only three men. There can be no doubt of the intention of
the savages to take the schooner, but Captain Willy, elevating one of the
six pound field pieces over one of the Indian camps, fired it off. It had the
desired effect the Indians soon scattered and left him.
SAbout e month of October, Major Lewellen Williams, and six of his
neighbor discovered a party of Indiansnear the Kenopaha Pond, butoher-
ing one of their heaves. They disarmed five of them, and flogged some of
there t one got away, and two Indian hunters at the same time coming
up fire tn t4 whites ; a smart skirmish ensued, in which two of the Indians
were killed, and three of the whites wounded; one afterwards died of his
Soon after this affair, the express riding from Tampa Bay, to Fort -King,
was murdered in a most shocking manner, by these Indians.
Many other indications of the hostile feelings of the Seminoles and Mick-
asookies were manifested during this summer, but they were but little re-
garded by the Floridians; they had long been accustomed to hold them in
contempt, and treat them with indignity.
General Willey Thompson, the Indian agent at Camp King, however,


216 INDIANS, .r -

about the 28th of October, notified the secretary of war, that about two-
thirds of the Indians manifested an obstinate deterrmnation to disregard the
treaty of Payne's Landing, and to resist a removal. 4
The agent further stated, that immediately after the Indians had received t
their annuities, they purchased an unusual quantity of powder and lead, :
which he was informed, they had added to much greater stores, that they 0
had before hoarded up. He advised that a large military force should be
immediately placed in the nation, both to overawe the savages, and control
designing persons, who he supposed were exciting the Seminoles to war.
Those Indians disposed to emigrate, were commanded by the chiefs Holaste,
Emathia, Fucaluste, Hajo, and Charley Emathia ; their numbers are sup-
posed to amount to four or five hundred, but great exertions were made to
prejudice them against the white population, and to make war lather
than remove.
In this exertion, none were more zealous than Powel or Oseola, a mixed
blooded Creek of the Red Stick tribe, whose mother was a half breed, and
his father an Englishman. He was without property or rank; until a daring
spirit, about this time, distinguished him, before all his countrymen. It was
at a talk held sometime during the summer of 1826, with the Indian agent,
that Powel gave him tho lie, said the country belonged to the Seminoles,
and the whites had better be off; flourishing his knife in defiance. Gener-
al Thompson reported his conduct to Colonel Fanning, who commanded
the post, and Powel was seized by the guard, and put in irons. For some
time he manifested great obstinacy and sullenness; finding this a useless
course, he assumed a cheerful countenance, and pleasant demeanor, profess-
ed a willingness to sign the articles for removing, and many of his friends
the Mickasookies, of whom he had about seventy-five attached to him,
came and voluntarily signed the treaty with him. He was at leth relea-
sed, and for some time he kept tip the mask of friendship, and atqsted the
agent in restraining the Indians, especially the Mickasookies;,- from wander-
ing out of their boundaries ; in some instances he inflicted severe ctise-
ments on them. .
About the first of October, however, he cast off all connection with the
agent, and united with Jumper and his adherents, and was the first to dip .-
his tomahawk in blood. Charley Emathla was his first victim. The
United States had agreed to purchase the cattle of, the emigrating Indians, 4
at a faith valuation: to this end, commissioners were sent to appraise them,
on a certain day, which was generally advertised. The hostile chiefs for-
bid the collecting and penning of the cattle, and threatened death to any
that should disobey the order. Charley Emathla, one of the most sensible
and prudent chiefs of the Seminoles, disregarding the threats of the hostile

-' i : ,. ,." : ,' ,


chiefs, about the 26th of November, came into Fort King, with his three
daughters, and notified Colonel Yancey, one of the commissioners, that his
cattle would be duly penned for appraisement; on his return from the fort,
lhe was beset by Powel, and about twenty of his followers, who pierced him
with sixteen bullets. This murder struck such a terror through the Semi-
W nole tribe, that a stop was put to the further collection of cattle. A great
number of people, who had collected from every part --of. the neighboring '
country, to purchase cattle and horses, quickly retired to their homes. As
no attempt was made by the'officer in command at Fort King, to obtain satis-
faction for, or to restrain these repeated aggressions of the hostile Mickasoo-
kies, the friendly Serninoles became impressed with the idea, that the whites
were too weak to defend them, and they reluctantly submitted to the Mick-
asookies ; many of them at length joined in their war parties. From this
period, Powel's authority and importance daily increased, which he sup-
ported by daring acts of hostility against the Florida troops. -
In October, General Clinch advised the Secretary of War, that there
was danger to be apprehended from the hostile chiefs, and required an addi-
tion to the troops, located in that vicinity. It seems that, in consequence
of the representations of the General, and the Indian agent, fourteen compa-
nies of regular troops, were ordered to hold themselves in readiness, to
march to Florida, from different posts, but such was the distance, and diffi-
culty of transportation, that none of them had reached Fort King on the first
of January.
On the 21st December, Major Dade arrived at Tampa Bay, from Key
West, with Company A. Infantry, thirty-nine men, and a small supply of
cartridges ; to this was joined Gardner's Company of 2d Artillery, and Fra-
zier's Company 3d Infantry, fifty men each. This force marched for Fort
King on the 24th, attended by a 6 pounder, drawn by oxen, and one light
wagon with ten days provision. They proceeded that day to Little Hills-
borough River, seven miles from Tampa. The field piece was, however,
left four miles from Tampa, the oxen having failed. Major Dade sent back
--an express, requesting Major Belton to furnish another team, and push for-
ward the field piece; this was done the next day, and the piece reached the '
Scamp about nine o'clock in the evening. On reaching the Big Hillsbo-
rough, the detachment was delayed some time, on account of the bridge
having been burned by the Indians.
On the 27th they reached the.ig Ouithlacoochee. On the 28th, they
continued their march about six miles, when they were suddenly attacked
Sin an open pine country, by an unseen enemy. The attack commenced on
the advance guard, but immediately extended along the front and left flank;
several volleys were fired before an enemy could be seen. The first dis-

218 INDIANS. ,

charge was the most fatal; Major Dade waskilled and nearly half the com-
mand disabled. The remaining troops immediately took shelter behind trees,
and Lieut. Bassinger poured in five or six rounds of canister upon the Indians,
which checked them for some time; they retreated over a small ridge and .
disappeared. When the Indians commenced the attack, they were squat-
ting behind trees in the high grass ; after firing several vollies, they rose
simultaneously, and yelled horribly. Capt. Frazier fell probably at the first
fire, as he rode to the advance guard. Lieut. Mudge was mortally
wounded, Lieut. Keys had both arms broken, they were bound up, and he
reclined against some logs until he was killed late in the action ; Lieut.
Henderson had his left arm broken, but continued to load and fire his piece,
until late in the second attack, when he was killed. Capt. Gardener, Lieut.
Bassinger and Doct. .Gatlin were the only officers who escaped unhurt by
the first volley.
On the retreat of the Indians, Capt. Gardener immediately commenced
cutting pine trees, and erecting a small triangular breast-work, with the logs.
In about three quarters of an hour, their labor was interrupted by a return
of the Indians. They came in vast numbers with horrid yells, and com-
menced a cross fire on the breast-work with deadly execution. Lieut. Bas-
singer continued to fire the six pounder, until all the artillerists were cut
down by the enemy's shot. Capt. Gardener was at length shot down;
Doct. Gatlin with two double barreled guns, continued behind the breast-
work firing on the Indians, until late in the action, when he fell and Lieut.
Bassenger was severely wounded. About two o'clock the last man fell, and
the Indians then rushed into the breast-work, headed by a heavy painted
Indian, who believing that all were dead, made a speech to the savages.
They then stripped off the accoutrements of the soldiers, and took their arms
without offering any indignity ; they retired in a body in the direction from
which they came.
Soon after the Indians had retired, about fifty negroes galloped up on
horesback; when they reached the breast-work they alighted, and tied their
horses. Then commenced a horrible butchery. If any poor fellow on the
ground shewed the least signs of life, the thick lipped savages sank their
tomahawks in their brains, and with their knives stabbed and mutilated them
amid yells and blasphemies. Lieut. Bassenger being still alive, started up ,>
and begged the wretches to spare his life; they mocked at his prayers, while
they mangled him with their hatchets till death came to his relief.
After stripping all the dead, the negroes took the field piece and cast it
into a pond which was not far distant, shot theoxen, and burnt the wagon
and gun carriages. Shortly after the negroes retired, a soldier named
Wilson, of Captain Gardener's company, crawled out from among the man-


gled bodies, and discovering that Rawson Clark was stillfalive, he asked
him to go with him back to Tampa. As he jumped over the breast-work,
Clark was about to follow, when an Indian started from behind a tree and
shot him dead. Clark again crawled down among the dead bodies, and
laid still till nine o'clock in the evening; he then crawled out, and with De
S Coney, another founded man, made the best of their way for Tampa.
The next day they met an Indian on horseback, with his rifle; they sepa-
rated, one ran to the right and the other to the left. De Coney was
pursued and shot by the savage ; Clark, after reaching a scrub, hid him-
self; the Indian came near him, searching the bushes, but at length rode
off. Stiff and cold, Clark camped that night in the woods, surrounded by
wolves, who scenting the blood, howled fearfully around him. The next
day he reached Tampa and recovered of his. wounds. Another soldier,
named Thomas, who was partly suffocated beneath the bodies, recovered
and found himself in the hands of an Indian that he knew; he gave the
Indian six dollars and was permitted to escape. Hle reached the Fort at
Tampa in safety.
Jumper took the command of the Indians in this massacre, although it is
stated that Micanopy was compelled to commence the attack by firing-the
first gun. Lewis was the guide of Major Dade_; he was frequently absent
from the troops in the march ; he fell on hearing the first gun, but directly
after joined the enemy, and read to them the despatches and papers found
upon the dead. He was a free negro, formerly the property of General
The number of Indians engaged in the above horrid affair was very
great, and when it is recollected that a large party were at the same time
at Wakahoota, and another party at Allachua, under Powell, we shall dis-
cover that the numbers of the Indians had been greatly underrated, and
that their courage and ability to carry on the war, had been utterly misun-
derstood by the American government.
The news of Emathla's murder reached General Clinch at St. Augustine,
About the 1st of December. He was too well acquainted with the savage
character to doubt the object of this daring stroke of Powel. He inimedi-
ately started for Micanopy by way of Jacksonville. From the latter place
to- he addressed a circular to.'the inhabitants of Duval and Nassau counties,
inviting two hundred volunteers to repair to the frontier posts, to check any
attempts of the hostile Indians against the inhabitants. The population of
these counties cheerfully responded to the call, and by the 15th, several
companies, under the command of Colonels Warren and Mills, were at
Newnansville, on their way to Fort Drane, where they were met by Gen.
Call, at the head of five hundred men from Middle Florida.


On the 17th they arrived at the Allachua Prairie, where they were met
by news that the enemy had appeared in force at Wakahoota, where they
had burned and ravaged the plantations of Capt. Priest and others, and
had wounded several men, among whom was a son of Capt. Priest. Gen.
Call ordered a detachment under the command of Capt. Richards, to es-
cort three wagons and a, cart containing the ammunition *and stores of Col.
Warren's command, to proceed by the Allachua Prairie to Micanope.
They proceeded round the west end of the prairie, it being full of water,
until they reached Black Point, on the south side. W. Ives was placed
one hundred paces in front with five men, and J. Sumeral with the same
number in the rear; thirteen continued in the centre with the wagons.
The advanced guard had passed the point unmolested, but when the teams
came opposite, and about forty yards from the point, a severe fire was
opened upon them from the bushes. The front and rear guards were or-
dered to the centre, but five only obeyed, to wit: Ives, Sumeral, Spark-
man, and two teamsters Ttt-.gu. Tillis fired three times and was
then shot through the body. The Captain and all the rest ran off on the
first fire. One horse was killed in the harness, and one broke loose. Ives
and Sparkman placed Tillis in 1 cart and were driving it off, when three
Indians ran from the brush to stop them ; they were all cut down by the
file of those at the cart, who then retreated back, until they were met by
Col. Warren. During their retreat the cart-horse received three balls and
on reaching a spot of dry ground he fell dead. The Indians took the am-
munition from the wagons and burned one of them. Soon after Capt. M.
Lemore arrived and, charged up to the hammock with his Orderly Ser-
geant, Hurst, but was not followed by his company. Hurst was shot
through the body and fell. Another attempt was made to charge the
hammock, but the troops, with the exception of fifteen, refused, and the
whole retreated to Fort Crum. One of the men, named McKee, was
shot dead, Weeks and Tillis died of their wounds, Hurst recovered.
On the 20th the troops again marched for Micanope; the Indians had
left Black Point, but on proceeding to Malachi Hagan's, half a mile north
of Mlicanope, they saw his buildings on fire, and Indians running from
them into a wet dense hammock. General Call ordered the hammock to
be surrounded and scoured. On this service Capt. Lancaster received a .,
dangerous wound from a rifle; his company soon disposed of five of the
savages: no more were found. Capt. Lancaster since recovered.
O.n the 28th, the same day that Major Dade was cut off, Powel, with
twenty of his band, came to the house of Mr. Erastus Rodgers, the suttler
at Fort King, situated about two hundred and fifty yards from the pickets.
Rodgers was at dinner with a party of friends, when the Indians fired on


them through the door, and then burst into the house. Rodgers and his
company jumped out of the window and fled, some towards Fort King,
and some towards a neighboring hammock; the former escaped ; the lat-
ter, consisting of Rodgers, Sruggs, and Hitzler, together with Gen. Wiley
Thompson, the Indian Agent, and Lieut. Constantine Smith, who were
walking out in that direction, were shot dead. The body of Gen. Thomp-
son was pierced with fifteen balls, and that of Rodgers with-sixteen. All
of them except Suggs, were scalped and horribly mangled. All this oc-
curred inr open day light, in the face of a company of men, who heard the
Indian rifles, but suffered the savages to escape unmolested. A negro wo-
man, cook of Rodgers, hid behind a barrel and escaped observation. Powel
entered the house, looked around, kicked over the table, and retired.
On the 24th, General Call, with the volunteers from Middle Florida, and
Colonel Warren's command of East Floridians, in all, five hundred men
formed a junction with General Clinch, at Fort Drane. These troops had
been levied for one month only, and their lime was nearly expired. In order
to avail himself of their services, General Clinch ordered Colonel Fanning
from Fort King, with three companies of artillery ; they arrived on the 27th,
still they were detained till the 29th, for two detachments that had been
sent out on the 25th, to scour the neighboring country. These having arri-
ved, the little army marched for the Ouithlacooche, in the direction of Pow..
el's town.
On the morning of the 31st, at four o'clock, the baggage was left under
the care of Lieutenant Dansy, three miles from the Ouithlacooche. Gene-
ral Clinch pushed forward the troops, in hopes to surprise the Indians on the
bank of the river. Several friendly Indians, among whom were Holate
Emathla and his son, served as guides, and promised to lead the army
to a ford'that should be only waist deep. They were mistaken; when
the advanced guard reached the river at early day-light, they found it both
deep and rapid. A hammock of thick woods, two hundred yards deep,
lined the river's bank. The negro guide stated that the Indians probably
. occupied this ground. The army was halted, and Adjutant Talcot was
ordered forward with a few soldiers to reconnoitre the forest; he was
accompanied by Major Lytle. No Indians were found, but their tracks were
numerous; a pen extended into the water, and showed that cattle had
lately been crossed. Opposite the pen, they perceived, on the other side of
the liver, a small canoe. :.
These facts being reported, Captain Mellon, and Lieutenant Talcot, offer-
ed to swim across the river, and fetch the canoe, but General Clinch forbade
them ; he, however, permitted two of Captain Mellon's soldiers to cross, who
soon bailed out the water, and brought the fragile bark to the shore ;it could

* -^


bear only seven or eight men at a time. Captains Mellon and Drane soon had
their, companies across the stream, and paraded on the other bank.. About
seventy yards below this 'crossing, there was a small island, and some of
the troops fell to chopping trees on the bank, and lodging their tops upon
the island, to form a temporary bridge; many of the trees were swept down
the current. Impatient of this delay in crossing, Maxey Dill, one of War-
ren's volunteers dashed his horse into the river, and although two or three
times dislodged from his back, he safely reached the other bank. Colonel
Mclntosh and Major Lytle, aids of General Clinch, then swam their horses
across; a few of the men, but none of the officers followed them. Two or
three of the friendly Indians swam, and drove across about three hundred of
the horses. It was eleven o'clock before General Clinch, Colonels Parkhill,
Reed, Warren, Mills, Major Cooper, Captains Scott, Bailey, and some others
got over. All the regulars, one hundred and ninety-five, and twenty-seven
volunteers under Warren and Mills, were crossed. The south bank was a
wet swamp, for two hundred yards; this was succeeded by a thick scrub,
beyond this there was a dry plain; the trail led through this plain, and.here
the regulars were formed by Colonel Fanning, in double files, while Gen.
Clinch was superintending the construction of the bridge, in order to facil-
itate the crossing of Call's volunteers. The regulars were surrounded on
the south-west and north by thick scrub ; about forty yards on the east
there was a dense hammock. The soldiers being weary were permitted to
sit at ease, some were lying on the ground, sentinels having been posted,
some of them in the hammock. The timber, vines and brush were so thick
that the Indians crept up very near to them before they were discovered.
The sentinels were compelled to fly, and gave the alarm. The regulars
were immediately in line on the plain; an Indian soon discovered himself,
when Capt. Mellon immediately fired at him. The savages then raised
their yell, and opened a galling fire upon the troops, wholly unsheltered as
they were.- It was one o'clock.
The moment of alarm brought General Clinch, with his Aid, Major Lytle,
to the plain, where he assumed the command of the regulars. To extend
the line and reduce the ranks was a matter of some difficulty, and occupied
considerable time, under the heavy firing of the enemy. Several charges
were made to the edge of the hammock, but it was too thick to enter in any
order, and the line was ordered to return. It was believed that some soldier
gave this order; who he was, could never be discovered. It passed along
the line twice, and was in both instances obeyed.
The Indians made an attempt to turn the right flank, but Captains Gates
and Mellon, being ordered to charge them, they fled from the bayonets.
The Indians continued their fire on our front, and also updn the left flank

beyond the line of regulars, where the twenty-seven East Florida volunteers


were stationed; these, men however, being sheltered by the trees, gallantly
sustained their post. This however was a critical period, many of the of-
ficers were badly wounded and the volunteers, though every moment ex-
pected, did not cross the bridge to the support of the regulars. Gen. Clinch's
horse had received two wounds, and was staggering under him, Maj. Lytles
horse was shot through and ultimately died; Col. Warren and Major
Cooper, Capt. and Lieut. Graham and many of the soldiers were badly
wounded. All fought for their lives, but the advantage was in favor of the
savages. After the last charge, the line had retired thirty or forty yards.
The word halt was given by Gen. Clinch and loudly repeated by all the
officers. The line halted, the Gen. dismounted, drawing his sword, ap-
proached the line and addressed his men. He spake with much feeling,
told them they must defend their post, that he was there ready to die in the
discharge of his duty, and there must be no retreat. He remounted, order-
ed another charge,, the enemy fled at every point and the battle ended.
After the last charge was made, Gen. Call rode on to the field, and ad-
dressing Gen. Clinch said, sir you must retreat across the river. Gen.
Clinch asked him why he must retreat. Call answered that the militia
would not support the regulars, and as their time expired the next day, they
would return. Under these circumstances Gen. Clinch was compelled to
submit, and accordingly gave orders to withdraw the regulars across the
river. In this, the enemy, though numerous, did not attempt to molest
Col. Parkhill, Ajt. Gen. from the beginning to the close of the battle, dis-
tinguished himself by constant active services. Col Reed continued on
the field, although he and his horse were both wounded, till he was ordered
to the river for the volunteers, who were in vain ordered to the scene of action.
Majors Welford and Gamble, aids of Gen. Call were engaged in most
of the action. Col. M'Intosh, who lost his horse, took post with his rifle
on the left, with Majors Cooper and Gamble, Captains Scott and Baily
with the other twenty-seven volunteers, five of whom were wounded. Gen.
Clinch was shot through his cap and coat sleeve. The dead and wounded
were removed under the care of Doct. Waightman, who came over to the
scene of action to attend them. Four men were killed and fifty-two wound-
ed. After the last charge, many of the Indians were found dead on the
field, but their whole loss is unknown.
This battle was fought within three miles of Oseola's town ; the Indians
were flushed with their triumph over poor Dade, and fought with desperate
firmness; their line at one time, extended more than half a mile in a circu-
lar form and threatened to surround the little band of regulars, until they
were broken by the last effective charge.
Could the General have availed himself of even half of the volunteers


it is more than probable that he would have ended the Seminole war at once;
but his repeated orders to bring them into the field were disobeyed, and had
the regulars and the 27 Veteran militia been cut off, to a man, their five
hundred brethren would probably not have been allowed, by their comman-
der to afford them any assistance. For this disobedience of orders, he was
afterwards promoted to the command of the army in Florida, and we shall
see to what purpose.
Gen. Clinch was now left with one hundred and fifty men, worn down
with fatigue, to protect Forts Drane, Micanopy and Oakland, and to guard
the trains of wagons necessary to bring from Gareys Ferry, sixty miles
distant, the provisions and stores for their support.
On the first of Jan. 1836, Maj. Stephens arrived with twenty volunteers,
at Picolata, from Savanna, with two fine brass field pieces. They were
followed the next week, by forty more volunteers, and from this time, com-
panies from different parts of Georgia continued to arrive, during the winter.
Provisions and military stores also were sent to Picolata, and thence by trains
of wagons to Fort King, Fort Drane and Micanopy. The settlements
were generally broken up in the centre of the Peninsula, part of the inhab-
itants left the Territory, and the remainder erected stockades and defended
Philip, with his gang of murderers, commenced hostilities on the eastern
sea coast. The settlements at Musquito were destroyed, and the slaves car-
ried off. Two companies of militia were sent to Tomoko under Maj. Put-
nam and Capt. Keogh. The settlements on the Halifax River were aban-
On the 17th, Major Putnam embarked his company on board three boats,
and proceeded down the Halifax River, to Dun Lowton, to bring away the
corn, and other stores left there, by the family of Mrs. Anderson ; they found
the house burning, but encamped near the ruins, for the night. Early in
the morning, two Indians were discovered near the encampment; these
were fired upon by Mr. Dummet; one of them fell, the other ran off. A brisk
engagement ensued. About forty Indians first appeared, in the direction
of the Sugar House ; they were soon driven back, but other parties of ten
and twelve, came in from different points, and in a short time out flanked
them so that the ruins of the building were no longer a shelter. As they
were greatly out numbered by the savages, a retreat was ordered to the
boats, which were anchored in the stream. In regaining the boats, most of
their ammunition was wet, and rendered useless. The savages pursued
them to their boats, one of which they took, compelling two young men,
MIarks and Gould, to swim to Pellican Island. -Marks swam the east arm
of the river, to Anastatia Island, and escaped, but Gould was overtaken by

., i
_0 '


the savages, and shot. Seventeen were wounded, two mortally, and two
more so badly,- that they will never entirely recover.
About this time, information was received, that General Scott had
been appointed to the command of the troops in Florida, and that General
Clinch, was, of course superseded. This act was achieved by the same
influence, that has constantly poisoned the ears of the present administra-
tion, in most of the appointments made for this devoted Territory, by which
her prosperity has been for eight years checked, and the exertions of her
best citizens blasted. Our delegate in Congress was not consulted. Ge-
neral Clinch, who conquered the foe on the banks of the Ouithlacooche,
without the charge of a fault, without an intimation of dissatisfaction, was
placed under the command of an officer, who, although one of the ablest,
was utterly ignorant of the country, and equally ignorant of the enemy he
was sent to encounter ; what better could have been expected, than that
which resulted from his labors.
General Clinch, instead of retiring in disgust, sacrificed his feelings to
the duty he owed to his country, and although a cypher in command, was
looked up to by the soldiers as a warrior, and by the inhabitants as a pa-
triot, without fear, and without reproach.
About the 15th of January, General Gaines left his head quarters, at
Memphis, Tennessee, on a tour of inspection. On his way to Louisiana, he
heard of the war in Florida, and of Dade's massacre. He at once wrote to
the Governor of Louisiana, for a body of volunteers, and proceeded to Pen-
sacola, to get the assistance of the naval force there. Commodore Dallas,
had anticipated his purpose, by sending down the coast, marines and muni-
tions of war.
General Gaines had ordered Colonel Twiggs, to take command of eight
companies of volunteers, and all the regulars that could be drawn from the
posts in Louisiana, and proceed to Tampa Bay. This force, eleven hun-
dred strong, embarked in three steamboats, on the 4th February, under the
command of the General, who had returned from Pensacola. They reach-
ed Tampa on the 9th, and marched for the Indian country on the 13th.
He first proceeded eastward, towards the Allafia River, expecting to find
a body of the enemy, who had the day before attacked some friendly In-
dians, that had been scouting from Fort Brook; after two days search, and
finding no signs of an enemy, he changed his course, and marched for Fort
King, to obtain provisions, having seen the Quarter Master's order, dated
21st January, directing twenty thousand rations to be sent to that post.
On the 20th they passed Dade's Battle Ground, and interred the bodies
of one hundred and six men. After this sad tribute of respect they pro-
ceeded, and on the 22d reached Fort King. Here they were able to obtain


but two days rations ; the horses were therefore sent with an escort to Fort
Drane for further supplies; they returned on the 24th with eight day's
rations. No more could be obtained in the country. The road from
Bayard, opposite to Picolata, had been thrown up late in the autumn, and
had not firmly settled. The season was very wet, and the heavy wagons
directly cut it up so deeply, that horses could scarcely travel, even without
loads. The inland posts were therefore destitute of provisions and forage.
Thus circumstanced, General Gaines determined to return to Tampa by
the trail of the Indian towns. He marched on the 26th, and reached the
right bank of the Ouithlacooche at Clinch's Battle Ground. The army
halted, and several officers rode down to the river to examine and sound the
depth of water; it was about 2 o'clock, P. M, when the Indians commenced
a spirited fire on the left flank of the army from the southern shore, it was
accompanied with the savage yell, and continued about half an hour, during
which time eight of the soldiers were wounded, and one killed. The next
morning the army moved down the river to a place where the banks were
less shaded with woods; here the advanced guard were attacked, and Lieut.
Izard mortally wounded. As he fell, he commanded his men to lie close
and keep the line. He died on the 5th day, and was buried on the banks
of the river. During the whole of this day, except a short interval, the fire
and the yells of the enemy were kept up, and one more man was killed.
Captain Saunders, who commanded the friendly Indians, and Captain Arm-
strong, of the schooner Motto, were badly wounded. This evening, an
express was sent to General Clinch at Fort Drane, requesting him to
co-operate with what force he could spare. But his force was barely
sufficient to protect the post and without provisions; besides, hewas now un-
der the command of General Scott; of course, he was unable to leave the fort.
On the 29th, one-third of the troops were ordered to strengthen the
breast-work that had been erected, by piling a few logs upon it, and
digging a ditch inside. The remainder of the force was employed in mak-
ing canoes and rafts for crossing the river. About 9 o'clock, the laborers
and the guard were at the same time assaulted by a vigorous fire from
every side, except that side next the river, which was continued incessantly
for two hours, during which time one man was killed, and three officers' and
thirty non-commissioned officers and privates, wounded. General Gaines
was among the wounded; a ball passed through his under lip, and broke
out three of his teeth. The enemy at length retired, leaving one of their
dead; they had dragged him a considerable distance, then took his rifle,
and abandoned him with his powder and about sixty bullets. A field
.piece had been used to some effect, but its ammunition was expended,
except six cartridges reserved to meet an assault. On the 30th another

IS ft


express was sent to Fort Drane soliciting provisions and a reinforcement.
In the meantime General Clinch had sent an express to Picolata. General
Scott on receiving it sent a messenger twenty miles on the road, towards
Fort Drane, to stop the march of Major Cooper with his brigade of Georgia
volunteers, who returned to the river St. John's, and Major Douglass' bat-
talion was also detained much against its will, at Garey's Ferry, on Black
On the receipt of the second message, General Clinch put himself at the
head of all his disposable foice, together with Captain Robertson's Augus-
ta blues, and Captain Bones' company of hussars, and a large company of
volunteers from Allachua, who drove about forty beeves collected by Mr.
Dill, the General also took a large quantity of corn from his own private
stores, and marched to relieve General Gaines.
The provisions of the besieged army were so far exhausted that their
remaining corn was issued a pint per day to each man, and this could last
but a few days, and had to be parched, or eat raw. They had no covering,
the ground was wet, and they were confined to the ditches day and night.
Some horses were killed and eaten, and every dog was considered c luxury;
one biscuit sold for five dollars; yet there was no murmuring, andc no talk
of a retreat. They were generally surrounded, and every night rows of
fires were made by the Indians a little out of gun shot.
On the five first days of March, the enemy continued both day and
night to fire at intervals; and the best marksmen in the camp watched
every opportunity to pick off the Indians, whenever they approached suffi-
ciently near, or left their covert of trees.
On the night of the 5th an Indian called from the woods and hailed the
camp; he was answered, and asked his wishes; he said the Indians were
tired of fighting, and desired to make peace. The General directed an
officer to tell him to come in the morning with a white flag, and he should
be heard; he answered, very well. Expecting some stratagem, a peculiar
caution was kept up all night. This day one man had been killed and
two wounded. These were the'only casualties that had occurred since
the 29th.
On the 6th, about 10, A M., three hundred Indians filed out from the
river, and took a position five hundred yards in rear of the camp; at length
a few advanced with great caution near to the camp, and waved the white
flag. Captain-Hitchcock was ordered to meet them ; he went with Capt.
Marks, attended also by Major Lear, officer of the day. They all sat down
upon a log. Powel, Jumper, and Alligator, on the part of the Indians,
stated that they were tired of fighting and wished to remain in peace on the
south of the Ouithlacooche, and they would leave the whites unmolested


on the other side. Abraham, Micanopy's sense keeper, acted as interpre-
On reporting this talk to the General, he directed his officer to state to
them that he had not power to treat with them, but advised them to leave
the country, stating the force that was on their march to overwhelm them,
&c. They said they would go and hold a council, and give an answer in
the evening. They returned in the afternoon, and said they wished to
consult Micanopy, their Governor, and asked a cessation of arms. They
were answered, that if they retired south of the river, and abstained from hos-
tilities, and would attend a council when called upon, that their request
would be granted ; they promised to do so. At this time the body of the
Indians, at a distance, were seen to break, and run for the river, and Gene-
ral Clinch was seen to advance. His advanced guard of mounted men
formed a hasty line on the left, and fired briskly on the flying Indians, but
they were directly out of the reach of a rifle shot. Powel and his friends
were advised to retire also, which they did without delay.
This relief was most grateful to the besieged army, wholly unaccustom-
ed to privations and exposure of that kind. Several beeves were
slaughtered, and an abundant meal, soon made them forget their recent
hardships. Powel had, at the conference, told Captain Hitchcock, that
General Clinch would be there in three hours; he also told him that he
well knew the army was out of provisions, and offered him three cattle,
and a bottle of brandy, if he would send over the river for them. He stated
the number of his warriors present, at eight hundred, said that many had
been killed and wounded, and that the Indians were tired of fighting.
On the 8th, a Negro man, whose wife and family, were in the Indian
Nation, was sent over the river to learn the situation of the warriors, and
ascertain their intentions; he returned on the evening of the 10th, and
stated that they were seriously desirous of peace, and had dispersed two
or three miles, in several encampments, said that they had seen our men
fishing, but did not wish to molest them ; also that they had lost in the se-
veral engagements with this army, thirty warriors killed, and many
On the 9th, General Gaines delivered up the command of the army, to
General Clinch. On the 10th, the whole marched back to Fort Drane,
which they reached on the eleventh.
Before proceeding to detail the events of another campaign, it may be
well to pause, and for a moment reflect on the present situation of the war.
Are the Indians sincerely desirous of peace ? if so, it would be worse than
folly, for General Scott to push the war again into their settlements. The
evidences of their disposition, are discovered from their overtures, and their
future conduct.


Their proposition to General Gaines, was "that they were tired of fight-
ing, and wished to remain in peace, on the south side of the Ouithlacooche,
and they would leave the whites unmolested, on the other side." On these
terms they undoubtedly desired peace. But having (says our government)
agreed to leave the country, war was made to compel them to leave it.
S They asked for a cessation of hostilities, it was granted them upon con-
dition of retiring to the south side of the river, and attending a council when
called upon. They promised to comply, and retired, but never returned to
attend a council. When Primus was sent to invite them, they kept him
a prisoner, and sent no answer, except from the bore of their rifles.
That the Hero of Erie, was completely hoaxed by the savages, is the
universal belief in Florida. It was perhaps good policy in him, to put a
different face on the affair. We give General Gaines credit for the best in-
tenions, in visiting our Territory, and most sincerely regret that he was not
more successful.
On the 13th Gen. Scott arrived at Fort Drane, with two companies of
regulars. He had left at Tarver's, on the Allachua Prairie, Douglass' Bat-
tali6n of Georgia volunteers, and Wharton's dragoons. Col. Twigs, Maj.
.- R.EI| Maj. bLear, of the army, and Capt. Marks, of the Louisiana
S troops, left Fort Drane, and Gen. Gaines started for Tallahasse on the
The army was ordered to penetrate the hostile country in three columns.
The right, commanded by Gen. Clinch, was to march by the Ouithlacooche.
The left,commanded by Gen. Eustice, to leave Volusia, above Lake George,
to pass by the upper crossing of the Ocklawaha, and thence to Pilacklaka-
ha. While the centre, under Col. Lindsey, should march direct from Tam-
pa to Chicuchatty. Here the three wings were expected to enclose the
Indians and dispose of them. Gen. Scott's great fear was that they should
slip by him and retreat' south to the everglades. Each column as it arriv-
ed at the place of destination, was directed to fire signal guns. The dis-
tance that each column had to march to reach Chicuchatty, was about
Sixty miles. The 25th was the day appointed for the columns to meet.
Such was the difficulty, however, of collecting the troops and procuring
transportation, that neither the right or left wing took up the line of march
before the 26th; the centre marched on the 22nd from Tampa.
The right wing, under Gen. Clinch, -attended also by Gen. Scott, took
the route by Fort Izard, on the Ouithlacooche, so named by Gen. Gaines.
The rains had been incessant for several days, and the pine lands were
very soft, so that the wagons moved very slowly; they reached the river
on the morning of the 28th. The savages directly let them know that
they were at their old post, by firing a few vollies across the stream into


the camp. Col. Gadsden immediately reconnoitered the spot, and selected
a place for crossing; the boats which had been brought from Fort Drane
were launched, and every thing prepared for crossing the next morning.
By four o'clock on the 29th the field pieces were brought up to the bank,
and the sharp shooters ranged to cover the crossing column. Foster
Blodget, of Robison's Augusta Blues, stripped and swam across the stream
with a rope, which he fastened to a tree, and thus greatly accelerated the
passage of the boats. Two companies of mounted men crossed the river
one and a half miles below this ford; another company swam the river at
the ferry. By evening the whole army had crossed. The-rear under Col.
Bankhead were attacked, but the enemy shortly dispersed. During the
night a few shots were fired into the camp.
On the 30th, the wing marched up the river, as General Clinch was sat-
isfied that their enemy were concentrated near that place. About 10 o'clock
small numbers of Indians were seen on an island, in a chain of lakes that
lay on'the right, and ranged along parallel with the river. These Indians
were attacked, and pursued about four miles; but they escaped, and the
wing encamped for the night. Early the next morning, the enemy were
discovered on another island, of Cypress Swamp. This isl AIM!as
attacked by Colonel Smith at one end, and by Colonel Bankhead on the
other. The swamp was surrounded by a deep boggy savanna, which
prevented the horse from acting. As the columns approached the higher
points of the island, they received a sharp fire from the enemy ; but a rapid
charge drove them from the island three or four miles, and they finally cross-
ed the riverand again escaped. During this pursuit. through hammocks,
swamps, and savannas, the Indians .availed themselves of their knowledge of
the paths and coverts, and never failed to attack our troops at every oppor-
tunity, in 'front, flank and rear. The troops encamped on the bank of
the river, and the next morning returned to the baggage waggons for pro-
visions, having fasted twenty-four hours.
April 1st, marched along the west side of the Lake Oloklikany, or Spot-
ted Lake, "which spread out between the army and the river. On the
second,'in the morning, reached the south extremity ; the pine woods were
open, and afforded a good road for the waggons &c. At th'e S. E. end of
the lake a post was established, and garrisoned by Major Cooper with his
battalion; here was left seventeen days' provision, and the wing with five
days' provision proceeded to Tampa, where they arrived on the 5th. The
last twenty miles the country was rough and difficult to travel ; the sick
had increased to one hundred and fifty. Killed during the march, four,
wounded, nine.
About the middle of February, General Eustice despatched Major Kirby

with two companies of regulars, and Colonel Brisbane with a battalion of
S, C. volunteers, to scour the coast south of St. Augustine, as far as Mus-
quito Inlet. They saw few of the enemy; three men of Brisbane's were
L killed and scalped at Tomoko".'
On the 9th, Colonel Goodwin's regiment arrived at St. Augustine, and
Son the 15th, Colonel Butler was ordered to proceed down the coast, and put
in motion the several corps for Volusia. The trails were so bad, and the
country so wet, that it was the 22d before they generally reached the place
of destination ; and Colonel Butler did not arrive until the 24th. '
On the 22d, Ash* and Trip's volunteers crossed the St. Johns, and
were preparing to encamp, when one of the men in passing over a natural
bank close at hand, was shot dead by the Indians, who rose from behind
the bank and poured a galling fire on the volunteers; they were answered
with interest. Col. Brisbane, with two more companies, hastened to the
scene of action, when a rapid charge dispersed the enemy, who left one of
their dead on the ground, four more were by the Indians dragged to the
river, and probably thrown in. Three of the volunteers were killed and nine
wounded. The number of Indians seen, was about fifty.
On the 24th, twenty-five men under Lieut Arnold, were sent out to scour.
the woods; they fell in with fifteen Indians in the open pine woods, two were
killed and the rest were permitted to escape. Arnold ordered a retreat,
when the savages were in his power; for this cowardly conduct, he was
On the 26th the left wing crossed the river, except two companies of the
South Carolina volunteers, under Major Gates, who were left to protect the
post. The wing took up the line of march at one o'clock P. M. and pro-
ceeded three miles and encamped; 27th marched eight miles. Thus far the
roads are flat, wet and bad; 28th they found the roads better, and marched
twelve miles ; 29th marched twelve miles to the upper crossing of the Ock-
lawaha, and built a pole bridge. The stream deep, about sixty feet wide.
'Lake Eustice about fifty rods above the crossing.
A fire being discovered on the west side of the stream, a party was sent
to reconnoitre; four Indians were seen with some cattle, one was wounded
by General Shelton, a volunteer from Georgia. The Indian fled but was
" overtaken by Shelton, when the savage raised his rifle and wounded him
severely in the hip. He was soon despatched, and proved to be Yaha Hajo,
Sor Crazy Wolf, chief of the Oclawahas. His village stood on the borders of
the lake, but it had been for some time abandoned. The other three Indians
escaped. The army encamped two miles west of the river.
30th. Proceeded about nine miles, when the advanced guard were attack-
ed by the Indians, concealed in a hammock near Oakhumky; four men were



wounded and two horses disabled. Kirby's regulars were brought up, the
hammock was charged through by the advanced guard, but no Indians
found. After passing a strip of pines, a fire was discovered near another
thicket, where about sixty Indians in the edge of the woods, commenced a
fire with rifles, which was returned with muskets. The enemy held their
ground until the troops were within forty yards, they then retired, firing.
A charge was made into the thicket, but it was found too close and too
muddy to penetrate; the battalion then joined in the line of march.
'4 31st. No Indians were seen this day; one hundred'and twenty head of
S cattle were taken, and the army reached Pilacklak#L near evening. An
express was sent to Fort King, who on his return, reported that Gen. Scott
had crossed the Ouithlacooche three days before, and that no provisions could
be got there. Cattle were plenty about Pilacklakaha, this was Micanopys
town, but it had been for some weeks abandoned. It was burned by order
of the General. When cattle were first found, the Carolina troops made a
free use of beef, but the General afterwards restricted them to regular ra-
tions; in consequence of which, or from some other cause, the cattle were
permitted to run away and provisions soon became scarce. On the 2d April
the wing marched for Tampa. On the 4th they encamped fifteen miles
from Tampa, where the baggage was left under charge of the foot com-
panies, while the General with the horse proceeded to Fort Brook at Tam-
pa Bay.
Col. Lindsey arrived at Tampa about the 4th of March, with eight com-
panies of Alabama volunteers, under Col. Chrisholm ; where he found Maj.
Reed, with a battalion of Florida militia, and on the 10th, Captain Marks
arrived with a company of Louisiana volunteers. On the 12th, large fires
were seen about the Allafia River; Major Reed,with his battalion,was direct-
ed to scour the woods in that direction, and give an account of the enemy.
They executed the duty promptly, by attacking the savages in the night,
killing three, capturing six, and driving the main body across the river.
Col. Lindsey then marched to the Hillsborough crossing, on the road to
Fort King, and built a stockade, which he named Fort Alabama. Major
Reed was left in command, and the main force was marched back to Camp
On his return, Col. Lindsey found at Fort Brook, Gen. Scott's plan of
the campaign, and an order to be at Chicuchatty on the 25th, for the pur-
pose of co-operating with the other wings. The order had been brought .
by gome friendly Indians. In compliance with this order, he left Tampa
on the 22nd. At Fort Alabama he was joined by Major Reed, and Capt.
Marks, with the Louisiana volunteers, was left in command of the fort.
About thirty sick were also left there. The great road was left to the



ALw Nv
d *i .eL.


right, and the wing marched over the hilly country to the north-west.
After passing Elo Chute Ka, the Indians lay concealed in the numerous
hammocks and thickets, and harassed the flanks and rear of the wing.
On the 26th one of the volunteers was killed, and another badly wounded;
as the force was passing through a dense hammock, the rear were briskly
attacked by the enemy. Captain Benharn charged the savages, and was
sustained by Major Talliafero, with Blount's company. The savages were
soon driven from the hammock, but shewed themselves in a large body,
dancing and yelling ; they were beyond the reach of our muskets. During
the night the wing encamped by a pond; while getting water, the men
were constantly fired upon, from a hammock beyond the reach of our mus-
kets; a round of canister silenced them. On the 27th the wing sustained
repeated attacks from thickets; they were soon repelled, but one man was
killed and two wounded this day. On the 28th the wing encamped near
Chicuchatty; the Indians made an attempt to take the horses ; they were
repulsed and driven off by detachments of the Florida and Alabama troops,
under Captains Roulette, and Allison, Blount, and Nott.
On the 30th, provisions becoming scarce, Captains Roulette and Tay-
lor were sent, with two hundred and fifty men under Col. Cross, to forage.
They procured beef for four days, but the men had neither bread nor salt.
This day, the hostile chief, Charley Fiscico was killed by the friendly
Indians. During the night, the sentinels were fired on ; the same thing
occurred frequently. On the 31st another attempt was made to forage,
but without success ; the Indians had driven all the cattle from the neigh-
borhood. Colonel Lindsey had now remained at Chicuchatty eight days;
his signal guns had not been answered, and he was now destitute of provi-
sions; he was therefore obliged to fall back to Tamrpa, where he arrived on
the 4th of April.
Before the return of Colonel Lindsey, the enemy had collected at Fort
Alabama to the number of three or four hundred, and made a violent attack
on the post from eight o'clock in the morning till twenty minutes past ten,
during which time they lost fifteen men killed and many wounded. Capt.
Marks had one man killed and two wounded. They lay around the fort
until the return of the main force, and then retreated in a body before them
during a whole day.
All the columns of the army rested in the neighborhood of Tampa, until
the 12th of April, when the right wing, under General Clinch, was ordered
to return to Fort Drane by the cove on Ouithlacooche. Colonel Lindsey,
with the centre, to scour the country on the upper part of the river, and
penetrate the forks from above. Colonel Smith, with the Louisiana volun-
teers, to proceed to Charlotte Harbor, and ascend the Macaco, 'or Charlotte


River. Colonel Goodwin to march to Peas (Peace) Creek, and break up
any settlements in that quarter. Major Reed to explore the mouth of the
Ouithlacooche, and General Eustice, accompanied by General Scott, to
return to Volusia.
On the 17th, Generals Scott and Eustice reached Camp Shelton, where
his foot troops had remained eleven days, most of the time on half rations of
pork and flour, which had created great displeasure among the troops.
On the 18th he marched to the Hillsborough, at Fort Alabama ; 19th,
marched 12 miles; 20th, they passed Colonel Lindsey's column at the
Big Ouithlacooche ; 21st, marched 16 miles; 22d, 18 miles, and encamp-
ed four miles north of Dade's Battle Ground ; 22d, marched 17 miles, and
encamped two miles from the Ocklawaha :-the guard was fired upon this
night without damage :--23d, encamped nine miles east of the river ; 24th,
pass the long scrub eighteen miles. On the morning of the 24th the
wing reached Volusia. General Scott here took a steamboat and ran up
the river to Lake Monroe, and returned on the 27th, reaching Picolata on
the 28th.
Colonel Goodwin's command marched about forty miles east of Tampa,
and burned sm" e large Indian villages on Peace Creek, containing three
hundred huts, but they had been abandoned. He rejoined General Eus-
tice at Fort Alabama.
During the absence of Gen. Eustice, from Volusia, that post had been
' attacked by a large Indian force and two men killed. The discharge of a
howitzer among them, set the Indians scampering and they were heard of
no more.
On the 26th, Gen. Clinch, with the right wing of the army reached Fort
Drane without encountering the enemy.
Col. Lindsey marched round the heads of the Ouithlacooche, while the
Indians remained quietly in the forks ; of course he had no better success
than Clinch, and returned to Tampa, without meeting an enemy.
On the 26th, Col Chrisholm was sent, with six hundred troops to Fort
Alabama, which it was determined to evacuate. Eighteen miles from that
place, large Indian trails were discovered, apparently concentrating in a
large hammock near Clonato LassoLake. Near the same spot, one of Gen.
Eustice's men was found disinterred. On the 27th, fort Alabama was
stripped and abandoned. A keg of powder was left, with a musket, whose
spring trigger was concealed in the magazine. The troops had proceeded about
a mile, when a tremendous explosion proved that the enemy had entered
the place and proved the fire-works. On reaching Clonato Lasso Creek, a
regular soldier was found mutilated in a shocking manner, and stretched
naked across the trail; he had been intoxicated, and straggled from the line


the day before. While a crowd was gazing at this body, a galling fire was
opened from the hammock, first on the guard, then on the crowd collected
aboutthe dead body; it directly extended to the artillery, and to the rear
guard, near half a mile in extent. The first fire killed some brave men;
caused the team horses to run away with the wagons, and created some
* confusion. The fire was however returned from every part of the line, and
the field piece was run up to the hammock and fired among the enemy
with great effect. The hammock was then charged in every direction, and
in one hour the enemy were completely driven and silenced. The detach-
ment marched five miles farther and encamped wholly unmolested.
The Alabama troops were soon after embarked for Mobile.
Col. Smith proceeded up the Macaco River instead of the Peace, which
enters Charlotte Harbor, near the same place. After ascending the largest
.branch as far as the boats could go, he then proceeded by land several
days, on the south side, through a pine barren country, but discovered no
Indians; he therefore returned to the harbor and embarked for New Orleans.
Major Reed made reconnoisance off the coast, at the mouth of the
Ouithlacooche and then returned to St. Marks.
Thus ended the winter campaign of 1836. The regulars were ordered
to summer quarters, and the volunteers discharged and sent home.
Shortly after the close of the Campaign, Gen. Clinch resigned his com-
mission and retired to his family, at St. Marys in Georgia,.
At this period of our history, our readers may inquire for the causes that
gave rise to this Seminole war, and the reasons of the failure of a campaign,
commanded by one of the most conspicuous Generals of the United States;
a campaign that'cost more than a million of dollars, and many valuable
lives-and resulted in the devastation of a valuable and highly improving
district of country.
In order to settle these questions, it will be necessary to take a retrospect-
ive view of several facts in our civil history, which have heretofore been
When East and West Florida were purchased from Spain, they contain-
ed only two settlements of any consequence, Pensacola, at the western ex-
tent of West Florida, and St. Augustine, at the eastern extent of East
Florida. Between these two towns, the distance is four hundred miles; the
intermediate space was occupied by the nation of Seminole Indians. There
was no means of communication from one to the other, of these towns, ex-
cept by water, through the Gulf of Mexico, a distance of one thousand miles.
These facts suggested the idea of attaching West Florida to the state of
Alabama, and East Florida to Georgia; and much interest was used to ac-
,complish this arrangement. To this division of the new purchase, however,


the General Government, as well as a majority of the inhabitants of the
country, were opposed. It was therefore proposed to remove the Indians
from the middle district of the Territory, to locate therein a common seat of
Government, and to cover the country as soon as possible, with an efficient
population. To this end commissioners were appointed to hold a treaty
with the Seminoles, to induce them to give up their settlements west of the-
Suwanne River, and to locate themselves on the eastern peninsula. The
treaty was held at Camp Moultrie, five miles south of St. Augustine, in
This treaty bound the Seminoles to remove from the country west of the
Suwanne River, and confine themselves to a district of the eastern peninsula,
that was afterwards surveyed to them. In consideration of which, the
United States agreed to grant them an annuity of five thousand dollars per
annum, for twenty years ; and tools, subsistence &c. to six thousand
This arrangement was strongly opposed by Micanopy, the legitimate and
hereditary chief of the Seminoles, and by Jumper his brother-in-law. Nea-
mathla, and most -of the Mickasookees, were also opposed to leaving the
rich fields which they occupied on the borders of the Mickasookee Lake, and
Oscilla River. Hicks, however, was disposed to remove, and his influence,
together with several reservations, made to Near.athla, Bacca, Pechasse,
E. Conchatte, Micco, and Colonel Blunt, procured the signatures of nearly
all the chiefs. Micanopy utterly refused, and was by the commissioners
treated with that indifference, that rendered him unpopular with his nation ;
while Hicks was encouraged to assume the chief authority.
Soon after the Indians were condensed within their limits, they experi-
enced a scarcity of food; they were too idle to clear up and cultivate new
land ; game was scarce, and from moving about, they became indisposed
to labor. The Government extended their boundaries, and once or twice,
furnished them with provisions; but more than half the donations made
to them, stuck in the pockets of the agents.
Difficulties soon arose between them and their white neighbors, about
their cattle, ponies, and negroes, and some legislative acts were passed to
prevent any intercourse between the white and red men. These acts, ten-
ded rather to increase than to allay the prevailing animosities, and the
Government came to a determination to remove all the Indians across the
Mississippi: For the purpose of disposing of the Seminoles, Colonel Gads-
den was commissioned to hold another council with them, and endeavor to
remove them altogether. To this end a treaty was obtained at Payne's
Landing, on the 9th of May, 1832.
The great objections made to removing, were their ignorance of the
country proposed to them, their doubts of security there, and their repug-


nance to being incorporated among the Creeks, who still held out claims
against them, for negroes alleged to have been stolen by the Seminoles;
and perhaps a fear of losing the distinction of an independent nation, espe-
cially the chiefs, who would necessarily be shorn of power and distinction.
The Commissioner assured them, that the country on the Arkansaw,
was a good one ; that the title to the soil, should be secured to them, and
their descendants forever; that their nation, although it must become a
constituent part of the Creeks, yet that their chiefs should be continued as
their public officers, and their property should be secured. They finally
agreed to send a deputation of their chiefs, to examine the tract of country
proposed for their residence, and further, that if on the return of the deputa-
tion, they reported favorably, and to their satisfaction, that then, the follow-
ing articles should be binding on them, viz:
1st. The Seminole Nation relinquish to the United States, the tract of
country reserved to them, by the second article of the treaty of Camp
Moultrie, and become a constituent part of the Creek nation. One third part
of the nation, residing in and about the Big Swamp, to remove as early
as practiable in 1833 ; one third in 1834, and one third in 1835.
2d. The United States to pay to the Seminoles, for the improvements
which they abandon, fifteen thousand four hundred dollars, and also to
Abraham, the interpreter, and to Cudjoe, both free and influential negroes,
two hundred dollars each. '
3d. Each Seminole to be supplied with a blanket, a homespun frock, and
with corn, meat, and salt, for one year after their arrival at the place as-
signed them.
4th. To be furnished a blacksmith, at one thousand dollars per annum,
and a schoolmaster.
5th. The United States to paj the Seminoles three thousand per annum,
for fifteen years, succeeding the treaty, in addition to the annuity of four
thousand dollars, agreed on at Camp Moultrie, making in all seven thou-
sand per annum.
6th. The United States agree to investigate, and liquidate all claims on
the Seminoles for negroes, to the amount of seven thousand dollars.
This conditional treaty was signed by
HOLATE EiMATHLA.-Leader, or go before.
JuMP .ER.-Hoithle-matle.
BLACK DiRT.-Fucta histe IHajo.
SAM JoNES.--lrpiuka.
MAD WoLF.- Yaha Hajo.


MICANOPY.--Pond Governor, principal chief.
JOHN HIcKs.-Tokasa .fmathle.
LITTLE CLOUD.-Caisha Tustenu g'ge.
BLUE KING.-Holate .Iicco.
BROKEN STICK.-Hilchitti .Micco.
WOLF LEADER.--Yaha Emnathla Chopko.
SLEEPER.-Moke Is She Larni.
Holate Emathla, Jumper, Black Dirt, Charley Emathia, Alligator, Sam
Jones, and Mad Wolf, were sent under the direction of Major Phagan, the
Indian agent, to explore the country; while the United States sent three
commissioners- to meet them there, and attend them in the examination of
the country. When the Deputation were ready to return, the commission-
ers induced them to sign, what General Jackson called an agreement, by
which they signified their satisfaction on these subjects, and finally ratified
the agreement, made with Colonel Gadsden." Neither the Seminole dele-
gation, nor the nation ever considered it in that light. The chiefs reported
to their people on their return, that the land was good, but it was situate
near the Pawnees, and other thieving Indians, who robbed them of their
horses and packs, and they feared that their situation would be unsafe.
That the distance was great, and that removing would be troublesome, and
In the course of this examination and the incidents connected with it,
the time had elapsed, in which, by the terms of the treaty, one-third of the
Indians were to have removed. In 1834, Hicks, the friendly chief, was
destroyed by some of his countrymen, that were jealous of, or dissatisfied
with him, and it is said, that the agent dictated to the Indians the choice of
Tustinuc Hajo, a half-breed, instead of Charley Emathla, who was a man
much better in every point of view; in particular, he was friendly to the
whites, and a good man. Tustinuc, on the contrary, was sullen, obstinate,
and has ever been our enemy. Major Phagan was, in 1834, superseded by
General Thompson, as Agent of the Seminoles. In October, 1834, Gen.
Thompson called a council of the chiefs to inquire whether they would
join with the Creeks.at the west ;--whether they would be paid for the
cattle and poneys which they must leave in Florida, in money, or have
them replaced in Arkansas after their removal ;-whether they would re-
move by water or by land --and whether their next annuity should be
paid in money or in goods. With the exception of Holate Emathla, they
answered that they were unwilling to go at all. Holate here appeared as

* Montford Stokes, H. L. Ellsworth, and J. T. Schermerhorn.

o .


the speaker of the nation. Micanopy appeared to act under the control of
Powel and Jumper. Thus the affairs of the Seminoles remained until
April, 1835, when another council of the Indians was called by General
Thompson, General Clinch, and Lieutenant Harris. There was great dif-
ficulty in collecting them. When collected, the chiefs shuffled and made
every excuse to avoid the subject of removal, until General Clinch told
them that they talked too much and did nothing. He said the time was
now come to declare whether they would abide by the treaty they had all
agreed to, or not ;--he waited for a final answer. Eight out of the thir-
teen chiefs present, reluctantly agreed to remove, five utterly refused;
among the latter was Micanopy, who left the council. Those who agreed
to remove, begged to remain until they should collect their harvest. This
was conceded to them, on condition of the whole nation removing at once,
and the 1st of December was appointed as the time of removal.
The chiefs also petitioned the government, to pemit them to live separate
from the Creeks, on the opposite side of the Canadian branch, and that they
might have an agent to reside with them.4 The government agreed to the
first request, but decided that one agent must serve the Creeks and Semi-
noles. From this period a deadly enmity was apparent, between the Indians
who agreed to remove, headed by Holate and Charley Emathla, and those
who were opposed, headed by Powel and Jumper, who threatened death to
the first that should attempt to remove. Had means been used to remove the
Seminoles as somn as the deputies tLotr.ied, there is no reason to believe that
any opposition would have been made; but two years delay opened a wide
field for tampering with the ignorant savages. Part of the Creeks were op-
posed to emigration. Their agents told the Seminoles, that when removed
to the west of the Mississippi, they should reclaim the slaves which had
been carried from the Creek nation to Florida.
The State of Georgia claimed 250,000 dollars of the Creek Indians, for
slaves stolen from them, or for the runaway slaves harbored among them.
One hundred thousand of this claim has been allowed, and affords a claim
on the Seminoles from which they dread a collision. Great exertions have
also been made, to get the Indian negroes away, by other false claims,
of individuals and under cover of these claims, many negroes have
been taken away by force and fraud. There exists a law among
the Seminoles, forbidding individuals from selling their negroes to white
people; and any attempt to evade that law, has always raised great
commotions among them. In 1835, Gen. Call asked permission of the
President, to purchase of the Indians, one hundred and fifty negroes ; Presi-
The treaty with the Seminoles, promised them a particular portion of the country of
the Creeks. But the treaty with the Creeks authorized the location of the Seminoles
among them-no separate district of lands

2 ^

dent Jackson granted this permission. The agent in a letter to the Secretary
at War, expostulated in a very strong terms against this traffic, as against
the policy and laws of the Seminoles; as unjust to the Creeks, and as hav '
ing a tendency to set the negroes in opposition to a removal; and it was
well known that their influence with the Indians is usually conclusive.
The'Seminole negroes, for the most part, live separately from their mas-
ters, and manage their stocks and crops as they please, giving such share
of the produce to their masters as they like. Being thus supplied, the In-
dians become idle and absolutely dependant upon their slaves. No one
will suppose that negroes, thus situated, would be transferred to the sugar
and cotton fields of the white planters, without exerting their influence with
their nominal masters, to oppose it. Peace and idleness, had rendered the
young warriors restless, their minds were easily excited, and their first efforts
at hostilities, were excited by the whites ; being successful, and never being
brought to punishment, or at most, but a nominal punishment ; they also
tended to confirm the leading chiefs in their determination to fight, rather
than to abandon their homes. To these causes, may be added the counsels of
evil minded persons, who took pains to impress upon the heated minds of
the savages, that they were cheated by the white people; that they alone
had a right to the soil, and ought to resist oppression.
When the Indians had commenced burning houses and murdering the
inhabitants, there was no force in Florida, sufficient to control or coerce
them. This was the fault of the government. In Jan. 1834, one hundred
of the inhabitants of Allachua, sent a respectful petition to the President,
representing the hostile appearance of the Indians, and praying for protection
against them. In Oct. of the same year, Gen. Thompson, the agent, ad-
vised the Secretary at War that the Seminoles utterly refused to remove or
adhere to the treaty of Payne's Landing, and urged an immediate reinforce-
ment of troops, at Fort King and at Tampa Bay. In Nov. (same year)
Col. Gadsden advised the Secretary at War-" You cannot, therefore, in
the opinion of the undersigned, too soon, either re-occupy the Bay of Tam-
pa, or re-inforce Camp King, so that, by a show of military strength, you
may demonstrate the ability, promptly to enforce the final resolves of the
government." Gen. Clinch also urged the certainty that the Indians
would not go, unless a respectable force be employed, and that it is very
probable that such force would have to be actually used, in effecting the
object." In Jan. 1835, the agent again informs the Secretary at War, that
the troops are utterly insufficient to protect the country and the friendly In-
dians; that the hostile savages grow bolder by impunity ; that a strong
force is required." In Oct., Mr. Harris, the Disj"ising Agent, confirms
the state of hostile feelings, and tells Secretaiy Cass, that, "an increase of

: 'i


military force at Fort King is necessary, say, from two to four companies."
From the above advice, the government were fully aware, that the Semi-
noles openly refused to leave Florida ; that they determined to make war
on the whites ; that a large military force was necessary to overcome them,
and to protect the inhabitants of Florida and the friendly Indians.
r And what did the Government do They ordered six additional com-
panies to Florida ; the first of which arrived at Tampa Bay, from Key
West, on the 21st of December 1835, two more companies followed about
the last of the month, and the other three companies arrived about the 9th
February, 1836. Of the seven companies, stationed in the Peninsula, du-
ring the year 1835, there was scarcely at one time, two hundred and fifty
men, fit for service.
At the battle of Ouithlacooche, the six companies led into battle by Gen.
Clinch, amounted only to one hundred and ninety-five men, instead of three
hundred and thirty. The other companies sent to make up the fourteen,
were equally deficient. Dade's company, the first thai arrived, consisted
of thirty nine men, instead of fifty five. To meet all the deficiencies and
emergencies of removing, against their will, a nation of savages, the gov-
ernment furnished-to the ear-fourteen companies of regular soldiers-or
seven hundred and seventy men ; to the eye, they diwindled down to four
hundred. But these never appeared till the battle was fought and the
question of removal decided against us. Thus much for the causes of the
war. We will now seek for the causes of the failures of the campaign.
And first in the numerous list, was the appointment of a commander, who
had very little, if any, experience in Indian warfare, and was utterly unac-
quainted with the country. In opposing a civilized enemy, General Scott
would probably have been successful, but among savages he was out of
his latitude.
The campaign was commenced too late in the season. The stores and
munitions of war did not generally arrive until late in the winter. The,
season was wet and the roads very bad, as they always are in a new coun-
try. All these circumstances tended to delay active operations until the
beginning of Spring. There was a strange want of every useful informa-
tion. The number of the enemy was not known; their resources and
Means of supporting a contest with the whites, were utterly mistaken.
Their paths through the swamps were wholly unknown ; they could never
be brought to an engagement, except at such time and place as they saw
proper to intrude themselves. Their strong holds, where their ammunition
and their children were secreted, are not known to this day. The num-
bers of the Florida Indians have usually been rated at three thousand,
when, in fact, they amounted to near five thousand.


--lo ,INDIANS.

The inhabitants of several large settlements around the Caximba Inlet,
the heads of the Hujelos, St. Mary's, and other southern streams, never
appeared at the agency, to draw annuities, but lived by cultivating their
fields, hunting, trading at the Spanish ranchos, bartering skins, mocking
birds and pet squirrels, for guns, ammunition and clothing, and sometimes
assisting in the fisheries. This race of Indians would have remained peace- i
able to this day, had not an order been issued from the agency requiring
them all to remove. They never agreed to remove, either personally, or by
their representatives; and they were easily excited to fight, rather than
leave the'home of their ancestors. Their knowledge of the passes of the
country, and their long connection with the Spanish traders and fishermen
afforded perfect facilities for supplying the Seminoles with arms and mu-
nitions of war, and those facilities are at this time improved to our great
injury. '
Had General Clinch been at once permitted to assist General Gaines at
the Ouithlacooche, it is more than probable that an end would have been
put to the war. The enemy would have been beaten, or forced south upon
Colonel Lindsey, and they could scarcely have escaped. The excuse is,
that there was not provisions at Fort Drane to supply them and to subsist
General Scott's army on its arrival. But the provisions actually taken by
General Clinch, at last, were principally corn, raised by hirr-self, and cattle
belonging to the inhabitants of Allachua. A few barrels of pork, and per-
haps a small quantity of bread, w e taken from the public stores. But
delay had rendered the assistance of General Clinch utterly useless.
General Gaines undoubtedly entered Florida from the best of motives.
His troops were actuated by feelings of humanity for the suffering inhabi-
tants of the country; but Powel had the art to render them inefficient, and
finally to hoax him with the pretence of a treaty, and thus evaded a
second stroke from Clinch.
General Scott's plan of the campaign contemplated a junction of the three
columns in the heart of the enemy's country. Each column approached
the place of its destination, but no junction was formed. The Indians
instead of being penned up in their towns, had ample time to give each
wing of the army a brush in succession, and then quietly waited till the
storm passed by them. Had General Eustice, when he reached the Tam-
pa road, proceeded ten miles down the forks of the Ouithlacooche, he would
have entered the nest, the strong hold of the savages. Here was corn and
beef without going to Fort King and Tampa.
The Seminoles since the commencement of the war, have concentrated
about the great cove-of Onithlacooche ; when sought there, they have al-
ways been found, until General Jessup's last campaign, when they aban-


doned it for the everglades. It was there that Clinch, and Gaines, and"
Scott, and Call, found them. Why then was not the war carried on, at least
as long as an enemy could be found ? the answer is, that the army had
Only ten days' provision ; but a part could have staid and fought, while the
balance should escort the wagons of provisions, either from Tampa, sixty
miles, or from Volusia, fifty miles distant. There was corn also at Halli-
11 man's Blockhouse, thirty miles distant. Instead of that, the several wings
all left the battle ground, and marched in succession to Tampa, and there
spent one half of the month appropriated for the campaign, comfortably
dg@ng rations. Major Cooper, was indeed left near the scene of active
warfare, with a single battalion of men, who found enemies enough to fight
during the whole time. What might not one thousand of the force have
done, had they been left to scour the country, under the command of Gene-
ral Clinch, or any other active commander.
The order given to General Scott, was to fight the Indians as long as a
maini of them could be found in Florida. Emboldened by this, the inhabi-
tants of Allachua, and the adjoining country, proceeded again, to the culti-
vation of their fields. Their cottages were again enlivened, by women and,
children, "hope told a flattering tale" to the industrious farmer. How
were his hopes withered, when, at the end of one month, he sees another
order, dismissing the volunteers, and throwing the regulars inio summer
quarters. Was this pursuing the enemy out of the country? was it not
letting them loose upon the country, with tenfold rage ? The country was
again depopulated, and fire and devastation swept the fields of the suffer-
ing Floridians.
About the first of May, Generals Scott and Eustice, took up their quar-
ters at St. Augustine. Four companies were left at Tampa Bay, and ten
or twelve were distributed between Fort King, Fort Drane, Fort Defiance,
Fort Dobney, and Suwanne Old Town.
About the middle of March, at -the commencement of General Scott's
campaign, he ordered Major M.'etemore to proceed to the Suwanne River,
to procure a quantity of corn, and proceed with it to the Ouithlacooche
, River, for the use of the army.
Major M. Lemore executed the order, and erected a small blockhouse
Sfor its protection, leaving Captain Halliman with a small party to defend it,
until the General should send fot the corn, and relieve them. But the Ge-
neral appears to have forgotten them. Major M. Lemore died within a
few days. On the 12th of April, Captain Halliman was attacked by a
large Indian force, at the dawn of day depending on their overwhelming
force, the Indians approached within point blank distance of rifle shot, but
the execution done among them, soon taught them to keep at a more re-

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