Rethinking arts integration within a 21st century high school setting

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Title:
Rethinking arts integration within a 21st century high school setting
Physical Description:
Project in lieu of thesis
Language:
English
Creator:
Sparks, Sarah
Publisher:
College of Fine Arts; University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla
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Abstract:
The purpose of this research study is to examine arts integration practices within a Kentucky high school setting. Arts integration provides learners with unique pathways for using arts content to connect over-arching themes across all subject matter in ways that are personal to each individual. By studying arts integration measures within my high school (through classroom observation, teacher interviews and surveys, and analysis of our annual arts integration Program Review results), I have identified areas of need within my school’s beginning attempts to rethink the way that arts content is used in other subject matter areas. To aid my school in this goal of arts integration, I have researched and compiled desirable arts integration resources onto a website for the faculty within my school to use for better planning and implementation of arts integration within their lessons. My research is informed by current definitions of arts integration. On my website resource I have included activity suggestions and standards-based assessment practices for arts integrated lessons for each of the following disciplines in my school: Math, Science, Social Studies, Language Arts, Foreign Language, and Practical Living and Career Services. By synthesizing and making accessible information about the interdisciplinary learning benefits of arts study, I provided my faculty with a website resource for purposeful and authentic arts study in learning the content of traditional subject matters.
General Note:
Art Education terminal project

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University of Florida Institutional Repository
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University of Florida
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All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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AA00017138:00001


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RETHINKING ARTS INTEGRATION WITHIN A 21 ST CENTURY HIGH SCHOOL SETTING By SARAH SPARKS A CAPSTONE PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2013

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' Summary of Capstone Project Presented to the College of Fine Arts of the University of Florida In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts RETHINKING ARTS INTEGRATION WITH IN A 21 ST CENTURY HIGH SCHOOL SETTING By Sara h Sparks May 2013 Chair: Dr. Michelle Tillander Major: Art Education

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' Abstract The purpose of this research study is to examine arts integration practices within a Kentucky high school setting. Arts integration provides learners with unique pathways for using arts content to connect over arching themes across all subject matter in wa ys that are personal to each individual. By studying arts integration measures within my high school (through classroom observation, teacher interview s and surveys and analysis of our annual arts integration Program Review results ), I have identified area s of need within my school's beginning attempts to rethink the way that arts co ntent is used in other subject matter areas To aid my school in this goal of arts integration I have research ed and compile d desirable arts integration resources onto a website for the faculty within my school to use for better planning and implement ation of arts integration within their lessons. My research is informed by current definitions of arts integration On my website resource I have include d activity sug gestions and standards based assessment practices for arts integrated lesson s for each of the following discipline s in my school: Math, Science, Social Studies, Language Arts, Foreign Language, and Practical Living and Career Services By synthesizing and making accessible information about the interdisciplinary learning benefits of arts study, I provide d my faculty with a website resource for purposeful and authentic arts study in learning the content of traditional subject matters.

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' / Table of Contents Title Page ............................................................................................................................. ............1 UF Summary Page .......................................................................................... .................................2 Abstract ............................................................................................................................. ...............3 Table of Contents Page ............................................... ................................................... ................. .4 Introduction............................. ............................ ... ......................................................................... 6 Statement of the Problem.............. ........................................................ .......................... .....7 Purpose of the Study ............................................................................. ...............................8 Assumptions of the S tudy ..................................................................... ...................... ......10 Definition of Terms............................................................................... .............................11 Study Limitations......................................................................... .............................. ........ 1 1 Literature Review............................................................................. .............................. ................ 11 Methodology ..................................................................................................... .............................19 Participant S election, Site, and Description .............. ........................... ...... .......................21 Data Collection Procedures............................................................ .............................. ...... 2 1 Data Analysis ................................................................................ ........... ................... ....... 2 3 Limitations .............................................................................. .............................. ............ .25 Findings.................................................................................... ................... ............................... ... 25 Implications...................................................................................................... ..............................27 Reflections.......................................... ............................................................. ..............................29 Summary.................... ................................................................................................... .................31 References .............................................................................................................. .................... ....32 Appendices............................................................................................................. ...................... ..35

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' 0 Appendix A.......................................................................................... .. ............................35 Appendix B...... .............................................................................. ...................... ..............38 Appendix C.......................................................................................... ..............................40 Appendix D........................................................................ ...................... ..........................45 Appendix E.......................................................................................... ..............................47 Author Biography ...................................................... ....................................... ............................. 50

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' 1 The Kentucky Department of Education is currently reforming the accountability system for schools within the state, reworking strategies dealing with what stu dents should know (standards) and how student learning will be assessed (assessment) Al though the fine arts were eliminated from standardized testing a few years ago, it wasn't until last year that a state level program was finally put into place to assess student learning in the arts. The program that was put into place is called a Program Review which assesses three areas: arts and humanities, practical living/career services, and writing. For the Program Review schools put together panels comprised of teachers (within and outside of the review subject area) and administrators with the optio n of adding community members and representatives from the student body. These panels meet a minimum of three times in a sc hool year to look over a description of standards and demonstrators (student benchmark performance indicators) given by the state to determine how well their school meets these indicators based on evidence. There are four standards that are scored within e ach Program Review rubric: 1) Curriculum and Instruction, 2) Formative and Summative Assessment, 3) Professional Development, and 4) Administrative/Leadership Support and Monitoring. Panels score their school's progress within each demonstrator and standar d, averaging the scores to assign a label of distinguished, proficient, or needs improvement as a way of self assessing the health of the program within the entire school environment. This rating is assigned to the school and not to individual teachers or student groups. Panelists have to judge the quality of the evidence that is collected/submitted by the teachers, how well the evidence demonstrates meeting the criteria for the standard, and the accessibility of the subject content for the entire student body. This is an on going process that is continuously under revision from the Kentucky State Department of E ducation. Each year, the school panels meet to review areas within the

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' 2 school needing improvement from the previous year, to devise plans for bridging these gaps, and to replace old evidence with newly acquired evidence of quality for each standard as it becomes available. Results from each year's asse ssment are published for the public in order to show growth or decline of each school's program from year to year. Because the Program Review is still considered to be in a "draft" phase of implementation (scores will finally be released to the public duri ng the 2012 2013 school year), there is still no real accountability or sanctions, positive or negative, for schools regarding their Program R eview scores However, s ince the arts are amongst th e areas to be assessed in this matter, I have take n this oppor tunity in the change in assessment to find out about the health of the arts culture at my school and ways that I can assist my colleagues in using arts strategies within their classrooms Statement of the Problem Because my state has recently implemented new accountability measures in how the arts are assessed within the school wide curriculum (described above) the faculty I work with is now responsible for integrating arts curriculum across all disciplines as a way to show that all students have access a nd opportunity to arts integrated learning and performances. My school is also responsible for forming an assessment panel to assess the quality and implementation of integrated curriculum through a rubric provided by the state ( Kentucky Department of Educ ation, 2012 ) However, as the Fine Arts department in my school discovered based on our first Program Review report this past year, our non art faculty members are showing a dire need for underst anding the definition of arts integration and also for learni ng methods for integrating arts curriculum within their own discipline content. As the sole visual arts teacher, I have used my capstone research project to take a leadership role in assisting with the implementation of an

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' 3 arts integrated curriculum within my school. Purpose of the Study The purpose of my r esearch study wa s to discover what teachers at my school know about arts integration and how they are using it in their classrooms. From these findings, I focused on areas needing growth and researched online resources to compile on an integration website resource ( http://herbieturt.wix.com/hchsartsintegration ) to better aid the faculty at my high school in designing an arts integration progra m. My goal was to provide a website resource for my colleagues that compiles arts integration practices content to be taught, lessons, and activities and assessment strategies for each non art subject as a framework for implementing a more successful integration program within our school. Lastly, by sharing the basic framework of my website resource with the teaching faculty, I hope to continue to develop the website with the help and suggestions of my peers through collaboration methods even though my capstone project is completed The purpose of my research is to create a flexible resource so that I will continue to be a resource for faculty questions about arts integration This will then offer me the opportunity after the capstone project to analyze the results of this year's Program Review document to see what further improvements are needed for my website and the arts integration program in general in the future Research Questions My research was g uided by one essential question: how do teachers today integrate the arts into a 21 st century high school curriculum? This question help ed me to better focus my search for defining and measuring the effectiveness of my school's current arts integration practices and for developing resources that will im prove upon our integration strategies In contemplating this over arching question, I sought answers to many sub questions that

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' 4 ca me up within my research: 1. What do current high school teachers and administrators know about arts integration ? 2. In what ways are teachers in my building integrating art into their classrooms? 3. Do these teachers feel they are using arts integration effectively in their classrooms? 4. Do teachers use instructional resources, rubrics, or arts standards for the arts content they teach? 5. Do teachers talk about artists or specific art forms that inform the art making activities? 6. What are some education techniques/strategies for arts integration in the 21 st century high school classroom? In order to assess the quality of my school's current ar ts integration measures, I need ed to know what teachers and administration kne w about arts integration and the current measures that we re being taken in classrooms regarding integration By questioning the assessment practices of arts integrat ion lessons at my school, I determine d if st udent learning of arts content wa s being assessed equally with student learning of the classes' original content. The areas needing growth that surface d from my research guide d my search for arts integra tion resources to compile on my website. Rationale and Significance of the Study This study wa s needed because my district needs a healthy and relevant arts integration approach within my high school to allow for better self assessment through the Program Review that is required by the state. C urrent federal and state standards call for quality arts integration across disciplines in order to better prepare students for a progressive world ( Davis, 1999; Dorman, 2008 ; Marshall,

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' 56 2006 ) However, many general classroom teachers do not know what arts integration is or what it looks like in action in the classroom thus it is not being utilized as a pathway to learning in many classrooms. Research shows that arts concepts span across various subject matt ers and can be used as a tool for better understanding concepts in all disciplines ( Marshall, 2010; Mishook & Kornhaber, 2006; Sandell, 2009; Smilan & Miraglia, 2009 ) Quality res ources are needed so approaches can be developed in analyzing and implementi ng arts integration programs in high schools. These resources should be shared with teachers, researchers, and administrators who are looking to better understand quality integration measures. Assumptions Before beginning my research, I assumed t hat the teachers in my school did not understand or implement contemporary arts integration strategi es within their curricula. I also assu med that these teachers would understand the need for arts in tegration within my school, would utilize my resource as a way of improving their cu rrent teaching methods, and would believe tha t integrating arts concepts would positively benefit their students. I assumed that teachers would want to see how the arts could help students to connect concepts across disciplines and see h ow these connections and modes of learning can increase student engagement, participation, and academic achievement (Thomas & Arnold, 2011) In general, I assumed that teachers at my school would want to use the arts integration resource and methods that I recommen de d within their classrooms.

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' 55 Definition of Terms There are many terms that I used throughout my research process that are defined below. Arts Integration : Arts integration is a curricular method based on inquiry that allows students to explore the content and concepts from all disciplines through art processes in ways that connect art to real life issues and ideas (Marshall, 2010). 21 st Century Learning Goals and Skills : A ccording to the Partnership for 21 st Century Skills, 21 st Century Learning Goals and Skills are needed by students to succeed as citizens and workers of the 21 st century. They identify six key elements to a 21 st century curriculum: (1) core subjects (2) 21 st century content (3 ) learning and thinking skills, (4) ICT (Information and Communications Technology) Literacy, (5) Life Skills and (6) 21 st century assessments," (The Partnership for 21 st Century Skills, 2011) Limitations of the Study Although some research exists on how the arts positively impact student achievement (Silvers, 2003; Thomas & Arnold, 2011) attendance (Thomas & Arnold, 2011) and student's ability to apply concepts across disciplines (Dorfman, 2008; Marshall, 2010) I did not include evidence of these matters within this study Duri ng my research, I did not illustrate how arts integration measures affected student learning or assessment scores, their understanding of non art concepts, or general student achievement in my school. Due to time limitations, I also did not address teacher growth in applying arts integration techniques within their classrooms. Literature Review There has been an underlying movement in education for quite some time toward the implementation of the arts as a basis and method for learning all subject matters ( Buffington & Muth, 2011; Davis, 1999; Dorfman, 2008; Krug & Cohen Evron, 2000; Marshall, 2010;

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' 5! Mishook & Kornhaber, 2006; Silvers, 2003; Strand, 2006; Thomas & Arnold, 20 11). Because the arts promote advanced, hands on engagement, personal reflection, critical thinking and ties to social and global issues, they are a natural method for helping students to see "the big picture" and to use questions as a path to learning. Many teachers see the value of the arts as a vehicle for learning; one that engages students, improves cognitive abilities, and provides and more universal playing field for students' individual response methods (verbal, visu al, and written response) ( Marshall, 2010; Silvers, 2003). Artists and art educators have shown increased interest in 21 st century skills 1 as a way to better prepare students for a shifting, globalized, and innovative society (Partnership for 21 st Century Learning Skills, 2011 ; Sandell, 2009 ) These skills, all promoted within an arts curriculum, call for teamwork, int erdisciplinary thinking, the need to work with ideas and concepts, and most of all to move away from compartmentalized, isolated thinking and toward multiple ways of knowing (Buffington & Muth, 2011). Integrating the arts into the general school curriculum is becoming a popular way to achieve key learning goals in an effort to better prepare students for an advanced and complicated society and to instill in them the confidence and desire to become l ife long learners ( Dorfman, 2008; Mishook & Kornhaber 2006 ; Smilan & Miraglia, 2009 ) In th e following literature review, I will discuss contemporary models of arts integration, current problems facing arts integration in schools, the importance of gaining a clear definition of arts integration characteristics and implementation of effective arts integration programs and the potential of arts integration for the future restructuring of our education system. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 5 -5 78 9 :;8<=>!7?@AA7B! (1) core subjects, (2) 21 st century content, (3) learning and thinking skills, (4) ICT (Information and Communications Technology) Literacy, (5) Life Skills, and (6) 21 st century assessments

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' 5. Contemporary Models of Arts Integration The idea of arts integration and its benefits to education hav e recently been on the minds of teachers, administrators, and governing bodies in education as seen in various arts focused groups and programs such as TETAC (Transforming Education Through the Arts Challenge), CAPE (Chicago Arts Partnerships in Education) North Carolina's A+ Schools, and the Critical Links program to name just a few (Marshall, 2010; Mishook & Kornhaber, 2006 ; Silvers, 2003; Thomas & Arnold, 2011 ). Th e general belief of such art focused groups and programs is that by integrating arts cont ent and learning strategies into the school wide curriculum, students will become more engaged and responsible in their learning (Thomas & Arnold, 2011) ; be able to think more critically and deeply about real life topics (Davis, 1999) ; exhibit problem solv ing methods (Davis, 1999) ; and connect larger concepts across multiple disciplines in ways that better prepare them for a global and competitive society ( Buffington & Muth, 2011; Dorfman, 2008; Krug & Cohen Evron, 2000; Marshall, 2010; Mishook & Kornhaber, 2006; Silvers, 2003; Strand, 2006). In addition, visual art forms are thought to help better educate students and teachers in their understanding and use of graphic language as a form of visual literacy in an increasingly visual culture that relies on the interpretation of graphic representations for communication ( Sandell, 2009; Silvers 2003; Smilan & Miraglia, 2009 ). Current Problems Facing Arts Integration With all of the above suggested benefits, it is a wonder why more schools are not looking to the arts as a way to refocus and prioritize their school's mission and goals. One explanation could be that research shows that arts integration programs face their own set of challenges. For on e thing, the language associated with integration is broad and varied, leading to teachers'

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' 5/ misunderstanding and misuse of definitions of arts integration (Smilan & Miraglia, 2009) Currently, the terms interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary and cross disci plinary curriculum are all interchangeably used to describe arts integration (Smilan & Miraglia, 2009). However in the definitions of the above terms by Smilan and Miraglia subjects remain distinctly separated in their correlation to a shared the me, wher eas arts integration is a method that "supports simultaneous teaching and learning focused on experiences that lead to increased and assessable understandings in art as well as other disciplines" (2009, p. 40). In other words, the goal of interdisciplinary multidisciplinary, and cross disciplinary curriculum is to obtain mastery for a particular subject, whereas arts integration's goal is to help students use art methods to enhance learning in concepts and skills across disciplines and then apply them to t he real world and their own personal experiences (Smilan & Miraglia, 2009). Besides misunderstanding of definitions, o ther current problems in the area of arts integration include: the general classroom teacher's lack of art education training, the replace ment of art teachers with community artists that are untrained in teaching meth ods, and the application of mis informed arts activities into the curricula (Smilan & Miraglia, 2009). Now more than ever art teachers are needed to step up and be leaders of art s integration programs within their schools. However, many art teachers are hesitant to spearhead these integration efforts because they are unsure of what arts integration should entail, they feel inadequate in their own arts education, or they believe th at generalizing the arts into other school subject areas will somehow decrease the need for a separate visual arts curriculum ( Mishook & Kornhaber, 2006; Smilan & Miraglia, 2 009 ). The Importance of a Uniform Definition When art educators plan to start arts integration programs, it is most important that they

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' 50 first gain a comprehensive, accurate, and effective definition for what arts integration is what it is not, and what characteristics define effective arts integration programs. Equally im portant is their understanding of the goal of arts integration as suggested by Smilan & Miraglia (2009) "Art integration is not a path toward the dissolution of arts programs, but an avenue toward education reform by which arts programs and student learni ng can be improved in our schools ," ( p. 42). Mishook and Kornhaber (2006) illustrate the range of effectiveness in the arts integration programs they studied t hrough teachers' labeling system of "co equal, cognitive integration," "subservient integration," "affective integration," and "social integration Evidence for their categorization often came from the various definitions that current teachers have in their interpretation of arts integration, such as: The use of project based learning to address com munity problems or issues; thematic instruction; the use of multiple intelligences; the transfer of knowledge across artistic and non artistic disciplines; the use of arts to enhance the study of academic disciplines; and a focus on the interdisciplinarity among different art forms, such as painting and music. (2006, p. 4) Even though some teacher descriptive labels offer a piece of the puzzle for an effective arts integration definition, some descriptions show misguided interpretations of arts integration where the arts curriculum is "subservient" to other subject matter (Mishook & Kornhaber, 2006). In fact, Mishook and Kornhaber argue that the type of arts integration they observed the least often was that of coequal, cognitive integration, which happens t o be the approach that most arts integr ation supporters advocate Smilan and Miraglia (2009) offer the most comprehensive definition of coequal and

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' 51 cognitive integration. They define Authentic Art Integration ( AAI) as: Learning that is meaningfully connect ed to art content and art instruction[that] involves the student's search for and construction of complex knowledge that leads to understanding relationships of larger social issues. Students engage in real and tangible work involving critical thinking, a rt based, and problem based methodologies that are developed in collaborativ e efforts among teachers. ( p. 40) One easy way to ensure coequal integration of subject matter is to design lessons around over arching enduring ideas. This way, students are able to see connections between subject matters and their real world implications. Characteristics and Implementation of Effective Arts Integration Programs In the most effective examples of arts integration programs that I researched, several common characteristics emerged. First, the curriculum was developed around big ideas that stretched across multiple disciplines and that were applicable to real life (Ma rshall, 2010; Mishook & Kornhaber, 2006; Sandell, 2009 ; Smilan & Miraglia, 2009 ). Secondly, learning activities addressed important areas of the academic curriculum and allowed students the opportunity to develop their inquiry processes and express themselves in multiple formats (not just written and spoken word) (Marshall 2010; Mish ook & Kornhaber, 2006 ; Sandell 2009; Thomas & Arnold, 2011 ). Lessons were developed collaboratively amongst arts teachers and non arts teachers, were often co taught, and the content lesson and artistic lesson were of equal focus and importance (Smilan & M iraglia, 2009). All learning experiences included a planned, authentic assessment with rubrics and scoring guides, often including student self assessment or student input in the planning or designing of the curriculum ( Dorfman, 2008; Smilan & Miraglia, 20 09; Thomas & Arnold, 2011 ). Lesson plans began with state curriculum standards in the

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' 52 content areas and arts areas and then grew to include 21 st century learning goals (Mishook & Kornhaber, 2006). Administrators acted as key supporters and coordinators of arts integration implementation and provided support for the program by allowing teachers time for co planning, collaboration, and by providing sustained, sequential professional development in the arts ( Mishook & Kornhaber, 2006; Smilan & Miraglia, 2009 ). Lastly, outside organizations that supplemented the arts curriculum did not assume or replace the responsibilities of the art teacher (Smilan & Miraglia, 2009). In the case illustrated by Mishook and Kornhaber, a specific arts integration curriculum leade r served as the mediator between the classroom teachers, art teachers, community art organizations, artists in residence, and administrators (2006). When developing a successful arts integration program, it is important to look at the lessons, activities, and people responsible for administering the content (as listed above), but it is also important to look at the underlying factors of a school's environment that can support or discourage the program. For example, o f the programs that Strand (2006) studie d, she noticed four major themes as consequential to their success: the philosophical mission of each organization, the personal characteristics and student learning goals of the teachers that determined the level of collaborative success, administrator re lationships with the teachers that supported the partnerships and protected the curricula, and that the content and approach to instruction focused on process over product, stressing higher order thinking skills, including improvisation and reflection. Mo st of all, it is important that arts integration efforts are student focused: responsive to their individual situations, interests, and needs and less teacher focused; replacing traditional, predetermined curricula with learning that provides multiple oppo rtunities for investigation and knowledge (Smilan & Miraglia, 2009).

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' 53 Current arts integration programs in schools across the nation illustrate a wide range of implementation within their programs. Schools use arts integration in their own ways and for the ir own specific purposes, rationalizing their efforts in various ways. Their purpose for arts integration ranges from a simple demonstration of how content and concepts are linked across subject matter to a complex process of learning that assesses student s' understanding and inquiry of life issues and themes found across disciplines in ways that apply to their own lives (Charland, 2011). Although many schools' rationales hope to promote the beneficial cognitive effects of an arts curriculum on student lear ning, if the integration strategies they use are weak, misguided, or taught by a person not well versed in art education, these benefits may not be apparent. Therefore, it is important that schools do not attempt to implement arts integration measures with out the leadership of trained arts professionals (Smilan & Miraglia, 2009). Simply encouraging teachers to use art materials in the teaching of a subject or using arts related ideas as subservient projects to demonstrate learning of objectives of a subject matter instead of as a process of learning are not considered to be effective arts integration ( Davis, 1999; Strand, 2006 ). The Potential of Arts Integration for the Future Effective arts integration meets the needs of the 21 st century student, including their needs for visual literacy, social collaboration, problem solving skills, and moral development (Davis, 1999; Sandell, 2009; Silvers, 2003). Sandell explains, "Today's students require capabilities that enable them to encod e visual concepts through creating art and to decode meaning by responding to society's images, ideas, and media which permeate our increasingly complex world," (2009, p. 288). Davis advocates the use of design based education as an integration strategy du e to its ability to develop cognitive skills, creativity, innovative thinking,

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' 54 and problem solving (1999). She states that design thinking calls for students to work in teams, use their background knowledge of contexts of various subject knowledge, and to develop multiple solutions for real life problems in ways that require both analysis and synthesis (Davis, 1999). Silvers explains how we rely on education to make good citizens and, quoting Jeffrey Dean, how the "'arts show us morally relevant features of the world' and illuminates the importance of feeling, reflection and perception of particulars in the moral evalua tion of character and situation '" (2003, p. 23). When students learn and talk in groups, they are more likely to reflect upon conversations in ways that change their perception of the subjects that are discussed. So why is the arts curriculum an effective curriculum for learning various subject content? Lynch lists many reasons for the success of arts integration lessons: ( a ) integrations allo w students to use their hands, bodies, and voices in meaningful ways; b ) making art allows choices about how to interact with content; c ) i ntegrations are social events; d ) integrations al low for multiple perspectives; e ) integrations help create a saf e at mosphere for taking risks; f ) integrations demonstrate that learning can be a pleasurable experience; and g ) the arts and regular curriculum naturally complement each other (2007, pp. 36 37 ) Lynch also hit the nail on the head when she said that "Mean ingful change in education will only come about through close examination and thoughtful reflection of current classroom practices that ar e dominated by written language (2007, p. 38). Using the argument of visual literacy and the focus of 21 st century sk ills, which are already a focus of many schools, arts integration programs become an obvious solution for restructuring the education system in the future.

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' -6 In conclusion, many educators are looking to arts integration as a way to engage their students in creating new paths to learning while connecting concepts across subject matters. By basing lessons around enduring ideas found in arts content, teachers help students to make sense of the world around them in ways that apply to their learning of concepts. When school faculties and administrative leadership work together through partnerships towa rds this vision of integration, student learning can only benefit. Methodology Within this study of the development of a web resource for arts integration, I used non participant observations (Pytlik, 1997) document analysis (Burnaford, 2007) teacher surveys through www.surve ymonkey.com (Pytlik, 1997) and semi structured, informal teacher interviews (Pytlik, 1997) to gather my data I search ed both educational research databases and the Internet for studies, findings, online journals, blogs, articles, or websites that detail arts integration methods for the general clas sroom and that reflect state and national art standards. I also develop ed a curricular website resource based on my analysis of state and national art standards along with my analysis of standards in the non art subject areas in which art is to be integrated and what teachers in these non art areas tell me are important to their subject areas. The overall goal of my study was to gather evidence that identifies sp ecific challenges within my school's current integration practices and then to use this information to create a website resource for improving the content and application of the arts integration curriculum through a compilation of resources and integration strategies More specifically, I conduct ed observations in three teachers' classrooms for the arts content within their arts integrated lessons, their methods of delivering this information to the students, the types of learning activities and connection s that occur red and their assessment

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' -5 strategies pertaining to their arts integrated lessons These teachers had not previously been trained in arts integration strategies and curriculum. I studied the teaching approaches and subject area content of these classrooms within my high school (as they relate d to current research on arts integration) for a period of about three weeks. Then I analyze d the current arts integration assessment document of my school to look for similarities in the areas of need that are written in the document and the needs I noted from my classroom observations. Consistent areas needing development were noted and used as a focus for my research for integration methods to include on my website resource. Participant s I studied and obse rved three classroom teachers of subject matter outside of the arts and their students for a three week period I acquire d these teachers' permission to observe them through an email request for volunteers that I sent to my entire faculty. I offer ed an optional, anonymous survey to every teacher in the school (about 35 individuals) and the principal to assess the ir current level of knowledge of arts integration use of integration and assessment activities, as well as any current needs that they s pec ified I received participatory consent forms from 33 of the 35 members of the faculty and all 33 participated in the online survey. The faculty ranges from new teachers (1 4 years experience) to tenured teachers (4+ years experience) both male and female, of various ages and subject matters taught. Teachers represent core disciplines that are required for graduation and also elective or special service s teachers. The teachers also range in their knowledge and previous experience with an arts curricu lum from no experience to specialization in a particular art form (band, vocal music, drama, etc.). Research Site My research was conducted at a rural high school of around 450 students located in

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' -! northwestern Kentucky. This school is the only high schoo l within the school district. Students are separated into grades 9 12. This high school requires a total of 1 arts credit in an arts discipline of the students' choice for graduation. Arts courses are offered as electives in 9 week, semester, and year long formats. Some extracurricular arts clubs exist as well as co curricular groups such as marching band, pep band, choir, drama ensembles, etc. Students are currently assessed in state given, end of course assessments in core subject matter (not including th e arts), in national test assessments (ACT, PLAN, AS VAB, etc.), and in other career readiness exams. The arts are currently self assessed by a panel of teachers (both arts and non arts) and the principal as part of a state mandated Program Review which has no further accountability measures as of yet. Data Collection Procedures and Instrumentation My research data collection include d q ualitative data collection techniques such as direct observation, field notes, teacher survey, and informal inter view (Pytlik, 1997). I applied for and secured official IRB approv al for this research and followed all ethical guidelines set forth by the IRB board during my research I used pseudonyms for participating teachers to hopefully calm any nerves about the re porting of any results of areas needing improvement. To begin my research, I gather ed data about my faculty's current level of arts integration ( as they perceive d it to be ) through my study of the Program Review document from the previous school year ( see Appendix A ). Within this document, I highlight ed and record ed the areas that were scored as "needing improvement" along with the narrative descriptors of these areas. Next I conduct ed the we b based teacher survey (see Appendix B & Appendix C) for the facu lty members who signed consent forms to be a part of my research. Teachers answer ed

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' -. questions about their definition of arts integration, current frequency of arts integration strategies, reasons for this abundance or lack of arts integration, familiarity with arts standards, use of arts related rubrics, and any c oncerns or issues that they had regarding arts integration. After the web based survey wa s completed, I conduct ed pre observation informal interviews (see Appendix B & Appendix D ) with each of the three teacher observation participants I ask ed teachers to define their level of comfort with arts integration strategies and how often they employ ed arts integration within their curriculum along with an il lustration of the art s integration lesson that I was about to observe and any assessment measures or arts resources that they plan ned to include. I took observational field notes (see Appendix E ) during the class sessions annotating the arts content that I observe d within their lessons, their methods of delivering this information to the students, the types of learning activities and connections that occur red and their formative and summative assessment strategies that they used. Next I conduct ed informal, post ob servation interviews (see Appendix B & Appendix D ) where I ask ed the teachers how they felt their lessons were received and understood by their students, if they felt the arts content helped their students in their understanding of the lesson material, wha t evidence they gathered to assess these connections, and any ways that they felt I could assist them in developing their arts integrated lessons in the future. All research data was written and stored in a personal research notebook and on my personal t eacher iPad for further analysis. This stage of my research lasted about 5 weeks. After this initial research was conducted, I search ed online resources for arts integration st rategies and lessons that I felt address ed any specific areas needing growth and that mad e connections to the various subject matters taught at my school. This stage lasted about 2 weeks

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' -/ all together. The entire research process, involving all stages and steps, lasted about 7 weeks. Before I gave the survey, I test ed my survey questio ns (see Appendix B) on three teachers to check for inconsistencies, unexpected answers, or unclear questions (Suskie, 1996). They did not report any edits that needed to be made so I did not have to reformat my survey questions. The i nformal teacher interv iews (of t he three observation participants) were recorded on my iPad (and then i mmediately deleted) after I logged responses in my personal research notebook. Data Analysis Procedures According to educational researcher Mary Brown (1999) a nalysis of research data consists of four general stages: a) p rocessing the evidence (editing and coding data); b) mapping the data (noting frequency of issues or themes or connections amongst the data); c) interpreting the evidence (looking at connection s and themes to formulate theories); and d) presenting the results (drawing conclusions and reporting findings) P er Brown's suggestion, I processed my evidence by checking for uniform coding and value criteria to help me find patterns or themes within the evidence (1999, "Pro cessing the Evidence," par. 1). Next, I map ped my data by creating tables charts, or graphs that illustrate d frequencies, percentages, and descriptions for both the quantitative and qualitative data that I collect ed (Brown, 1999). By viewing my collected da ta and posing questions, I bega n to describe my findings by formulating grounded theories about what the responses mean t (Brown, 1999). Th e first set of data that I analyze d and code d wa s the results of the 2011 Pr ogram Review document (see Appendix A) Within this document, I focused on areas with scores of "needin g improvement" and the reoccurring language in the descriptors of these demonstrators. T hen I annotate d the reasons why I believed the faculty chose to s core our art s integration measures in this way. This help ed m e to identify the major areas needing improvement in the arts

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' -0 integration strategies of my school so that I could look for these same weaknesses within the lessons I observe d Next I analyze d an d code d the web based teacher survey results (see Appendix C) For questions that we re answered th rough a numerical range, I use d quantitative methods to chart the number of responses within each numerical response. Then I look ed for high or low percentage s for each response and contemplate d reasons for the se responses This help ed me to score the faculty's perceived knowledge of arts integration definitions and strategies as well as their perceived current usage of arts integration within their lessons. For the pre and post observation interviews (see Appendix D) I code d my notes of teacher responses, looking for common keywords and concerns, emerging themes/patterns, and hypothetical cause and effect of their responses. Finally, I organize d label ed an d code d my field notes (see Appendix E) from the classroom observations. These notes were coded and analyzed for commonalities, differences, and reoc curring themes, and then I code d hypothetical causes or effects of the data. Limitations As I stated previ ously, the limitations of my study reflect ed the fact that I was not researching or studying students, their interaction within the classroom, or their comprehension of the studied topics. I was unable to include these factors into my research due to const raints on the time needed to appropriately assess growth or change in student learning, confidentiality of student scores, and my ignorance of student's background knowledge levels of the subjects I studied. I observed and took note s of students' level of engagement, appearance of understanding, and the accuracy of their responses (written, verbal, or created), but this data was only used to judge the quality, clarity, and effectiveness of the te acher's arts integration strategies and not to

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' -1 assess improvement in these areas by students. Because the content observed was comprised of different subject matters over different age groups/grade levels student comprehension was variable to the difficulty level of the subject content, th e applicability of arts content to the subjects studied, and types of arts integration learning activities that each teacher chose to utilize. Also, I only had time to directly observe arts integration in action in three teachers' classrooms, so my resear ch of the current effectiveness of arts integration in my school was limited to a select sampling of the teacher population. Because of this, my research may not accurately reflect arts integration measures across all disciplines at my school, but rather g ives me just an impression of how arts integration is occurring at my school. Findings The data I gained through my research was very rich and expansive. However, due to the time constraints of my research, I will only be highlighting a few main points th at surfaced from each data collection method. Last year's Program Review document revealed many areas needing improvement within our school that served as a good comparison for the more recent data that I gathered Regarding curriculum and instruction, re sults showed that the school needs to provide more models and skills in all four arts disciplines (dance curriculum was lacking in our school). The panel also felt that students needed to be led to more deeply analyze and reflect on artistic products/perfo rmances within the school curriculum. I address all four arts disciplines in linking subject matter on my website and also provided links to lesson examples that involve student analysis/reflection of artistic products (Sparks, 2013) For the Program Revie w standard that addressed formative and summative assessment, a great need was found in the areas of providing rubrics, self assessments, and critiquing

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' -2 opportunities to students. It was also documented that teachers need to formulate specific learning goa ls in the arts and provide feedback on student performances/products. I hope to aid teachers in addressing these concerns through providing rubrics, self assessment handouts, critiquing models, and sample arts learning goals on my website (Sparks, 2013) The last two Program Review standards addressed professional development opportunities and administrative support, which fall beyond the control of the teaching staff. However, it was important for me to note that my school scored low on providing professional development opportunities for arts integration, a weakness I intend to remedy starting with the sharing of my website resource. The anonymous online teacher surv ey resulted in a wealth of information that reflects the beliefs of the teaching staff at my school regarding arts integration. This was an important research instrument because the success of my future involvement in arts integration programs at my school will be based upon the teaching faculty's attitudes about and acceptance of arts integration as a viable teaching strategy in the classroom. I found that 69% of teachers at my school assessed their understanding of arts integration definitions and strate gies to be average or below and 81% of teachers rated their understanding of arts standards at average or below Also, the fact that over half of teachers responded that the y use arts integration 0 1 times in an average month reflects this lack of understa nding and provides the basis of need for my arts integration resource website as a start up tool for integration at my school. In other survey responses, the need for learning arts standards/integration strategies also surfaced as a prominent need ahead o f the factor of time, which was surprising to me The informal teacher interviews and classroom observations also pr ovided an abundance

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' -3 of information regarding current arts integration procedures at my school. I was able to discuss the relevance and resul ts of arts integration first hand with my colleagues while building relationships for future collaboration opportunities. I saw many positive integration measures happening in these classrooms as well as areas needing improvement. We discussed each teacher 's strengths and weaknesses regarding integration procedures along with reasons why they do not integrate arts content more often. Implications Overall, I found that each teacher's projected comfort level and attitude about the arts greatly affected studen t engagement, effort level, and response. Teachers who had an extensive arts background, high appreciation for the arts, or positive past arts experiences were more likely to integrate arts content within their lessons and projected higher expectations for student learning and achievement. Those with fewer or negative art experiences integrated arts content less often and displayed low expectations for student learning a nd achievement. Teachers of the latter category often graded student arts projects /asses sments based on effort and not on mastery of arts content. In the case of Teacher A, her response to students who sought her approval of t heir visual products was "I couldn't do any better," and the quality and craftsmanship of their artistic projects went down after her comment. When I asked Teacher A if she followed the craftsmanship/creativity portion of the project rubric, she admitted that she graded students easier than she should have because she couldn't be an appropriate judge of their abilities. On the other end of the spectrum, Teacher C, whose personal artwork hangs in his classroom, provided a book of his favorite artist's works when students prompted h im to share his favorite artist. He even went further to share reasons why the selected works of this particular artist were his

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' -4 favorite, which prompted a couple students to share their own favorite artists with similar reasoning. Although Teacher C did n ot use a rubric to score student work of the lesson I observed, he clearly projected high expectations for their understanding ( through sharing of ideas and questioning strategies) and also the resulting personal expression of their final poem projects. T eachers who had prepared more research, examples, and connections to arts content taught with the most confidence and attained the most student attention and excitement about the lesson For example, Teacher B had prepared an extensive visual presentation over the art elements and principles of design as they related to the world of industrial technology. He had multiple images that illustrated each term, which he explained the connections for thoroughly. He also used the images to pose questions to the stu dents, encouraging them to think of their own real world examples that illustrated each term. Teacher C taught in great depth about the historical background of the painting American Gothic dissecting students' background knowledge o f the term "gothic," relating it to current stereotypes of the word and uses of the term in architecture and literature. By further leading students through the identification of gothic elements in the painting and references to gothic elements in a poem inspired by the work, he brought the concept full circle; engaging students in their learning through discovery and making connections across disciplines. Teacher A, although she planned to include a discussion about color theory and how colors affect mood and meaning before st udents created symbolic characterization projects, failed to do so during the lesson. The result was that students completely ignored the inclusion of any color symbolism in their color choices and the remaining arts connection of visual representation of ideas was very loose and limited within their projects. It is also worthy to note

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' .6 that hers was the only classroom where I observed student disinterest and misbehavior during the lesson. All three teachers that I interview ed stated that they needed more kn owledge about arts standards, integration strategies, and methods for scoring student work fairly and accurately in regards to their artistic development. As a result of these requests, I have linked the National Core Arts Standards Conceptual Framework fo r Arts Learning Kentucky Department of Education Arts Combined Curriculum Document (which links big ideas, standards, and learner goals), sample project scoring rubrics, and website links to recognized arts integration groups on my website resource (Sparks, 2013) Reflections As I reflect upon what I've learned through my research at my high school, I am guided by my findings in developing future approaches to arts integration at my school. There were many issues that arose during my research that I am interested in researching further. The issue of Common Core came up in my research and also in teacher survey responses. Although some teachers used a foc us on teaching Common Core as a reason for not integrating the arts into their lessons, I have fou nd many sources that provide reasons for how the arts can help teachers to teach the Common Core objectives. This is an issue that I want to learn more about and include more prominently on my website resource. In my research for integration resources for my website, I also came across the term "Project Based Learning" (PBL) quite often. This method of teaching involves leading students to their own paths of learning through their creation of hands on projects. There is a major focus on STEM subject matter and real world connections within this approach. As I have researched, there is a great movement to include the a rts within STEM programs (Stem to Steam, 2013)

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' .5 mainly spearheaded by Rhode Island School of Design (RISD), and as the arts naturally include projects and hands on approaches, PBL is definitely an idea that I want to look into further and possibly apply to my website. In addition to new terms and integration resources that I have discovered, my research also has prompted new interest in not only arts integration, but also professional research within the faculty at my school. Even though I only worked with three teachers closely in regards to arts integration lessons, as time went on, many more teachers began approaching me for a pproval and advic e for arts integration activities that they had planned. I noticed that many more projects were displayed in hallways and I began to be seen as a person of reference in regards to arts integration. I already felt close to my colleagues before this project but I was able to forge meaningful, collaborative relationships with many of my peers through this project that made me feel more respected and useful as an arts specialist within my school. I was surprised to see how eager my colleagues are to learn mor e about the arts and to embrace them within their classrooms. I hope to provide my first of many professional development workshops with my colleagues in the coming months to go over my website resource and to talk about the positive potential of arts inte gration in the classroom. Most of all, I feel that the topic of arts integration has been brought to the forefront of my school's focus and mission and that more of my colleagues see the need for educational research within our school building and its pote ntial for transforming our teaching methods and how we think about and approach student learning. Summary Upon completion of this research study I found current areas needing improvement within my high school's arts integration strategies have come to an understand ing of possible

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' .! reasons why these faults have occurred, and have formulate d a proactive response to these needs through the creation of an arts integration website resource that will hopefully improve the quality and implementation of arts int egration at my school By collaborating with my faculty ( teachers and principal), I analy ze d their responses to my survey interviews, and the existing Program Review for arts integration in order to find patterns and formulate theories for improving our integration measures I then use d this data to drive my research for planning and implementing a website resource for teachers to use as a guide for improving arts integration strategies within their classrooms. I expect that teachers will use my website resource to form a clearer understanding of what arts integration entails and how to better plan and implement arts integration strategies within their curriculum as connections naturally occur.

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' .. References Brown, M. E. (1999). Action research Unpublish ed manuscript, Department of Library Science and Instructional Technology, Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven, Connecticut. Retrieved from http://www.southernct.edu/~brownm/act5.htm l Buffington, M. L., & Muth, W. (2011). Visual arts and literacy: The potential of interdisciplinary coalitions for social justice. Journal of Social Theory in Art Education (31), 1 21. Burnaford, G. E. (2007). Moving toward a culture of evidence: Docume ntation and action research in the practice of arts partnerships Arts Education Policy Review, 108 (3), 35 40. Burnaford, G., Brown, S., Doherty, J., & McLaughlin, H. J. (April 2007). Arts integration frameworks, research & practice. Retrieved from http://bit.ly/XP1IS5 Charland, W. (2011). Art integration as school culture change: A cultural ecosystem approach to faculty development. International Journal of Education & the Arts, 12 (8). Retrieved from http://www.ijea.org/v12n8/ Corcoran, K. & Sim, C. (2009). Pedagogical reasoning, creativity and cooperative learning in the visual art classroom. International Journal of Education through Art, 5 (1), 51 61. Davis, M. (1999). Design's inherent interdisciplinarity: The arts in integrated curricula. Arts Education Policy Review, 101 (1), 8 13. Dorfman, D. (2008). Arts integration as a catalyst for high school renewal. Studies in Art Education, 50 (1), 51 66. Gude, O. (2004). Postmodern principles: In search of 21st century art education. Art Education, 57 (1), 6 14.

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' ./ Kentucky Department of Education. (September, 2012). KDE program review: Arts and humanities. Retrieved from: http://education.ky.gov/curriculum/pgmrev/Documents/0912AandHFINAL.pdf Krug, D. H. (2000). Curriculum integration positions and practices in art education. Studies in Art Education, 41 (3), 258 275. Lodi co, M. G., Spaudling D. T., & Voegtle, K. H. (Eds.). (2006). Introduction to educational research. In M. Lodico, D. Spaulding, & K. Voegtle (Eds.), Methods in educational research: From theory to p ractice (pp. 1 21). Sa n Franc isco, CA: Jossey Bass. Lynch, P. (2007). Making m eaning many ways: An exploratory look at integrating the arts with classroom curriculum. Art Education, 60 (4), 33 38. Marshall, J. (2005). Connecting art, learning, and creativity: A case for curriculum integration. Studies in Art Education, 46 (3), 227 241 Marshall, J. (2006). Substantive art integration = exemplary art education. Art Education, 59 (6), 17 24. Marshall, J. (2010). Five ways to integrate: Using strategies from contemporary art. Art Education, 63 (3), 13 19. Mishook, J. J. & Kornhaber, M. L. (2006). Arts integration in an era of accountability. Arts Education Policy Review, 107 (4), 3 11. Partnership for 21 st Century Learning Skills. (2011). Framework for 21 st century learning [Online publication]. Retrieved Nov. 22, 2012 from http://www.p21.org/overview/skills framework Pytlik, E. (1997). Conducting qualitative research in the classroom. The Technology Teacher, 56 (6), 20 21.

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' .0 Smilan, C. & Miraglia, K. M. (2009). Art te achers as leaders of authentic arts integration. Art Education, 62 (6), 39 45. Sandell, R. (2009). Using form+theme+context (FTC) for rebalancing 21 st century art education. Studies in Art Education, 50 (3), 287 299. Silvers, A. (2003). Missing links: On stu dying the connection of arts education to the public good. Arts Education Policy Review, 104 (3), 21 23. Sparks, S. (2013). HCHS arts integration toolkit: Making connections, teaching differently. Retrieved from http://herbieturt.wix.com/hchsartsintegration Stem to Steam. (2013).What is STEAM. Retrieved from http://stemtosteam.org/ Stewart, M., & Walker, S. (2005). Rethinking curriculum in a rt Worchester, MA: Davis Publications, Inc. Strand, K. (2006). The heart and the journey: Case studies of collaboration for arts integrated curricula. Arts Education Policy Review, 108 (1), 29 40. Suskie, L. (1996.) Questionnaire survey research: What works. Tallahassee, FL: The Association for Institutional Research. Thomas, R. & Arnold, A. (2011). The A+ schools: A new look at curriculum integration. Visual Arts Research, 37 (72), 96 104.

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' .1 Appendix A 2011 2012 Program Review Results Arts and Humanities KDE Program Review Results Demonstrators Needing Improvement 2011 2012 Standard Demonstrator School Score Description I Curriculum and Instruction 1a Student Access All students should have equitable access to high quality curriculum and instruction. Needs Improvement a) The arts program offers creating, performing, and responding processes in the arts, but not all four arts disciplines are included. I Curriculum and Instruction 2b Aligned and Rigorous Curriculum An aligned and rigorous curriculum provides access to Kentucky Core Academic Standards (KCAS) for all students as defined by state standards. Needs Improvement b) The curriculum may be designed to develop some basic arts literacy skills in the arts, but does not support full literacy in th e four arts disciplines. I Curriculum and Instruction 3b Instructional Strategies Teachers implement instructional strategies that provide quality experiences, a variety of activities, and access for all students. Needs Improvement b) Teachers provide limited models of artistic performances and products to enhance student understanding I Curriculum and Instruction 3c Instructional Strategies Teachers implement instructional strategies that provide quality experiences, a variety of activities, and access for all students. Needs Improvement c) Arts teachers provide basic artistic theory, skills, and techniques but do not help students find their relevance to products or performances. I Curriculum and Instruction 4d Student Performance All students have access to an aligned and rigorous curriculum, where instructional strategies are of high quality and inclusive, resulting in student performance at a consistently high level. Needs Improvement d) Students rarely reflect upon exemplary exhibit s and live or technologically provided performances. II Formative and Summative Assessment 2b Expectations for Student Learning Teachers communicate consistently high expectations and use common standards for student learning in Arts & Humanities. Needs Improvement b) Teachers use clearly defined rubrics or scoring guides but do not share them with students. II Formative and Summative Assessment 2c Expectations for Student Learning Teachers communicate consistently high expectations and use comm on standards for student learning in Arts & Humanities. Needs Improvement c) T eachers develop rigorous student learning and academic growth goals that are attainable, reflect acceptable growth and are related to identified student needs, but the SMART (spe cific, measurable, appropriate, realistic and time bound) goals process

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' .2 needs refining II Formative and Summative Assessment 3a Assessment for Teaching Multiple assessments are used to inform, guide, develop and revise instructional strategies and curr iculum to enhance student learning and achievement. Needs Improvement a) Teachers provide limited documented feedback to students on performances/ products. II Formative and Summative Assessment 3b Assessment for Teaching Multiple assessments are used to inform, guide, develop and revise instructional strategies and curriculum to enhance student learning and achievement. Needs Improvement b) Students engage in critique and evaluation of artistic products; but those processes are not formalized or studen ts are not yet capable of making strong evaluations. III Professional Development 1d Opportunity Professional development opportunities are planned with teacher learning needs in mind and in response to data available about teacher practice and student learning. Needs Improvement a) The professional development action plan is linked to the Comprehensive School Improvement Plan (CSIP), supports quality instruction in the Arts and Humanities and is revisited throughout the year to assess the implementation, program fidelity and to make necessary revisions. III Professional Development 2e Participation Teachers participate in Arts and Humanities specific professional development designed to meet their needs. Arts and Humanities teachers part icipate in professional development focused on 21st Century Skills Needs Improvement e) Some teachers in the school receive professional learning opportunities to enhance the integration of the arts and humanities content. IV Administrative/Leadership Su pport and Monitoring 1c P olicies and Monitoring School leadership establishes and monitors implementation of policies, provides adequate resources, facilities, space and instructional time to support highly effective arts and humanities instructional pro grams. Needs Improvement c) School leadership and select teachers plan the annual school budget. IV Administrative/Leadership Support and Monitoring 1d P olicies and Monitoring School leadership establishes and monitors implementation of policies, provides adequate resources, facilities, space and instructional time to support highly effective arts and humanities instructional programs. Needs Improvement d) Arts teachers are assigned unmanageable class loads and/or inadequate/inappropriate facilitie s. IV Administrative/Leadership Support and Monitoring 2a Principal Leadership Principals are the primary leaders of all arts and humanities program efforts and support teacher leadership through shared leadership strategies and actions. Needs Improvement a) The principal is the only evaluator of the impact of arts instructional practices on overall student achievement in the school IV Administrative/Leadership Support and Monitoring 2b Principal Leadership Principals are the primary leaders of all arts and Needs Improvement b) The principal initiates professional learning regarding

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' .3 humanities program efforts and support teacher leadership through shared leadership strategies and actions. the school's arts programs IV Administrative/Leaders hip Support and Monitoring 2c Principal Leadership Principals are the primary leaders of all arts and humanities program efforts and support teacher leadership through shared leadership strategies and actions. Needs Improvement c) The principal rarely pr ovides communication with parents and community about arts and humanities programs.

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' .4 Appendix B Research Instruments I. Online Survey Questions Arts Integration #!$%&'!()!*+,-!.,--/0'!1/2/1!+3!,04/-)'&04(05!+3!.+0'/67+-&-*!&-')!(0'/5-&'(+0! 4/3(0('(+0!&04! )'-&'/5(/)!8+0!&!).&1/!+3!" 9 ":;< 1 Very low 2 3 4 5 Average 6 7 8 9 10 Very high = #!>0!&!?-(/3!)'&'/6/0'@!5(2/!*+,-!4/3(0('(+0!+3!&-')!(0'/5-&'(+0!&04!%+A!('!()!,)/4!A('%(0!&!).%++1! .,--(.,1,6B C #!D+A!+3'/0!4+!*+,!(0'/5-&'/!&-')! .+0'/0'!A('%(0!*+,-!1/))+0)!(0!&0!&2/-&5/!6+0'%< 0 1 2 4 5 9 10 or more E #!$%*!4+!*+,!'%(0F!*+,!4+!0+'!(0'/5-&'/!&-')!.+0'/0'!(0'+!*+,-!1/))+0)!6+-/!+3'/0
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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' /6 II. Pre Observation Informal Teacher Interview Questions III. Post Observation Informal Teacher Interview Questions N+)' 9 P?)/-2&'(+0!Q,/)'(+0)B 5C DE!>EE<=!A:77E;!H@I:I!@;!78E<=!9E=:!9E;8:;8L! !!!!!!!!!! M &;!NGH8!NH>7L -C DE!>EE<=!77!8GH8!G:AR:I!8G:O!8E!=:AH8:!8G:@=!A:H=;@;K!8E!=:HA!A@F:!7@8E!IE;J8! >EE<=!A:77E;7!OE=:!EF8:;L /C &;!NGH8!NH>7!9H;!&!H77@78!>EE<=!<;I:=78H;I@;K!EF!H=87!9E;8:;8!7E! 8GH8!>EEEE<=!9<==:;8!A:T:A!EF!<;I:=78H;I@;K!EF!9E;8:ORE=H=>!H=87!@;8:K=H8@E;! I:F@;@8@E;!H;I!78=H8:K@:7L -C SG>!IE!>E!9GEE7:!8E!<7:!H=87!@;8:K=H8@E;!H98@T@8@:7!N@8G@;!>E<=! 9<==@9EE<=!A:77E;L M SGH8!H98@T@8@:7!N@AA!>E
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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' /5 Appendix C Quantitative Results of Research Teacher Online Survey Results Q1 What is your current level of understanding of contemporary arts integration definition and strategies (on a scale of 1 10)? Q2 In a brief statement, give your definition of arts integration and how it is used within a school curriculum. # of respondents: 33 6! 5! -! .! /! 0! 1! 2! 5! -! .! /! 0! 1! 2! 3! 4! 56! R!+3!I/)7+04/0')! G/2/1!+3!S04/-)'&04(05!I/)7+0)/!T%+(./! G/2/1!+3!S04/-)'&04(05! 5M0! 14U! 1M56! .5U! G/2/1)!+3!S04/-)'&04(05! Key 1 Very Low 5 Average 10 Very High $G@7!9GH=8!@AA<78=H8:7!GEN!ET:= GHAF EF!8G:!=:7RE;I:;87!9GE7: H!A:T:A!EF!<;I:=78H;I@;K!F=EO 5!VT:=>!AENC!8E!0!VHT:=HK:CW!$G@7! 8:AA7 O:!8GH8!8G:!OHQE=@8>!EF! 8:H9G:=7!H8!O>!79GEEA!IE!;E8!F::A! 9EOFE=8HPA:!N@8G!8G:!@I:H!EF!H=87! @;8:K=H8@E;!P:9H<7:!8G:>!IE!;E8! <;I:=78H;I!NGH8!@8!@7!E=!GEN!@8!@7! IE;:W R!+3!-/)7+04/0')B!C=!+,'!+3!CC

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' /! To code this data, I analyzed the responses for their level of specificity. If the respondent gave an over arching definition of arts integration, I labeled the answer generic. If the respondent gave a definition and explained a specific way that integrati on is used within a school curriculum, I labeled the answer specific. These percentages aligned with those in question 1, which confirms that the majority of teachers at my school do not understand what arts integration is with certainty. Q3 How often do you integrate arts content within your lessons in an average month? # of respondents: 33 These charts show that the majority of teachers at my school currently use arts integration in their lessons very little during an average month. Q4 Why do you think you do not integrate arts content into your lessons more often? List any reasons. # of respondents: 33 15U! .1U! .U! U,&1('*!+3!>0'/5-&'(+0! V/W(0('(+0! ):;:=@9!D:X@;@8@E;! +R:9@X@9!D:X@;@8@E;! 'E!*;7N:=! 6! 0! 56! 50! -6! 6M5! -M/! 0M4! 56!E=! OE=:! R!+3!-/)7+0)/)! I&05/!+3!P..,--/0./! R!+3!>0'/5-&'(+0! G/))+0)!(0!&0! X2/-&5/!Y+0'%! 3-U! 53U! R!+3!>0'/5-&'(+0! G/))+0)!(0!&0! X2/-&5/!Y+0'%! 6M/! E99<==:;9:7! 0M56Y! E99<=:;9:7!

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' /. For this data, I analyzed teacher responses and highlighted common terminology to see what language occurred most often. From this coding, I found three main reason s that were listed from the majority of the responses. From this chart, I deduced that knowledge of arts standards and integration strategies are what teachers at my school need the most in order to successfully integrate the arts wi thin their classrooms. Q5 Rate your familiarity with current arts standards/core content/learner goals? # of respondents: 32 out of 33 .2U! 06U! 5.U! I/&)+0)!O/&.%/-)!V+0Z'!S)/!X-')! >0'/5-&'(+0!Y+-/!P3'/0! $@O:! Z;FHO@A@H=!N@8G!*=87! +8H;IH=I7[&;8:K=H8@E;! +8=H8:K@:7! \H9?!EF!+
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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' // This chart tells me that the ma jority of teachers at my school have low to average familiarity levels with current arts standards. This reflects my findings from question 4, where most respondents answered that they do not integrate arts content into their lessons more often because they are unfamiliar with arts standards/ integration strategies. Q6 When using arts integration strategies and activities in your classroom, do you use a rubric to assess how well students learned the arts content of the lesson in addition to the core subject content? # of respondents: 33 Th is chart illustrates that most teachers at my school do not use rubrics to assess how well students learn the arts content in their integrated lessons. This is really important information in showing me a major area needing improvement within my school's a rts integration strategies. I can theorize that students' learning of art content within integrated lessons is not scored using a rubric because either a) the arts content is secondary in importance to students' understanding of 35U! 54U! [&6(1(&-('*!G/2/1!A('%!T,--/0'! X-')!\'&04&-4)! 5M0! 1M56! 53U! 26U! 5-U! S)/!+3!I,?-(.!(0!X-')!>0'/5-&'(+0! G/))+0! >:7! ;E! '[*M!&!IE!;E8!<7:!H=87! @;8:K=H8@E;!@;!O>! 9AH77=EEO!

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' /0 the core subject matter, or b) teachers do not feel comfortable scoring students' demonstrations of their learning of arts content. Q7 Please list any concerns or issues that you have regarding the current arts integration initiatives at our school (Program Review) along with any personal weaknesses that you have regarding the implementation of arts integration within your classroom. # of respondents: 24 out of 33 This chart reflects findings from other parts of the survey, in that teachers at my school by far feel that they need knowledge of arts integration strategies, arts standards and definitions in order to affectively integrate the arts into their lessons. Examples of listings from the "other" category include time, judging the quality of arts content in choosing connections, and building relationships between arts teachers and core content teachers. 0.U! 2U! /U! 55U! -0U! O/&.%/-!]//4)!I/5&-4(05! >0'/5-&'(+0! (;ENA:IK:!;::I! "
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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' /1 Appendix D Qualitative Results of Pre Observation Informal Teacher Interviews Interview Question: Teacher A Teacher B Teacher C Self assessed level of integration understanding Average/High Average High Reasons for Integrating Arts Content student engagement, new type of assessment helps students make connections, student engagement, use of background knowledge helps to make students more well rounded, cultural awareness, critical thinking, student engagement, hands on activities Arts Content of Lesson characterization, visual interpreta tion, symbols, color theory elements of art/principles of design, functional art, careers in design determining meaning/mood, art criticism, critical thinking, analysis Assessment Activities Group art project, group presentations, summative journal writin g Teacher questioning, quiz over notes taken during presentation, individual closure questions, relation of ideas to future project designs questioning during presentation, worksheet packet, creation of poem inspired by painting Use of Rubric? yes no only for virtual products no only for "big" writing projects

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' /2 Qualitative Results of Post Observation Informal Teacher Interviews Interview Question: Teacher A Teacher B Teacher C Increased student understanding of content? Why? Yes, students had to think more critically about symbols/abstract thinking, improved work habits, students asked more questions Yes, the content linked well (STEM) and seeing visual examples of terms helped students to gain understanding. Yes, easier for students to draw mean ing from images (visual culture). Students background knowledge came out. Connections made by students between subject matters? Yes, simplifying ideas and taking thoughts and applying them visually (visual analysis and representation). Yes, the engineering world develops products for real life. Students gave real life examples of products that illustrated each element of art/principle of design. Yes, relating terms to past meanings versus current meanings (Ex: Gothic). Learning how to analyze ima ges/learn about background information to find meaning. Evidence gathered to assess these connections? Body biography projects, written journal explanations, verbal explanations during presentations. Students homework photo assignment to take 5 photos of objects/products that illustrate 5 principles of design. Students put their photos into PowerPoint slides along with a written explanation of choices. Worksheet packet detail chart, mind mapping, poem analysis, etc. Student created poems. Reasons for no t integrating more often? Cost of supplies, size of the class (classroom management), time to complete projects, time to plan/research connections Little knowledge of art. Also need time, materials, planning ahead for deeper connections. Not comfortable t eaching art because of little experience with it. Department pressures to be standards driven and no time for anything else. Focus on building skills, large class sizes, shorter lessons. Personal Needs/Weaknesses? Need assistance with expectations sample scoring rubrics for projects, stock photos of works, list of art terminology, curriculum alignment with art classes. Weaknesses: materials, management, and expectations. Need professional development (learn art terminology/standards, hands on workshops, e tc.) Would like to collaborate with art teacher to learn more about the basics of art. Need generic rubrics for scoring projects, student samples, to learn art standards, collaboration with art teacher. Weaknesses: not critical enough in scoring student wo rk, need strategies for pushing students to develop artistically, need to know expectations for special needs students.

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' /3 Appendix E Classroom Observation Field Notes Results Observations Teacher A Teacher B Teacher C Class subject matter Reading Technology Concepts Adv. English 2 Class size 14 students 21 students 16 students Grade level(s) 10th 9 th 12 th 10th Art/visuals present in room? yes X X X no Students out of seats during lesson? yes X no X X Activities to check for comprehension? yes X X X no Type of assessment(s) Formative: Q&A during project making, creation of body biography project Summative: group presentation of project, journal writing about project Formative: Q&A during lecture, online quiz Summative: photo assignment Formative : works heet packet, Q&A during lecture Summative: artwork inspired poem Student created art projects? yes X no X X Use of art resources/research? Artist(s) X Artwork(s) X Art Term(s) X X Use of big idea(s)? Artists convey meaning through symbols Functional Art, Careers in Art, Purposes of Art, Visual Communication Art as communication Use of real world example(s)? Examples are limited to the book they are Visual examples of design in manufactured Looking at/understanding art in a gallery,

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' /4 studying Hunger Games products, photography, etc., use of student clothing examples, career examples students' favorite artist/artwork, famous image examples, Gothic definition(s), architecture, novels; stereotypes Use o f critique methods? none Looking at artforms, q uestioning to develop student reasoning, student input of judgment Description, Analysis, Interpretation; Regionalism; storytelling Teacher use of visual example(s)? Teacher led the class through a sample body biography before beginning project Images used in Nearpod presentation, examples within the room American Gothic, Edward Hopper works Art materials used? Crayola markers, bulletin board paper, pencils none none Rubrics used? Yes, but not followed closely in jud ging the effort/quality of products only the content none none Teacher feelings about art? negative X neutral X positive X Students engaged? yes X X X no Students asked questions? yes X X no X Behavior issues? Students threw markers, teased each other about drawings, wandered around the room none Students cheated and looked up answers for packet, some students showed little effort/confusion in writing their poems.

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#$%&'(&')!*"$+!&'$#)"*$&,' 06 Author Biography Sarah Sparks is a high school art educator residing in Owensboro, KY. She has taught visual arts at a small, rural high school in Lewisport, KY for the past seven years. She received her Bachelor's in Art Education from Western Kentucky University, graduat ing Summa Cum Laude in 2006 and is currently working on finishing up a Master's degree in Art Education from the University of Florida. She is married to her high school sweetheart an d has a three year old daughter In 2009, she was chosen by her state ar t educ ation association (KyAEA) as high school art educator of the year. S he is involved in many aspects of her school and community, participating in numerous leadership groups, councils and community service activities through her art club. In 2012, she received the Presidential Scholar in the Arts Teacher Recognition Award from her student Presidential scholar (the 1 st visual artist recognized for this in the state of KY) signifying tha t she was the main influential person in his life. Sarah's professional research interests include sociology, creativity and divergent thinking in the classroom, gifted and talented education concerns, and contemporary arts integration strategies. Her ar tistic research interests include human instincts such as grouping patterns, multi sensual artworks (the 5 senses) with an emphasis on art for the blind, and identity exploration through the use of silhouettes and mixed media processes. Her future goals i nclude becoming more actively involved in her local arts community and national art organizations. She hopes to someday have her work professionally exhibited in a gallery outside of her hometown and her research published in a nationally recognized arts a dvocacy publication.