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HOW TO DEVELOP AN D MAINTAIN A HIGH SCHOOL WINTER INDOOR HORNLINE By ERICA J. SCARANO SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE: CHARLES R. HOFFER, CHAIR ART JENNINGS, MEMBER A PROJECT IN LIEU OF THESIS PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2013
! This project is dedicated to my loving parents: Mom and Dad, I am so blessed to have your continued support in my passion for music and my desire to further my education. Thank you for your love and compassion, inspiration, and prayers. I could not have succeeded without you.
! # Acknowledgments Special thanks to Dr. Charles Hoffer for his direction, patience, and insight and to Dr. Art Jennings for agreeing to be on a flute player's committee and being so kind and supportive. Thank you, Rickie Santiago, for your help with so ma ny logistical obstacles. Your contributions did not go unnoticed. Most heartfelt thanks to my boyfriend, Dwight Booth. Your expertise in dance and your ability to inspire the students may have been more help than you know. You are an excellent teacher an d I admire you and your patience. Thank you for always being there for me. I would not have succeeded without you. Special thanks to all of the students that participated in the model hornline. Your hard work and dedication for this project will remain in my heart forever. Last, but not least, thank you to all of my friends who have helped keep my spirits up when the going got tough. I am so blessed to have all of you in my life.
! $ Table of Contents Abstract Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: The Marching Arts and Their Benefits to the Participating Musician: A Review of Literature Chapter 3: Methodology Chapter 4: How to Build an Indoor Hornline: A Step by Step Process Chapter 5 : Conclusion References Appendix A: Interlude 1 Score Appendix B: Fly Score Appendix C: Untitled 4 Score Appendix D: Gobbledigook Score Appendix E: Drill Appendix F: Permission and Liability Form Appendix G: Member Survey Appendix H: Staff Survey Biographical Sketch 5 6 9 18 21 33 36 37 39 42 45 49 78 80 81 82
! % Summary of Project Option in Lieu of Thesis Presented to the College of Fine Arts of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Music HOW TO DEVELOP AND MAINTAIN A HIGH SCHOOL WINTER INDOOR HORNLINE By Erica J. Scarano May 2013 Chair: Charles R. Hoffer Major: Music Education In 1977, an organization called Winter Guard International (WGI) was formed in order to give winter color guards opportunities to perform and compete in their own circuit. In 1992, indoor percussion groups joined under the WGI umbrella to form their own pe rformance and competition circuit. The only instrument group not represented in the winter circuits is the wind players. The purpose of this project was to develop a winter indoor hornline comprised of local high school brass players and maintain the group for a winter season parallel to that of already established winter guards and indoor percussion groups. In conjunction with the development and maintenance of the hornline, this project includes a step by step guide for how to develop and maintain a winte r indoor hornline. The specific research questions investigated were: rationale securing sufficient support for an indoor hornline, tools and procedures necessary to initiate an indoor hornline and sustain it for the winter season, and rehearsal strategies necessary for an indoor ho rnline. The participants were 12 volunteer high school students from the Gainesville area. Students attended two rehearsals per week and performed one family and friends' performance at the conclusion of the season
! & CHAPTER ONE I ntroduction Indoor color guard, also referred to as winter guard, and indoor drumlines have been incorporated in many high school music programs across the country for many years. An organization that helped these marching arts to begin and flourish is W inter Guard International. Winter Guard International (WGI) is a non profit organization that produces indoor drumline and winter guard competitions. WGI began in 1977 with only a winter guard competition circuit in mind. It grew very rapidly and in 1992 indoor percussion joined under the WGI umbrella and form ed its own competition and performance circuit. Currently the WGI organization holds over 40 regional and elite events per se ason which lead up to the three day World Championships event, where over 3 00 guards and 170 percussion ensembles from over 40 states and four countries perform and compete for the top spots in their divisions. WGI competing groups are either scholastic, meaning they are affiliated with a school (it could be a middle school, hig h school, or college/u niversity), or independent, which means that they have no affiliation with a particular school. These independent classifications are then further divided into three classes: A Class, Open Class, and World Class, which separate the beginning, intermediate, and advanced groups respectively. Winter guard and indoor percussion are the fastest growing groups in the marching arts. These performing ensembles are a growing educationa l opportunity. The students involved continue to develop skills throughout the winter season making them extremely beneficial members of their high school marching bands and drum and bugle corps. The only group in a marching band that is not represented i n WGI is the wind playing members. Indoor hornlines which could include brass only instrumentation such as a drum and bugle corps
! (trumpet, mellophone, baritone/e uphonium, and tuba) or woodwind and brass instrumentation found in most high school marching bands have yet to become a popular trend, which means there is no real guideline for starting and managing one, nor is there a popular circuit for them to perform and compete T his may be caused by the fact that the groups would have to be much smaller tha n typical marching bands or drum and bugle corps, which makes them a very selective group Indoor color guards and drumlines are about the same size as regular guards and drumlines in typical marching bands/drum and bugle corps. A world class drum and bugl e c orps hornline would have around 80 brass members An indoor hornline would most likely not want more than 24 brass members because of the size difference between a football field and a basketball gym, which is the typical performance venue for winter in door groups. Although an indoor hornline would be very selective, it can be very beneficial to a music program. Members would most likely need to audition but this would depend on the number of students interested in participating. An indoor hornline is a great way to improve musicality and marching. Since the ensemble itself is smaller, the musicians will be much more a ccountable for their parts. M arching skills would be imperative because the space is so much smaller and mistakes are much more easily no ticed. These are skills that members will develop over a winter season and will carry over into the marching band season making the full band stronger. Also the ensemble would be fun. Indoor hornline simply provides a musical, aesthetic experience for th e members involved and it s audiences. It is a great outlet for the off s eason from marching band. A lthough it will be in addition t o the concert season, it is an after school program therefore does not interfere with the concert band competitions The specific problem this project address ed is the mere fact that indoor hornlines are so scarce Because of this, starting one is not an easy task. The primary need for this project is that
! ( indoor hornlines are so unc ommon that a handbook outlining how to bu ild a successful group could be very helpful. There are very few models which leaves directors little to no familiarity with the organizational structure. It is such a new concept that it would li kely never be mentioned in any methods courses in teacher p reparation programs. The lack of knowledge and accessible information on the topic is keeping the art from forming and growing. Creating this structure and an informational handbook is the best way to give directors an idea of what an indoor hornline is a nd how to build one. The more schools that have them, the greater the chance there is of having a circuit for indoor hornline competitions in the future. Process In order to develop the handbook, a model indoor hornline was formed and the processes were documented. These processes were compiled into this handbook, which is available for those who may be interested in forming an indoor hornline. Specific questions that were explored through this project are: 1. What rationale can be provided to secure suffici ent support for an indoor hornline? 2. What are the tools and procedures necessary to initiate an indoor hornline and sustain it for the winter season? 3. What rehearsal strategies are necessary for an indoor hornline? I n addition to the three specific research questions addressed, many obstacles arose throughout the completion of the project These obstacles and questions are discussed in the project.
! ) CHAPTER TWO The Marching Arts and Their Benefits to the Participating Musician: A Review of Literature Most high schools in the United States, especially those with football teams, have a marching band. Marching bands in high schools have become as popular as football teams and in some high schools the marching bands are m ore successful than the football team. Not all marching bands, however, participate in competitive marching circuits. When I lived in Illinois my marching band competed against other high school marching bands from Illinois and Missouri All of the members took our competitions very seriously. After moving to Ohio, I realized that I had taken that experience for granted. My high school in Ohio only performed for football games and the sho ws were less than challenging. H owever it was more of an experience of camaraderie and schoo l spirit for the members. Both experiences were very different but had their benefits. In this review of literature I discuss the benefits of the marching arts and explore the literature supporting this idea. I also discuss the benefits and draw backs of competition in the marching arts, the social aspect of marching band for the students, physical requirements of the marching arts, and creat ive and musical benefits for it s participants. When researching the marching arts, there are not many peer reviewed journal articles on the topic. There are well known magazines including Halftime Magazine and Drum Corps International Magazine that are exclusively about the marching arts as well as websites such as marching.com, dci.org, drumcorpsplanet.com, dcacorps.c om, and wgi.org. There are a number of dissertations and theses, which cover the marching arts, some of which I are mention ed in this review of literature A good majority of them are about collegiate marching bands, which is not
! *+ the primary focus of this project However, I will use these resources available and apply them to my primary focus, which is high school marching band. Competition: Pros and Cons One of the hottest topics in relation to the high school marching art s is that of competition and it s benefits, or lack thereof, for music education. Not all high school marching bands compete for one reason or another. One common reason why some high school bands do not compete is the fact that many educators have a negative view of competition. In Fo undations of Music Education (1995) by Harold F. Abeles, Charles R. Hoffer, and Robert H. Klotman, there is an entire section dev oted to competition and it s place in music education in Ch. 6, which is entitled Social Psychological Foundations of Music Educ ation. This subsection of the chapter does not speak very highly of competition. Hoffer et al. (1995) discusses a book entitled No Contest: The Case Against Competition by Kohn (1986). This book seeks to disprove a few common, positive myths about competit ions. One of the myths is that competition is part of human nature, another is that competition motivates people to do their best, and the last being that competition builds character. These myths about competition may in fact be just that, myths, but from what I have learned as an educator and as a member of multiple marching bands and drum corps, these myths are not the focus of the most successful groups. Success is not always in winning. Hoffer et al. (1995) talk about one of the difficulties of competition being the emphasis on winning. They discuss that often only the winners are recognized and all other groups are "discarded". Unfortunately in some situations this may be
! ** true, but Hoffer et al. (1995) gives music educators suggestions for putting more focus on competency and cooperation. Some of the suggestions that appl y dir ectly to marching band are: Encouraging stu dents to help each other learn Educating the students, parents, school administrators, and community about what constitutes success for a performing group Emphasizing accomplishment of musical goal s, instead of winning contests Grading on accomplishment rather than in compar ison to the other students Rotating the seating placements (Hoffer et al., 1995, p. 165). A marching band is a unit where students encourage each other constantly to better themselves for the good of the ensemble. There are a plethora of leadership opportunities for students within the group and there is always room for ensembles to grow musically and creatively. Although these are professional opinions and not necessarily findings based on d ata, these are refereed and published opinions of respected music educators and t hey bring up some significant ideas about the place of competition in high school music programs. Student Identity Just this past year, an article was published in the Jou rnal of Contemporary Ethnography about the identity that students form in their participation in marching band. Learning from the Band: Trust, Acceptance, and Self Confidence" by Mari C. Dagaz, is based on research she did for her doctoral dissertation, I n Step: Identity and Social Consequences of Participation in High School Marching Band, that she completed in 2010 and Indiana University Dagaz researched two m idwestern high school marching bands, one in a rural district and one in a mid size city. Dagaz found that at both schools the students formed a "close knit" community, which lead to a
! *" high level of trust, acceptance, and self confidence. She also found that the students saw marching band as a personal identity. Dagaz mentioned in her research stud y that neither of these schools required the students to participate in marching band. This is something that is important for the success of the band and the student s enjoyment and aesthetic experience s Many high school band programs require that everyon e in the concert band also participate in the marching band. This does not give students a choice and in many cases students who really do not want to be involved are forced to do so bringing down the moral and motivation of the group as a whole. Dagaz me ntioned that in both schools, more than ten percent of the student population was involved in the marching band. Having numbers that high of students who want to be there makes a large impact on the over all attitude of the group. Dagaz interviewed student s in the bands and one of the 8th graders who participated in the rural high school band told about his difficulties in making friends before he joined marching band. He told Dagaz that marching band helped him to get to know people and make friends. Dagaz talks more about this student and about his growth over the marching season. She mentions that he went from being very introverted and shy member to a self confident, talkative, and contributing member of the ensemble. These types of experiences in growth are very important for students to receive in school. Physical Requirements There are some articles that research the physical requirements of marching bands. One such dissertation is An exploratory study to determine if marching band rehearsal activit ies could satisfy National Physical Education Standard Three as measured by the heart rates of
! *# collegiate marching band members by Serena Weren (2012) at Arkansas State University Unfortunately, no significant data were found in favor of marching band be ing able to replace physical education in high schools. However, there were still significant data that marching band could be considered a moderately intense physical activity. Another study in the Perceptual and Motor Skills journal by Virginia S. Cowen in 2006 entitled, The contribution of marching band participation to overall physical activity for a sample of university students concluded "marching band contributed to overall physical activity for the participants" (Cowen, 2006 p. 459). There are still many schools across the country that do let their students use marching band for a physical education credit, regardless of the outcomes of the studies. It is irrefutable that complex motor skills are required of students partic ipating in marching band. The development of these physical skills is beneficial to the members of the ensemble. Musical Benefits In addition to all of the extracurricular benefits the marching arts have for its participants, there are of course the mus ical benefits. Any literature directed towards strengthening musical skills in an ensemble can be easily transferred towards the marching arts. An article in the Journal of Band Research entitled "Exploration of a Sequence for Teaching Intonation Skills and Concepts to Wind Instrumentalists" (Latten, 2005) is an excellent resource for band directors Latten points out that intonation skills are extremely important to the performing arts and one of the most difficult concepts to teach young musicians. Lat ten discusses the effects of temperature and dynamics, which are a huge component in marching band, especially since most performances are outside. The purpose of his research was
! *$ to develop a sequence for teaching intonation skills. Although there was no statistically significant sequence found, further attention to the data suggest a distinct set of skills and an order for which they would be introduced. This order includes nine skills ranging from matching pitch by singing or humming to the "cognitive un derstanding of just intonation, and the out of tune deviations found in equal temperament" (Latten, 2005, p. 302). Another musical benefit to having an indoor hornline is the size of the ensemble. Since the group would be much smaller than a typical hi gh school marching band (only 12 24 members in an indoor hornline), the group would be considered more of a chamber ensemble. There are many articles advocating the educational values of chamber ensembles at the high school level. One of those is "Chamber Mus ic for Every Instrumentalist", which was also written by James Latten (2001). In this article Latten justifies chamber music in high schools saying, "Participation in a chamber group fulfills goals and objectives in ways that no other type of music education can" (Latten, 2001, p. 45). He then goes on the mention specific National Standards for Music Education that chamber groups fulfill. Having one or two people on a part, as opposed to four or five (or more) in high school marching and concert band s, leaves the students much more accountable for learning their music correctly It is also more like a professional ensemble to only have one or two players on a part. Creativity Creativity is also a very important aspect of the marching arts. Not only is it a huge component for the director and staff, but the students are also often involved in the creative
! *% aspects of the show such as body movement, student created band choreography, student created percussion vocals, and soloists. "Creativity and the marching band" (Peterson, 1993) emphasizes the need for creativity of a band director in the formulation and implementation of a marching band show. Peterson (1993) discusses four stages of creativity: preparation, incubation, illumination, and verificati on. He also discusses how students can assist the director in the creative process and mentions a few ways to involve high school students. Peterson believes creating a marching show must be approached in a divergent manor and that band directors should tr y their best to look from all angles in order to develop a more creative and original show. Professional Groups A of literature must mention the benefit of introducing the high school students to the world of Drum and Bugle Corps. An article in Teaching Music by Mac Randall entitled "Best in the Field" talks about the benefit of introducing marching students to DCI (Drum Corps International) and WGI (Winter Guard International) and the amount of inspiration it can instill in the members. It is a short art icle that discusses the benefits of taking your high school group to see a Drum Corps show or rehearsal. Randall's main arguments are that it is important for students to see the potentia l of the marching arts through drum and bugle c orps shows as well as Winter Guard International shows. He also talks about the benefits of attending a rehearsal of one of these top groups. Seeing the group in a rehearsal is not only beneficial for the students but for directors as well because of the intensity, profession alism, and motivation of the members and staff. In addition to marching band, indoor percussion, guard, and hornlines are becoming
! *& more and more popular in high schools around the nation. Indoor hornlines are a new concept but indoor percussion and guard g roups have been around for some time. "Take Your Marching Band Indoors for the Winter" (Fidyk, 2011) dis cusses indoor percussion and it s post season benefits for school marching band. Fidyk interviewed a percussion director at a high school in New York wh o talks a little about his program and how having a winter percussion program participating in a competitive circuit has motivated his students to continue to pursue excellence after the marching band season has ended There is also current talk in the dru m corps community about a new concept that Drum Corps International recently launched called Sound Sport¨. According to the Drum Corps International website (dci.org), a SoundSport¨ ensemble would be comprised of five to fifty perfor mers of any instrumentat ion, configuration, movement and choreography would be optional. Performance opportunities would be virtual and live making it possible for groups to share their performances online with groups from all over the world. According to dci.org, "SoundSport¨ events showcasing instrumental ensembles of any instrumentation and any skill level year round, spotlighting their unique talents and creati vity like never before" ( "Presenting drumline battle," 2013). There are a few ensembles that have developed under th e SoundSport¨ name and the Chairman of the Board of Directors of Drum Corps In ternational, Mark Arnold, talks in the article about this circuit being an opportunity for drum corps who have folded for financial reasons or because they lack sufficient numbers to be competitive in the DCI circuit to "re kindle competitive flames" ("Presenting drumline battle 2013). SoundSport¨ in conjunction with DrumLine Battle TM, according to dci.org, are "the next big things in the world of marching music" ("Presenting drumline battle," 2013).
! *' There is currently not a very large amount of significant research on the marching art s. Marching bands have been around for over a century and have grown and changed immensely over time. Shows have become more and more demanding physically and musically and instruments are even being designed specifically for the marching arts (System Blue by the Blue Devils). More research needs to be done on the subject of physical benefits of marching band. T here are also a lot of physical developmental skills that are formed through the physical demands of the marching arts. Musically, marching band ha s just as many requirements as a concert band but with added obstacles. One example would be playing a difficult passage while marching in time with good technique. There is also the aspect o f memorization, which is an important skill for students to devel op. There are so many aspects of the marching arts that are beneficial to the education of musicians. I hope that more people decide to do research on this important aspect of music education and that it continues to grow and have positive impacts on futur e musicians.
! *( CHAPTER THREE Methodology Participants My hornline is comprised of 12 local high school students in the Gainesville area. We have representatives from two different high schools an d students representing grades 8 12. We have four trumpets, two mellophones, four baritones, and two tubas. I chose this number and this instrumentation for balance purposes in the music and for drill writing purposes. Procedure Winter indoor percussion and colorguard are becoming more and more popular at the scholastic level around the United States. These groups branched off of the world class groups that compete in the Winter Guard International (WGI) circuit and perform on weekends during the winter season with a c ulminating World Championships competition in April. These competitions have expanded over the years to include open class groups as well as scholastic groups. These groups were started for marching band and drum corps members to continue playing or spinni ng during the off season but winter indoor horn lines have not become quite as popular. For this project I formed a mock hornline and document ed the process of creating and maintain it, in order to make a handbook. This handbook will give directors an outl ine for how to form and sustain their own indoor hornline. Many questions were answered throughout the process but the primary questions that drove the project were : 1. How do I build a scholastic, winter indoor hornline program? 2. Where will I get my res ources, e.g. staff, rehearsal space, music, uniforms, floor etc.?
! *) 3. How do we rehearse? 4. Where will we perform? An indoor hornline was formed with local high school students We host ed auditions in early January and the season l asted through the first week in April The process was documented from the first staff design meeting through auditions, rehearsals, performances, and end of the season surveys of the students and those affected by the ensemble. This information has been compiled into a handbook, which I hope will help and encourage other directors to start their own indoor hornlines. The music for the show, like marching band, is open to the directors' discretion. It is important to design a show that flows well and leave s room for added general effect such as body movement. It is also important, since there is minimal percussion and no drum major, to arrange the music in a manner that will keep the tempo moving in the hornline. There are pre arranged brass choir pieces that would most likely wor k for this instrumentation It is also possible to use drum corps music because this is the same inst rumentation as a drum corps. However, for this particular project, I arranged the music for the ensemble. Auditions were held and participating members were selected. After the members were selected we rehearsed twice a week and on a few occasions three times a week while preparing for a performance We rehearsed on Mondays or Wednesdays for three hours in the evening, and Friday evenings for four hours Extra rehearsals were on Saturday mornings. We rehearsed at a local high school with the approval of the band director Schedule conflicts with sports teams caused problems when trying to rehearse in the gym Because of this, we usually rehearsed outside in the parking lot. The staff met for fifteen minutes before each rehearsal to discuss the
! "+ rehearsal schedule. Each rehearsal had a similar format and was treated much like a d rum corps rehearsal since the entire staff marched at least one year of drum co rps. I kept records of the design meetings with my staff as well as video recording parts of rehearsa ls and performances. I recorded rehearsal plans for the project and also recorded the logistics of the group such as rehearsal space issues unifo rms, per formance opportunities, and obstacles that came along throughout the process. At the end of the season I judge d the success of the group by how smoothly the program was carried out how much I felt the kids improved and learned, and by their performance quality. I made a survey for the students at the end of the season to document their thoughts and feelings about the project I also kept a running dialogue with the staff members of the hornline and document ed their input and ideas. At the end of the season I surveyed the staff about their thoughts and responses to the season These surveys can be found in appendix G and H respectively. This input will help future indoor hornline groups to l earn and continue to improve on the program processes. My hopes in designing this handbook is that indoor hornlines will begin to grow across the world of marching arts and give young musicians more opportunities to develop their skills and have more opportunitie s to perform. I hope that someday indoor hornlines will have a performing circuit as large and as organized as the WGI winter guard and winter percussion circuits.
! "* CHAPTER FOUR How to Build an Indoor Hornline: A Step by Step Process Building your staff The first step in starting any marching arts program is building a staff of people who are experienced in the field and are helpful people to work with. I chose my staff based on my weaknesses, which are dancing and movement and creative design c oncepts. I had five people on staff for this project only one of which was w ith me at every rehearsal. T he others helped when they were needed or when they chose to. Their attendance at rehearsals will be up to the directors' discretion and may also have to do with whether or not they are paid or volunteer staff members. The staff members for this project were all volunteers. The one staff member that was present at every rehearsal was the staff member I needed most because of his dance and movement expert ise. He also has five years of drum and bugle corps experience and three years of marching band teaching experience. The remainder of the staff was there for help in creative design ideas, drill design help, floor design, and our liaison to the rehearsal f acility. It is important to have at least one other person in addition to the director at the rehearsals in order to help with sectional work for music and also to help visually. When teaching drill an d cleaning drill, another pair of trained eyes is alw ays beneficial. My staff and I had multiple meetings before we began recruiting the students. Agendas for the meetings included talking about the design and about logistics for rehearsals. Logistics
! "" As soon as it is decided that you will form an indoo r group, I recommend that you start contacting people about performance opportunities. It is imperative that you contact people as soon as possible because in the case of my project, I struggled with people not responding to my inquisitions about performan ce opportunities. Not being from Florida myself, I did not have any personal connections that I could talk to about performing. I personally contacted the director of the Florida Federation of Colorguard Circuits, which yielded no response. I then proceede d to contact schools with drumlines and colorguards that were hosting their own shows. I heard back from one school that agreed to let us perform, but the weekend did not work for half of my members since it was their spring break making it impossible for us to perform. This is why I recommend contacting schools and directors as early as possible. This way, shows can be placed on a calendar for the students and their parents at the beginning of the season and they will be able to plan accordingly. This may seem like common knowledge, but I started contacting people in December and I did not receive any responses until the end of February leaving little time to plan. Also, there may be an indoor hornline circuit in your area. I found that Southern California has a small indoor brass circuit. Also, with SoundSport¨ starting this year more groups will be trying to find performance opportunities as well and there may be a SoundSport¨ event in your area where your group could perform. This is something to researc h extremely early in the process of forming your group because registration for these events must be done months in advance. The acquisition of a consistent rehearsal space is the most important logistical information that must be solidified before the st udents are recruited. Important things to co nsider are: the possibility of rehearsing outside, sign ing out rehearsal time in a basketball gym
! "# (remember this is also during basketball season and signing out rehearsal time in a school gym is extremely diffic ult during this time of year), the possibility of rehearsing at a local YMCA or youth center that may have more time availability in the evenin gs than the local high schools. For this project, my group was able to rehearse outside because of the warm winter weather in Florida Another logistical issue is whether or not you will charge the students a fee to participate. If the school is willing to pay for the floor, floor paints, printing, unifor ms, travel expenses, etc. than the students will not have to pay to participate. However, if the school will not pay for these expenses and you do not want them to come out of your pocket, you will have to open an account for the group and the students wil l pay the amount you foresee to be necessary for your group. For this project, my group was able to get a second hand floor for free and we decided not to do any major traveling therefore I charged each member $100. We had enough leftover that I was able to divide the money between the students and refund them the money that we did not use. Acquiring a floor is an important aspect to consider very early in the planning stage of your group Floors are used to put down on the gym floor for protection as wel l as giving the students a customized surface on which to march. Floors are used to enhance the show design concept as well as help the members with reference points for marching their drill Floors are usually large canvas advertisements that can be paint ed to reflect the show design and add to the general effect of the show. My group used an old floor from a local high school, which they generously let us paint over and use for free. If you cannot find a used floor, there are a few other ways acquire one
! "$ One way that I would recommend is contacting large r, local businesses to inquire about using their old billboard ads. Usually businesses will give them to you for free and you can either cut them down to the size you need or you can tape multiple adds t ogether to get the size floor you want. A regulation high school basketball court is 84' by 50' and the typical billboard ad seen on the highways measures around 48' by 14'. When taping ads together to make a larger floor, it is important to use industrial strength, double sided tape to keep the pieces together when the floor is being constantly folded and unfolded. Another, more costly way to acquire a floor is to order a custom vinyl floor from a company that specializes in winter guard and indoor percus sion floors. This is what the professional and highly competitive scholastic groups do However, this will cost thousands of dollars for your group These companies are easily found by searching the i nternet. Uniforms are something that you can choose to s pend money on, or not. There are a very wide variety of uniform styles in the WGI circuit. Most u niforms for winter guards and indoor percussion groups are based on the individual show design. I have seen everything from "hippy" outfits with cut off jeans and flowery shirts to dresses with large red hoods for a red riding hood show to percussion groups marching in suits and ties Groups can be seen wearing traditional marching shoes, marching in Vibram Five Fingers, converse, or even barefoot. Some groups h ave each member wearing a different variation on the same general uniform concept and some groups have each member in the same uniform However detailed the uniform is, is your choice as the show designer and director of the group. For this project we only performed one show, therefore we decided to wear simple black shirts and black pants with black marching shoes. Show Design
! "% The design of the show is something that needs to be discussed and decided early in the process of starting a hornline. Drum corps and indoor groups begin planning their shows almost a year in advance. It is possible to buy pre designed shows with pre arranged music and drill but this is another cost that can easily be avoided. It is possible to hire drill writers and arrangers instead of buying pre made shows which will give you a more original show and more of a say in the design aspects, howe ver this is also costly and sometimes even more so than a pre designed show. Winter guards use recorded musi c, which is often popular music but is sometimes classical. Artists such as Sigur Ros, Gary Jules, Florence and the Machine, and many more have been used in winter guard shows. Indoor percussion is different because the music is written for pit and battery percussion. I have heard some groups use recorded music such as Rhythm X in their 2010 show, "Inspired", in which they used a Muse song. I have heard indoor percussion group s use popular songs by groups such as Muse, Sigur Ros, Dream Theater, and more, but it is also popular for i ndoor percussion groups to use original compositions for their shows. For this project I pick ed my own repertoire and arrange d my own music for the show. I picked Fly by Ludovico Einaudi as the piece for which to base our design. This piece was chosen bec ause I liked the mov ing eighth notes and simple progression. I also like d the change of emphasis from duple to triple in the piece I used this change to play on foot timing in the drill throughout the show for example, single time and half time marching I chose Interlude 1 by Alt J as an introduction to the show. I broke this short piece into two duets to open the show and showcase four players During the duets the remainder of the members executed a dance on the floor written by one of the staff member s.
! "& For the ballad, I chose Untitled 4 by Sigur Ros. This is a hauntingly beautiful piece that fit wonderfully into a brass arrangement. It gave the members a chance to display beautiful tone, lyricism, and musicality. To close the show, I wanted to choo se something fast paced and edgy. I chose Gobbledigook also by Sigur Ros because of its fast pace, rhythmic complexity, and driving percussiveness. This piece was difficult to execute because of the syncopation. Luckily, the original recording included c lapping and percussive beats on the quarter note throughout the entire recording. We used this as artistic license for the staff to clap and beat out the quarter note throughout the performance, which helped the members immensely with keeping time. We ch ose the show title "Fly" because it is an extremely open ended idea and it gave us room to explore the different m eanings of the word We used visual movements that denote flight and had a reoccurring theme of triangles in the drill, which we equated with the shape of objects that fly. We also used blue, black, and grey colors when painting the design on our floor. We painted a gradient pattern going from dark to light to represent movement, light and dark, the sky etc. We also painted on a grid with each square being three steps by three steps on an eight to five step size scale. Eight to five is the typical marching band step size meaning eight, evenly sized steps for every five yards on a football fi eld. That is a 22.5" step size. We did this to give the students reference points for marching and to set drill more efficiently. It is a c lean look and is a great cheat for the students when they are learning and marching the drill. The design of the fl oor is important because the students do not have yard lines like they do on a football field. Depending on the experience of the marchers that you are working with, it might be helpful to use linear designs at evenly spaced intervals to help with referenc e points. If you do not want to use a grid of some sort, you can also think about the design you would like
! "' and then write the drill in reference to the design on the floor. Since the season is so short and the students will have fewer rehearsals than they would in ma rching band, I found it helpful to make these considerations in order for the drill to be set and learned more efficiently. Another thing to consider in the design is whether or not your show is going to incorporate percussion for tempo issues and transitions between movements. Originally my staff and I discussed using an audio track with recorded percussion and synthesizer to play along with the show. This is definitely a very reliable and viable solution, however I would have rather used live percussion. We had someone offer to provide us with a small pit and write the percussion music which s eemed to be the best option. However, that did not work out the way we had hoped. In the end, we trained the s tudents to count themselves in and I used jazz band style conducting from the front for a reference when it was necessary for the first three movements. For the last movement, the staff clapped and played the quarter notes on buckets for general effect as well as the practical use of helping the s tudents keep time. Having thought about the issue of time while arranging the music, I was able to arrange music in such a way that the parts were always driving the music with one part or another constantly moving to hold tempo. However, the closer was ex tremely syncopated and proved to be a difficulty for the students. As stated previously, I decided that since the students were not competing that the staff would keep the beat with drumsticks and buckets. I chose this because the original recording of Gob bledigook has a percussive part that beats the quarter not e throughout the entire piece. T herefore we were able to keep the tempo constant without deterring from the style of the original recording. This also made for a fun ending to the show for the staf f and the students.
! "( Another concern that should be addressed as soon as the music is chosen is the need to investigate copyright laws and acquiring the rights for your show music. Since my group did not perform in any competitions and was not recorded for the purpose of sale to the public, I did not have to get the rights for the music I arranged. If your group is competing in the SoundSport¨ or WGI circuit and someone is recording the shows for a DVD or Blue Ray your group must have the rights to the musi c they are performing or the audio will be cut from the recordings that are distributed to the public. Getting the rights to your show music is a time consuming task and should be started as soon as the pieces for the show are decided. Auditions and Recruitment D epending on how much interest you have in your area, it may be necessary to hold auditions for the hornline. If you are only including one high school, you could have a sign up sheet and then depending on the amount of interest, decide if aud itions are plausible. If you decide to build an area group including multiple high schools, you could talk to the band directors at the local schools and go speak to the students about a month before you plan to have the auditions. I recommend talk ing with your staff, choosing an audition date and the audition requirements, making a flyer with all of the information on it, and then taking that flyer to the schools to give to the students when you speak to them. I would also take a sign up sheet for students who are interested and have them put their nam e and email addresses. This way whe n the auditions are approaching you can email the students and remind them, as well as answer any questions they may have because they will have questions. I did not do this much for recruitment because I had a difficult time contacting the band directors in the area. I gave them flyers but found out later that they did not give the flyers to
! ") their students, which is why I recommend doing it personally. This again, I attribut e to the fact that I am not from this area and I only had a working relationship with one band director whose marching band I taught in the fall. This school ended up contributing the most students to the group. Not knowing how much interest we would have I decided to hold auditions. We required the students to play one short technical excerpt and one short lyrical excerpt. I was not picky about the pieces they chose because some students had private instructors that could help them and some did not. I re quired a short sight reading excerpt, which I took from the arrangements I did for the show. In addition to the musical aspect of the audition, I had the students perform marching and movement for the other staff members to judge while I did the music audi dions The students marched in a block together and were asked to execute basic marching movements and techniques. I had three staff members grading them on a numerical scale and myself and another staff member graded the music auditions on the same scale For the movement aspect the students learned a short contemporary dance composed by a friend of the staff members, who is a dance instructor. They were not graded on ability for the movement because we understood that many of them had never been exposed to anything like it before. We graded them on learning ability, comfort with performing the moves, and their ability to improve with repetition and instruction Parents Meeting I held a meeting for the parents before the auditions to answer questions an d hand out paperwork. I had to do this before the auditions because the paperwork needed to be signed before the students participated in any capacity because of the requirements through the
! #+ Universi ty of Florida Whether or not you have the parents meetin g before or after the auditions is your preference. Another piece of paperwork I would recommend doing at or before the auditions would be a permission and liability form. If anything were to happen at the auditions, such as a student having an asthma at tack without their inhaler, or a student getting stung by a bee with a horrible allergy, it is important that you have all the medical information for the students in order to take action. This is of course worst case scenario and I was lucky enough to nev er have had to use the medical forms for my students. However, just in case, it is very important to have the students' information. The permission and liability form that I used was a form that I found online from a high school marching band program in Mi nnesota. It is included in the appendices of this document. If you do not particularly like that format, there are many more examples and templates that can be found online. At the parents meeting I introduced myself and the staff, talked about the purpos e and goals of the group, passed out the paperwork, gave them the anticipated rehearsal schedule, and talked about tentative performance dates and dues. Then I answered any questions. This meeting only lasted about thirty minutes and was beneficial for par ents, as well as the students and myself. Rehearsals My group rehearsed twice a week with one three hour rehearsal and one four hour rehearsal. Each rehearsal had a similar structure. For the first thirty minutes we warm ed up and did some physical training and stretching. Then we had a basic drill block for about thirty minutes and a movement and dance block for about thirty minutes. Then we would warm up
! #* musically with breathing, singing, and buzzing on our mouthpieces. Then in the b eginning of the season, we broke into high brass and low brass sectionals for as much time as needed and then had full ensemble music until the end. As the season progressed, we continued with the physical training, basics block, movement block, and warm up block B ut we would less en the amount of time in particular aspects to make time for tracking, which is marching forward in a block while playing the music, and for learning drill. Near the end of the season, we only did physical training with a short basics block and then we would go directly into cleaning the dance at the beginning of the show and cleaning drill and music on the move. The sequence of rehearsals is very similar to that of a typical marching band or drum corps but you must keep in mind the abbreviated amount of time that you see the students in rehearsals. The rehearsals must be as efficient as possible without wearing out the students. It is imperative that the students start learning the drill as soon as possible in the season, which i s why I recommend having the majority of the drill written before the season starts. Folding the floor is something that must be addressed at the very first rehearsal in which it is used. There are several different approaches to folding a floor but every approach requires many helping hands because these floors are extremely heavy. If you are not rehearsing at a school, it is important that you find somewhere to store the floor. Keeping it at the rehearsal space is ideal, especially because transporting i t can be difficult. When folding a floor, the students grab the back end of the floor and pull it to the fro nt, folding it in half like a hot dog bun Continue this fold until the floor cannot be folded in half again. Then, the students should walk down th e length of the floor to push the excess air out of the folds. Once this is done, the students can either split into two groups Each group would fold the ends of the floor in towards
! #" each other by folding it on top of itself into a rectangle shape from th e outsides to meet in the middle Or, the students could fold from one end to the other instead of folding the ends into the middle. This is a typical rehearsal fold. For a show fold, the students will fold the floor in half just as mentioned before but i nstead of folding from end to end, leave a flap open on the edge of the floor. This makes unfolding the floor much quicker because the students can simply hold the flap down and grab the back edge of the floor and pull to open it up as opposed to opening i t fold by fold. Also, for a show fold, the students can lift the floor up and fold it like and accordion, which also speeds up the opening of the floor when they open it for a performance. These are things that must be practiced during rehearsal time, esp ecially if they students are being timed for their performance. As the director you have to account for the students getting on and off of the floor in the performance time so it is important to consider how much time this takes for your group when you are preparing for a performance.
! ## CHAPTER FIVE Conclusion The surveys filled out by the members yielded responses that were of no surprise to me. The students all had a general consensus that they very much enjoyed participating in the hornline as well as the intimate size of the group. One of the students said that what they liked most was "Improving my marching skills". The most recurrent answer for what the students liked least was the fact that so many members dropped out throughout the season. One of the students said "The people who quit put more responsibility on the others inadvertently". This, in turn, made rehear sals less efficient because we continually had to rehearse drill at a slower pace to help the new members learn the show. The inefficiency of rehearsals was a common theme in the member surveys as well, however they seemed to believe it was because of the constant fluctuation of members. I decided to only have myself and one other staff member fill out the staff surveys. This is because he and I were the only two staff members that attended every rehearsal. I did not feel that the remainder of the staff me mbers attended enough of the rehearsals to be given the opportunity to voice their opinions. What I felt was the best about the season was the students who dedicated themselves to the ensemble. They made a huge impact on the project and helped the ensembl e to thrive. The other staff member felt similarly and he said that these students "made teaching music and visuals a pleasure". The music and drill also turned out better than I expected, since I had never designed my own show before.
! #$ What I thought did n ot work well was the fact that four of the five staff members were non existent for the majority of the season. The promises they made to the ensemble and to me were not fulfilled. Some of those promises were helping to find exhibition shows and the writin g of the drill, which made rehearsing difficult and the compiling of the show inefficient. Also, many students did not commit, making the ensemble very difficult to teach because so many members quit throughout the season for one reason or another. When th ey quit, I had to find a replacement. This happened on multiple occasions and this negatively affected the ensemble because I constantly had to start from the beginning with the new members. The other staff member had very similar responses for this sectio n. He also mentioned that the staff members that were not at every rehearsal would come to rehearsals periodically and try to teach with no plan. Having not attended previous rehearsals, they tended to make "instructional time not as efficient as it could have been", he said. The numer ical mean for the member survey questions (appendix G) are as follows: Question 1: 4.5 Question 2: 4.4 Question 3: 4.2 Question 4: 4.7 Question 5: 4.0 Question 6: 4.3 Question 7: 3.2 Question 8: 4.5 Question 9: 3.4 Question 10 : 4.1 The numerical mean for the staff survey questions (appendix H) are as follows: Question 1: 4 Question 2: 4 Question 3: 4 Question 4: 4.5 Question 5: 5 Question 6: 4.5 Question 7: 3
! #% Question 8: 3 Question 9: 3 Question 10: 3 These numerical results reflect the struggles with the staff participation and lack of assistance. They also reflect the struggles with having to replace members that left the group in order to fill holes in the drill and music. The numbers also show that the students generally enjoyed participating and that the staff, as well as the students, felt that the members improved as performers through their participation in the ensemble. What I learned from this experience is that anyone who wants to start an ens emble such as this should to follow the instructions I outlined in Chapter Four. They also need a strong, supportive staff that will not abandon their commitments and a group of students that will fully commit to an entire season. Building and maintaining an indoor hornline, like any other marching art, is a highly involved and multi faceted project. There are numerous logistical obstacles and extensive planning far in advance is imperative for a successful marching season. Despite the amount of work that m ust be put in, the rewards are worthwhile. Like any other teaching experience, seeing the students learn and grow and enjoy the opportunity that has been given to them, makes all of the hard work worth every minute.
! #& References Abeles, H. F., Hoffer, C. R., Klotman, R. H. (1995). Foundatoin of music education (2nd ed.) Boston, MA: Schirmer, Cengage Learning. Cowen, V. S. (2006). The contribution of marching band participation to overall physical activity for a sample of university students. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 103(2), 457 460.Dagaz, M. C. (2010). In Step: Identity and social consequences of participation in high school marching band. Retrieved from ProQuest Digital Dissertations. (AAT 3423575) Dagaz, M. C. (2012). Learning from the band: Trust, acceptance, and self confidence. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 41 (4), 432 461. Fidyk, S. (2011). Take your marching band indoors for the winter. Teaching Music, 18 (6), 60 62. Latten, J. E. (2001). Chamber Music for Every Instrument. M usic Educators Journal 87(5), 45 53. Latten, J. E. (2005). Exploration of a sequence for teaching intonation skills and concepts to wind instrumentalists. Journal of Band Research, 41 (1), 60 87. Peterson, S. G. (1993). Creativity and the marching band. Music Educators Journal, 80 (3), 29 32. Presenting drumline battle and soundsport (2013, January 18). Retrieved from http://www.dci.org/news/view.cfm?news_id=9e8a0864 1466 4a3d b063 c74fa0c2b76e Weren, S. (2012). An exploratory study to determine if marching band rehearsal activities could satisfy National Physical Education Standard Three as measured by the heart rates of collegiate marching band members. Retrieved from ProQuest Digital Dissertations. (AAT 1509535)
! #' Appendix A: Interlude 1 Score
! #) Appendix B: Fly Score
! $" Appendix C: Untitled 4 Score
! $% Appendix D: Gobbledigook Score
! $) Appendix E: Drill
! '( Appendix F : Permission and Liability Form PERMISSION AND LIABILITY RELEASE FORM In consideration for being accepted for participation in the 2012 Gainesville Indoor Hornline we (I) do release, forever discharge and agree to hold harmless The University of Florida, Erica Scarano, and the staff thereof from any and all liability, claims or demands for personal injury, sickness, or death, as well as property damage and expenses of any nature whatsoever which may be incurred by the undersigned. Furthermore, we (I) [and on behalf of our (my) child participant under the age of 21 years] hereby assume all risk of personal injury, sickness, death, damage, and expense as a result of participation in travel, concert, recreation, and work activities involved therein. Further, authorization and permission is hereby given to said organization to furnish any necessary transportation, food, and lodging for this participant. The undersign ed further hereby agree to hold blameless and indemnify said organization, its directors, employees and agents, for any liability sustained by said organization as the result of the negligent, willful or intentional acts of said participant, including expe nses incurred attendant thereto. We (I) are (am) the parent(s) or legal guardian(s) of this participant, and hereby grant our (my) permission for him (her) to participate fully in said band, and hereby give our (my) permission to take said participant to a doctor or hospital and hereby authorize medical treatment, including but not in limitation to emergency surgery or medical treatment, and assume the responsibility of all medical bills, if any. The following must be filled out completely. The informati on listed below is confidential and will only be looked at and used in the case of an emergency. ______________________________________________________________________________
! ') (Name of participant) My child is allergic to (please print): My child's medication at this time (please list): All/Other medical conditions we should be aware of: Parent(s) day telephone # __________________________________ Parent(s) evening telephone # ___________________________________ Hospital insurance: Yes No Insurance company: _________________________________________________ Policy number: ___________________________________ Physician: _________________________________________ Physician's phone: ________________________________ Emergency phone numbers: _______________________________________________________ (Both parents and student must sign unless parents are separated in which case the custodian parent must sign.) _____________________________________________________________________ _________ Parent/Guardian Date ______________________________________________________________________________ Parent/Guardian Date ______________________________________________________________________________ Student signature Date
! (+ Ap pendix G : Member Survey ,-./0123-/4 506734 89:;;<4! =;0!369:!>/32!>73-/>?>37!@3<;AB!9>09<3!/:3!-12@30! /;!/:3!0>C:/!/:6/!@3./!?>/.!D;10!<3E3/:!/:3!./6/323-/!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! A>/: *!@3>-C!./0;-C
! (* Appendix H : Staff Survey =;0!369:!>/32!>73-/>?>37!@3<;AB!9>09<3!/:3!-12@30! /;!/:3!0>C:/!/:6/!@3./!?>/.!D;10!<3E3/:!/:3!./6/323-/! A>/:!*!@3>-C!./0;-C
! (" BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Erica Scarano has been passionate about all aspects of music for as long as she can remember. In high school, Erica played flute in the Cleveland Youth Wind Symphony for two years and had the opportunity to perform in Severance Hall, home of the Cleveland Orchestra, on numerous occasions. Erica attended Syracuse University for her Bachelors of Music Education. Her primary instrument at Syracuse was the flute. She played flute, piccolo, alto flute, and bass flute while attending Syracuse and participating i n the Symphonic Band, Wind Ensemble, and the flute ensemble. Erica is also proficient on the tuba and participated in the Symphonic Band, Brass Choir, Concert Band, Marching Band, and Pep band at Syracuse. She also participated in the Brazilian ensemble fo r three years at Syracuse and had the opport unity to travel to Brazil with her class. She participated in the Syracuse University Marching band for four years, three of which she was the section leader and music instructor for the tuba section. She also participated in the basketball pep band, The Sour Sitrus Society, for four years which she directed her senior year She was a member of Mainsqueeze, one of the university's all female a cappella groups, which she also directed her senior year. She was a member of the Marching Band Service Sorority, Tau Beta Sigma. Erica also played tuba in the Empire Statesmen Drum and Bugle Corps in the summer of 2009 where they received 3rd place at the Drum Corps Associates World Championships. In 2010 Erica played tuba with the Bluecoats Drum and Bugle corps and received 3rd place at the Drum Cor ps International World Championships. While at the University of Florida, Erica played flute and piccolo in the orchestra for one year, and participated as a vocalist in the Brazilian ensemble for one year. She taught on the marching band staff at P.K. Yon ge Developmental Research School in the fall of 2012. She also had the privilege of being a teacher's assistant for Wendy Offerle and her MUE 3210 and 3311 courses. She is also a staff Soprano at Holy Trinity Episcopal Church. In addition to her instrument al and vocal experiences, Erica is a singer songwriter and accompanies herself on guitar and keyboard. Erica has been writing and performing since she was a freshman at Syracuse. She has performed original music in Syracuse, Rochester, New York City, Cleve land, Gainesville, and Orlando. Erica has also opened for national recording artists, Mike Falzone and Sara Bareilles.