Development and Evaluation of Sequential Kodály Based Rehearsal Plans for Standard Elementary Choir Repertoire

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Title:
Development and Evaluation of Sequential Kodály Based Rehearsal Plans for Standard Elementary Choir Repertoire
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Project in lieu of thesis
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English
Creator:
Rath, Brittany S.
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College of Fine Arts; University of Florida
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Gainesville, Fla
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Abstract:
Kodály structured sequencing of concepts and skills have been found to be beneficial in the general music classroom. The method focuses on the voice and music literacy which suggests that it should have a place within the elementary choir rehearsal. Music literacy should not be forgotten in the elementary choir and there is a need for strategies to help foster this skill. The purpose of the project is to develop rehearsal plans that incorporate sequential Kodály strategies to foster music literacy through standard elementary choir repertoire. The research questions for this study are as follows: 1) What strategies within the Kodály method can be utilized to foster music literacy in the elementary choir?, 2) Is the Kodály method appropriate for instructing music literacy for standard elementary choir repertoire?, 3) Can a series of sequential rehearsal plans be developed for standard elementary choir repertoire that consistently utilizes Kodály strategies? The review of literature focuses on these questions which then guided the researcher in developing rehearsal plans for four standard elementary choir pieces. The pieces chosen have been sung by Honor choirs and are on lists of “exceptional music” across the United States. The development of the rehearsal plans focused on sequencing the rehearsals and incorporating strategies from the Kodály method. To validate the rehearsal plans that were developed, expert children’s choir directors in Kodály methodology rated and critiqued each rehearsal plan. There ratings and critiques gave validity to the rehearsal plans as well as suggested changes that could be made. Some changes were made to the rehearsal plans to make them more appropriate for the elementary choir and accurately represent Kodály sequencing and strategies.
General Note:
Music Education terminal project

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University of Florida Institutional Repository
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University of Florida
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All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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AA00017020:00001


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1 Development and Evaluation of Sequential Kodly Based Rehearsal Plans for Standard Elementary Choir Repertoire By Brittany S. Rath A PROJECT IN LIEU OF THESIS PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2013

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2 Dedication To God: With You I can do all things To my husband: You are such an inspiration and joy in my life. Through this process your patience compassion and support has helped me mor e than I can say To my family : You have helped g uide me on this journey supported my dreams and have loved me through it all. You are a blessing.

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3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS A sincere than k you to my committee, Dr. Russell Robinson, Dr. Tony Offerle and Professor Wendy Offerle for their guidance and support. A special thanks to Dr. Keith Thompson for his help and support in this endeavor. Thank you to Dr. Rachel Cornacchio and Mrs. Roxanne Dixon for inspiring me to pursue a career in elementary music education and willing ness to shar e their expertise in this project. Thank you to Ms. Carol T. Downing and Ms. Mary Beth Ming for also sharing their expertise and encouragement through this process.

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4 Table of Contents Abstract ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 6 Chapter 1: Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 8 Purpose of Study and Research Questions ................................ ................................ .............................. 10 Definition of Terms ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 11 Delimitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 12 Basic Assumptions ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 13 Need for Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 14 Chapter 2: Review of Literature ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 15 Music Literacy within the Choir Rehearsal ................................ ................................ ............................ 16 Kodly Structured Sequencing and Strategies that Foster Music Literacy ................................ ............. 17 ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 23 Choosing Repertoire for the Elementary Choir ................................ ................................ ...................... 25 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 28 Chapter 3: Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 31 Development of Rehearsal Plans ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 31 The Song that Nature Sings Rehearsal Plans ................................ ................................ ...................... 35 Al Shlosha ................................ ................................ ............................... 43 Sakura Rehearsal Plans ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 52 Sing for Joy Rehearsal Plans ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 59 Expert Reviewers ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 70 Review Process ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 71 Development of Rating Scale ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 72 Analysis of Ratings ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 72 Chapter 4: Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 74 Numeric Ratings ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 74 Red and Blue Markings ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 77 Comments and Suggestions ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 80 Chapter 5: Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 86 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 88

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5 References ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 90 Appendi x A: Consent Form ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 92 Appendix B: Reviewer Biographies ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 94 Appendix C: Cover Letter ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 96 Appendix D: Directions to Raters ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 97 Appendix E: Rehearsal Plan Information ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 98 Appendix F: Rating Scale and Comment Sheet ................................ ................................ ........................ 100 Appendix G: Complete Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 101 Appendix H : The Song that Nature Sings Corrected Plans ................................ ................................ ...... 111 ................................ ................................ ................... 120 Appendix J: Sakura Corrected Plans ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 129 Appendix K: Sing for Joy Corrected Plans ................................ ................................ ............................... 135 Biographical Sketch ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 147

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6 Summary of Project Option in Lieu of Thesis Presented to the College of Fine Arts of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Music DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF SEQUENTIAL KODLY BASED REHEARSAL PLANS FOR STANDARD ELEMENTARY CHOIR REPERTOIRE. By Brittany S. Rath May 2013 Chair: Russell Robinson Major: Music Education Abstract Kodly structured sequencing of concepts and skills have been found to be beneficial in the general music classroom. The method focuses on the voice and music literacy which suggests that it should have a place within the elementary choir rehearsal. Music literacy should not be forgotten in the elementary choir and there is a need for strategies to help foster this skill. The purpose of the project is to develop rehearsal plans that incorporate sequential Kodly strategies to foster music literacy through standard elementary choir repertoire. The research questions for this study are as follows : 1) What strategies within the Kodly method can be utilized to foster music literacy in the elementary choir? 2) Is the Kodly method appropriate for instructing m usic literacy for standard elementary choir repertoire? 3) Can a series of sequential

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7 rehearsal plans be developed for standard elementary choir repertoire that consistently utilizes Kodly strategies? The review of literature focuses on these questions which then guided the researcher in developing rehearsal plans for four standard elementary choir pieces. The pieces chosen have e United States. The development of the rehearsal plans focused on sequencing the rehearsals and incorporating strategies from the Kodly method. Kodly methodolog y rated and critiqued each rehearsal plan. There ratings and critiques gave validity to the rehearsal plans as well as suggested changes that could be made. Some changes were made to the rehearsal plans to make them more appropriate for the elementary choi r and accurately represent Kodly sequencing and strategies.

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8 C hapter 1 : Introduction The introduction of music education in America by Lowell Mason in the 1830s began the recognition of its importance within public schools. Music is unique in that it is able to educate and deepen cognitive and emotional aspects within a child. A music philosopher, Bennett Reimer, stated that musi c is a skill that sho uld be developed because it creates "meaningful, cognitive experiences unavailable in any other way..." ( Reimer 1989, p. 28) He also stated that the expression and feeling in musical experiences is a mode of mentality that makes us human. "Developing this mode of mentality ... is essential if education is to help children become what their human condition enables them to become" (p. 85). In order to be educated in all aspects of life, children need to study music and be involved in this uniquely human experience. Currently, children can stu dy music through many different venues within public schools. Singing is one of the most accessible and important venues. importance i lone Music Education. Singing is the foundation for all of the other music education standards. Through singing a child learns how to use their body and mind in harmony while simultaneously creating and expressing emotion. Through singing, children are making music, being active participants; not just listening to others making the music. David Elliot, a student of Reimer, states that music making is a cognitive action. The action and thought involved in music making cannot be separated (Elliot 1995). This cognitive action develops musicianship which can and should be developed through singing. Elliot would agree that musical challenges and musicianship presented through singing makes self knowledge, se lf growth and enjoyment possible (Elliot, 1995). Helping students develop self knowledge, self growth and enjoyment

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9 should be a goal for all educators. At the elementary level, these can begin to be developed in the general music classroom and further deve loped through the elementary choir setting. Singing is taught in the general music classroom; however, there is simply not enough time to just focus on self knowledge, self growth and enjoyment in singing. Elementary choir opportunities allows for a riche r and more fulfilling singing experience. It adds a new dimension of singing because it is a performing group. Students need to learn that music is to be shared with others. Through these performance experiences, however, the learning that takes place in t he process should be the main focus (Tickel, 2010). Through the proc ess of preparing for performances, students should be continuously developing their voices and becoming competent musicians. According to Linda Swears (1985), (Sw ears, 1985, pp. 4). They are ready to develop into competent singers, not just singers. Mizener (2008) singing is a learned behavior and singing instruction is vital in producing Young students joining the elementary choir have the potential to become competent singers through vocal development as well as the ability to read music. Don ad music and develop basic musicianship and 2.) to master the fundamental principles of good make their present and future singing experiences richer. James Bo wyer (2010) states that when students are able to read mus more fully to and benefit from upper level and community ensembles as well as private

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10 instruction ability to read music through singing (Bowyer, 2010). Purpose of Study and Research Questions In order for elemen tary choir directors to go beyond vocal development they need to be equipped with effective teaching strategies. C ommon teaching strategies used in the music classroom are based on the approaches or methods of Zoltn Kodly, mile Jaques Dalcroze and Carl Orff. Many music teachers use at least one of these methods and often a combination of these methods to teach musical concepts and develop musical skills Some aspects of the method s or approaches are very similar; however, e ach one has its strength and m ain focus. The main focus of the Kodly method is teaching music literacy through singing. Kodly believed that the human voice is the basic instrument of music literacy and development The voice sh ould be the solid foundation and core of the elementary c hoir (Moehrke, 1990 ). Bowyers (2010) believed that the Kodly approach is appropriate for choral ensembles b ecause singin g is ( p. 12 ). Using the voice as the ma in instrument, music literacy can be which have been found to be very beneficial in teaching music literacy (deVries, 2001) Common Kodly strategies that are used to teach melodic and rhythmic literacy are solfge, movement, rhythm syllables and th e use of folksongs to give students an aural foundation. These strategies have to be carefully sequenced when using them to teach repertoire. The opportunities. Th ere are many suggested steps to take in choosing the most appropriate repertoire. Suggested steps are included in the review of literature. Since the repertoire was not

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11 picked for a specific choir, for this study the researcher chose repertoire from Honor choir The purpose and focus of the study was to develop rehearsal plans that incorporate sequential Kodly strategies to foster music literacy through standard eleme ntary choir repertoire. The research questions for this study are as follows : What strategies within the Kodly met hod can be utilized to foster music literacy in the elementary choir? Is the Kodly method appropriate for instructing music literacy for st andard elementary choir repertoire ? Can a series of sequential rehearsal plans be developed for standard elementary choir repertoire that consistently utilizes Kodly strategies? Definition of Terms Music literacy: The ability to read independently musical elements such as pitch and rhythm. Audiation: The ability to read pitches or rhythms and hear what they sound like without performing them out loud. It is also referred to as inner hearing. Moveable Do: of every minor key. The solfge syllables function the same in every key. Sight reading/singing: The ability to perform a melodic and/or rhythmic pattern that been seen previously. Round: The same melody or rhythm pattern is performed by multiple groups entering at different times. Folksongs: Songs in a cultures mother tongue. Familiar songs that have been past down for generations. Solfge: Syllables that represent pitches of the sca le which were adapted, used and became popular in music education because of Kodly.

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12 Hand Signs: Curwen hand signs are assigned to each solf ge syllable. The hand signs create a kinesthetic connect ion between the syllable and the pitch. The signs below are adaptations of the original Curwen hand sings which are used in the Kodly approach Rhythm Syllables: Syllables used to aid in the learning of rhythm durations and rhythm patterns These were modified by Kodly and were presented in a structured sequence. Delimitations This project will not deal with: www.ars nova.com

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13 1. Specific vocalises and warm ups for vocal exploration and development. 2. Specific strategies to fix vocal problems of an individual or the choir (i.e. intonation). 3. Accommodations for special learners. Basic Assumptions The basic assumptions of the problem are as follows: 1. The director using these rehearsal plans has had some experience (i.e. at least student teaching) directing an elementary choir and a basic knowledge of the Kodly method. 2. The students in the choir have experienced Kodly sequencing and strategies in other musical experiences, such as their general music class. They have previously learned concept s and skills taught through Kodly methodology (i.e. concepts and skills up to 4 th grade). y and that will expand their musical knowledge and skills. 4. The director is aware of whether or not students are prepared to move to the next step in a rehearsal plan. The director will continue with the preparation stage until they feel it is appropria te to move on to the presentation stage (this becomes easier with more experience). If they recognize they moved to the presentation stage too soon, they will return to the preparation stage.

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14 Need for Study Elementary choir directors and their choirs could benefit from teaching carefully chosen repertoire through sequential Kodly strategies. By using these sequential strategies directors can find ways to foster music literacy through their chosen repertoire. Through preparation, presentation and practice directors can establish rehearsal plans that are sequential and child centered. Kod ly's emphasis on sequential planning can be use ful to every teacher who believes that goals and objectives are not onl y use (Boshkoff, 1991, p. 34). This sequencing can develop competent and independent singers/musicians. accuracy, pitch relationships, aural skills and reading unfamiliar melodies. The use of rhythm rhythms. The use of folksongs gives students a familiar aural foundation before learning new choral repertoire. These strategies combined with ca reful sequencing offer a path to achieving music development and literacy.

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15 Chapter 2 : Review of Literature potential to go beyond that. It can physically and i ntellectually challenge students by fostering music literacy through aural and sight reading skills. In order for elementary music teachers to go beyond vocal development they need to be equipped with effective teaching strategies. The main focus of the K odly method is teaching music literacy through singing. Kodly believed that the human voice is the basic instrument of music literacy and development. Common Kodly strategies that are used to teach melodic and rhythmic literacy are solfge, movement, rh ythm syllables and the use of folksongs to give students an aural foundation. The purpose of this paper was to develop elementary choir rehearsal plans that implement Kodly strategies in a sequential way to promote musi c literacy Kodly strategies were used because of its effectiveness found by other music educators. Music educator, Peter deVries (2001) stat e d based music program will know just how successful it can be. From week to week, children's singing -particularl y pitch -improves; rhythmic skills improve significantly from year to year; music literacy develops; and children can perform music in increasingly complex parts objectives of an elementary choir. This review of lit erature reports on: a.) music literacy within the choir rehearsal, b.) lesson planning, d.) guidelines for choosing elementary choir repertoire.

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16 Music Literacy within the Choir Rehearsal The ability to read music is a learned skill and must be carefully taught by the music (Reifinger, 2012) Many educators d o pursue it because they believe it is extreme ly important for musical growth. the ability to read music (p. 1). Educator, Don L. Collins (1999), is an advocate for music liter acy within the choir. His general goals and specific behavioral objectives include music literacy as part of developing a refers to the occurrence of young singers not being able to read music as a pitfall because they are unable to sing their part without first hearing it. As opposed to learning an instrument, young s ingers do not have to learn how to read notes in order to enjoy music making (Collins, 1999). Phillips (1996) observed most part, the organized and sequenced type of instruction th at is usually found in instrumental teaching Young singers, however, soon find that they are unable to produce the music unless it is sung or played for them first (Collins, 1999). The solution to this common deficiency in the choir setting is up developing music literacy: read, student must be taught using a structured method that moves .(2) Students must have time to learn to read through a series of exposures to and respites from the skill

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17 Another educator, John B. Hylton (1995), would agree that choir directors are crucial to illuminating illiterate singer is achieved when the process is well thought out and engaging for students. Hylton (1995) stated: pointing out of important aspects of the music being performed, and the involvement of student in musical decision making, musical literacy becomes a natural an d inevitable development. Strategies of solfge, hand signs, rhythm syllables and folksongs are done sequentially following the progress of the child. These strategies and their sequencing have been found to be beneficial in teaching music literacy. Kodly Structured Sequencing and Strategies that Foster Music Literacy when they got older they would be a musical score and think sound; to read and write music as k s y, 1974, p. 15) He was one of the first educa tors to advocate music literacy and to eliminate illiteracy among his stud ents (Jacobi 2012). 2010). More challenging concepts cannot be learned until the previous concept is learned. ously learned material before presenting new, increasingly complex musical concepts. Musicianship skills are

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18 Kodly approach is child centered and is meant to foll ow the developmental stages of the child. psychology of Jean Piaget are compatible in that both believe children proceed through stages and levels of developmen 18). Kodly begins with a sound before sight preoperational stage. Just as children learn language by speaking before reading, the same is true for music reading. Their aural skills must be developed before visual learning (Phillips, 199 6 ). During this stage children are experiencing music through their senses by moving and singing and listening to songs that closely relate to their develo pmental stage. For example children are constantly moving in these ways (Lane, 2006). They are listening and singing to many songs with a minor third (so mi) because th at is what they are able to sing the best in tune and many terval. Initi ally the child developmental sequence is based upon the primary interval of a minor third, that most easily recognized by all children and progresses through the notes of a pentatone, finally achieving the full scales in both major and minor modes which narrows the songs chosen for them to sing. Songs in the keys of D, Eb and E are best suitable for their limited range (Lane, 2006). As children begin second grade they begin in the preoperational stage and reach the concrete operations stage by third grade. In music they are still using their senses through movemen t, listening and singing. They are now, however, beginning to put written symbols with the sounds they are singing, listening and moving to. The students should have a base understanding of solfge (so mi la, maybe re do), sing in tune with a beautiful hea d voice,

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19 understand high and low (vertically and horizontally) (Jacobi, 2012). Through the use of hand signs and body movement children can master high and low, vertically and horizontally which will help them be successful at placing pitches on the staff. Through the use of rhythmic syllables they will speak rhythm patterns and soon be able to identify and write them using stick notation. Once a solid aural foundation is laid for both pitch and rhythm, students should be introduced to the traditional visu al representation of notes on the staff By the time students reach 5 th grade, which is when most children would begin elementary choir, students should be able to aurally hear pitch patterns and rhythms, identify and read pitch a nd rhythmic patterns and create pitch and rhythmic patterns (Phillips, 1996). According to Houlahan and Tacka (2008) by 5 th grade their highest level of musical experience and knowledge should be of the following music literacy concepts: Rhythmic Melodic R eading and Writing Inner Hearing Syncopated rhythms So, Do low ti, high ti, Sight read in two parts melodic syllables or letter names. Dotted quarter followed by eighth dotted eighth connected to one sixteenth Majo r s cale natural minor Apply letter names to melodic exercises Memorize easy two part melodies from hand sings without hearing it aloud. Perform two part rhythmic exercises and canons Half steps/whole steps Apply absolute letter names to simple major and minor me lodic exercises on the staff in selected areas. Sing the correct solfge syllables of the next note when the teacher stops random within a song. Simple triple meter compound meter measures of a song using inner hearing. The director must determine whether or not these skills are developed and know ways in which to further develop them. The use of rhythm syllables, solfge, hand signs and movement in combination with folksongs can be utilized as teaching strategies.

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20 These strategies can not only be utilized they must be sequenced carefully and intentionally. One way to sequence rhythm syllables is to first have students identify a rhythmic pattern in a simple piece that they know; a folksong would be most appropriate (Phi llips, 1996). Agreeing with Phillips, Giles (1991) suggests that after a period of preparation students sing a folksong they know and identify a rhythm pattern within one of the phrases. The pattern is chosen by the director and the students must clap and speak it using rhythm syllables (i.e. ta ti ti ta ta). As a group they identify the written notation and perform it outside of the context of the song. This particular pattern was chosen because it is also present in a new piece the choir will be learnin g. As the choir becomes acquainted with the new piece, the director can help students discover that the rhythm they clapped in the folksong also appears in their new piece. They can take the rhythm out of context and review the rhythm syllables by clappin g and speaking. Then they can add the words from the song to the rhythm and finally the pitches (Giles, 1991). The strategy of rhythm syllables is not only used, it is sequentially structured. Hill (2008) did a study that surveyed authors of beginning pia no method books on what their thoughts were on numeric counting verses syllabic counting. Their responses stressed the importance of a structured sequence. Authors indicated that if a steady beat is not learned before counting rhythm, either method would f ail. The authors who preferred numeric counting merely preferred how there is no extra step of learning syllables before numbers. The authors who preferred syllabic counting believed that syllables were beneficial for young students based on where the chil y structured sequential process of learning rhythm is present in this study. The steady beat must be

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21 established and syllables should be learned before numbers in order to be a child centered approach. Learning melody must also be a highly structured sequ ential process. One of the most commonly used strategies in teaching singing accuracy and melodic literacy is using solfge and the Curwen hand signs (Antel, 2010 & Mizener, 2008 & Packwood, 2005). Kuehne (2007) did a survey of how many Florida middle sc hool choir directors taught sight singing, which is the first step in achieving music literacy. There were 152 surveys received and used from directors 65.13% of the te achers indic ated they used solf ge syllables in warm up, and 78.29% used them as part of instruction In addition, 57.24% used Kod ly hand signs for warm up, an d 65.13% used them for instruc tion. Furthermore, 79.97% used rhythm syllables, 50.66% used physical movement and 124). The responses showed an agreement among teachers that ly hand signs, solf ge syllables, and movable do used Most agreed that using movement was valuable and that stude nts should learn to sight sing music with 123 ). A study done by Reifinger (2012) tested the affect solfge had on contour accuracy of 2 nd grade students on familiar and unfamiliar patterns. The experimental group, who had no previous experience with solfge, received solfge training for 16 weeks. The study proved there to be a significant effect of solfge on the contour accuracy of familiar patterns. There may be a significant effect on contour accuracy of unfamiliar patt erns if students had more training with solfge. Because of the highly structured sequencing, the process can take months and years.

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22 Solfge and hand signs can be utilized within the elementary choir rehearsal by first having the choir sing a short phrase from their repertoire without first hearing it from the director or piano (Phillips, 1996). First the tonality must be established and also the beginning pitch should be given (i.e. do). The intervals used in the phrase should be ones that students are fa miliar with (i.e. do re mi so la) and have already been prepared. There should be time for them is vocalized (Roberts, 1997). When the children first sing the pattern using solfge, they can sing each pitch just on a quarter note. Then, they can learn the rhythm and finally put the pitch and rhythm together (Phillips, 1996). Through sequencing the use of solfge and hand signs, these strategies have been fo und to be very beneficial for melodic literacy and aural skills. The use of solfge and hand signs has been found to improve aural skills which is the foundation for music literacy. The hand signs have a specific and important purpose in the sociating moving the voice to higher and lower pitch levels with higher and lower 2008, p. 20). These kinesthetic movements can be small hand movements and also larg e full body movements. Choir director Giles (1991) states the importance of solf ge and hand signs: Solf ge dictation with hand signs is an excellent training procedure for young choirs. T he system's syl lables are more singable than are numbers, and the hand signs pro vi de immediate dictation and con trol of voice leading by the teacher. A few minutes of work with hand signs each day during warm up s can help students develop good aural s Along with students using hand signs while singing solf ge, Giles is also suggesting there be a time when the director shows the hand signs silently children aurally hear the solf ge in their head and then they sing with solfge and hand signs Using hand signs can also help develop

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23 two part singing. One side of the choir can follow the director s right hand and the other side can follow the left hand show ing hand signs (Giles, 1991). Developing inner hearing helps develop accurate singing, music literacy and independent singers. All of these Kodly strategi es are meant to develop independent singers by developing music literacy. The strategies have been found to be very beneficial, however it must be emphasized that the sequencing of the strategies is very important. Along with the sequencing of strategies t he rehearsal as a whole needs to be carefully sequenced. Antel (2010) states that arm ups should be done before practicing repertoire and should have goals related to (p.19). In order for students to be successful when learning new repertoire they must be lead through specific stages. The Kodly method has three stages to help sequence the teaching of skills and concepts. Preparati on, presentation and practice is the sequencing used to teach new concepts and skill s (Boshk off, 1991). Preparation is when a particular concept is experienced by the students in multiple ways (i.e. song, speech, movement, instruments, etc.) until they ar e completely familiar with it. Presentation is when a new concept is shown to the students, whether by term or symbol. into their Bo s h koff, 1991, p. 31). Preparation within the choir setting would be the warm ups. During this time vocal ski lls are being prepared and developed such as: breath control, head voice, aural skill and pitch s time, though iconic representations of

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24 prepared kinesthetically, aurally and visually (Houlaha n & Tacka 2008). The preparation of a certain skill or concept may als o last for more than one lesson (Bowyer, 2010). These skills and concepts prepared will then be presented as a new concept. point, a written symbol in the form of musical notation is connected to what the students are already able to hear. Unlike the preparation phase, the presentation phase happens during a single that was prepared would be examples of what strategies are utilized in the preparations st age (Houlahan & Tacka, 2008). Once a new concept is presented students can the n practice the skill or concept in the new piece they are rehearsing. It is common that activities done in the preparation stage are repeated within the practice stage (Boshkoff 1991). practiced with well known materials and in familiar contexts. Gradually, the skill is reinforced in are able to recognize the concept aurally and visually in familiar and new repertoire and practice it within those contexts (Houlahan & Tacka 2008 ). Utilizing preparation, presentation and practice gives the director a sequential and effective way of achieving certain goal s and object s, specifically music literacy Kod ly's emphasis on sequential planning can be use ful to every teacher who believes th at goals and objectives are not onl 34). Once teachers have established their goals and objectives for their choir they need to carefully choose repertoire that will help foster thos e goals.

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25 Choosing Repertoire for the Elementary Choir Choosing repertoire for the choir is a very important, well thought out process. The most important aspect of choosing repertoire is keeping students the main focus. The repertoire will determine whether or not the children will progress vocally and musica lly. There are lists of recommended repertoire for elementary choir that can be found on choral websites, magazines like the Choral Journal or lists of Honor choir music, however just simply choosing one from that list does not mean it is appropriate or be neficial for a particular choir. There are, however, helpful criteria that can be considered when choosing repertoire. If strictly focusing on the Kodly method, Kodly would insist upon authentic children's games and nursery songs, authentic folk music, by recognized composers (deVries, 2001). In her book, Lynn Gackle (2011) quotes Kodly: ly the most musically valuable material. For the very young, construc tion and composition, facilitates vocal development, encourages musical development, utilizes quality, age appropriate texts, engages the mind and the spirit of the singer, provides experiences with various styles, genres, languages, or cultures, and enter tains and engages the Other criteria for choosing repertoire, which includes having varied styles, genres, ). Criteria include: exhibits quality in construction and composition, utilizes quality and appropriate texts, and engages the mind and spirit of the singer.

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26 The construction and composition of the piece should be clear and not confusing to the students. N ew concepts can be taught, however, they should make sense and be easy for the students to grasp. For example, it is suggested to avoid pieces that vary slightly in melody or harmony between many repeated verses (Crocker, 2000). For a young choir this can cause confusion and inaccuracy. Bonnie Antel (2010) conducted a study to help her progress in her teaching. She observed and interviewed experienced elementary choir directors and got their opinions on various aspects of the elementary choir including repertoire selection. Antel found th at the most common criteria when choosing repertoire was its potential for teaching musical skills. Two of the teachers in her study chose pieces that would help students develop long phrases. Another used songs that helped develop rudimentary solfge and learning how to sing different types of songs, such as canons. Antel (2010) found that many of the teachers she observed chose pieces with text about things the students could relate to and/or have had experience with. For example, one of the teachers chos e repertoire about the sea since it was the schools interdisciplinary theme. Criteria to consider when choosing repertoire is to choose music representing different styles and cultures. Folksongs are often ideal for adding diversity to the program. Kodl y believed very strongly in the use of folksongs. American folksongs are excellent for young culture (Wilson, 2003). Folksongs can also be expanded to other cultur es. Students are then introduced to different languages, traditions, tonalities and rhythms that may be different to western music (Wilson, 2003). The meaning of text should be taught to the students so they have an understanding of what they are singing. By teaching folksongs from other cultures students gain an appreciation for cultu res other than their own and al s o feel a special sense of

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27 accomplishment when they have mastered a song in a language they had been unfamiliar with (Wilson, 2003) Crocker (2 000) gives basic criteria when trying to choose repertoire. First, know your singers and their voices. The range and tessitura of an elementary choir is extremely different from that of a high school choir and even a middle school choir. Generally students in 4 th and 5 th grade can sing a full octave and often extend an octave. The director must know what a comfortable range is for their students (Crocker, 2000 & Gackle, 2011). Songs in unison, unison with descant, two part, two part with descant, or even th ree part, depending on the level of the choir, are appropriate for the elementary choir (Crocker, 2000). Through unison pieces students are developing pitch accuracy skills and vocal techniques, such as vowel shapes. When singing two or three part songs s tudents are building musical confidence and vocal independence. Pitch accuracy, vocal techniques and vocal independence are all aspects of vocal development that should be a focus of the elementary choir and the choosing of repertoire. Along with vocal de velopment should also be a focus on music literacy. The repertoire should lend the opportunity for students to develop their ability to read music. When students begin to read enjoyment Choosing repertoire is a critical aspect of an elementary choir program. Directors need to keep the students as their main focus when choosing repertoire. The students should be able to connect with the text, le arn new musical concepts and elements and the repertoire should be of

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28 the highest quality. The helpful criteria will guide directors in choosing repertoire that develop vocal and musical skills. Summary Music literacy should be one of the main objectives of a choir director (Hylton, 1995). Elementary choir directors should be equipped with strategies to help guide students in reading music. Collins (1999) suggested that to be successful in teaching music literacy the process must be well structured and mov e from the known to the unknown. The Kodly approach is very structured and child centered therefore a new concept cannot be learned unless the previous Piage t (Hanegraaf, 1990). Kodly strategies include solfge and hand signs, rhythm syllables and folksongs. Solfge and hand signs, both aurally and kinesthetically, have been found to be beneficial for pitch accuracy, pitch relationships and independently read ing melodies. Reifinger (2012) found that solfge and hand signs were beneficial for 2 nd grade contour accuracy. Kuehne (2007) found that the majority of middle school choir directors believe it is beneficial to use solfge, hand signs and moveable do. Rhy thm syllables have been found to be a beneficial way of teaching rhythm patterns and independent rhythm reading. Phillips (2008) found that piano book authors thought that learning rhythm syllables was more beneficial for young students and transitioning t hem into numeric counting. These strategies can be utilized in the choir rehearsal for learning rhythm patterns or melodic patterns in a new piece, and developing aural skills and sight reading skills during warm ups and when learning a new piece. Giles (1991) suggested singing a familiar folksong and experiencing certain rhythms. After singing it many times, present the student with a certain rhythm pattern and count it using rhythm syllables. The rhythm pattern should be one that is

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29 found in a new piece the choir will be learning. After identifying, speaking and clapping the rhythm in the folksong students can then identify the rhythm in the new piece. Giles (1991) also stressed the importance of solfge and hand signs being utilized especially in the wa rm up time. These specific strategies have been found to be beneficial; however, how they are sequenced is critical. Kodly sequenced lessons through stages preparation, presentation and practice. During preparation students experience a musical concept multiple ways (singing, moving, listening, etc.). Presentation is when the new concept is shown and labeled and the shortest stage. The new concept is then practiced in familiar material and then gradually transferred to unfamiliar material. These sequenti al stages are beneficial and necessary for teachers to achieve certain objectives (Boshkoff, 1991). To achieve certain objectives teachers also need to choose quality repertoire for their students to sing. The students should be their main focus when choo sing repertoire. The director should know the ability and vocal range of the choir (Crocker, 2000). Students should be able to identify with the text of the song and also learn new musical concepts form the music (Antel, 2010). Wilson (2003) and Gackels (2 012) suggested choosing repertoire that is in different styles and languages along with folksongs. The repertoire should also give students the opportunity to develop music literacy (Crocker, 2000). Combining the careful chosen repertoire, sequential rehe arsal planning and sequenced strategies elementary choir directors have the potential of achieving many musical objectives with their students. One of the musical objectives that can be achieved by following this approach is music literacy. Through the dev elopment of music literacy more musical objectives

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30 can be met. The ( Hanson, 1990, p. 1).

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31 Chapter 3 : Methodology The purpose of the study was to develop rehearsal plans that incorporate sequential Kodly strategies to foster music literacy through standard elementary choir repertoire. Chapter 1 presented a rationale for the importance of singing and participating in a elementary choral ensemble It also presented arguments for utilizing Kodly strategies and sequencing to teach music literacy within the context of the elementary choir rehearsal. Chapter 2 reviewed literature concerning music literacy in the choir setting, Kodly strategies used to teach music literacy, Kodly sequencing for rehereasal plans to help meet musical objectives and important criteria for choosing elementary choir repertoire. Specific questions were identified for this project: What strategies within the Kodly method c an be utilized to foster music literacy in the elementary choir? Is the Kodly method appropriate for instructing music literacy for standard elementary choir repertoire ? Can a series of sequential rehearsal plans be developed for standard elementary cho ir repertoire that consistently utilizes Kodly strategies? Development of Rehearsal Plans Rehearsal plans were developed for four standard elementary choir pieces. Pieces were chosen that were in different keys (major and minor), were about different su bjects that students could relate to, had different music reading objectives, in different languages and ranged in eces the review of literature was used to help guide the process and purpose for choosing repertoire for a hypothetical elementary choir.

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32 Each piece was recommended by elementary choir experts and has also been used by honors and/or all state elementary ch oirs across the United States. the 2010 Alachua All County Honor Choir concert. It was chosen because it has one melodic line in a major key which can be focused on rhythmic patterns that stude nts can sight read. Dotted rhythms and ties are also reviewed in this piece. Exceptional conference in 2002. This piece was chosen because it gives a sequential transition from unis on to 2 part pieces. The re are 2 parts that are first su ng in unison before being sung in parts. It is in a major key, but is different because it modulates at the end. Solfge can be used to teach melodic patterns as well as rhythm syllables for rhythmic patterns. The piece does give a rhythmic challenge with the use of eighth two sixteenths and ties. The piece is also in Hebrew, however, is about a subject with which students can connect with. no accompaniment and optional percussion and Orff instruments. The piece was sung in Oregon by the McNary Area

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33 Choral Director Repertoire Forum. It is in a minor key, has Japanese text and is in 2 parts. Students can practice the minor scale based on new language and culture. Wi th the text being about nature, students will be able to make connections with it. They also gain vocal independence when singing in 2 parts. This piece requires a higher level of musical understanding and development. l, was arranged by Linda Steen Spevacek for two voices and piano accompaniment. The piece was included on the Iowa Choral Directors was sung in Oregon by the McNay A rea Honor Choir in 1998. In a major key, this piece presents a high level of practice with the major scale and scalar patterns. It offers opportunities for reading melodic patterns using solfge. It is also very lively, presenting the students with a diffe rent style. The piece presents rhythmic challenges. The two part singing can build strong vocal independence. This piece requires a higher level of vocal and musical development. After choosing the repertoire musical concepts, vocal skills and music lit eracy skills could be developed through the piece. Concepts and skills were identified and objectives were established. They are as follows:

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34 Using the review of literature as a guide, sequential Kodly based lesson plans for each piece were developed. The combination of new and known strategies was used to develop the plans. The procedure also involved imagining directing an actual choir to help determine what steps and strategies should be used. After writing each rehearsal plan it was read through again a few days later, which gave a clearer understanding of the rehearsal plan and what changes needed to be made. Once all the plans were completed colleagues and other experts read through the plans to check for clarity After the plans were developed they were sent to four expert elementary choir directors to be rated and validated. The Song that Nature Sings Al Shlosha Sakura Sing for Joy Key and time sigantures Key and Time Signatures Minor scale based on La Major scale Major scale, whole and half steps Solfge patterns in La minor Major scale solfge Low ti Finding Do Sing in canon Sing in two parts Identifying and labeling solfge patterns Sing in a round Recognize similarities and differences in the melody. Identifying, naming and sing solfge patterns in the piece. Melodic and rhythm sight reading Sight read rhythm and melodic patterns in unison and two parts Melodic (minor) sight reading using solfge and hand signs. Identify and sing solfge patterns within the piece. Anacrusis Sing and audiate in two parts Key and Time signatures. Sight read rhythm and melodic patterns Syncopation Fermata Key and Time signatures Sing in unison Audiate hand signs Ties Anacrusis Simple conducting pattern. & Ties Sight sing in two parts Legato, dynamics Staccato/bouncy style Concepts and Skills Identified in the Repertoire

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35 The Song that Nature Sings Rehearsal Plans Rehearsal #1: Objectives : Students will be able to sing low Ti. Students will be Preparation : Breathing and Vocal warm ups decided by the director. Solfge exercises Show solfge scale visual with low Ti and low La. Sing the scale using the visual, as well as for short solfge patterns. Echo sing, using hand signs and various rhythms, solfge patterns like: Presentation : Introduce low Ti Show solfge visual adding low Ti Echo sing patterns like: Do Ti Do Do Do Do Re Do Ti Do Do Ti La Re Mi Fa So La Ti Do Do La

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36 Show what low Ti looks like on the staff in patterns like: Sing the first exercise for the students Have the choir sight read the second exercise Practice : Learn by rote Questions to consider: How many phrases are there? Which phrases are the same? What is the difference between phrase 1 and phrase 3? What key is it in? Show notation and highlight phrases 2 and 4. As a choir, only add the solfge to phrases 2 and 4. Emphasize that it is in the key of G major, therefore G is Do. Emphasize new low Ti. What pitch is low Ti? Sing phrase 1 and phrase 3 with words and 2 and 4 with solfge. 1 2 3 4 1 2

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37 Preparation : Rhythm exercise Echo rhythm patterns that include: quarter notes, eighth notes, dotted quarter notes, dotted half notes and rhythms beginning with an anacrusis. Presentation: Read rhythm cards Review: dotted quarter notes, quarter notes tied to an eight note and dotted h alf notes Rhythm cards: Give the students a steady beat. Allow them to practice the rhythm silently in their head. They may gently tap their leg if they need to. beat. Have them speak and clap the rhythms. Put cards in order which represents the first four measures of the song. Practice : Compare the rhythm of the first 4 measures of the song with the note cards. Clap and speak those four measures. For review, ask the choir what note comes after the 4 measures and how long it is held. Clap and speak the first 4 measures with adding the dotted half note in measure 5. The choir should be fami liar with all of those rhythms. Have them practice silently on their own. Be sure to give them a steady beat. As choir, have them speak and tap the rhythm on page 4.

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38 Rehearse any problem spots (i.e. not sustaining the note long enough) next section is different, however, the rhythms you just clapped come back again. Now that we know most of the rhythm, next time we will be able to add the Rehearsal #2 3 Objectives: Students will be able to echo sing low Ti in solfge patterns sung by the director. Students will be able to sight read low Ti in short solfge patterns in keys of G and F. Students will be able to audiate the melody and only sing low Ti at the correct time in the Students will be able Students will be able to identify, label and sing solfge fo r the first two phrases in the Preparation : Breathing and Vocal warm ups decided by the director. Echo sing short solfge patterns that include low Ti. Sing phrase 1 and 3 with text and 2 and 4 with solfge and hand signs. Sing phrase 1 and 3 with text and only Ti in phrases 2 and 4 but still showing the hand signs for the whole phrase. Solfge Sight Reading Questions to consider: What key is it in? What pitch is Do? What is Ti? 1 & 2 are in the Key of G Major because that in.

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39 Give students a minute to audiate each pattern, one at a time. Be sure to give them the beginning pitch and steady beat. Presentation: Count the students off and have them clap and speak until measure 20. F No, it is Ti. (could be considered two smaller phrases) solfge? We already know that the first pitch is Ti. Besides Ti, how many other pitches 2 more, Do and Re. Once the solfge is figured out, speak it in rhythm using hand signs. Do Re Do Give the choir the starting pitch, have them sing the phrase in rhythm with hand signs. Help guide them by showing the hand signs. Repeat if necessary. orm of It is Mi. Do the same process as the first phrase. (Speak in rhythm with hand signs and sing in rhythm with only the starting pitch given, repeat if necessary). Put the two phrases together (pick up to measure 5 to measure 8), sing correct solfge and rhythm. 1 2 3 4

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40 Practice: Begins on Do instead of Ti. Sing pick up to measure 29 36. to a section you do Presentation: up to measure 9 13), please echo my voice and trace the tracing the melody with their finger as they read the music. n happen again? Measures 16 20. Sing measures 16 know so far with the accompaniment! Remember, any phrases with Ti we sing on solfge and the other phrase sound. Rehearsal #3 4 Objectives: Students will be able to identify and sing dynamic and tempo changes the director shows. Students will be able to conduc Students will be able to make musical decisions on how to make repeated phrases more interesting. Students will be able to audiate and sing solfge patterns with low Ti. Students will be able to sing all t correct pitches, rhythm, phrasing and text. Preparation (Can be used for rehearsals 3 & 4): Breathing and vocal warm ups decided by director. Echo solfge patterns including low Ti. Check the Time: Potential Ending Point

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41 Show hand signs, but d o not sing the solfge of a few patterns. Allow the students to audiate the patterns you are showing and then have them sing them. Sing through one time. Practi Show a clear, basic common time pattern for the students to mirror. it more interesting. Conductors sometimes make those decisions as well. The phrases in ther the After going through the song one time ask the students what they think you should change next. Take a couple ideas. Presentation and Practice: First speak the text rhythmically in phrases, then sing the pitches with the text. As you are speaking through be sure to emphasize any important words. Be sure the students emphasize those same words. ( hard, nature, wonder, earth etc.) Be s ure that breaths are where you want them to be. To learn 21 28 have the students echo sing the melody with text. Repeat twice. Practice: Watch for change in dynamics or tem Sing with accompaniment. Sing all the way through without stopping, unless there is a major error. Check the Time: Potential Ending Point x x x x

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42 Presentation: Sing and play for the choir. contrasting dynamics and temp the composer has written. Give the students a few seconds to brainstorm. Tell them that the first time that phrase is sung it is mf ase copy my conducting Show a very clear 4/4 conducting pattern. You can also speak the counts while showing it. represent the end of the piece. Right now, sing bo Practice: signify a change, like we did in the warm Conduct mf the first time and ff the second time. Next, see what the students came up with. Have a few students come to the front to be the director. As a choir, choose two or three ideas that the students really like. Put those ideas within the context of the song. The students will be able to recognize and choose which fits best within the musical context of the song.

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43 Rehearsal #1 Objectives: Students will be able to accurately sing solfge patterns. Students will be able to identify the time signature and key signature of a piece of music and what pitch is Do. Students will learn Part I and a portion of Part II of Al Shlosha on solfge with correct rhythm and phrasing. Students will be able to identify similarities and differences between phrases. Preparation: Breathing and vocal warm ups decided by director. Practice the scale on solfge using the scale visual. Emphasize the whole and half steps shown by the visual. (i.e. Students Re whole step, Re Mi whole Echo solfge patterns Examples (So, La, Ti, Do, Re, Mi, Fa, So) Presen tation: Memory solfge game Without looking at the music, students will watch the director show hand signs for the solfge of the first phrase of the song. The choir does not know the patterns are from the song, they just think it is random patterns the di rector is putting together. The only pitch the director will give is the first So. The director will show the first 3 pitches and the choir will echo with their voice and hand signs. Have the choir sing it twice to help with the memorization. Then the dir ector will add on 2 or 3 more pitches and the choir must sing all of them with hand signs. The music below has what pitches are to be sung for each round. If the choir sings a round incorrectly they must go back to the previous round. IF the final round (t he entire phrase) is incorrect, they must go all the way back to the beginning! (Note: As the director you can modify this game to better accommodate Ti Re Mi Fa So La Ti Do Do La

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44 your choir. For example, you can sing each round with the hand signs if your choir is not ready to sing ju st from hand signs.) Practice: Go through the process of finding the last flat and going back one. It does not, so allow the students time to figure out what it does begin on. Have the solfge visual up that was used for the solfge warm ups. Sing S D R and have the choir echo. Sin g D T R and have the choir echo. Sing S D R D T R and have them echo. The goal is for them to recognize this from the memory game. If needed, sing the phrase in chunks. Have the choir audiate the second phrase on their own and see if they can get the change in rhythm and pitch in the last two measures.

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45 Practice just the last two measures before singing the whole phrase. Practice singing S D D T D in rhythm. Sing the whole ph rase. Once they are comfortable with singing the second phrase have them sing both phrases without stopping. As the choir is singing these phrases be sure they are singing the correct rhythm and watching you for cut offs and where to breath. It is important they take a big breath e two phrases repeat in measure 13 to the top of page 2. Who can find where they At the top of page 3 in Part II. accompaniment starting at the beginning. Whe listen to the accompaniment and come back in with the phrases you do know. When we Stop the choir at the bottom of page 3, before the key change Rehearsal #2 Objectives: Students will be able to sing from the beginning to measure 28 of Al Shlosha with dynamic contrast and in a legato style. Students will be able to sing a scale on solfge in unison and in a round. Students will be able to audiate and then sing solfge patterns shown with only hand signs from the director. Students will be able to identify and perform and ties. Preparation: Breathing and vocal warm up suggestions: Legato warm up Watching and sing ing dynamics Vertical vowel shapes Solfge Exercises: Sing the scale using solfge and hand signs. Each pitch is a quarter note. Begin on Eb. Sing the scale in a legato style and staccato style so the choir can recognize the

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46 difference. Staccato can be be visualized by a bouncy ball and legato can be visualized by a feather falling Sing the scale in a round on half notes (Part I and Part II). When Part I begins singing Mi, Part II begins on Do. Show a few solfge patterns just with hand signs and have the choir echo with hand signs and singing. Part I sings the ascending scale on half notes. Director shows Part II different solfge syllables from Part I with hand signs. Ex. Part I Do Re Mi Fa So La Ti Part II Do Ti Do Re Mi Fa Re Do Presentation: With choir standing with no music in their hands, director demonstrates singing the over head for each phrase. Practice: We are going to sing through those phrases again w ith the accompaniment. Please sing Show legato and be sure the choir is following. Give specific feedback on anything that was done well and anything that could be better. Preparation: Echo rhythm patterns includin g quarter, eighth, dotted quarter and sixteenth notes: Presentation: Show visual of eighth two sixteenth notes Show, speak and clap a few patterns using eighth two sixteenth notes Legato phrase arm movements Ti Ti Ri

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47 Practice: Students are likely to say measure 25. Clap first without the ties have the students echo by tapping. Ask the students what the tie does as a review. Clap for them the rhythm with the ties and have them echo. Break the measure down.Do this until they seem comfortable. hink Give a slow steady pulse. When the majority of students have their hand on their head, briefly go over the dotted quarter. t Rehearse a couple times any trouble spots (i.e. measure 25 28). Presentation: Sing measure 22 phrases). While singing, also tap the rhythm Ma ke the phrases longer. Sing the whole section. Practice: Rehearsal #3 Objectives: Students will be able to sing from the beginning to measure 28 of Al Shlosha with dynamic contrast and in a legato style. Students will be able to sing a scale on solfge in unison and in a round. Students will be able to sight read and perform and tie s. Students will be able to sing correct pitches and rhythms in unison and in parts. Students will be able to sing the text correctly and understand the meaning.

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48 Preparation: Breathing and vocal warm ups decided by the director Use the same or similar s olfge and rhythm preparations used in Rehearsal #2. Sing a scale in a round. Try a 3 part round. Echo solfge patterns preparing their ear for tonalities in Al Shlosha Echo rhythmic patterns including dotted quarters, syncopation, ties and Suggested Sight Reading Exercises: Rhythm Melody Practice: the piano accompaniment, h 1 measure with 6 beats. (Total of 18 beats) Have the choir sing all the way to the bottom of page 2. Review any trouble spots (i.e. measure 25). Presentation and Practice: the same time. This section is presenting 2 part singing and practicing the melodies and rhythms the students al ready know. and watch to see if Part I sings the correct rhythm, pitches and breathes when I show Give only their starting pitch. re ti

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49 Vertical vowel shapes Fix anything that Part II suggests and anything you heard. Give only their starting pitch. Fix anything Part I suggests and anythingyou heard. Play the parts on the piano until the bottom of page 3 as th e choir sings. Try singing it again a cappella. Presentation: Speak the text and its meaning. It is important for the students to know what they are singing about. Speak the words slowly and in rhythm for the first phrase (ms. 5 8) as the students echo. Repeat 2 measure phrases as many times as the students need. Then extend it to the full 4 measures. Once they are speaking it confidently in rhythm, add the melody. First, sing just the first phrase to be sure they can put the text, rhythm and melody all together. Then, have them Repeat this same process for measures 21 28. Remind the students of keeping vertica l vowel shapes and legato phrases. Using arm and hand movements are beneficial. Practice: Sing from the beg inning with accompaniment. Rehearsal #4 Objectives: Students will be able to sing Al Shlosha with dynamic contrasts and in a legato style. Students will be able to accurately pronounce the text and sing it on pitch with correct rhythms. Students will be able to sight sing in 2 parts. Students will be able to sing confidently and in tune with each other while singing in two parts. Students will be able to perform specific music markings (i.e. rit., molto rit., etc.).

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50 Preparation: Breat h and vocal warm ups decided by director. Use any exercises done in any of the previous rehearsals. 2 Part Sight Reading Exercise: What is the Key? What is the time signature? What pitch do both parts begin on? What pitches do both parts end on? After the choir has had time to audiate their part, have them sing separately and then put the two parts together. Prepare text pronunciation: With hands on cheeks, have the choir echo you speaking the text with vertical vowel shapes. Presentation and P ractice: Sing with accompaniment Play parts. Have the choir sing page 4 to the top of page 5 with accompaniment. Presentation: up notes to measure 45. Please tell me what pitch both parts begin on and what both parts end on at the bottom of page 5. Please

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51 Give the choir a few moments to audiate their part. Ask them if they recognize th e pitches. The goal is that they recognize it from the sight singing exercise. Each part can sing separately and then put the parts together. Have them sing on solfge with hand signs. Add the text to the end. Note that the parts begin on different words Sing without looking at their music. Presentation and Practice: up to 45. There are 3 markings that we need to know Go over ritardondo dim. gradually and molto rit Sing with accompaniment Pr actice: 1? What is the dynamic marking on page 3? Remember to watch for those dynamic Sing from the beginning with the accompaniment. Conduct dynamic contrasts and legato phrasing.

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52 Sakura Rehearsal Plans Rehearsal #1 Objectives: Students will be able to sing in a minor key Students will be able to sing the minor scale beginning on La. Students will be able to sin g a 3 part round in a minor key Students will be able to sing minor solf ge patterns and identify them in the song Sakura. Students will be able to sing Part II on solfge from measure 16 30. Students will u nderstand the mean ing of the text Preparation: Breathing and Vocal warm ups decided by the director. Solf ge: Sing minor scale. Use step visual. The minor scale is the La scale based on moveable do. Echo sing patterns in a minor key Suggested m inor patterns (b minor) : Folk Song: Heigh B minor, 3 part round Learn by rote Sing in a round

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53 When done listening, ask n, point out to the students t hat we often think pieces that sound in minor to us sound melancholy or dark. In Japan, this is not the case. This piece is actually about Spring new life and Presentation: Label 1 and 2. Echo sing both Label 3. Have students practice audiating and then sing as a group without hearing it previously. Have the choir sing it twice in a row. Show a picture of a cherry blossom tree from when it first buds to its full bloom. Read the meaning of the text to give them a sense of its meaning.

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54 Ask the choir to sing except have them sing it three times. Each time encourage them to picture the cherry blossom beginning to grow, bloom and show its beautiful colors. The purpose of this is to first practice this melodic pattern, which is in Part II, and also begin to envision what this piece is about, which may seem contradictory to the minor melody and harmony. Practice: Show the labeled pattern that was done earlier. Have the students mark in the solf ge underneath the pattern Sing ms. 16 17. A sk them to label measures 18 19 on their own. Mi Mi Mi Mi Mi The goal is for the students to be able to sing the last two measures without havin g it played or sung for them. Turn the page, have the students echo you singing solf ge for the next two measures while following along in their music. Continue echo singing two measures at a time pointing out similarities between the patterns. (ms. 20 21 are the same as 24 25, 26 27 are the same as 16 17.) Repeat any patterns that seemed to be troublesome. Rehearsal #2 Objectives: Students will be able to sing in a minor key. from measures 16 30. Student s will be able to sing accurate pitches and count note lengths correctly in Sakura. Students will be able to pronounce and correctly sing the melody of Part II with the text from measure 16 30 and 50 the end. First buds Begins to bloom Full Blossom

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55 Preparation: Breathing and vocal warm ups d ecided by director. Folksong: Ho, Nobody Home Sing in a 3 or 4 part round Minor solf ge patterns : Echo patterns from Part II learned last rehearsal. Sight read minor melodic patterns. Pr esentation : of page 4. Correct any incorrect pitches or where the choir seems to be tentative. Speak the text slowly in rhythm and in 2 measure phrases. Speak the text in 4 measure phrases Every time 4 measures are spoken go back and sing those 4 measures wit h text before going on (Groups: ms. 16 19, 20 23, 24 25(only 2 measures), 26 30). Sing the whole section (16 30) with the accompaniment. Practice: La Mi Clap the half notes for them. Give them a minute or two to audiate those measures in their head. As a group sing the ending on solfge with the piano playing their part. Sing the section one more time with the text. After fixing any trouble spots, have them sing it again.

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56 Presentation: phrases. Sing in 4 measure phrases. Sing measure 5 Have the choir sing Practice: Have the choir sing a cappella 5 13. Now sing all that you know with the accompaniment. How many measures does the piano play before you come in? Make sure to count and also watch me for when to come in and when to cut off. Have the choir sing from the very beginning. Be sure to so show very clear entran ces and cut offs. Stop the choir at measure 39. You may have to practice the very end an extra time just to make sure the choir follows you for the fermata. Rehearsal #3 4 Objectives: Students will be able to sing correct pitches, rhythm and text of Part II from beginning to Students will be able to sing correct pitches, rhythm and text of Part I. Students will be able to sing correct pitches and rhythm in two (or more) parts in the Preparation: Breathing and vocal warm ups decided by director. Folksong: Ho, Nobody Home Sing in a 3 or 4 part round Minor so lf ge patterns

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57 Melodic Sight Reading How many beats in a measure What is the minor key? What pitches does it begin and end on? Practice: singing thro Sing through the song with the accompaniment. After singing once through, go back and rehearse any trouble areas. (i.e Presentation: Please echo my voice. Be sure to follow along in your music I may sing something Sing two measure phrases of Part I beginning at measure 16. Sing on the text since they already know it. Students should follow along in their music. Sing measure 19 incorrectly. Instead of go ing down to G go up to D. When students identify the error, be sure it is sung the correct way. Sing through all of Part 1 with the piano. art II, as Part I is Stop them at the bottom of page 4. Practice: the same pitch just an octave lower. Part II, please hum your part as Part I sings the After they sing to the bottom of page 4, have both parts sing the text together. Play parts on piano and try a cappella. Stop and correct any problems. Is there another place in the song where each part sings different pitches from each Check the Time: Potential Ending Point

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58 The pitches are longer The dynamic is mp much longer Sing once through to the end. Be sure the conducting pattern shows a softer dynamic. ugh. Please go back to the beginning and sing the entire piece with the accompaniment! Have the choir sing to the end. Only stop if there is a majo r problem. Any minor problems, go back and fix. By the end of this rehearsal be sure they have an understanding of the dynamic contrasts. ** Note: For the instrumental accompaniment, if possible select a small group to rehearse a few times outside of choir rehearsal. Rehearsal 4 can be a review of the song with piano accompaniment and then add any of the other accompaniment instruments you a s the director choose.

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59 Sing for Joy Rehearsal Plans Rehearsal #1 Objectives: Students will be able to sing a major scale on solf ge. Students will be able to identify a nd sing scalar patterns on solf ge Students will be able to sing in two parts. Students will be able to identify and sing the correct pitches and rhythm in Part II on the last Preparation: Breathing and vocal warm ups decided by the director. Rhythm exercises: Echo patterns like: (This can be broken into smaller patterns) Show and review how to count Read a couple patterns together as a choir. Solfge exercises: Sing a Major scale on solfge with hand signs in unison and in a round. Suggested scalar patterns Keep this light and bouncy, go up a half step each time the pattern is sung Try singing the same exercise in a round Echo sing in chunks, then as a whole.

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60 Presentation: Solfge sight reading Questions to consider: How many beats are in a measure? What is the key signature? What solfge syllable does it begin and end on. Be sure to give them the starting pitch and slow steady beat Encourage them to use hand signs. Based on your choir, decide whether or not you will allow them to right in the solfege if they have their own copy. Students sing through the passage 2x. After the second time, if there is still something that inaccur ate, fix it. Have them sing it 2 more times, each time increasing the tempo. Practice: Find the sight read passages in the music. is Do? Please look at the last two measures of Part II and sight read them silently. worry about the rhythm right now. Just sing the pitches as if they are each quarter notes. The goal for the choir is to be able to audiate the last two measures and recognize it as the first sight reading exercise. Have them sin g the last two measures on solfge with hand signs. The rhythm in the sight reading is an augmentation of the rhythm in the song. In the song it is obviously faster and counted differently if using rhythm syllables. rhythm of the last two measure of Pa Give a slow and steady tempo and then increase the tempo. again, except this time add the anacrusis or the pick up to the second to last measure. Count the students off with a steady tempo. measures on solfge with the correct rhythm. What solf ge syllable is the anacrusis Re. Count them in. 1 2

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61 Part II at t he top of the page, the 3 rd measure As a group we are going to speak and tap the rhythm of the 3 rd 4 th measures. This is your steady bea Give a very slow steady beat. Give the students a few seconds to look at it before speaking and tapping as a group. Rehearse counting and feeling the off beat/pick up rhythm. For those same measures, figure out the solfge. Who can t ell me the syllables for the 3 rd measure? The 4 th measure? The 5 th measure? Write the solfge on the visual. (Note: visual would need to enlarged for this activity) Compare with the 2 nd sight reading exercise. Pitches are the same but the rhythm is differ ent. Count sing the students in on Do. Do it once more pointing at the visual just increasing the tempo slightly Have the choir sing the passage without point. to the top of the page, 3 rd Sing on solf ge with hand signs all of Part II on the last page. Check to see that the choir is following along with hand signs. Give them their starting pitch and a moderate steady beat. Do not sing with them, but help guide them by using hand signs. Rehearsal #2 Objectives: Students will be able to identify, read and perform these rhythms in sight reading exercises and in Sing for Joy : Students will be able to sing scalar patterns in preparation exercises and in Sing for Joy Students will be able to sing correc t pit ches and rhythms in Part II on pages 3 4. Preparation: Breathing and vocal warm ups decided by the director Solfge scalar exercises: Echo sing

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62 Rhythm exercises: Echo patterns like: Presentation: Speak and clap as a group. Sight read (Speak and clap) All in 4/4. How many beats in a measure? Give students a few seconds to practice each one. Speak and clap as a group Speak and clap for them a specific rhythm if necessary Guide them in identifying the similarities between the examples Practice: Give starting pitch beginning in measure 3 on the last page. (low C) Sing with piano. Keep it light and bouncy Sing with accompaniment. Raise your hand if you can tell me what is similar and different between what we just 1 2 3

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63 Correct answers would b different. Show visual to isolate that rhythm. After the choir confidently claps and speaks isolated rhythm put it in the context of the phrase and clap and speak again. Sing the students in with a steady tempo on Do. Sing through once. up to measure 25. The phras e ends on the top of page 4 with the It is slightly different. Who can tell Dotted quarter instead of a quarter. measure 25 Please echo me by speaking and clapping You can set your music down and follow along on the visual. Have these 3 measures on a visual because it will be hard for them to read and clap with the page turn. Speak and clap the rhythm of measures 25 27 one measure at a tim e. Speak and clap 25 26 and then 26 27. Speak and clap all three measures together. Point to the visual to help the students. going to sing the whole passage first. Sing all three measures. again if they need it. need it. Sing the whole passage and have the students echo. Go over any problem spots. If it goes well, continue singing to the end. 4 beats. Give the choir one measure before they come in at the top of page 3.

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64 Rehearsal #3 Objectives: Students will be able to identify and read dotted quarters in sight reading exercises and Students will be able read and sing scalar patterns in Students will be able to read and sing the pitches and rhythm of Part I in on page 3 Students will be able to sing in two parts in preparation and on page 3 of Preparation: Breathing and vocal warm ups decided by the director. Solf ge exercises: S ing Major s cale on solfge in unison and in a round. Sing similar s calar patterns from Rehearsal 1 and Rehearsal 2. Examples: Sight reading ( Part I, measure 25 from song) Clap and speak rhythm Audiate solfge Sing on solfge slowly in rhythm Rhythm exercises: Presentation: Rhythm Sight reading: Practice: Begin at the top of page 3 with Part II see how much you Give starting pitch and have choir sing with the piano at a moderate tempo. Correct any problems.

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65 Sing with accompaniment. along on your part silently. When Part II is done singing please tell me the comparisons Part II sings until the top of page 4. The rhythm is exactly the same. Presentation and Practice: Re and Mi (D & E). So (G). Give the students a few seconds to audiate. They should be able to identify it from the sight reading. Sing the entire phrase with the piano. Have the choir sing the entire phrase with the piano. Play both parts on the piano as they sing. Repeat. Sing phrase one time. Choir sings the phrase with the piano t wice and then a cappella. Dotted quarter Speak and clap. Have choir echo. Sing pi tches in rhythm. Have choir echo. the rhythm of your part. Part II is going to begin tapping their rhythm in the second measure. Part I, you can sight read that rhythm in the second measure. How many beats do you count before you sing in the 3 rd 2. Demonstrate what Part I will do at the top of page 3. Give the choir 4 beats before coming in at the 2 nd measure. Play piano for Part I. Help both parts with th eir entrances. Give both parts their starting pitches. Give them 4 beats before they come in. Play both parts on the piano. Help with entrances for both parts. Sing to the top of page 4 and stop. Do page 3 to the top of 4 once more. Rehearsal #4 5 Objectives: Students will be able to sing scalar solfge patterns. Students will be able to sight read dotted quarter notes.

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66 Students will be able to sing dotted quarter notes Students will be able to sing in two part from page 3 Students will be able to identify similarities and differences in rhythm and pitches Students will be able to sing accurate pitches, rhythm and text from measure 6 10, Part II only and measure 11 15, Part I only. Students will be able to sing accurate pitches, rhytm and text from pages 3 4, both parts together. Preparation: Breathing and vocal warm ups decided by the director Solfge exercise: Echo patterns Practice: beginning in the second measure. Part I, how many beats to wait until you come in on the 3 rd measure? We are going to keep it slow, but bouncy lik Give starting pitches and 4 beats before they come in. Piano plays both parts until the top of 4. Review any trouble spots (i.e. entrances) hat is page 4. Part I, you are going to sing the Play and sing Part I in the 2 nd measure. Have the students echo. the 3 rd 4 beats. nd and 3 rd They may need help finding their pitches in the 3 rd measure. nd Piano plays parts Help with entrances

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67 Rehearse any problems Presentation: Speak the words in rhythm from measure 6 10. Speak words and rhythm 1 measure at a time (with pick ups). Be sure to speak the words with expression as well. The pitches go up. And what is the # sym Sing and play with the word. Have choir echo. Practice: Keep a slower tempo with the piano. Choir sing a cappella. Presentation: G ive them a few seconds. If they seem to be struggling give a clue (i.e. page 3). It is the same rhythm and intervals as Part II on page 3 it Part I just begins higher on page 2. Sing on words from measure 11 15. Speak and clap in rhythm the words from measure 11 15 one measure at a time. Echo sing measures 11 12, 13, 14 15 with words. Practice: I at the beginning and then Give 4 beats before they come in. Give beginning pitch and have them sing a cappella. Add piano if they need help. Presentation and Practice: to page 3. You know these rhythms and pitches well, now we just have to add the Begin in the first measure of Part I go until the top of page 4. Piano plays the part just as a guide Rehearse any meas ure that were incorrect (i.e. go over dotted quarter) Check the Time: Potential Ending Point

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68 Piano plays as a guide Rehearse whatever was incorrect or uncertain. Ch oir sings all of page 3 4 with the text. Rehearsal #6 Objectives: Students will be able to sight sing in two parts. Students will be able to recognize similar melodic patterns through text and style. Preparation: Breathing and vocal warm ups decided by director. Solfge exercise: Use any exercises that have been used in previous rehearsals. Presentation: Two part sight reading What key? How many beats in a measure? Figure out rhythm first. Audiate pitches. Sing separately and sing together Preparation: Rhythm exercises: 15 Practice: Give starting pitch Piano plays along on parts Rehearse any mistakes. Sing through once more with the accompaniment. Play one measure before they come in.

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69 Give starting pitch and have them sing a cappella Give starting pitch and have them sing a cappella. Sing the last measure for them and have them echo. Have Part II sing all 3 measures. Point out that they stay on D going into the 3 rd me asure. Sing a cappella Piano plays along. Presentation: eryone please look at Part II at the top of page 2. We have practiced these rhythms a lot while learning this song. I think you can sight read the rhythm of Part II from measure 12 Keep the tempo slow. Correct any errors Count of the same way. Check the placement of words 15 are also very similar to other melodic patterns Rehearse any problems. Have Part II sing alone, measure 12 15. Part II sing all of page 2 with the text. Practice: Rehearse any problems (i.e. breaking down rhythm patterns or melodic patterns) Sing pa ge 2 again with both parts on the text. see if we can sing all the way to the end. Part II will sing at the beginning on their own. How many measures do you count befo Piano plays accompaniment at very beginning and then the parts when the voices come in. Keep it light and bouncy. Try to sing all the way to the end without stopping. Go over anything necessary. Sing through again with the piano accompanime nt.

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70 Expert Reviewers Experts were chosen based on their knowledge and experience with the Kodly method and directing elementary choir. Each director has taught for many years and uses the Kodly approach as their main method of teaching music. One of t he ex undergraduate professors. Another was the researchers cooperating teacher from student teaching. The other two were recommended by professional colleagues. The first expert is an Assistant Professor of Music and Director of Music Education at a private liberal arts college She teaches courses in curriculum and instruction in the areas of choral and elementary methods. She also supervises student teachers and serves as Conductor of the Women's Ensemble. As a public school educator, she served as an elementary general music specialist and director of choral activities. Her choirs and sol oists received top honors at solo and ensemble festivals. She holds a B.M. in Music Education and M.M. in Choral Conducting and M.M.E., an d a Ph.D. in Music Education. The second expert is an elementary general music teacher and elementary choir director. She has 15 years of experience teaching K 8 music in Iowa, Ohio and Pennsylvania. She holds a Master of Music Education with an Orff Concentration She has completed level I Kodaly training, as well as coursework in Dalcroze and three levels plus master class training in the Orff approach. She has served on the board for the Orff Schulwerk Association in her state taught elementary music methods at a private liberal arts college and has presented a variety of music education workshops. She uses the Kodal y approach as a fundamental component of her teaching. The third expert is the Founder / Artistic Director of a in Virginia An

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71 she has trained young musicians from preschool through the university level. She holds a B.A. degree in voice and received her Masters of Music degree in music education with Kodly emphasis. She guest conducts for All City & District Chorus event She holds Kodly certificat ion and is a member of the American Choral Di rectors Association and The Organization of Kodly Educators. The fourth expert received a B.A in Music Education and a M.A. in Music Education She completed the 6 levels of Kodly I nstruction at th e University of Oklahoma She also completed Solfge I and Song Collection I during a s ummer program instructed by Dr. John Feierabend, Sister Lorna Zempke, and Katina Daniel. She taught grades 1 12 music for six years as well as elementary music and element ary choir for 29 years She was th e Director and co founder of an All City Honors Choir for 20 years. Review Process Expert teachers were sent a consent form (Appendix A) stating what the project was about and asking them whether or not they would be inte rested in participating. After receiving their signed consent forms the researcher sent packet incl uding a cover letter (Appendix C ), Direct ions to the Director (Appendix D ), Rehear sal Plan Information (Appendix E ), sheet music, the rehearsal plans and the visuals to go along with the plans and rating sheets for each plan (Appendix F ). The materials needed to be retur ned to the researcher within 3 5 weeks. When the experts received the rehearsal plans, they were asked to rate the lesson plans. Directions t o the Directors informed them to mark in the rehearsal plans what they did not consider appropriate for elementary choir with red ink and marked what they did not consider

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72 reflective of Kodly sequencing or strategies with blue ink. There were also asked t o complete a rating scale after each rehearsal plan. Development of Rating Scale The rating scale was an adaptation of Bonnie Antels in her doctoral dissertation (Antel, 2010, p.143). The rating scale was formatted the same, however the statements were a dapted to better meet the purpose of this project. The general statements regarded Kodly sequencing and strategies, the elementary choir and music literacy. The statements included were: 1. ) Strategies are appropriate for the elementary choir rehearsal, 2 ) Strategies in the rehear sal plan foster music literacy, 3. ) Strate gies reflect Kodly methodology, 4. ) The organization of the rehearsal plans reflects Kodly structure of Preparation, Presentation and Practice, 5. ) The rehearsal plans are a helpful and beneficial guide for new elementary choir directors who desire to foster music literacy in the choir rehearsal. Each statement was rated between 1 10, 1 being very weak and 10 being very strong for each rehearsal pla n. Space was provided for them to give further comments and suggestions in a comment section after each statement. The rating scale was reviewed by a group of experts and revisions were made based on their comments. Analysis of Ratings First, the numeric ratings were analyzed. The numeric ratings were separated by piece and rehearsal plan. For each rehearsal plan the average was found for the ratings of the five statements given by the raters. Then, the overall average was found for the rehearsal plan. T he compared for each statement rated. It is organized by piece and corresponding rehearsal plans.

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73 Their responses offer expert advice and suggestions to enhan ce the rehearsal plans. Third, the red and blue markings made on each rehearsal plan were organized by piece a nd rater. The red indicated the strategy or sequencing used that was not appropriate for elementary choir and blue indicated what was not reflecti ve of Kodly methodology. Complet re sults can be found in Appendix G Similarities of positive and constructive comments were then identified between the raters and the rehearsal plans. The numeric, written comments and markings in the rehearsal plans were also compared for similarities. Appropriate changes were then made to each rehearsal plan ba sed on the results (Appendix H K ). The ratings validate whether or not the rehearsal plans are appropriate for rehearsing standard repertoire in the elementary cho ir rehearsal, foster music literacy and represent the Kodly method accurately.

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74 Chapter 4 : Results Rehearsal plans for four standard elementary choir pieces were rated by four experts. The five statements rated and commented on indicate the rehearsal plans appropriateness for elementary choir, whether it fosters music literacy, if it appropriately refle cts Kodly strategies and sequencing, as well as its benefit for other teachers. Numeric Ratings The second rehearsal plan was found to be the strongest out of the three with an overall average of 8.4 out of a possible 10 The last rehearsal plan was f ound to be the weakest out of the three with an overall average of 7.9 out of a possible 10 Making corrections would make this appropriate for the elementary choir re plans. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Statement 1 Statement 2 Statement 3 Statement 4 Statement 5 "The Song that Nature Sings" Average Ratings Rehearsal 1 Rehearsal 2 Rehearsal 3 4

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75 Rehearsal plans one, three and four all received the same overall average of 7.85 out of a possi ble 10 leaving rehearsal two as the weakest plan with an overall average of 7.55. The qualitative data of markings and comments will give the research a deeper understanding of how elementary choir reflects Kodly structures of Preparation, Presentation and between the four plans. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Statment 1 Statement 2 Statement 3 Statement 4 Statement 5 "Al Shlosha D'Varim" Average Ratings Rehearsal 1 Rehearsal 2 Rehearsal 3 Rehearsal 4

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76 The first rehearsal plan was found to be the strongest out of the three plans with an overall average of 7.8 out of a possible 10 The second rehearsal plan was found to be the weakest out o f the three with an overall average of 7.35 out of a possible 10 Making appropriate revisions would make this rehearsal plan stronger. Between the three rehearsal plans, Statement gest rated statement. need for some revisions. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Statement 1 Statement 2 Statement 3 Statement 4 Statement 5 "Sakura" Average Ratings Rehearsal 1 Rehearsal 2 Rehearsal 3 4

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77 The first re hearsal plan was found to be the strongest out of the three plans with an overall average of 7.7 out of a possible 10 The fourth rehearsal plan was found to be the weakest out of the three with an overall average of 6.95 out of a possible 10 Making appro priate revisions would make this rehearsal plan stronger. Between the five rehearsal plans, Statement 2 eakest statement between the three rehearsal plans indicating a need for some revisions. Red and Blue Markings In each rehearsal plan the expert raters were asked to mark activities, objectives or directions given by the director that were not appropriate for elementary choir (red) and/or were not reflective of Kodly methodology (blue). The results are organized by piece and corresponding rehearsal plans. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Statement 1 Statement 2 Statement 3 Statement 4 Statement 5 "Sing for Joy" Average Ratings Rehearsal 1 Rehearsal 2 Rehearsal 3 Rehearsal 4 5 Rehearsal 6

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78 Rater Rehearsal Plan # Page # Not Appropriate for Elementary Choir Not Reflective of Kodly Methodology Rater #1 2 6 Label the solfge for the first phrase 2 7 3 4 8 Speak the text rhythmically in phrases Rater #2 1 3 grouped in pairs for Rater #3 1 1 Introduce low ti? Introduce 1 2 1 3 Anacrusis, dotted quarter followed by eighth Rater #4 No Markings No Markings Rater Rehearsal Plan # Page # Not Appropriate for Elementary Choir Not Reflective of Kodly Methodology Rater #1 2 6 3 8 Play parts on piano Rater #2 No Markings No Markings Rater #3 2 5 new element or concept. Prep of eight h two sixteenths will have to be over weeks and months. 2 5 Ties too advanced 2 5 Presentation section not really presenting a new concept. 2 6 Not a Kodly presenting moment. Rater #4 No Markings No Markings

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79 Rater Rehearsal Plan # Page # Not Appropriate for Elementary Choir Not Reflective of Kodly Methodology Rater #1 2 5 Echo me 2 6 Loo 3 4 9 Students identify error (more info needed) Students identify error Rater #2 No Markings No Markings Rater #3 1 1 Many many simpler songs are needed to prepare a La based minor tonality. Establish La Do Mi before adding steps. 1 1 3 part round not for first lesson. 2 6 Rater #4 1 1 Minor scale on starting on La 1 2 Negative statement 2 6 Sing the text Rater Rehearsal Plan # Page # Not Appropriate for Elementary Choir Not Reflective of Kodly Methodology Rater #1 2 5 La So Fa La So Fa 2 6 3 9 3 10 Rater #2 1 1 4 eighth notes connected Separate first 4 eighth notes connected Separate first 4 5 12 rhythm 4 5 13 familiar patterns Rater #3 1 Isolate eighth rest eighth note aurally and kinesthetically before presenting. 2 5 Also need more time to prepare dotted eighth sixteenth. 3 9 10 More preparation for dotted quarter followed by two sixteenths instead of one eighth.

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80 Comments and Suggestions Raters gave positive and constructive comments based on the rated statements for each rehearsal plan. They shared their expertise on how the rehearsal plan could be more appropriate for elementary choir and Kodly methodology in fostering music literacy. Rehearsal 1 was said to be ative, thoughtful and organized by Rater 3. Rater 2 The main concerns with the plan was whether there was enough time for concepts to be internalized and questioning whether or not the students have experienced previously the need to have thoroughly learned 3 4 folksongs that contain your target rhythms/pitc 4 5 11 Dotted quarters must be introduced with the second of the 2 nd beat. 4 5 13 a new context. 6 15 prep and practice. Rater #4 2 5 correct pitches and rhythms in Part II on pg 3 4 (too much) correct pitches and rhythms in Part II on pg 3 4 (need prior sequencing) 3 8 Objectives 4 & 5 if not well prepared.

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81 through echo hand signing visuals. Rater 3 thought Rehearsal 2 3 the activities were beneficial for elementary choir and the review of concepts learned during the previous lesson was also good. Both raters 2 and 4 thought the activities were beneficial in a discrepancy between the preparing, presenting and pract I feel Rater 4 also commented, The lesson was labeled as a child much care you have given to visual, aural, kinesthetic, artistic, creative and social learning beneficial in the elementary choir was the use of conducting. is a valuable Kody Rater 4 also liked the element of choice which was i mbedded in the conducting portion of the plan. Rater 4, however, still found there to be a discrepancy with prepare, present and practice. Raters 2 and 3 both commented that Rehearsal 1 was a very good plan with great ideas for the elementary choir. Rater 3 estions, feedback, and conversation. An activity within the plan that was found to be a beneficial and

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82 to move from aural to visual experienced with solfge before this rehearsal. The activities within Rehearsal 2 were identified as very good activities for elementary f the objectives and concepts, sixteenth notes and syncopation (Rater 4). T he sequencing preparation time before na students are familiar with Kodly methodology before being asked to complete the objectives. From a choral setting, Rater 4 thought that Rehearsal 3 was a good plan. She also ng ware of playing the choir parts on the piano for Rehearsal 3 and Rehearsal 4 as that does not represent Kodly methodology. The materials and activities used in Rehearsal 1 were labeled as appropriate for the ready fluent in the literature was an appropriate Kodly strategy, however, Rater 4 thought that in order for this to happen the song should be learned more than once. A discrepancy in Kodly sequencing

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83 PRESENTED, the PREPARATION phase would be a review of the many songs, patterns previously sung (i.e. minor folksongs) not ne w material. Rater 4 is in agreement with Rater 3 by Rater 2 observed the plan for Rehearsal 2 as being sequenced very thoughtfully. There seemed to be, however, a discrepancy on how the sequencing is labeled. Rater 4 stated that the preparation and previous experiences of the choir will determine whether or not they will be able to achieve all of the objectives. If there ar e too many objectives going on at once, something is bound to be responded to negatively. Rated 4 commented about this specifically about plan 2 a negative For Rehearsal 3, Rater 4 thought that the activities and materials were appropriate for the elementary choir. Rater 3 also thought there were great strategies used in the plan for elementary choir. Error detection was identified as an appropri ate strategy for the elementary choir, by Rater The strategies u sed in Rehearsal 1 were identified as being appropriate by Rater 3, as long as the choir has already been introduced to the major scale and has reviewed some of the rhythms. Rater 1 would agree in commenting that there are many challenging elements that ar e

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84 his plan moves smoothly in small, sequential steps Similar to Rehearsal 1, Rehearsal 2 was also found to be challenging for an elementary ty to for the students to be successful Rater 4 suggests further this piece to introduce 2 fairly complex concepts (major scale and dotted eighth sixteeths). The prep phase needs to come from learning (by rote) song with these elements in a prominent with Rater 4 and gives a specific strategies for teacher the rhythm: sixteenth starts as 4 sixteenths with much prep and drill and folksongs containing it well before it is isolated and made conscious, give a name (tam ki) and then combined Rehearsal 3 was considered more appropriate for the ability of an elementary choir. Rater ized that the objectives are appropriate only if the students had been introduced previously to Kodly sequencing of the major scale and dotted eighth sixteenth. Rater 3 thought there was good flow with the melodic materials, however, she thought there sho uld be more isolation and drill of the rhythm before it is presented. Rater 3 would agree that the

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85 Rehearsals 4 towards performing the piece. Rater 2 agreed with Rater 3 stating that the strategies are actice, which is probably

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86 Chapter 5 : Discussion The results of the numeric ratings present a few common themes. First, the rehearsal t out of the four pieces. Second, the strongest rated statements were common between all four pieces. It was found that rongest rated statements Third, the weakest rated statements were also common between all four pieces. Statements 3 plan reflects Kod statements. By looking closer at the red and blue markings along with the raters comments and suggest ions gave specific reasoning behind these numeric findings. 3 and 3 4 had the weakest average rating between the four experts. The blue and red markings indicated strategies in the plans that did not t clearer ly strategies and sequencing. Such revi sions can be found in Appendix H The piece and its rehearsal plans, however, are strong in the areas of appropriateness for elementary choir, fostering music literacy and being beneficial for other teachers. for elementary choir, fostering music literac y being beneficial for other teachers, in addition to an sequencing of

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87 2 which was the weakest plan, preparation was not long enough and sections labeled meant for a brand new element to be presented and that was not occurring in these sections in the rehearsal plan. The comments also showed a need for much more preparation with the complex concepts presented; indicating a need for revisions in Kodly seque ncing. These revi sions can be found in Appendix I however, was still strong in appropriateness for elementary choir, fostering music literacy, Kodly strategies and bei ng beneficial for other teachers. The blue and red marking indicated ch more preparation of concepts, such as the minor scale, which further indicated a need for revisions to be made to Kodly sequencing. The revisions to this plan can be found in Appendix J advanced elementary choir, fostering music literacy and being beneficial for other teachers. Reflecting Kodly strategies was considered the weakest. There are parts in the rehearsal where the students are tead of solfge and also had the piano play their parts. With more complex concepts, they were done too quickly with not enough preparation. This indicated a need for revisions to be made to Kodly methodology in the rehearsal plans. The revisions can be found in A ppendix K

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88 The com mon revision between all t he lesson plans was the sequencing they may appear to at first glance. In the revised plans there are not many moments of prep aration or presenting. It is stressed in the revised plans that there needs to be a period of weeks to prepare particular concepts either in music class or previous choir rehearsals. It is also stated that certain concepts have already been presented and t he choir rehearsal and piece serve as review and practice. There are, however, examples within some of the rehearsal plans where a preparation activity is done, again stressing that other preparation activities have been done pr eviously, and then a quick p resentation which goes straight into practice. Overall, all four pieces are strong in their appropriateness for the elementary choir, fostering music literacy and being beneficial for other teachers. With a few revisions, a better understanding of the exp erience of the choir and clearer understanding of Kodly sequen cing the plans are also strong in the areas of Kodly strategies and Kody lesson plan sequencing. Conclusion Kodly sequencing is extremely important. In the corrected rehea rsal plans (Append ix H K ) the biggest correction is the elimination of most preparation and presentation. Within the choir setting the majority of the time would be practice. According the Kodly definition of prepare, presentation and practice, preparation lasts for weeks and months prior to the new concept being presented. The preparation stage of new concepts is critical. For directors of elementary choirs, specifically in the public schools, this means that ideally many of the concepts will be prepared and presented in t he general music classroom. The presentation is very quick and once it is presented it is practiced from that point on. When the students begin rehearsing pieces in choir, they are practicing concepts in a different context; this is the assumed situation f or the developed

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89 rehearsal plans therefore there are fewer moment of prepare and preparation within the elementary choir rehearsal. The purpose of the study was to develop rehearsal plans that incorporate sequential Kodly strategies to foster music literacy through standard elementary choir repertoire. Strategies of solfge, hand signs, conducting and rhythmic syllables were validated as appropriate. The importance of Kodly sequencing was also validated and that sequencing has to be spread ove r many weeks or done outside of the choir rehearsal. From the ratings of the rehearsal plans it was validated that Kodly strategies and sequencing are appropriate in fostering music literacy in the elementary choir.

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90 References Antel, B. L. (2010). Informing and transforming my choral teaching practice: A study of the pedagogical approaches of six master teachers of elementary children's choirs. (Doctoral Dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest. (Publication No. 849290350). Boshkoff. R. (1991). Lesson Planning the Kodly Way. Music Educators Journal 78 (2), 30 34. Bowyer II, J.O. (2010). Graduated Sightsinging instruction: An adaptation of the Kodly concepts to teach sightsinging to the collegiate choir. (Doctoral Dissert ation). Retrieved from ProQuest. (Publication No. 3443180). Choksy, L. (1974). The Kod ly Method New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc. Collins, D.L. (1999). Teaching Choral Music. New Jersey: Simon & Schuster. Cox, N. (2006). selecting choral literature for Part I. Choral Jouranl, 47(5), 101 109. Crocker. E. (2000). Choosing music for middle School chorus. Music Educators Journal 86 (4), 33 37. Elliot, D. (1995). Music matters: A new philosophy of music education New York: Oxford Press. Gackle, L. (2011). female voice. Dayton, OH: Heritage Press. Giles, M.M. (1991). Choral reading built on the basics. Music Educators Journal 77 (6), 26 29. Hanegraaf, M.E. (1990). Comparision of preschool music programs with the philosophies of Zoltn Kodly & Jean Piaget as a foundation for music education in preschool music programs. (Master s Thesis). Retrieved from ProQuest. (Publication No. EP31726). Hanson, D.L. (1990). Kodaly oriented sequential ap proach to melodic and rhythmic for the heterogeneous high school choir. (Masters Project). Retrieved from ProQuest. (Pu b lication No. EP31789) Hill, G. (2008). Teaching rhythm to beginning piano students: An analysis of various counting systems and the integration of Kodly and O rff rhythm strategies. (Doctoral Dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest. (Publi cation No. 3361149). Houlahan, M. &, Tacka, P. (2008). Kodly Today: A cognitive approach to elementary music education. New York: Oxford University Press.

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91 Hylton, J.B. (1995). Comprehensive choral music education Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc. Jacobi, B.S. (2012). Kodly, literacy, and the brain: Preparing young music students to read pitch on the staff. General Music Today 25 (2), 11 18. Kuehne, J.M. (2007). A Survey of sight singing instructional practices in Florida middle school choral p rograms. Journal of Research in Music Education 55 (2), 115 128. Lane, A.M. (2006). Teaching children to read music: A comparison of two methods for elementary music tea chers. Canadian Music Educator, 48 (1), 39 41. Mizener, C. P. (2008). Our singing children. General Music Today 21 (3), 18 24 Moehrke, K.L. (1990). Kodaly concept of music education as it applies to choral warm ups for the middle school choir. (Masters Project). Retrieved from ProQuest. (Publication No.EP31737). Packwood, G. (2005). Get you r first time singers to sing well. Teaching Music 13 (3), 24 27. Phillips, K. H. (1996). Teaching singers to sight read. Teaching Music 3 (6), 32. Reifinger, J. L. (2012). The acquisition of sight singing skills in second grade general music: Effects of using solfge and of relating tonal patterns to songs. Journal Of Research In Music Education 60 (1), 26 42. Reimer, B. (1989). A philosophy of music education. Seco nd Edition. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey : Prentice Hall, Inc. Roberts, E .P. (1997). Step singing: a Kod ly approach to diatonic sight singing. (Masters Project) Retrieved from Proquest. (Publication No. EP 31767). Swears, L. (1985). Teaching the elementary school chorus. West Nyack, New York: Parker Publishing Company. Tickel, C.L. (2010). Creating thematic performance programs form Kodaly based music literacy curriculum in 2 nd 5 th grade. (Doctoral Dissertation). Retrieved from Pro Quest. (Publication No. EP31741). deVries, P. (2001). Reevaluating common K odly practices. Music Educators Journal, 88 (3), 24 27. Wilson, S.W. (2003). The young elementary school chorus: An introduction to choral singing. Music Educators Journal 89 (5), 32 37.

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92 Appendix A: Consent Form

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93

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94 Appendix B: Reviewer Biographies Dr. Rachel Cornacchio is an Assistant Professor of Music and Director of Music Education at a private liberal arts college She teaches courses in curriculum and instruction in the areas of choral and elementary methods. She also supervises student teachers and serves as Conductor of the Women's Ensemble. As a public school educator, she served as an elementary general music specialist and director of choral activities. Her choirs and sol oists received top honors at solo and ensemble festivals. She holds a B.M. in Music Education and M.M. in Choral Conducting and M.M.E., an d a Ph.D. in Music Education. Ms. Roxanne Dixon is an elementary general music teacher and elementary choir director. She has 15 years of experience teaching K 8 music in Iowa, Ohio and Pennsylvania. She holds a Master of Music Education with an Orff Concentration She has completed level I Kodaly training, as well as coursework in Dalcroze and three levels plus master c lass training in the Orff approach. She has served on the board for the Orff Schulwerk Association in her state taught elementary music methods at a private liberal arts college and has presented a variety of music education workshops. She uses the Kodaly approach as a fundamental component of her teaching. Ms. Carol T. Downing is the Founder / Artistic Director of a in Virginia she has trained young musicians from preschool through the university level. She holds a B.A. degree in voice and received her Masters of Music degree in music education with Kodly emphasis. She guest conducts for All City & District Chorus event She holds Kodly certification and is a member of the American Choral Di rectors Association and The

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95 Organization of Kodly Educators. Ms. Mary Beth Ming received a B.A in Music Education and a M.A. in Music Education She completed the 6 levels of Kodly I nstruct ion at th e University of Oklahoma She also completed Solfge I and Song Collection I during a s ummer program instructed by Dr. John Feierabend, Sister Lorna Zempke, and Katina Daniel. She taught grades 1 12 music for six years as well as elementary music and elementary choir for 29 years She was th e Director and co founder of an All City Honors Choir for 20 years.

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96 Appendix C : Cover Letter February.5 th 2013 Dear project. I really appreciate your interest and to you b y the end of next week. There is a rating and comment page for you to fill out after each plan. Please fill these out and return them along with the sheet music between February 25 th and March 1 st to the above address. If you have any questions please emai l or call me at any time. Thank you again and Sincerely, Brittany Rath University of Florida Brittanyrath01@gmail.com

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97 Appendix D : Directions to Raters The goal of this project was to design rehearsal plans for elementary choirs, based on strategies of Kodly t o help foster music literacy. Your help is requested in validating the degree to which that goal was achieved. Please r eview each individual rehearsal plan. As you do so, please indicate any portions of the plan that you do NOT consider appropriate for an elementary choir by circling that section in RED. Also, please circle any portions of the rehearsal plan that DO NOT REFLECT KODLY strategies in BLUE. When you have reviewed a plan and circled portions of it, please complete the evaluation sheet for that plan, rating the plan on each of the 5 criteria and adding any additional comments that you care to make. Please re turn all of these plans and evaluation sheets to me by the 1 st week of March. Brittany Rath

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98 Appendix E : Rehearsal Plan Information The Type of Choir These rehearsal plans are intended for a 5 th or 6 th grade school choir/chorus. It is assumed that the students have some previous experience with solfge, rhythm syllables, musical terms and simple sight reading from their general music class. The choir does not have to be auditioned unless the director de sires it to be. The Nature of the Songs tonalities, langua ge and musical concepts may differ between each song. Each song has been sung by honor or All State choirs across the United States. The Number and Time Frame of Rehearsal Plans For each song there is an average o f four rehearsal plans. Each plan is numbered sequentially and some allow for overlap. For example, the rehearsal plan number(s) may be 3 4 which simply means that if not all of the plans for rehearsal 3 are completed, they can overlap into rehearsal 4. In plans that allow for overlap there is a section that reads: This just means that if the director does not think the choir is ready to move on or there is not enough time left in the rehearsal, the rest of the rehearsal plan can be done the next rehearsal. This is left to the discretion of the director. Every choir rehearses for different amounts of time, which creates a challenge when planning these rehearsals. Each rehearsal can take an average of 20 25 m inutes, which includes warm ups. It is understood that the plans may need to be altered to accommodate the time frame of different choirs. It is suggested that the director only choose one of these songs with the accompanying plans for a concert. With many choirs having such limited time it is not possible to plan every song to be performed with such in depth rehearsals. The Set up of the Rehearsal Plans Each rehearsal plan begins with objectives of concepts and skills students should know or be able to d o by the end of the rehearsal. The rest of the rehearsal plan is broken up into preparation, presentation and practice. There will often be more than one presentation and practice throughout the course of the plan. The plans are also set up in a dialogue f ormat. This means that moments when the director is speaking to the choir some of the directions are given in quotations and in italicized font. This format is often most helpful for new directors, however, the dialogue does not have to be followed strictl y. It is meant only to be an aid. The rest of the text is in black font giving the director a guide of what to do next or what to listen for as the choir sings. Check the Time: Potential Ending Point

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99 Preparation: Every preparation section begins with a suggested time for breathing and vocal warm literacy, specific breathing and vocal warm Kodly believed singing and the voice to be very important, therefore this sectio n has remained in the plans because warm ups are essential for a beautiful and healthy singing voice. Every preparation section will also include a time for echoing solfge and/or rhythmic patterns. These are to help prepare the ear and the body for melod ic or rhythmic patterns that will be found within the song they will be learning. The preparation section may also include a folksong that will help prepare the ear and voice for a concept or musical element that will be presented in the song they are lea rning. The folksong may also be included in the presentation stage. Presentation: Every presentation section presents a new concept or musical element to the students. This can be done by showing a new pitch on the staff or identifying a music element in a folksong or in the choir song itself. There can be presentations of new concepts or musical elements throughout the rehearsal. There are commonly two presentation sections within the rehearsal. Whatever concept or element that is presented will be prac ticed in the next section of the rehearsal. Practice: This section is where the students have the opportunity to practice and gain a better understanding of the concept or element they recently learned in the presentation section. The choir song is most often the focus of this section. The goal is to end each rehearsal with the practice section. Visuals and Folksongs Visuals and folksongs that are suggested are all included at the end of the rehearsal plan packet. Rating and Co mments After each rehearsal plan the experienced educator will rate the plan. There are five statements to guide the educators rating. In the comment section the educator can explain the reasoning behind their rating and give the m an opportunity to share m ore of their expertise.

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100 Appendix F : Rating Scale and Comment Sheet Piece : Rehearsal Plan : Directions: rating and/or give suggestions. 1 Strategies are appropriate for the e lementary choir rehearsal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 2 Strategi es in the rehearsal plan foster music literacy 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ______________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 3 Strategi es reflect Kodly methodology. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 4 The organization of the rehearsal plan reflects Kodly structure of Preparation, Presentation and Practice 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ______________________________________ ________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 5. The rehearsal plans are a helpful and beneficial guide f or new elementary choir directors who desire to foster music literacy with the choir rehearsal. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ____________________________________________________ __________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

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101 Appendix G : Complete Results Comments/Suggestions Rehearsal 1 Rater #1 Statement 1: l y retain the content, exercises might be stronger if rhythmic and Statement 2: up will be required for students to retain this info. Statement 3: Statement 4: is is a bit weaker in that there is not a lot of time given to internalize Rater #2 Statement 1: strategies. If this is students first introduction to low ti, I would introduce it in the same key (G) as the practice, though with older students this may be fine. Also, does Additional Comments: earsal Statement 1: Rehearsal Plan 1 Rater Statement 1 Statement 2 Statement 3 Statement 4 Statement 5 1 7 5 8 5 8 2 9 10 10 10 10 3 10 10 7 9 9 4 7 7 6 6 6 Mean: 8.25 8 7.75 7.5 8.25 Overall Mean: 7.95 Rehearsal Plan 2 3 Rater Statement 1 Statement 2 Statement 3 Statement 4 Statement 5 1 7 7 6 8 8 2 10 10 10 10 10 3 10 10 7 9 9 4 9 9 6 6 7 Mean: 9 9 7.25 8.25 8.5 Overall Mean: 8.4 Rehearsal Plan 3 4 Rater Statement 1 Statement 2 Statement 3 Statement 4 Statement 5 1 7 4 5 5 7 2 10 10 10 10 10 3 10 10 7 9 9 4 9 8 6 6 6 Mean: 9 8 7 7.5 8 Overall Mean: 7.9

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102 Rater #3 Statement 3: 4 folksongs that contain your target rhythms/pitch. Presentation: should be an easy and obvious discovery, based on weeks of singing folksongs containing anacrusis, ties, dotte d quarters and eighths and low T Statement 4: Great lesson flow, except for prep and present in same lesson. Statement 5: With modifications. Additional comments: Very creative, thought ful and organized plan! My main observation is already indentify Ti, perform Ti and recognize Ti aurally before even se eing it notated or in the contex t of a new song.) Rater #4 They are logical for a choir at this level if they have experienced the Kodaly Statement 2: Statement 3: e Statement 4: fit your acti hand sign Additional Comments: What is an acceptable level of accuracy? How do you determine if they ar e ready to move on to the next step? Rehearsal 2 Rater #1 Statement 2: Statement 3: trouble with labeling the solf Statement 4: h at a good knowledge of other syllables had happened in Additional comments: Rater #2 St atement 3: ponent. Also, the circ ling of it is good. Rater #3 Statement 1: varie d interesting and clear. But I suspect maybe too much material for a 20 min lesson! Statement 3: Additional Comments: Rater #4 Statement 1: crucial for ear Statement 2: s beneficial to expand the reading of Ti with songs in different keys. Point Statement 3: a great reinforcement of these Statement 4: Statement 5: Additional comments: Rehearsal 3 4 Rater #1 Statement 1: Statement 2: Rater #2 Conducting while singing is a valuable Kod y Rater #3 Addition Comments: kinesthetic, artistic, creative and social learning styles. Lovely child centered lessons. Do you put a time limit on each section? When I plan a lesson I time each section (ie. each objective) to avoid spending too much time on any one.

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103 Rater #4 Statement 1: Statement 2: Statement 3: choice on the students part used here are not what the Kod ly method means. Statement 4: Statement 5: Additional Comments: ign as they sing the requested patterns. Have yo u anticipated how they will hold music and conduct at the same time ? may be a little awkward. Two Rehearsal Plan 1 Rater Statement 1 Statement 2 Statement 3 Statement 4 Statement 5 1 8 6 6 5 7 2 10 10 10 10 9 3 10 10 10 5 8 4 6 6 6 6 9 Mean: 8.5 8 8 6.5 8.25 Overall Mean: 7.85 Rehearsal Plan 2 Rater Statement 1 Statement 2 Statement 3 Statement 4 Statement 5 1 7 5 6 7 7 2 10 10 10 10 10 3 5 10 5 5 8 4 7 7 7 7 8 Mean: 7.25 8 7 7.25 8.25 Overall Mean: 7.55 Rehearsal Plan 3 Rater Statement 1 Statement 2 Statement 3 Statement 4 Statement 5 1 7 6 6 6 7 2 10 10 10 10 10 3 10 10 7 5 8 4 7 7 8 5 8 Mean: 8.5 8.25 7.75 6.5 8.25 Overall Mean: 7.85 Rehearsal Plan 4 Rater Statement 1 Statement 2 Statement 3 Statement 4 Statement 5

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104 1 7 6 6 8 8 2 10 10 10 10 10 3 10 10 5 5 8 4 6 7 7 7 7 Mean: 8.25 8.25 7 7.5 8.25 Overall Mean: 7.85 Comments/Suggestions Rehearsal 1 Rater #1 Statement 1: Statement 2: Statement 3: Additional Comments: Check solfge error on page 2. Rater #2 Statement 5: Additional Comments: Rater #3 Statement 1: too much cerebral. Get into right brian and body mix it up. I love your Socratic method of questions, Statement 2: Statement 3: driven, Rater #4 Statement 1: mplish these Statement 2: Statement 3: m not sure of the sequence of con cepts you are emphasizing. The presentation here appears to be Statement 4: Statement 5: nning Additional Comments: should be discovered from the sound before labeli ng or showing it. The scale activities are Rehearsal 2 Rater #1 Statement 3: Rater #2 Additional Comments: Rater #3 Statement 1: Statement 2: Additional Comments: sequential and thorough. BUT, not Statement 1: appropriate and achievable for elementary children who have the Statement 2: Statement 3: two sixteenth notes. How will you present O verall Rehearsal Plan Rating: 7.7

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105 Rater #4 the division of the beat? Clapping of patterns is practice. Presentation is an explanation of a Statement 4: ly methodology is not true to form. Preparation = experience musically the concept, presentation = explain (label) the concept in the music, practice = continue to experience it in a variety of activities. Statement 5: ties. But the students will need to be Additional Comments: starting at this level. With older, more experienced children yo u can move faster to Rehearsal 3 Rater #1 Statement 2: Statement 3: Addition Comments: to be covered. However, we sometimes need to be creative in finding concepts or mean s of Rater #2 No Comments Rater #3 No Com ments Rater #4 Statement 2: Statement 3: e not necessarily a part of Kod ly methodology. But are Statement 4 : Additional Comments: Rehearsal 4 Rater #1 Statement 2: Statement 4: Rater #2 Statement 1: Additional Comments: Rater #3 No Comments Rater #4 Statement 1: these objectives with the practice from previous Statement 2: Statement 3: Statement 4: Additional comments:

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106 Comments/Suggestions Rehearsal 1 Rater #1 Statement 3: Rater #2 Statement 2: Rater #3 Statement 1: visual learners or those with weak tonal memory. Statement 2: Statement 3: Statement 4: PREPARATION p hase would be a review of the many songs, patterns previously sung (i.e. minor folksongs) not new material. Statement 5: thought out plan, I feel it may overwhelm a new inexperienced teacher who does not understand the slow, accumulati on of each new element and materials in new settings. Preparation is a long process, Presentation is the natural outcome of Rehearsal Plan 1 Rater Statement 1 Statement 2 Statement 3 Statement 4 Statement 5 1 8 8 8 7 8 2 10 10 10 10 10 3 7 10 7 5 8 4 8 6 6 4 6 Mean: 8.25 8.5 7.75 6.5 8 Overall Mean: 7.8 Rehearsal Plan 2 Rater Statement 1 Statement 2 Statement 3 Statement 4 Statement 5 1 7 6 5 7 7 2 10 10 10 10 10 3 7 10 5 5 8 4 6 6 4 4 5 Mean: 7.5 8 6 6.5 7.5 Overall Mean: 7.1 Rehearsal Plan 3 4 Rater Statement 1 Statement 2 Statement 3 Statement 4 Statement 5 1 6 5 5 7 7 2 10 10 10 10 10 3 5 10 7 5 8 4 8 8 5 4 7 Mean: 7.25 8.25 6.75 6.5 8 Overall Mean: 7.35 O verall Rehearsal Plan Rating: 7.4

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107 Rater #4 Statement 1: ti Statement 3: discrepancy with sequencing Statement 4: c e before labeling. Lead st udents to discover the minor scale from the songs. This is the Presentation. The echoing and leading exercises are good, but they are practice. Statement 5: The presentation is usually brie f (lead them to discover). Practice is a larger section and can be Rehearsal 2 Rater #1 Statement 1: Statement 2: Statement 3: Rater #2 Statement 5: Rater #3 Statement 1: Stat ement 2: Statement 3: Statement 4: PREPARATION phase would be a review of the many songs, patterns previously sung (i.e. minor folksongs) not new material. Statement 5: thought out plan, I feel it may overwhelm a new inexperienced teacher who does not understand the slow, accumulation of each new element materi als in new settings. Preparation is a long process, Presentation is the natural outcome of Rater #4 Statement 1: ly will need to review the solf 6) Statement 2: mber of activit i es and the pace of your lessons will depend on the experience and ability of your choir. If you push too much to get to the 2 parts and the text the Statement 3: u sed with the Statement 4: Statement 5: Rehearsal 3 Rater #1 Statement 1: Statement 2: If literacy is a ma jor objective there should be more formative and summative Statement 3: Rater #2 Statement 1: concentration/repetition Rater #3 Statement 1: Movement? Composing? Different song with same elements? Statement 3: without so much detailed instruction. My mentors taught me that if my students are conf used, I that the more experienced a teacher is, the slower and dee per they move to lay a solid foundation before expecting students to understand and be able to demonstrate their understanding. Prep = rep eti ti Statement 5: great for someone like me who has all the years of using Kodly very child centered clear lesson plan, but may give a new teacher a different impression of the

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108 Rater #4 Statement 1: Statement 2: nd practice of the material and concepts covered earlier in previous lesson are good opportunities to make connections when Statement 3: Statement 4: Statement 5: Rehearsal Plan 1 Rater Statement 1 Statement 2 Statement 3 Statement 4 Statement 5 1 7 6 5 8 7 2 9 10 10 10 10 3 10 10 7 8 10 4 6 6 5 4 6 Mean: 8 8 6.75 7.5 8.25 Overall Mean: 7.7 Rehearsal Plan 2 Rater Statement 1 Statement 2 Statement 3 Statement 4 Statement 5 1 5 6 5 7 7 2 8 10 9 10 10 3 10 10 7 5 10 4 4 5 4 4 4 Mean: 6.75 7.75 6.25 6.5 7.75 Overall Mean: 7 Rehearsal Plan 3 Rater Statement 1 Statement 2 Statement 3 Statement 4 Statement 5 1 7 6 4 6 7 2 10 10 10 10 10 3 10 10 5 5 10 4 5 5 4 4 6 Mean: 8 7.75 5.75 6.25 8.25 Overall Mean: 7.2 Rehearsal Plan 4 5 Rater Statement 1 Statement 2 Statement 3 Statement 4 Statement 5 1 7 5 4 6 7 2 8 10 10 9 8 3 10 10 7 7 10

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109 4 5 5 3 3 5 Mean: 7.5 7.5 6 6.25 7.5 Overall Mean: 6.95 Rehearsal Plan 6 Rater Statement 1 Statement 2 Statement 3 Statement 4 Statement 5 1 8 5 4 7 7 2 9 10 10 9 10 3 10 10 7 7 10 4 5 5 4 4 5 Mean: 8 7.5 6.25 6.75 8 Overall Mean 7.3 Comments/Suggestions Rehearsal 1 Rater #1 Statement 1: counter Statement 2: Statement 4: Rater #2 Statement 1: with moving back and forth Rater #3 Statement 1: Statement 2: Statement 3: ed different modalities get them up out of seats. Using whole body, stepping Statement 4: Statement 5: Rater #4 Statement 1: Statement 2: n ection between these an d Statement 3: i Statement 5: ficial for a beginning choir Rehearsal 2 Rater #1 Statement 1: Statement 2: Rater #2 Statement 1: think the plan is very good, but assumes an exceptional level of attention, ability to navigate the octavo and read with a sophisticated rhythmic vocabulary. High preparation is Statement 3: would also consciously draw their attention to the tonal shift that happen s Rater #3 Statement 3: Statement 4: otted eighth sixteenth starts as 4 sixteenths with much prep and drill and folkson g s containing it well before it is isolated and made conscious, give a name (tam ki) and then combined with other rhythms (in a new context). A progression something like thi s to Statement 5: O verall Rehearsal Plan Rating: 7.2

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110 Rater #4 Statement 1: probably be more elementary choir can handle. Statement 2: Statement 3 & 4: (major scale and dotted eighth sixteenth). The prep phase needs to come from learning (by r ote) songs with these elements in a prominent position. Then they are made con scious one at a time. In this le sson it appears you are preparing these from the exercises, which are good, but are really for Rehearsal 3 Rater #1 Statement 1: Statement 2: Statement 3: Rater #2 Statement 1: e and sight Rater #3 Statement 1: Statement 3: drill before presented, labeled and seen as written notation. Soun d before symbol. Statement 5: Rater #4 Statement 1: c and rhythmic concepts of the K odly sequence prior to the major scale and dotted eighth Statement 2: i es would provide practice in reading music, if there is a Statement 3: Statement 5: lesson gives strategies and activit i es that would be useful in preparing a 2 part Rehearsal 4 5 Rater #1 Statement 2: Rater #2 Statement 1: Comparing the Part I on p.3 with Part II on p.4 the parts are so different. I would not expect to hone in as described. Similarly, finding the parallel to mm.11 15 on p.3 seems very Statement 4: preparations are a bit less tha n Statement 5. Rater #3 No Comments Rater #4 Statement 1: practice. Most elementary students would no t Statement 2: ti es are good examples for review and practice in choral setting. Sight reading or literacy needs to be reading music that is n Statement 3: e is discrepancy of the Kodly Statement 5: Rehearsal 6 Rat er #1 Statement 1& 3: I would say that they are using Kod ly Rater #2 Statement 1: Statement 3: Statement 4: appropriate for the Rater #3 No Comments Rater #4 Statement 1: i es will provide experiences of review and practice tha t will enable students to perfor m t Statement 2: ractice. One is used solely for Statement 3&4: Statement 5:

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111 A ppendix H : The Song that Nature Sings Corrected Plans Rehearsal #1 : Objectives : Students will be able to sing a major scale Students will be able to sing low Ti (in G Major and F Major), identify it on the staff and sight read it. Students will be able to correctly perform rhythm ties. Students will be able to echo and experience a dotted quarter followed by an eighth note. Students will be able to sing until measure 8 using solfge and hand Pr actice/ Review : Breathing and Vocal warm ups decided by the director. Solfge exercises Show solfge scale visual with low Ti and low La. Sing the scale using the visual, as well as for short solfge patterns. Echo sing, using hand signs and various rhythms, solfge patterns like: (Previously presented in past music classes and/or choir rehearsals) Ask choir what should go in the empty box on the visual above (low Ti) Show solfge visual adding low Ti Echo sing patterns like: Do Ti Do Do Do or Do Re Do Ti Do Review what low Ti looks like on the staff in patterns like: Do Ti La Re Mi Fa So La Ti Do Do La

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112 Sing the first exercise for the students Have the choir sight read the second exercise Practice : Learn by rote Questions to consider: How many phrases are there? Which phrases are the same? What is the difference between phrase 1 and phrase 3? What key is it in? Where does Do live on the staff in this key? Where does low Ti live? Show notation and highlight phrases 2 and 4. As a choir, only add the solfge to phrases 2 and 4. Sing phrase 1 and phrase 3 with words and 2 and 4 with solfge. Preparation: (This is preparing the dotted quarter followed by an eighth which has been prepared in music class and/or previous choir rehearsals for the past few weeks. Next rehearsal the dotted quarter followed by an eighth will be presented.) Rhythm exe rcise 1 2 3 4 1 2

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113 Echo rhythm patterns using body percussion that include: the dotted quarter followed by an eighth and rhythms that are already known by the choir ( quarter notes /rests eighth notes /rests half rests and dotted half notes These rhythms along with ti es have already been presented and practiced previous to this rehearsal The dotted quarter followed by an eighth is continuing to be prepared.) / folksong that has a dotte d quarter followed by an eighth. Pr actice/Review (weeks of preparation have occurred of these rhythms and they have already been presented in music class and/or previous choir rehearsals.) : Quick review of notation already presented ( eighth notes/rests, quarter notes/rests ties and dotted half notes ). Rhythm cards: Give the students a steady beat. Allow them to practice the rhythm silently in their head. They may gently tap their leg if they need to. beat. Have them speak and clap the rhythms. Practice : the first page. I would like you to sight read the rhythm of the first phrase until measure 6. Speak the rhythm in your head. How many beats do you count before coming in on the 4 th

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114 Give students a steady beat and a few seconds to practice. Everyone tap on your leg and speak t he rhythm until measure 6. Here is your steady 2& 3& First time through help keep a steady beat. Do the above process until measure 8 Sight read pick up to 7 until measure 8. Speak and tap the rhythm fro m measure 7 8 as a group. Go back to the beginning and speak and tap the rhythm from measure 4 until measure 8. 1& 2& 3& Go back to the be g does D o live on the staff? Mark in your music that F is Do. Is the first note you sing Do? Play the tonality for them on the piano. Play Do and then Ti for their s tarting pitch. (sing Ti). Sing from measure 4 6 using solfge and hand signs. 1 2 ready& If they do not sing it with the rhythm at first, practice speaking the solfge and hand signs to the rhythm. Then sing with the pitches again. It may also help if the director claps the rhythm as they sing. Do the same process for measures 7 & 8. Sing the melody and rhythm from the beginning until measure 8 on solfge and using Br ing the students in the same way as before. Rehearsa l #2 3 Objectives: Students will be able to echo sing low Ti in solfge patterns sung by the director. Students will be able to sight read low Ti in the Keys of G & F. Students will be able to audiate the melody and only sing low Ti at the correct time in the Students will be able to clap and speak the rhythm correctly of the first phrase S tudents will be ab Students will be able to sing the second phrase on solfge and using hand signs. Students will we able to identify the repetition of the first two phrases as the A section.

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115 Practice/Review : Breathing and Vocal warm ups decided by the director. Echo sing short solfge patterns that include low Ti. Sing phrase 1 and 3 with text and 2 and 4 with solfge and hand signs. Sing phrase 1 and 3 with text and only Ti in phrases 2 and 4 but still showing the hand signs for the whole phrase. Solfge Sight Reading Questions to consider: What key is it in? What pitch is Do? What is Ti? in. Give students a minute to audiate each pattern, one at a time. Be sure to give them the beginning pitch and steady beat. Rhythm Exercise: Echo rhythm patterns that include: the dotted quarter followed by an eighth and rhythms that are already known by the choir ( quarter notes /rests eighth notes /rests half rests and dotted half notes These rhythms along with ties have already been presented and practiced previous to this rehearsal The dotted quarter followed by an eighth is continuing to be prepared.) Sing / folksong that has a dotted quarter followed by an eighth. Presentation: Show the notation for the first phrase of the chorus highlighting the new rhythm. 1 2 3 4

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116 Show and speak the rhythm syllables for the isolated rhythm. Practice: Read a few rhythm examples that include the dotted quarter followed by an eighth. the pitches and rhythm from the beginning to measure 8. Count off the students giving them a steady beat. Do again if they need a review. Count the students off giving the steady beat and beg inning pitch. next phrases and when you hear the phrase you already know, raise your hand and open Pick up to 13 is the sa me except that it b egins on Do instead of Ti and right on beat 4 instead of the off beat. Students should raise their hand by measure 14. Have them start the phrase at the pick up to 13 using solfge and hand signs and then keep listening for another mat ched phrase. The next matched phrase is the pick up to 29. As soon as the students recognize it as a match, go back up to the pick up of 29 and sing with solfge and hand signs. Director sings to the end. Great listening and singing! How many times did w e sing that phrase in the song? tai tai tai

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117 hear any other phrases that matched each other? What about this phrase at the pick up Sing on solfge with hand signs. This phrase actually completes the phrase you already know. This is what they sound like Using solfge sing from the beginning to measure 16. Choir learns the new phrase by echoing chunks s go back to the beginning and sing all that we know so far with the accompaniment Sing the word s. How many beats d o you count before you start singing? When measure 21 happens let them know this the B section. They come back in at the pick up to 29. Rehearsal #4 5 Objectives: Students will be able to identify and sing dynamic and tempo changes the director shows. Students will be able to conduct a 4/4 Students will be able to make musical decisions on how to make repeated phrases more interesting. Students will be able to audiate and sing solfge patterns with low Ti. Students will be able to tap and speak rhyt hm patterns that include dotted quarters followed by an eighth. correct pitches, rhythm, phrasing and text. Practice: Breathing and vocal warm ups decided by director. Echo solfge patterns including low Ti. Show hand signs, but do not sing the solfge of a few simple patterns. Allow the students to audiate the patterns you are showing and then have them sing them. Sing through one time on words Director should be conducting in 4. Check the Time: Potential Ending Point

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118 I would like you to practice being conductors with me! Mirror my conducting Sh ow a clear, basic common 4 pattern for the students to mirror. You can show a drawing of it as well. sing ing and conduct ing at the same time! it more interesting. Conductors follow changes composers make and sometimes make those decisions as well. The phrases in this song re After going through the song one time ask the students what they think you should change next. Take a couple ideas. Rh ythm Cards: Practice /Review : ( hard, nature, wonder, earth etc.) Stop at measure 21. I know that we sing the A section again, but I want to stop and learn the B section. Echo Clap and speak the rhythm in chunks (ms. Pick up to 21 22, pick up to 23 24). Have stude nts echo by speaking and tapping. Have students read measure 25 on their own. Put in the context of pick up to 25 28. Clap and speak all of the B section. Echo sing the same chunks on the text until it is sung without stopping from the pick up to 21 28. Go back to the pick up of measure 13 and sing all the way to measure 36. Practice: x x x x

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119 Sing with accompaniment. Sing all the way throu gh without stopping, unless there is a major error. Notice what you hear Sing the text for the choir Echo sing in chunks The Three Rogues, these small phrases repeat. How did the conductor make Have the choir sing the two contrasting dynamics and temp the composer has written. Give the students a few seconds to brainstorm Tell them that the first time that phrase is sung it is mf r ideas locked in your brains for now. Please copy my conducting Show a very clear 4/4 conducting pattern. You can also speak the counts while showing it. signify a change, like we did in the warm Conduct mf the first time and ff the second time. Next, see what the students came up with. Have a few students come to the front to be the director. As a choir, choose two or three ideas that the students really like. Put those ideas within the context of the song. The students will be able to recognize and choose which fits best within the musical context of the song. Go back to the very beginning and sing all the way to the end. Watch my conducting very Check the Time: Potential Ending Point

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120 Appendix I Corrected Plans Rehearsal #1 Objectives: Students will be able to accurately sing solfge patterns. Students will be able to identify the time signature and key signature of a piece of music and know what pitch is Do. Students will be able to use movement/body percussion to prepare them for the presentation of Students will be able to audiate and accurately sing read solfge patterns with hand signs. Students will learn sha Students will be able to identify similarities and differences between phrases. Preparation: (Continuing to prepare before it is presented next rehearsal. It has been prepared in music class and/or previous rehearsals) Play a familiar recorded p iece in 4/4 with a very steady pulse and no syncopation. Have the students keep an ostinato that includes the rhythm. Students do not see the written ostinato. It can be something like this: The ostinato should be taught before added to the song. The os tinato should be performed different ways throughout the exercise. One way would be to have the students tap their legs on the first two beats and then clap the last two beats. ar ostinato kept one way for the first 8 measures and then kept a different way the next 8 measures and then repeat. Take ideas from the students. Practice/Review : (Prior to this rehearsal students will have already been prepared in and presented with the major scale and low Ti and low La in music class or previous choir rehearsals.) Breathing and vocal warm ups decided by director. Practice the scale on solfge using the scale visual. Emphasize the whole and half steps shown by the visual. (i.e. Students Re whole step, Re Echo solfge patterns Examples (So, La, Ti, Do, Re, Mi, Fa, So) Ti R e M i F a S o L a Ti D o D o L a

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121 Memory solfge game Without looking at the music, students will watch the director show hand signs for the solfge of the first phrase of the song. The choir does not know the patterns are from the song, they just think it is random patterns the director is putting together. The only pitch the director will give is the first So. The director will show the first 3 pitches and the choir will echo with their voice and hand signs. Have the choir sing it twice to help with the memorization. Then the director will add on 2 or 3 mor e pitches and the choir must sing all of them with hand signs. The music below has what pitches are to be sung for each round. If the choir sings a round incorrectly they must go back to the previous round. IF the final round (the entire phrase) is incorre ct, they must go all the way back to the beginning! (Note: As the director you can modify this game to better accommodate your choir. For example, you can sing each round with the hand signs if your choir is not ready to sing just from hand signs.) Prac tice: Review the process of finding the last flat and going back one. Do live on the staff It does not, so allow the students ti me to figure out what it does begin on.

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122 Have the solfge visual up that was used for the solfge warm ups. Sing S D R and have the choir echo. Look at the next measure. Sing that inside your he ad. Sing it together using solf ge and Count the students off giving them the steady beat and starting pitch. They should sing D L T. The goal is for them to recognize this from the memory game. T ry singing the last two measures on your own. Give the students a few seconds to look at it, then count them in. Then sing the entire phrase from the beginning. Have the choir audiate the second phrase on their own and see if they can get the change in rhythm and pitch in the last two measures. Practice just the last two measures before singing the whole phrase. Practice singing S D D T D in rhythm. Sing the whole phrase. Once they are comforta ble with singing the second phrase have them sing both phrases without stopping. value and only breathe when I show you to. Since those two phrases repeat, sing all the way to measure 20. As the choir is singing these phrases be sure they are singing the correct rhythm and watching you for cut offs and where to breath. It is important they take a big breath end of the phrase. d us the meaning of Have a brief discussion of the text. What does sustain mean? How do the y define justice? Do they think these things are important? Speak the text in 2 measure phrases and have the choir echo. Add the text to the melody and rhythm. accompaniment starting at the beginning

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123 Rehearsal #2 3 Objectives: Students will be able to sing a scale on solfge in unison and in a round. Students will be able to audiate and then sing solfge patterns shown with only hand signs from the director. S tudents will be able to identify and perform Students will be able to sight read the solfge of measure 21 Students will be able to sing from the beginning to measure 28 of Al Shlosha with correct rhythm and pitches on the text Practice/Review: Breathing and vocal warm up suggestions: Legato warm up Watching and singing dynamics Vertical vowel shapes Solfge Exercises: Sing the scale using solfge and hand signs. Each pitch is a quarter note. Begin on Eb. Sing the scale in a legato style and staccato style so the choir can recognize the differ ence. Staccato can be be visualized by a bouncy ball and legato can be visualized by a feather falling Sing the scale in a round on half notes (Part I and Part II). When Part I begins singing Mi, Part II begins on Do. Show a few solfge patterns just with hand signs and have the choir echo with hand signs and singing. Part I sings the ascending scale on half notes. Director shows Part II different solfge syllables from Part I with hand signs. Ex. Part I Do Re Mi Fa So La Ti Part II Do Ti Do Re Mi Fa Re Do Rhythm Exercise: Echo rhythm patterns including quarter, eighth, dotted quarter sixteenth an d eighth two sixteenth notes Presentation: Show visual of eighth two sixteenth notes Clap and speak. Ti Ti Ri

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124 Practice: Show the ostinato rhythm pattern used last rehearsal. Speak and clap/pat. Put the ostinato percussion/movement. Show, speak and clap a few patterns using eighth two sixteenth notes (all other rhythms have already been presented and practiced) Practice: Give the choir the steady beat and starting pitch. Review anything that was uncertain. I would like y ou to sing your phrases very legato. Who can remind us of what that means in Italia n? When you sing your phrases, show legato arm Demonstrate what it looks and sounds like to sing while showing legato arms. going to learn the rest of page 2 measure 21. You have 30 seconds to speak the rhythm silently in your head and gently Review It is the eighth two sixteenth notes we just saw Clap and speak without the ties However, the rhythm does include ties. Who can remind us what a tie does in music? Legato phrase arm movements

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125 Clap for them the rhythm with the ties and have them echo. Repeat a couple times. Have students echo. Then go back to 25 and add 26 28. Review any necessary patterns. 22 using solfge and Give the students the starting pitch and a few seconds to practice. Count them off giving the steady beat and starting pitch. Echo my voice s Sing measure 21 22 with the text and choir echoes Sing measure 23 24 and choir echoes. Sing measure 25 26 and choir echoes. Sing measure 27 28 and choir echoes. Repeat any chunks as needed. Put the 2 measure chunks into 4 measure phrases and have the choir echo. Sing the entire section from 21 28. Rehearsal #3 4 Objectives: Students will be able to sing from the beginning to measure 28 of Al Shlosha with dynamic contrast and in a legato style. Students will be able to sing a scale on solfge in unison and in a round. Students will be able to sight read and perform and tie s. Students will be able to sing correct pitches and rhythms in unison and in parts. Students will be able to sing the text correctly and understand the meaning. Preparation/Review : Breathing and vocal warm ups decided by the director Use the same or si milar solfge and rhythm preparations used in Rehearsal #2. Echo solfge patterns Echo rhythmic pa tterns including Suggested Sight Reading Exercises: Rhythm Check the Time: Potential Ending Point

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126 Vertical vowel shapes Melody last rehearsal on page 2. Echo Echoing is to mainly help with remembering the text. Sing two measure phrases with text. Sing four measure phrases with text. Have the choir sing the whole section (ms. 21 28) on their own. Go back to the beginning a nd you are going to sing all of page 1 and 2 with the accompaniment. Now that we are more comfortable with the Demonstrate what the first phrase woul d sound like with horizontal and then vertical vowel shapes so students can identify the difference. Begin right on the measure they begin with the accompaniment. Practice: ge 2 at the same time. and watch to see if Part I sings the correct rhythm, pitches and breathes when I show Give only their starting pitch. re ti Fix anything that Part II suggests and anything you heard. Give only their starting pitch. Fix anything Part I suggests and anything you heard. Give both starting pitches and they should sing it a cappella. Sing once more before adding piano accompaniment.

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127 Rehearsal #4 5 Objectives: Students will be able to sight sing in 2 parts. Students will be able to sing confidently and in tune with each other while singing in two parts. Students will be able to perform specific music markings (i.e. rit., molto rit., etc.). Students will be able to sing Al Shlosha with dynamic contrasts and in a legato style. Students will be able to accurately pronounce the text and sing it on pitch w ith correct rhythms. Practice : Breath and vocal warm ups decided by director. Use any exercises done in any of the previous rehearsals. 2 Part Sight Reading Exercise: What is the Key? What is the time signature? What pitch do both parts begin on? What pitches do both parts end on? After the choir has had time to audiate their part, have them sing separately and then put the two parts together. Practice: up to measure 45 to the end. Does this look and It changed from Ab to A Major. A instead of Ab is Do. Sing from there to the end on solfge and hand signs. Add the text. Note that when they begin, Part II starts on a different word. Who can Give starting pitches and steady beat. Show the dynamic gradually getting softer and the tempo gradually slowing down.

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128 We are going to go all the way back to the beginning. Please watch for more changes in dynamics. At the beginning it is medium soft, then changes to medium loud at the bottom of the page. Where does it change next? Page 4 is forte! That is also where the music Sing from where the choir starts with accompaniment. Sing to the end unless something needs to be fixed right away. Sing through again, this time start at the very beginning and go over how many beats the choir will count before coming in. Try with no music in their hands.

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129 Appendix J : Sakura Corrected Plans Rehearsal #1 Objectives: Students will be able to sing in a minor key Students will be able to sing the minor scale beginning on La. Students will be able to sin g a 3 part round in a minor key Students will be able to sing minor solf ge patterns and identify them in the song Sakura. Stud ents will be able to sing Part II on solfge from measure 16 30. Students will u nderstand the meaning of the text Preparation : Breathing and Vocal warm ups decided by the director. Folk Song: (There have been weeks of singing folksongs, listening to and playing minor tonalities based on a La scale. This is the final preparation until the presentation) Heigh Learn by rote s ing in a round Presentation: Sing minor scale with hand signs. Show scale visual. The minor scale is the La scale based on moveable do. Echo sing patterns in a minor key Suggested m inor patterns (b minor ):

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130 Practice: going Label 1 and 2. Echo sing both Label 3. Have students practice audiating and then sing as a group without hearing it previously. we sang at the beginning about? How would you describe the so it may be challenging to know what the song is about based on the words. However, b ased on the sound of the music imagine what you think the words are about. students that we often think pieces that sound in minor to us, sound melancholy or dark. In Japan, this is not the case. This piece is actually about Spring, new life and the beauty Instead of Have the choir sing it twice in a row. Show a picture of a cherry blossom tree from when it first buds to its full bloom. Read the meaning of the text to give them a sense of its meaning.

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131 Ask the choir to sing except have them sing it three times. Each time encourage them to picture the cherry blossom beginning to grow, bloom and show its beautiful colors. The purpose of this is to first practice this melodic pattern, which is in Part II, and also begin to envi sion what this piece is about. Practice: This is what you just sang and it happens twice! Who thinks they can help me with the Choose a student to speak what the solfge is. Ask the students to sing that in their head and then sing together. Please sing from measure 16 19 on your own using solfge and hand signs. Count the students in giving the steady beat and starting pitch. Continue echo singing two measures at a time pointing out similarities between the patterns. (ms. 20 21 are the same as 24 25, 26 27 are the same as 16 17.) Repeat any patterns that seemed to be troublesome. Make phrases longer. Give steady beat and starting pitch. Help the c hoir by showing hand signs. Go over any spots necessary. Rehearsal #2 Objectives: Students will be able to sing in a minor key. Students will be able to sing accurate pitches and count note lengths correctly in Sakura. Students will be able to pronounce and correctly sing the melody of Part II with the text from measure 16 30 and 50 the end. Students will be able to accurately clap and speak the rhythm at measure 39 49. First buds Begins to bloom Full Blossom

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132 Practice/Review : Breathing and vocal warm ups decided by director. Folksong: Ho, Nobody Home 2 part round and try in a 3 part round Minor solf ge patterns : Echo patterns from Part II learned last rehearsal. Sight read minor melodic patterns. sure 16 to the bottom of page 4 using solfge and hand signs Correct any incorrect pitches or where the choir seems to be tentative. Speak the text slowly in rhythm and in 2 measure phrases. Speak the text in 4 measure phrases Every time 4 measures are spoken go back and sing those 4 measures with text before going on (Groups: ms. 16 19, 20 23, 24 25(only 2 measures), 26 30). Sing the whole section (16 30) with the accompaniment. Practice: e 7. Take a look at Part II at measure 50 to the end. La Mi Give them a minute or two to audiate those measures in their head. Count the choir off giving the steady beat and beginning pitch. Fix any problems Sing the section one more time with the text. Correct any inaccuracies with the choir. Sing the section with the accompaniment.

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133 measure 39. Do Part I and Part II sing the same thing? They Do! Right now, everyone please sight read the rhythm by using rhythm syllables Give steady beat. Go over how long the last note needs to be held for. Go back to measure 16 and sing the text with the accompaniment. At measure 39 Rehearsal #3 4 Objectives: Students will be able to sing correct pitches, rhythm and text of Part II from beginning to Students will be able to sing correct pitches, rhythm and text of Part I. Students will be able to sing correct pitches and rhythm in two (or more) parts in the Pra ctice/Review: Breathing and vocal warm ups decided by director. Folksong: Ho, Nobody Home Sing in a 3 or 4 part round Minor so lf ge patterns Melodic Sight Reading In b minor. How many beats in a measure What pitches does it begin and end on? Sing through the song with the accompaniment. After singing once through, go back and rehearse any trouble areas. (i.e mispronunciation, not sustaining pitches, etc.) Practice:

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134 Sing 4 measures at a time. Sing the whole section. Sing to the end with accompaniment. Please echo my voice. Everyone follow along in your music and trace the shape of the Sing two measure phrases gr adually making them longer of Part I beginning at measure 16. Sing on the text since they already know it. Students should follow along in their music. It should help that some of these melodic patterns were already learned at the beginning of the rehearsa l when echoing patterns and sight reading. singing please tap the rhythm of your part Notice that you do not always have the same rhythm. Stop them at the bottom of page 4. Give steady beat and beginning pitches. Stop and correct any problems and isolate certain sections. After Part I has their part, add Part II. Everyone go back to the beginning. We are going to sing through the entire piece. You Sing with accompaniment. Stop and isol ate any trouble spots. ** Note: For the instrumental accompaniment, if possible select a small group to rehearse a few times outside of choir rehearsal. Rehearsal 4 can be a review of the song with piano accompaniment and then add any of the other accompa niment instruments you as the director choose. Check the Time: Potential Ending Point

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135 Appendix K : Sing for Joy Corrected Plans R ehearsal #1 Objectives: Students will be able to sing a major scale on solf ge. Students will be able to identify a nd sing scalar patterns on solf ge Students will be able to sing in two parts. Students will be able to identify and sing the correct pitches and rhythm in Part II on the last Practice/Review: Breathing and vocal warm ups decided by the director. Rhythm exercises: Echo patterns like: (This can be broken into smaller patterns) Show and review how to count Read a couple patterns together as a choir. Solfge exercises: Sing a Major scale on solfge with hand signs in unison and in a round. Suggested scalar patterns Keep this light and bouncy, go up a half step each time the pattern is sung Try singing the same exercise in a round

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136 Echo sing in chunks, then as a whole. Solfge sight reading Questions to consider: How many beats are in a measure? What is the key signature? What solfge syllable does it begin and end on. Be sure to give them the starting pitch and slow steady beat Encourage them to use hand signs. Based on your choir, decide whether or not you will allow them to write in the solfege if they have their own copy. Students sing through the passage 2x. After the second time, if there is still something inaccurate, fix it. Have them sing it 2 more times, each time increasing the tempo. Practice: Find the sight read passages in the music. is Do? Please look at the last two measures of Part II and sight read them silently. worry about the rhythm right now. Just sing the pitches as if they are each quarter notes. The goal for the choir is to be able to audiate the last two measures and recognize it as the first sight reading exercise. Have them sin g the last two measures on solfge with hand signs. 1 2

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137 The rhythm in the sight reading is an augmentation of the rhythm in the song. In the song it is obviously faster and counted differently if using rhythm syllables. rhythm of the last two measure of Pa Give a slow and steady tempo and then increase the tempo. again, except this time add the anacrusis or the pick up to the second to last measure. Count the students off with a steady tempo. measures on solfge with the correct rhythm. What solf ge syllable is the anacrusis Re. Count them in. Part II at t he top of the page, the 3 rd measure As a group we are going to speak and tap the rhythm of the 3 rd 4 th measures. This is your steady bea Give a very slow steady beat. Give the students a few seconds to look at it before speaking and tapping as a group. Rehearse counting and feeling the off beat/pick up rhythm. For those same measures, figure out the solfge. Who can t ell me the syllables for the 3 rd measure? The 4 th measure? The 5 th measure? Write the solfge on the visual. (Note: visual would need to be enlarged for this activity) Compare with the 2 nd sight reading exercise. Pitches are the same but the rhythm is dif ferent. Count sing the students in on Do. Do it once more pointing at the visual just increasing the tempo slightly Have the choir sing the passage without pointing. rd Sing on solf ge with hand signs all of Part II on the last page. Check to see that t he choir is following along with hand signs. Give them their starting pitch and a moderate steady beat. Do not sing with them, but help guide them by using hand signs. Rehearsal #2 3 Objectives:

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138 Students will be able to identify, read and perform these rhythms in sight reading exercises and in Sing for Joy : Students will be able to sing scalar patterns in preparation exercises and in Sing for Joy Students will be able to sing correc t pit ches and rhythms in Part II on pages 3 4. Pr actice/Review : Breathing and vocal warm ups decided by the director Solfge scalar exercises: Echo sing Rhythm exercises: Echo patterns like: Speak and clap as a group. Sight read (Speak and clap)

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139 All in 4/4. How many beats in a measure? Give students a few seconds to practice each one. Speak and clap as a group Speak and clap for them a specific rhythm if necessary Guide them in identifying the similarities between the examples Practice: much you remember. Please sing the solfge. Give starting pitch beginning in measure 3 on the last page. (low C) Keep it light and bouncy Sing with accompaniment. The rhythm and words may be difficult in the last two measures. Raise your hand if you can tell me what is similar and different between what we just different. Show visual to isolate that rhythm. After the choir confidently claps and speaks isolated rhythm put it in the context of the phrase and clap and speak again. Sing the students in with a steady tempo on Do. 1 2 3

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140 up to measure 25. The phras e ends on the top of page 4 with the It is slightly different. Who can tell Dotted quarter instead of a quarter. you will Have these 3 measures on a visual because it will be hard for them to read and clap with the page turn. Sing all three measures. the students echo. Sing it again if they need it. need it. Sing the whole passage and have the students echo. Go over any problem spo ts. If it goes well, continue singing to the end. 4 beats. top of page 3 to the end of page Give the choir one measure before they come in at the top of page 3. Rehearsal #3 4 Objectives: Students will be able to identify and read dotted quarters in sight reading exercises and Students will be able read and sing scalar patterns in Students will be able to read and sing the pitches and rhythm of Part I in on page 3 Students will be able to sing in two parts in preparation and on page 3 of P ractice/Review : Breathing and vocal warm ups decided by the director. Solf ge exercises:

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141 S ing Major s cale on solfge in unison and in a round. Sin g similar s calar patterns from Rehearsal 1 and Rehearsal 2. Examples: Sight reading ( Part I, measure 25 from song) Clap and speak rhythm Audiate solfge Sing on solfge slowly in rhythm Review dotted quarters: Rhythm exercises: Rhythm Sight reading: Practice: Begin at the top of page 3 with Part II singing on text. Give starting pitch and have choir sing with the piano at a moderate tempo. Correct any problems. Sing with accompaniment.

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142 along on your part silently. When Part II is done singing please tell me the comparisons Part II sings until the top of page 4. The rhythm is exactly the same. Re and Mi (D & E). So (G). Give the studen ts a few seconds to audiate. They should be able to identify it from the sight reading. Sing the entire phrase Have the choir sing the entire phrase. Sing with text. Repeat. Sing phrase one time. Split phrase in half and have Part II echo. of Part I. What is the rhythm Dotted quarter Speak and clap. Have choir echo. Sing pitches in rhythm. Have choir echo. rhythm of your part. Part II is going to begin tapping their rhythm in the second measure. Part I, you can sight read that rhythm in the second measure. How many beats do you count before you sing in the 3 rd 2. Demonstrate what Part I will do at the top of page 3. Give the choir 4 beats before coming in at the 2 nd measure. Play piano fo r Part I. Help both parts with their entrances. Give both parts their starting pitches. Give them 4 beats before they come in. Help with entrances for both parts. Sing to the top of page 4 and stop. Isolate and trouble spots particularly to solidify entrances.

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143 Rehearsal # 5 Objectives: Students will be able to sing scalar solfge patterns. Students will be able to sight read dotted quarter notes. Students will be able Students will be able to sing in two part from page 3 Students will be able to identify similarities and differences in rhythm and pitches between similar phra Students will be able to sing accurate pitches, rhythm and text from measure 6 10, Part II only and measure 11 15, Part I only. Practice/Review: Breathing and vocal warm ups decided by the director Solfge exercise: Echo patterns

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144 beginning in the second measure. Part I, how many beats to wait until you come in on the 3 rd measure? We are going to ke Give starting pitches and 4 beats before they come in. Review any trouble spots (i.e. entrances) quarter no second measure. What is the solfge?D R Students sing once just that measure. is adding that, how many beats do you count before coming in on the 3 rd 4 beats. nd and 3 rd They may need help finding their pitches in the 3 rd measure. nd Help with entrances Rehearse any problems Practice: and 4. Notice the only Part II will sing this. What is d ifferent in the last measure on page The pitches go up. Sing and play with the text. Sing and play what it sounds like without the sharp. Have choir echo. Keep a slower tempo. sung before. I will give the starting pitch and I would like everyone to sing until measure Fix any parts. Sing on solfge if needed. Practice: are all going to sing Part II at the beginning and then Give 4 beats before they come in.

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145 Give beginning pitch and have them sing a cappella. Add piano if they need help. Rehearsal #6 Objectives: Students will be able to sight sing in two parts. n two parts with correct pitches, rhythm, text and style. Breathing and vocal warm ups decided by director. Solfge exercise: Use any exercises that have been used in previous rehearsals. Practice/Review: Two part sight reading What key? How many beats in a measure? Figure out rhythm first. Audiate pitches. Sing separately and sing together. Rhythm exercises: 15 Give starting pitch Rehearse any mistakes. Sing through once more with the accompaniment. Play one measure before they come in.

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146 Sing alone and then with accompaniment. After they sing through one time, go over the last mea sure of Part II Sing a cappella s a lot while learning this song. I think you can sight read the rhythm of Part II from measure 12 Keep the tempo slow. Correct any errors Count of the same way. Check the placement of words 15 are also very similar to other melodic patterns Rehearse any problems. Have Part II sing alone, measure 12 15. Part II sing all of page 2 with the text. Rehearse any problems (i.e. breaking down rhythm patterns or melodic patterns) Sing page 2 again with both parts on the text. see if we can sing all the way to the end. Part II will sing at the beginning on their own. Piano plays accompaniment. Keep it light and bouncy. Try to sing all the way to the end without stopping. Go over anything necessary. Sing through again with the piano accompaniment.

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147 B i o g r a p h i c a l S k e t c h Brittany Solt Rath was born on January 1, 1987 in Rochester, New York. She grew up in Brockport, New York graduating from Brockport High School in 2005. She earned her B.S in Music Education from Messiah College in Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania in 2009 Upon graduating with her B.S. in Music Education Brittany was a substitute teacher in the Rochester area. She also had a long term substitute position in Carthage, New York teaching K 4 th grade general music. After a year of substitute teaching she was a 1 st 5 th grade general music teacher and directed the 4 th and 5 th grade chorus at Plank South Elementary in Webster, New York until 2011 Upon completion of her M.M. in Music Education at the University of Florida Brittany plans on getting a music teaching position in Florida. Brittany is married to Cody Rath who is an engineer in Oviedo, Florida.