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A CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF SERVICE LEARNING FOR KOREAN ART EDUCATION By AHRAN KOO SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE: CHAIR: CRAIG ROLAND MEMBER: MICHELLE TILANDER A PROJECT IN LIEU OF THESIS PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORI DA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 201 3
Acknowledgments Special thanks to my amazing and exceptional teache r Dr. Craig Roland for his kindness, and sincere care and support I would also like to thank Dr. Michelle Tillander and Dr. Susan Whiteland, whose guidance and encouragement were essential to the completion of this thesis I extend a special thanks to Ronald Janowich and Robert Mueller professors in the College of Fine Arts who he lped me to broad my horizons and artistic view. I also appreciate the support and assist ance of Lauren Garber Lake, the Director of Graduate Programs, and Patrick Grigsby for helping me to continu e my study in the United States. In addition but most impor tantly I am grateful to my family friends and mentors in Korea for their enduring help and inspiration throughout my life I especially appreciate the support of my parents who have been providing me energy and confidence to keep up with my stud ies Fi nally, I want to thank the instructors and volunteers who participated in the Franklin Project 2013 with me and showed devoted commitment and leadership during the project Thanks also to all artists and art educators who have been work ing with students, c ommunity members, and global neighbors through community based art and service learning projects with a sense of duty which is the way for me to follow
Summary of Project in Lieu of Thesis Presented to the College of Fine Arts of the University of Fl orida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts A CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF SERVICE LEARNING FOR KOREAN ART EDUCATION By A hran K oo May 201 3 Chair: Craig Roland Committee Member: Michelle Tillander Major: Art Education The goal of this Project in Lieu of Thesis was to devise a conceptual service learning model for Korean secondary school students through art education. In the project and supporting paper, I discuss the concepts of social education and development. Then, I describe the positive impact of service learning and community based art education in the United States and the necessity for leadership in art education in Korea Finally, in order to create an effective theoretical service learning program for Korean education I present and analyze several case studies. Some are based on previous service learning projects while the other one is a study of American students who were exposed to community based programs I conclude with insights about the importance of s ervice learning through art education and the social responsibilities of art educators, administrators, and artists.
Table of Contents Title Page ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... i Acknowledgements ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... ii Abstract ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... iii Table of Contents ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... iv Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 1 Statement of the Problem ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 1 Purpose of the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 1 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 2 Rationale and Significance of the Study ................................ ................................ ............. 2 Definition of Terms ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 3 Limitations of the S tudy ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 4 Literature Review ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 4 Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 9 Case Studies and Findings ................................ ................................ ................................ 1 0 Research Site ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 1 1 D ate Collection and Analysis Procedures ................................ ................................ .......... 1 1 Discuss ion and Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 29 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 36 References ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 3 8 Appendix A ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 4 1 Appendix B ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 4 3 List of Figures ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 4 5
Biograph ical Sketch ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 4 6
1 Education should contribute to social development. The f irst step for contribut ing to society has to be started in local communities. Co mmunity based art program s and service learning programs are one of the effective ways to meet the needs of the 21st century Crossing boundaries of school education, community programs enrich students with a better understanding of society and the real me aning of life. However, l eadership in art education is required in order to succeed in service learning activities. Not only art educators and administrators but also artists should have a sense of responsibility for society and should cooperate altogether Contrary to the United States where it has long been a part of education, s ervice learning is in its beginning stages in Korea S o I present a service learning model for Korean art education through an analysis o f service learning programs in the USA. St atement of the Problem In Korea, there are service learning curriculums. S ome are mandatory in secondary schools whereas others are optional. However, the process of service learning is considered as a meaningless task for many students, parents and teache rs. That creates situations where many adults do not understand current social issues because of this lack of interest and exposure to community life during the course of their education. This reveals a disconnection between education and real li fe leads to a problem with their integration into society, and affects their social development. Therefore, it is important for art educators in Korea to understand the accurate meaning and impact of service learning and how to effectively implement commu nity based programs in their curriculum s Purpose of the Study In the United States service learning is not a new concept. Indeed, a rt educators and administrators in this country have considered how to make a positive connection between art
2 an d local communities for a long time. Therefore, t hrough analysis of the theories, social reform and development, and practical activit ies such as American community based art education I will present an effective model of service learning for Korea n art e ducation in order to improve Korean awareness and integration in society Research Questions 1. How can art education contribute to social development? 2. What role(s) do art educators and artists play in social reform? 3. What types of service learning do art educators promote for society? 4. What is an effective art education service learning model for Korea? Rationale and Significance of the Study Considered as important in education by many experts in the field ( e. g. Madden, 2000 ) service learning is not currently widespread in Korean education. Indeed, i n Korean formal education in secondary schools community service or volunteer work is carried out in a perfunctory manner Students spend that time as a mere requirement. This detachment is not favor able for the development of communities and on a broader scale, the society we live in. A previous Vice Minister of Ed ucation Youngsik Kim (2010), said that the education in Korea should be changed in order to improve people s quality of life. He promoted the American service learning education in Korea and argued that Korean schools should adopt the education system which includes many service learning programs Moreover, service learning when integrated into the curriculum makes teaching and learning mo re effective (Kupiec, 1993). Service learning is also beneficial for individual growth, because students develop substantive knowledge and practical skills (Checkoway, 1996), and a sense of power or importance in
3 society. T h is leads to social development because they also develop a sense of connectedness to their community (McAleavey, 1995). Through this research, I explore service learning model s that are best suit ed for the art education system in Korea n secondary schools The significance of this rese arch is multifold. Korean students would be able to better understand the real meaning of community service and their role in society while receiving a more effective education. Similarly, art educators would become more aware of the benefits of service le arning, and would be encouraged in integrating it into their curriculum. Definition of Terms Two key words discussed in this review are : 1) service learning and 2 ) community based art education Service learning : Billig (2007) pointed out that service learning involves both service to the community and learning tied to academic curriculum. Buffington (2007) maintain ed that s ervice learning is a way to connect student experiences in the world to big ideas that are broad and important human issues. Claus and Ogden (1999) insisted that service learning can offer an opportunity for young people to develop identity and leadership skills through engagement in community exploration, needs identification, and positive action. Taylor and Ballengee (2004) said tha t s ervice learning helps students become engaged citizens. Community based art education : Boiten and Stimson (2003) described the common meaning of community as the place where we exist for one another and for the well being of the whole place where we b elong. Pipher ( 200 2 ) stated that communities are about accountability, about what we can and should do for each other. Adejumo (2000) defined c ommunity based art as works of art produced by people living within the same locality, and defined by common
4 inte rests such as shared concerns, cultural heritage, traditions, and language patterns. Community based art consists of a wide variety of aesthetic objects, such as sculptures, murals, architecture, and various crafts. Limitations of the Study A s opposed to a native art educator m y experience with service learning in the United States is limited. Therefore I need to gain more exposure in order to gather more information about it. Besides, the outcome of my research is a model only and as such, I will not be able to test the practical implementation and effectiveness of the service learning model in Korea. Finally as service learning in Korea is in his first stages, the study of service learning and community based programs through American art education and their impact on American stude Literature Review Human beings are social creatures. Everything is connected each other. Therefore, it is important to help other pe ople and we should share what we have with others. Through helping other people, we can share our talents and experience true education. These experiences will encourage people to enlighten their meaning of life so that they will continue helping other p eople. I have been interested in community service for more than 10 years. At the same time, I have tried to find a way that art can contribute to volunteering and art education can promote based art programs; sometimes the art volunteering can act beyond regional and national boundaries. This idea is closely related to the philosophy of John Dewey (1859 1952). Dewey is a significant figure to explore for service learning in that he insisted on social development through education. In addition, s ervice leaning is mostly based on community programs, so it is through community based art education that I
5 explore ways to encourage students to participate in the learning process. Community based art educati on addresses the needs from local communities or it is a voice speaking out for artists who reflect the social situation of the ir time. Therefore, I research ed several comm unity art program s and artists such as Olivia Gude, a well known community based art ist and art educator, and Lily Yeh, an acclaimed visual artist who has worked with students, community leaders and teachers in Canada, China, Ecuador, Kenya, Syria, Italy and the United States, as ideal example s of artist leaders and community based art ed ucation. Social Development through Education The roots of service learning are found in the Progressive Educational Movement led by John Dewey (Duckenfield, M. & Madden, S., 2000), who believed that students should be involved in real life tasks and chal lenges Dewey's education philosophy helped forward the movement, and spawned the development of experiential educ ation programs and experiments (Neill, 2005). Dewey (1959) said that a part from participation on social life, the school has no moral end or aim. Under th at notion, students should acknowledge their social roles and contribute to society. Therefore, school s should provide the opportun it y for students to recognize their present and future roles in society and teacher s should help students to dev elop their active interest in community welfare. Dewey s philosophy on experiential education provides a strong foundation for other important experiences contributing to the development of young people through service learning. According to Deans (1999), the ideological educational theories of Dewey contribute to the education and philosophy of service learning. Taylor (2002) also stressed the work of Dewey, stating that participating in a service learning project is an essential step to connect the indivi dual to society.
6 Service L earning S ervice learning can play a pivotal role in art education in society. From the beginning of this century visionaries realized that in order for our society to grow and prosper we needed a strong base in education, servic e, and citizenship (Duckenfield & Madden, 2000). In Rethinking Tradition Kupiec (1993) presented a rationale for integrating service and academic study. More effective teaching and learning, more effective serving, and more effective collaboration between campus and community are the three cornerstones for his rationale. In addition, it has been noted that research currently shows that service learning can help individuals not only develop substantive knowledge and practical skills, but also contributes to lifelong social responsibility and civic values (Checkoway, 1996). Service learning is a pedagogy of reflective inquiry linking students involvement in community service with their intellectual and moral development (Saltmarsh, 1996). Especially, i t is t hrough service learning in art education that art educator s can make a con nection between people and society, leading to constructive social changes for the whole world. Taylor (2002) insisted that service learning art pedagogy is a transformative and soci ally reconstructive practice. Madden (2000) said that never before in the history of education have people been so aware of the connection between pedagogy and our communities. Non profits, for profits, local, state, and national government entities contin ually inform us how service learning projects have impacted their lives. T hrough service learning process, people can set their identities related to society, which positively affects on their mindset, especially for young people. Furthermore, people can deeply understand issues in this society and the meaning of life. Madden (2000) said that teachers and students involved in service learning don not simply volunteer. Instead, they blend service and learning in such a way that both occur and are enriched by each other. As I mentioned above, a rt
7 can foster altruistic behavior in people which means art education can be a way of moral and social improvement like the philosophy of Dewey It is through art education that students can encounter social phenomena directly, and the realization will be the essential hi nge that links students with the society in which they live. Community Based Art Education Community based art education is a mirror of society (Madden, 2000) Since students do not live in an educati onal vacuum, they must act in relation to others outside the classroom. Thus, teacher and students interact with the needs of the community ( Madden, 2000). The curriculum of c ommunity based art education is made up of the necessities of a community which is the most basic social group surrounding individuals. A rt education plays a role that reflects characteristics of the community through collaboration of art educators as well as artists Kretzmann and McKnight (1993), a community developer, considered ar tists to be essential within community development process, creating culture, new skills, vision and self esteem. They proposed that artists keep alive various cultures within a community. Community based art education can be situated within a community en vironment by cooperating with community organizations and artists. Chicago Public Art Group and Olivia Gude in Chicago is a typical example of the community based art education. Numerous mural and mosaic projects and educational workshops have encouraged s tudents and adults in the Chicago community to be involve d in their community development process. Taylor (2004) highlighted that through working and making art works, empowerment and benefits magnify in the future of the community.
8 Leadership in A rt E duc ation Art teacher s should be role model s for children with new visions or perspectives and leadership about phenomena in our society. Students will expand their scope of thinking through art education so that they can understand the real meaning of their lives. Personal and social growth has come from firsthand experience and reflection guided by a more experienced elder such as a teacher (Duckenfield & Madden, 2000). Good educators lead students to respect other students and make strong relationships and interactions within the community. Like other educators, art teachers are asked to instill in students a sense of moral integrity and social respons ibility. Students should acknowledge diversity and rather than offer negative criticism. These rules apply to how the individual can contribute to the general welfare of the student community in the art room. Furthermore, art teacher s serve as role model s by showing respect and care for students, and by di splaying compassion, honesty, and fair treatment for all students. Art teachers show various ways to act in social circumstances with nonverbal messages. These social and cultural behaviors and play a pivotal role in education (Lesh noff, 2003). Art can be a means of moral and social improvement, which means art can offer personal and social benefit s as a part of a liberal humanistic education Wright (1975) said that service programs can be run effectively using leadership personne l and practicing artists to greater facilitate understanding and practice for the teacher in the field. Following the belief that art can teach proper behavior for students, art educators should be tas k makers whose leadership can make the world beautiful by spreading the precious meaning of life sharing with others (Stankiewicz, 2001). In other words, a position of teacher is quite important for our students and society because the role of teachers promote skills, knowledge, and even way s of thinking of
9 st udents, which will eventually influence social and educational policy. Therefore, art teachers and the future of our society, and they should continue to improve themsel ves with a sense of mission and leadership sharing the benefits of art with others. Reflection As person s artist s and educator s we need to think more deeply about our role in society. I believe that service learning is a way for reassessing our duty f or society. The learning process becomes an important part of education so art educators in Korea should responsibly consider service learning processes in various ways and methods. Methodology To carry out the proposed project I first review e d characte ristics of service learning and community based art education programs in the United States. The paradigms are fundamental key ideas of my paper, so I continue d to research these theories and practices to expand my literature review. Second, I analyze d ser vice learning projects in a community in Florida including the Franklin County Project one of the main community service learning projects in the state, in order to better understand how studies were set up and conducted. Third, with university IRB approv al, I interview ed experts in the fields of art education and volunteering, and students who participated in a service learning program. Especially, I interview ed and talk ed with program coordinators and managers at Shands Arts in Medicine many times to dee ply understand their projects. This help ed me realize the practical problems and interactions among art educators, artists, volunteers and students, and shape the way I contribute d to the Franklin County Project 2013 held by the Center for Arts in Medicin e at University of Florida My
10 objective is to devise a direction of Korean art education review ing art education service learning cases in the USA. Case Studies and Findings In the first part of this project service learning and community based art ed ucation programs in the United States were analyzed. Although t here are numerous examples of service learning and community based art projects, I chose four target projects based on how they created collaborat ive service learning and community based art pr ograms integrating various groups in different situation s : 1) Chicago Public Art Group and Olivia Gude s projects ha ve active for more than 20 years, regionally based in the Chicago 2) The Legacy Thrones project involved interg enerational collabor ation led by two artists in Miami, 3) several global projects by a Chinese artist, Lily Yeh, who founded the Barefoot Artists and 4) The Rwanda art project managed by the Center for Arts in Medicine at the University of Florida. In the second part of this proje ct annual service learning projects of the University of Florida are reviewed: Franklin County Project 2011: Apalachicola Bay Charter ( ABC ) School Art Garden Project and Franklin County Project 2012: Franklin Count y Senior Center Art Project both of whic h were focused on stimulating the community members awareness about health care and quality of life through education and building an edible garden. Finally, I analyzed and evaluate d the Franklin County Project 2013: Apalachicola Senior Center Garden and Art project wh ich I participated in. During a week, March 3 to 9 2013 19 people consist ing of faculty members, instructors, and students at University of Florida and local Gainesville artists stayed in Apalachicola Florida to create an edible art garde n and a mosaic reflecting their own culture for the community members. The project is one of the major service learning program s for the U niversity of Florida students and faculty, as well as health
11 professionals from Shand s Hospital. The a im of the projec t is to engage the arts to address the needs of Franklin County community members, particularly seafood industry workers and contribute to develop ing a better society Research Site This research was conducted in part in the University L ibraries and the Center for Arts in Medicine at University Florida University for the analysis of service learning programs. The interviews t ook place in a n art education institution, non governmental organization (NGO) sites, and Korean secondary sc hools by e mail and in person Lastly, the project I participate d in is located in a rural community in the Southeastern United States. Data Collection and Analysis Procedures I utilized several data collection techniques: observation, interviews, and documentation. I read many articles and books about social change and development, service learning, community based art education, and leadership in art education, and observed the implementations of the community based art programs in several communities Also, my involvement in service learning and comm unity based art projects over the years has affected my personal reflection and understanding of service learning. Observations took place in several art institutions, elementary and secondary schools, welfare facilities, and commu nity centers in Gainesville, Florida. Interviews took place throughout the three months I worked with the participants from the Non Governmental Organizations, Otra Cosa Network, the Center for Arts in Medicine of University of Florida and International E ducation and Resource Netwo rk Korea. The data were reorganized through review of my documentation, observation notes, and interview descriptions. As mains theme s were finalized, the data w as utilized for the supporting idea of the selected research subjec ts.
12 Community based art projects in Chicago Area : In this review, I chose the Chicago Pubic Art Group (CPAG ) as o ne of the notable examples of c ommunity based art program s In 1971, a group of artists founded the Chicago Mural Group in order to connect art and their community, of which name changed as the CPAG The group produced many public art works, including numerous murals and mosaic s with community members to improve their living condition in Chicago. Through the group many artists were able to co llaborate with other artists as well as their neighbors and contribute to their community. CPA G has continuously supported many artists to create public art works for 40 years which makes Chicago community m ore vivid and lively Olivia Gude, a member of CPAG is the main figure of the community muralists working based on Chicago neighborhood more than 20 years. She insisted that art is a major driving force behind social change gathering people together ( Sweet 1996). H er public art projects lessened raci al tension and strife. Gude has worked on many large scale murals and mosaics with black people. Through her racial collaborations, people eschew the old notions of race and mature understanding of other culture and history. One of the public art collabora tion projects, Structure Is Space is a renowned community based art projects led by Olivia Gude. From 2007 to 2008, Gude led several workshops for community members including African American and Asian and installed a mosaic at the H illiard Apartment s. She focused on the cultural issues and social justice to address their community and transform people s way of thinking and lives. T hose activities are the tasks of the art educator who should provide their students with community based art experiences t hat will be a moving force for real learning and understanding to take place (Duckenfield & Madden 2000). C ommunity based art projects and public art landmarks in Chicago has impact ed other art ists and works of arts in the world Th e
13 fundamental idea of community based art education in Chicago is supporting underprivileged people throughout entire region with public art projects We should support these efforts, which will be a way to achieve social development. Local a rtists making a change across age and race : Legacy Thrones is also a good example of community based art education. Two artists, Mel Alexenberg and Miriam Benjamin, planned to create three thrones with diverse group of people collaborating with art students in Miami. African American, His panic, and Jewish elders from the community participated in this intergenerational art project Through the multicultural and intergenerational collaboration, young people and elders shared different ways of thinking, which helped both of the generations e nrich their lives (Alexenberg & Benjamin, 2004) P eople who ha d this experience were exposed diversity and ha d a chance to think similarities and differences with others. From an educational standpoint, it is an opportunity for students to broaden and deep en their understanding of society, while providing new perspectives. On the other hand, it provokes the notion and role of artists that they play an important role in social change. Instead of working by themselves in studios, artist can fulfill multiple s ocial roles and contribute in their communities with their ability and talent. An a rtist s collaboration art projects around the w orld : A visual artist, Lily Yeh, who has worked with various communities in and out of the United States such as China, Ca nada, Kenya, Ghana, and Ecuador also led several community based art projects. Yeh believed that art reflects and documents social situation. One of her most prominent projects is the Dandelion School Transformation Project in Beijing, China. Yeh tried to interact with students and improve school environment in the community through art This school project started to effect individuals emotions of whose were suffering from homeless, hungry, and stressed It was worth
14 inspiring students for learning and p articipating in her project which impacted on the whole community. Before the project, many students showed anxiety and fear of living on their paintings because of t he poor emotional and physical conditions (Yeh, 2011). Yeh (2011) insisted that we should focus on these social phenomen a in order to build a more human and sound society She had confidence in healing people with art Yeh founded a non profit organization, Barefoot Artists with belief that art help s people to relieve their stress and mental distress, which empower s social change. She has collaborated with other fields like medicine and sculpture Yeh share d her ability to inspire young people to dip into the ir future and foster tak ing action for better lives Her and Barefoot Artists art pro jects have touched lots of artists and organizations throughout the world including the University of Florida Center for Arts in Medicine s projects in Rwanda. Service learning projects in school curriculum : Unlike th e previous individual artists commun ity based art projects, t he Center for Arts in Medicine (AIM) at the University of Florida has continued lots of community based art programs a nd service learning project s as a team They use arts as an effective tool to enhance healing process The c enter suggest s a framework for inter d isc iplinary collaboration amon g facult ies, students, local artists and communit y members through art projects T he Director of the Center for Arts in Healthcare Research and Education (CAHRE) a program of the College of Fi ne Arts at University of Florida Jill Sonke, said that t he programs are beneficial not only to community members but also to all participants in terms of educational value (personal communication, Sonke, 2013). Through the cross cultural projects both gro ups are able to be exposed to the other circumstance. Beyond a limited and passive role in learning, s tudents can understand social issues and be a part of transforming the
15 community through art projects. C ommunity members also learn specific skills and aw ake an interest in art and the importance of engagement in social activities. The prime example of the community based art programs of AIM is the Rwanda Project The aim of the project is to improve the quality of life for people in Rwanda As noted abov e, Lily Yeh and Barefoot Artists art programs influenced on the Rwanda Project With Barefoot Artists the Rwanda Red Cross and Engineers without Border s AIM was committed to enhancement of general well being for the Rwanda people. Since 2008, the art t eam has created numerous murals in health clinics, schools and houses, and led workshops to teach practical skills such as beads making that are helpful to increase their income. They also tried to inspire educational messages for students and community me mbers through art programs. I n my interview, Kris Sullivan (2013) a Program Coordinator for Shands Arts in Medicine, said that she hopes those process give a sense of empowerment to community members, especially in these geographically isolated community. She highlighted that the program provides college students with unbiased education and exposure to learning opportunities. Sullivan also added that the process ma de her feel a great sense of pride when she sees the impact of the projects on the communitie s This shows how beneficial service learning programs can be not only for community members, but also for students, faculties, or specialists. Previous Franklin County Project s : CAHRE also works to improve quality of li fe in a rural community in Flo rida. From 2010, Franklin County Project support s people in Franklin County with several community based art projects. Franklin County is one of the most rural areas and consists of seafood industry workers who have high pride and dignity. The people have suffered from shortage of income and high levels of stress due to natural disasters over the years. Art team collected cultural and historical information about the people in the c ounty to reflect
16 their lives in artworks Individual people s stories motiva ted fundamental designs of murals that inspire awareness of social issues in industry and the unique environmental of Franklin County. An edible garden was installed at the ABC school in 2001. ABC school students created signs and ornaments through art act ivit ies with a Gainesville local artist, Sandra Murphy Pak to decorate the garden The students were able to receive art education from an artist, observe college students and faculties working in the garden, and participate in a process of community deve lopment. The one week project s ha ve transformed the property of the county and embedded a mindset of community members that positive change is possible by them Franklin County Project 2013 : I participate d in the local community art project, Franklin Coun ty Project 2013 during the spring break March 3 to 9, 2013 The project more focus ed on the art project than other years. Art team developed a n edible community garden with a mosaic at the new Apalachicola s Holy Family Senior Center ( se e Figure 1 ) wh ich is the center of the African American community Figure 1 The Apalachicola Senior Center.
17 P r eparation of the project : I worked with 1) Sandra Murphy Pak and Kris Sullivan as a Garden Team member ; and 2) Jill Sonke and Mary Lisa Kitakis Spano a mosaic specialist as an Art Team member The G arden designed by Murphy Pak ( see Figure 2 ) and the Art T eam con structed a m osaic in the garden with the mosaic expert Kitakis Spano W e had an orientation and four planning meeting s for the art project preparation. All group members were required to study about the community s culture and his torical background in order to contemplate their way of thinking and lives when we design the garden and mosaic, and work with community members Figure 2 The design of a new garden for A palachicola Senior Center by Murphy Pak
18 Realization of the project : Sonke explained that community members enjoy their daily lives with others and unify historical and cultural differences between White and Black people in th e Senior C enter, which were separated for a long time (personal commu nication, Sonke, 2013). The garden was being built there in front of the Senior Center We were involved in the beginning of the construction ( see Figure 3 ) Garden T eam moved blocks and painted frames C o mmunity members helped all process in building a new garden and creating a mosaic. Figure 3 A construction view of the new garden at the Apalachicola Senior Center As a member of the Art Team, I prepared materials for the mos aic including cutting plates, glasses, and mirrors, all materials widely used in the mosaic process ( see Figure 4 ) It was the first time for me to do mosaic among many art projects Although I was not very skillful at this process, I really enjoyed do ing the pr eparation as a new learning process from experts ( see Figure 5 & Figure 6 )
19 Figure 4 Materials for the mosaic. Figure 5 Students volunteers Stebbins and I.
20 Figur e 6 Instructors and students preparing the mosaic materials : Sullivan, Stebbins, Murphy Pak, Kitakis Spano and me. After the preparation process, I and Kitakis Spano painted the background of the mosaic. We put several historical sites and the landscape o f Apalachicola in the mosaic because we agreed that : 1) the art work should represent their cultural background ; and 2) people in the community should feel comfortable and closer to the m osaic. Therefore, we drew a White House, Apalachicola Bay, St. George island, palm trees, oysters, and sunflowers; cabbages, radishes, and tomatoes, which the community members wanted to have in their garden in the Senior Center ( s ee Figure 7 & Figure 8 )
21 Figure 7 Mrs. Kitakis Spano drawing the b ackground of the mosaic. Figure 8 P art of the mosaic background painted by me.
22 to enter another space through art activity (Sweet, 1996). On the f ourth day, we started to make the mosaic with community members who wanted to participate in the project ( see Figure 9 & Figure 10 ) Any members of the community or area surrounding the Senior Center w ere welcome to join on the process. Some seniors and staff members of the Senior Center, city workers from the construction site, and even delivery people ac tively participated in making the mosaic (see Figure 11 ). Figure 9 Students volunteers creating the mosaic : Stebbins and me.
23 Figure 10 Working with the mosaic as a member of the Art Team. Figure 11 Creating a mosaic with community members in the Apalachicola Senior Center.
24 We also suggested that people who joined the mosaic put their name s or signature s on the bottom of the work, which made them enjoy contributing to th e process and feel a part of community change ( see Figure 12 ). Several community members explained to us about the economic situation that the seafood industry of the Apalachicola is in despair. There were far fewer oysters, which are the main income resource for the people in Franklin County, during harvest season this year than before. Figure 12 Signatures of the community members who participated in the mosaic process. Duri ng the process, the attitude s showed by the artist, Kitakis Spano and several instructors, Sullivan, Murphy Pak, and Sonke, were incredible ( see Figure 13 ) They were humble, friendly, patient, and dedicated. The instructors led voluntary participation fr om the community members and brought the individuals together, which made me be impressed by the
25 fact that I was in the group with them. In the process, I was able to see benefits of art activity that plays an important role in development and understandin g our local community and communicating with others. Figure 13. Kitakis Spano working the mo saic. W e had a dedication cerem ony of the new garden with the Apalachicola m ayor, city off icials, and community member s ( s ee Figure 14 ). In the garden, we planted some herbs and edible plants for sustainable garden use ( see Figure 15 & Figure 16 ) The garden and m osaic were completed after going through a week of effort by cooperative community work (see Figure 17 & Figure 18). All people in the ceremony were surprised that the change happened in a short time, which brings a new mov ing forward to their community
26 Figure 14 The dedication ceremony with community members in the garden. Figure 15 Edible plants : tomatoes and herbs
27 Figure 16 Planting trees and vegetables in the garden. Figure 1 7 The completed edible garden with a mosaic in the Apalachicola Senior Center.
28 Figure 18 The c omplet ed mosaic by the Art T eam The Franklin County Project 2013 was a great opportunity for me to be involved in a service learning p rogram and work side by side with volunteer students in the United States I gain ed a meaningful understanding of the sense of community in the States, and the community of the participants, including myself. I strongly believe that t his project is able to provide meaningful experience not only for students but also for adults in a school setting In other words, the benefits of this kind of project may have implications for Korean secondary art education.
29 Discussion and Conclusion This paper introduces a nd describes several service learning program s for Korean art educators and artists to consider in order to draw from them a set of inferences for similar art projects and service learning experiences After reviewing and analyzing previous and curr ent ser vice learning art projects, I consider ed how the practice of Korean art programs and education should look if they reflected these approaches. In order to encourage these types of service learning art projects in Korea, I describe how the program is benefi cial not o nly for students but also for art teachers, artists, and community members. The people who are educated and participate in service learning program s have avenues of thought, understanding and expression about social issues. That is, art educatio n should provide the same mind set for the people in the 21 st century in Korea Korea art education in the secondary school should shift away from relying on the contents in formal textbooks or making crafts for just fun. Through not only an academic appr oach but also practical practices, Korean art education should deal many issues of life. T h is paper provides a set of guidelines that result from my experiences in the areas of service learning and community based art programs. It presents a contemporary version of the service learning art project model for Korea art education ; it is a synthesis of developments that have taken place over the many years in the United States and other countries. I suggest a conceptual art education model for approaching serv ice learning through art education for Korea : I name it Korea Community Art Education (KCAE). As a n undergraduate student, I launched a new art festival and art volunteer projects, which was called the New College Movement (NCM) at Ewha Woman s University in Seoul, Korea, that moved beyond the college art festivals that were based on school issues for the
30 college students. I also designed and led a mural painting project with disabled students sponsored by the SK Group, one of the Korea s largest company, a nd numerous face painting and art volunteer projects in Korea. During the same period I was a part of several teams that c onducted service learning projects out side of Korea: Korea Internet Volunteers (KIV) under the Korea Ministry of Information and Commu nication (Now, renamed as the Ministry of Public Administration and Safety ), Pacific Asia Society (PAS), a Non Governmental Organization in Korea to promote mutual communication and cooperation by linking Pacific Asia Throughout the service learning proje ct s I taught art and culture to elementary, middle and high school, and college students, as well as teachers and community members in China, Russia, the Philippines and Peru. T hese opportunities helped me to understand how service learning projects and art programs impact people s mindset s attitude s and the quality of living for both volunteers and recipients. In addition, in planning these past projects, I began to set down a concept of service learning in developing countries or in rural areas. Each experience helped me to gain a more precise understanding of the role of arts and culture, and need of leadership of art teachers, artists, and art administrators, and move toward investigation s into community based art programs and service learning projec ts in other countries At the same time, I have been and will continue to create service learning projects through the arts, which are and will be implemented in and out of Korea. What is presented in this paper is done in acknowledgment of many art educa tors and artists who have contributed to my understanding and to art education by their community based art programs and service learning projects through art. In looking through different processes and approaches in the art projects the real meaning of a n art program and education, contributing to social justice and social development, has shared a view by many artists and art educators in
31 many fields. They have been carving out their place in the field of art education by transcen ding the bound arie s of a ge, race and nationality I acknowledge these contributions in the field of art and art education, and trust this review of service learning projects will bring their community art projects to Korean art educators and artists attention. KCAE is ba sed on the notion that art educators and artists play important roles in social change and improvement. If Korean art educators and artists educate students as well as adults on social issues through KCAE we would hardly expect them to consider only thems elves or feel far away from society One of the aims of KCAE is to encourage students awareness toward other people in a way that might lead them to help underprivileged community members around them. This initial step to participate in helping others wil l inspire their respect not only for others but also for themselves. Because the main role of participati ng in a group project is discussing their own opinions and understanding other members ideas and implementing shared thoughts into the project in a gr oup. Through KCAE students and adults from the community learn from other members and share their experiences and talents with others. Regardless of gender age, race, or cultural background, all members can share their own specialty and strength. Sometim es, young people can teach elders specific skills, which provide them an opportunity to think carefully and nurture them In Korea, generational conflicts are getting worse because of a lack of communication. Traditionally, under Confucian hierarchical e ducation, Korean highlights the authority of senior s and calls for young people to respect elders, which leads elder people to have an authoritative manner. Therefore, it wa s not co mmon for young people to appeal their own opinion to elders or teach them, which le d to a severe generation gap that has become a serious problem in Korea. Group activities through KCAE can provide the opportunity to get closer to and communicate
32 between adults and young generation. Furthermore, it will help elders who fell into mannerism for a long time to refresh their mind. Many people in Korea are complacent and spend most their time in a lifelong workplace, which means they have no opportunity to experience other fields like the arts. KCAE can be refreshing and a totally new experience for those who need to learn to think creatively with an open mind through art, which leads to social improvement, the major goal of the service learning art project that I want to implement in Korea. The part of a service learning project invo lving a community based art program teaches that the images in the outcomes are metaphors for human life and the process for the art project is human life itself. The idea of drawing and creating a mural or mosaic from a communit history, culture or nee ds presents the arts is a way to express the identity and view point about society and it can impact social awareness of the people in their community. S pecific skills can be taught by experts who are trained through workshops and images will come from various perceptions of the community and society. Students and community members who participate i n KCAE learn to appreciate their differences. T h is attention to personal and cultural differences, along with the images presented in art wo rks, extends the students and community members ways of thinking about social issues. In other words, without some understanding of contemporary issues or diversity from other age, culture and background, it is possible to miss the real meaning of KCAE Artists or art teachers who lead KCAE will be able to appreciate social issues and discuss works of art in their historical and cultural background. This attention to other pe ople s perspectives leads them to mo ve beyond their narrow concept of art and tra ditional e ducation in school boundary. Anderson (1997) said that art is about something beyond itself ; it defines a particular narrative or world view (p.71) Ron Neperud (1995) wr ote in his introduction to Context,
33 Content, and Community in Art Educat ion: Beyond Postmodernism in the postmodern sense is treated as not separate from the world, but as a vital part of human existence. Postmodernism demands that the audience of art become involved in the discursive process of discerning meaning. This postmodernist view of art means a very different approach to teaching ( p.5 ) KCAE is an alternative way of experiencing the world through cultural and generational exchange. This kind of education require s a leaders commitment, experiences or d eep understanding of community based art in order to effectively manage and interact with other people. There are several ways to facilitate service learning experiences through KCAE : professional workshops, creating a network for students, art educators and artists. In fact, it is an urgent issue to create a network system for Korean education to achieve this goal. There are several global online based networks and organizations that Korean art educators and artists can participate in such as Internatio nal Education and Resource Network (iEARN) and TakingITGlobal (TIG). iEARN is a non governmental organization serv ing of an educational purpose People and organizations in more than 130 counties joined the network and over 2,000,000 students and teacher s are engaging their projects every day (iEARN, 2013). T h e goal of the network is how their projects improve the quality of life by collaboration projects in the world. In fact, iEARN is working in Korea with the Youth Education Service (YES) Center, which was founded in 2007 and the center involve s schools throughout Korea with many cultural projects However, it is necessary for Korean art educators to intensify or create another network because YES Center is not specialized for artists, art educators, o r students through service learning projects More
34 artists and art educators are required to actively participate in KCAE projects with a network and they should engage people to have better life. As another example of educational networks, T akingItGlobal (TIG) s aim is creating social change through learning, cross cultural awareness and self development (TIG, 2013). They insist that the role of young people is the key of social improvement Therefore, TIG continuously provides learning opportunities thr ough the network. TIG also connects educators around the world, which is called TIGed (TakingITGlobal for Educators) to empower their collaborations. However, there are certain limitations for Korean art educators and students to approach and utilize TIG because there is no Korean description even though there are 12 language options in the website. Additionally, the network is also not specified for art education, so in order to strengthen a network between artists and art educators to outreach KCAE we n eed to build a new network, which will be my next step. Eight Guidelines for Korean art educators and artists 1. Be come a ware of KCAE Korea a rt educators and artists should have awareness of the notion, real meaning, and effect of KCAE Through conferences or teachers meeting s Korean art educators should present the benefit s of service learning and community based art programs. 2. Be a part of KCAE Korea art educators and artists should participate in a KCAE project in order to experienc e and understand its benefits at first hand Actually, there are numerous educators or specialists in many fields out of Korea that experience the advantages of service learning projects which make them keep contributing to the se art projects over the years 3. Shar e your KCAE experiences After realizing the importance of service learning, Korean art teacher s or artists should share their impression s with others Art teachers can share their
35 experiences with other subject teachers and create some collaborative art projects with them. In addition, art teachers can share the feeling for KCAE with students, parents, school administrators, and community members. Artists can explain their thought s with other artists and encourage them to participate in the KCAE. At the same time, art ists can put emotions and intuitions from the experiences into creating their artworks. 4. Creat e a network for KCAE Korea art educators and artists need a specialized network for KCAE. The network will help to link art teachers to other art teachers, artist s, and students in and out of school around the world. The formation of a network can be a group of artists and art educators who want to promote KCAE like as CPAG or Barefoot Artists a n online community like as iEARN or TIG which empowers global social n etwork or a network through mobile application which can be easily accessed by anybody anywhere 5. Support KCAE projects KCAE needs supporting systems and organizations. S ocial supports will empower the KCAE to create change in communities and the whole so ciety. A social network is a way of supporting systems. In addition c orporation s should transfer part of their profits into KCAE programs as part of social responsibility. G overnmental organization s should also increase people s quality of li f e through su pporting KCAE KCAE can improve the quality of life and instill people a sense of belongings, community, civil pride, achievement and identity, which are the engines of future social development. 6. Take action in KCAE Korean art educators and artists are r eady to move forward in art education with KCAE With a network and financial supports, they need to cooperate and create collaboration projects. Art teachers and artists deeply research and study about service learning and previous community based art pro jects over the world and put the ideas into practice which is appropriate for the domestic c ircumstances in Korea
36 7. Learn through KCAE Korean students as well as art educators and artists can learn from each other. KCAE is a collaboration project that invo lve s various people in different fields and ages. T he group projects are not only good for leaning skills but also for facilitating communication process and sharing their ideas with other people, which increase understanding of current social problems and issues. 8. Advocate for KCAE Korean art educators and artists need to arouse s ympathy from other artists, teachers, students, parents, school administrators, and community members for KCAE. T h ey need to correctly realize the benefits of KCAE and encourage and support the program over a long period of time. Summary A notable community artist and art educator, Olivia Gude sees art not only as a way to beautify the world but also as an agent of social change bring people together ( Sweet, 1996 ) Arousing socia l awareness and understanding and helping other people are necessary for Korea education. In order to create those mindsets for Korean students, art educators and artists, we need a starting point. The fundamental idea of KCAE i s to create opportunities th at young people work together on to develop positive social change. Jennifer Corriero and Michael Furdyk, the co founders of TIG, created the network after a conference in Ottawa in order to reflect on their experiences and opportunities they accessed as t eenagers to make a difference. Jennifer was involved in local community volunteer works and desired to be a catalyst for community involvement while Michael was interested in helping other young people grow their ideas ( TIG, 2013 ) Service learning can be a vehicle for changes to happen (McAleavey, 1995). It needs to focus on the personal and intellectual growth of both the student and the community (Haque, M.,
37 Tai, L. & Mey, B., 2000). The emphasis here is art education can be a powerful way of service l earning which raises critical issues of social justice and creates citizens who are engaged participants in society (Quinn, T., Ploof, J. & Hochtritt, L., 2012). Gude has worked in the field of community based public art for more than 20 years. A Chinese a rtist, Lily Yeh, found the Barefoot Artists which impact s many people and organizations over the world She continues pursuing her vision through the organization around the world how to use the transformative power of art to bring healing, self empowerme nt, and social change ( Yeh, 20 1 1 ). Mel Alexenberg and Miriam Benjamin (2004) said that artists role has been changing to be a creative leader in performing arts and art education. T h ey showed creative leadership role through the Lagacy Throne art project, facilitating a collaboration of young people and elders. Th e se artists and art educators have continuously tried to share their talents, which definitely bring s forward social development. What I want to show in this paper is a starting point can stimulat e another challenge provoking other people to finally lead a big change in Korean schools and society. This research explore d notions, boundaries, and examples of social reform, service learning, community based art education, and leadership in art educati on. With philosophical theor ies and practical action plans, I suggest a direction where the service learning model for art education in Korea can go In addition, throughout this research, I engage d in hands on and practical education and public service wh ile providing a network to assist community members in enhancing their daily lives Finally, I dr ew a road map that will be an innovative and unique project addressing community and educational issues for Korean art education I lay out service learning pr ogram s for Korean art educators and artists in order to sketch from them a set of inferences for art projects, which provides an image of what Korean art education could be.
38 References Adejumo, C. (2000). Community based art. School Arts, 99 (6 ) 12 13. Alexenberg M. & Benjamin M. (2004). Community Connections: Intergenerational Links in Art Education Angela M. La Porte, Editor. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association R etrieved from http://www.melalexenberg.com/paper.php?id=23 Anderson, Suggs (Eds.). Art Education: Content and Practices in a Postmodern Era (pp. 62 73). Reston, VA: National Art Education Association. Retrieved from http://www.melalexenberg. com/about the artwork.php?id=11 Billig S. (2007). Youth s ervice l earning: A f amily s trengthening s trategy National Human Service Assembly, 21 (1), 1 25. Retrieved from w ww.nassembly.org/fspc Boiten, A. & Stimson, R. (2003). Education as an essential tool for finding solutions. Global solutions: An internet community takes on globalization, 87 91. Buffington, M. (2007). The big idea: Service l earning and art education. Art Education, 60 (6), 40 45. Checkoway, B. (1996). Combining service and learning on camp us and in the community. Phi Delta Kappan, 77 (1), 600 606. Claus, J. & Ogden, C. (1999). Service l earning for y outh e mpowerment and s ocial c hange Peter Lang Publishing Group Deans, T. (1999). Service y in relation to Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning. 6 (fall), 15 29.
39 Dewey, J. (1959). Letters of John Dewey to Robert V. Daniels, 1946 1950. Journal of the History of Ideas, 20 (4), 569 576. Duckenfield, M. & Madden, S (2000). An orientation to service learning, Service Learning Across the Curriculum University press of America. Haque, M., Tai, L. & Mey, B. (2000). Horticulture; planning and landscape architecture; and sociology. Service Learning Across the Curriculum University press of America. Kim, Y. (2010). Korea can survive when frame of education change s Seoul: Maeil Business publications. Kretzmann, J.P. & McKnight, J.L. (1993). Building Communities from the Inside Out: A Path Toward Finding and Mobilizing a Chicago: ACTA Publications. Kupiec, T. (1993). Rethinking tradition: Integrating service with academic study on college campuses. Campus Compact/The Education Commission of the States. Leshnoff, S. (2003). Teaching art, moral conduct & John Dewey for today. Art education, 56 (6), 33 39. Madden, S. (2000). Service learning across the curriculum University press of America. McAleavey, S. (1995). A theory of human behavior and service learning Campus Compact/The Education Commission of the States. Neill, J. (2005). John Dewey: Philosophy of education Retrieved from http://www.wilderdom.com/experiential/JohnDeweyPhilosophyEducation.html Neperud, R. W. (1995). Context, Content, and Community in Art Education: Beyond Postmodernism New Y ork: Teachers College Press. Retrieved from http://www.melalexenberg.com/about the artwork.php?id=11
40 Pipher M ( 200 2 ). In p raise of h ometowns ; Staying h ome in the g lobal v illage Unitarian Universalist Association UU World 17 ( 2 ), 39 41 Retrieved from h ttp://www.uuworld.org/2003/02/feature3.html Quinn, T., Ploof, J. & Hochtritt, L. (2012). Art and social justice education Routledge. Saltmarsh, J. (1996). Education for critical citizenship: John Dewey s contribution to the pedagogy of community service l earning. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 1 (3), 13 21. Stankiewicz, M. ( 20 0 1 ). Roots of art education practice Davis publications. Sweet, K. (1996). The Chicago Public Art Group : Local Color. T h e University of Chicago Magazine R etrieved f rom http://www.muralart.org/gude.htm Taylor, P.G. (2002). Service Learning as Postmodern Art and Pedagogy. Studies in Art Education 43 (2), 124 140. Taylor, P.G. (2004). Service Learning and a Sense of Place. Journal of Cultural Research in Art Education. 22 (1), 33 44. Taylor, P.G., & Ballengee Morris, C. (2004). Service learning: A language of we. Art Educ ation, 57 (5), 6 12. Wright, J. (1975). Who should teach art? Art Education, 28 (2), 12 13. Yeh, L. (2011). Awakening Creativity: Dandelion School Blos soms New Village Press Retrieved from http://www.yesmagazine.org/happiness/creativity blossoms in the great migration Online Network International Education and Resource Network (iEARN) http://www.iearn.org TakingITGlobal (TIG) http://www.tigweb.org
41 A ppendix A UFIRB 02 Social & Behavioral Research Protocol Submission Form This form must be typed. Send this form and the supporting documents to IRB02, PO Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611. Should you have questions about completing this form, call 35 2 392 0433. Title of Protocol: Service learning art project Principal Investigator: Ahran Koo UFID #: Degree / Title: Master of Arts / Graduate Student Mailing Address: ( If on campus include PO Box address ): Email: email@example.com Department: Art Education (College of Fine Arts) Telephone #: Co Investigator(s): UFID#: Email: Supervisor (If PI is student) : Craig Roland UFID#: Degree / Title: Ed.D. / Associate Professor Mailing Address: ( If on campus include PO Box address ): 101 FAC P.O.Box115801, Gainesville, FL, 32611 5801 Email : firstname.lastname@example.org Department: Art Education (College of Fine Arts) Telephone #: Date of Proposed Research: Jan. 25, 2013 Source of Funding (A copy of the grant proposal must be submitted with thi s protocol if funding is involved): None Scientific Purpose of the Study: The objective of this study is to devise a conceptual service learning model for Korean art education. Se rvice learning is not currently widespread in Korean education even th ough service learning is the one of the effective ways to improve social development as well as students individual growth. Service learning makes students develop a sense of connectedness to their society, so this study will help students understand the real meaning of community service and their role in society. Describe the Research Methodology in Non Technical Language: ( Explain what will be done with or to the research participant. ) I will interview 1 ) volunteers who participate in community servi ce and work in non government organization (NGO); 2 ) art educators and art administrators in the field of education; and 3 ) college students who have an experience of service learning.
42 Describe Potential Benefits: Korean students would be able to better understand the real meaning of community service and their role in society Similarly, art educators in Korea would become more aware of the benefits of service learning, and would be encouraged in integrating service learning programs into their curricul um. Describe Potential Risks: ( If risk of physical, psychological or economic harm may be involved, describe the steps taken to protect participant.) T he outcome of this study is a sample only and as such, I will not be able to test the practical implemen tation and effectiveness of the service learning model in Korea. The impact of service learning on non Korean lives may not be directly translated into the Korean system due to culture differences. Describe How Participant(s) Will Be Recruited : I will contribute to the Franklin County Project which is a local community art project and developed as an extension of Arts and Healthcare for Rural Communities in Franklin County, Florida in March, 2013 I will interview several volunteers or colleg e students during the project. Maximum Number of Participants (to be approached with consent) 10 Age Range of Participants: 20 55 Amount of Compensation/ course credit: None Describe the Informed Consent Process. (Attach a Copy of the Informed Consent Document. ) (SIGNATURE SECTION) Principal Investigator(s) Signature: Date: Jan. 25, 2013 Co Investigator(s) Signature(s): Date: Date: Feb. 6, 2013 Department Chair Signature: Date:
43 Appendix B
45 List of Figures Figure 1. The Apalachicola Senior Center. ................................ ................................ ................... 16 Figure 2. The design of a new garden for Apalachicola Senior Center by Murphy Pak. ............. 17 Figure 3. A construction view of the new garden at the Apalachicola Senior Center. ................. 18 Figure 4. Materi als for the mosaic. ................................ ................................ ................................ 19 Figure 5. Students volunteers, Stebbins and I. ................................ ................................ .............. 19 Figure 6. Instructors and students preparing the mosaic materials: Sullivan, Stebbins, Murphy Pak, Kitakis Spano and me. ................................ ................................ .......................... 20 Figure 7. Mrs. Kitakis Spano drawing the background of the mosaic ................................ ......... 21 Figure 8. Part of the mosaic background painted by me. ................................ .............................. 21 Figure 9. Students volunteers creating the mosaic: Stebbins and me. ................................ ........... 22 Figure 10. Working with the mosaic as a member of the Art Team. ................................ ............ 23 Figure 11. Creating a mosaic with community membe rs in the Apalachicola Senior Center. ...... 23 Figure 12. Signatures of the community members who participated in the mosaic process. ........ 24 Figure 13. Kitakis Spano working the mosaic. ................................ ................................ ............. 25 Figure 14. The dedication ceremony with community members in the garden. ........................... 2 6 F igure 15. Edible plants: t omatoes and herbs. ................................ ................................ ............... 26 Figure 16. Planting trees and vegetables in the garden. ................................ ................................ 27 Figure 17. The completed edible garden with a mosaic in the Apalachicola Senior Center. ........ 27 Figure 18. The completed mosaic by the Art Team. ................................ ................................ ..... 28
46 Biog raphical Sketch Ahran Koo is an artist and art educator. She was born on November 27, 19 80 in Seoul, Korea. She grew up mostly Seoul, graduating from in 1999. She earned her B .F. A and M F A in Korean Painting from Ewha Woman s University in Korea and graduate d magna cum laude Her extensive experiences in community service can be seem in some of her former and current activities which include: The Pacific Asia Society (PAS) Youth Corps volunteering in Malabon, t he Philippines and Tianjin, China ; Korea Internet Volunteers (KIV) to Moscow, Russia ; m ural painting project s with disabled students at HanKook WoonJin School in Seoul, Korea and seniors at Alachua County Senior Center in Gainesville, Florida, USA ; New College Movement (NCM) at Ewha Womans University in Seoul, Korea; Otra Cosa Network (OCN) Volunteer in Huanchaco, Peru etc Through the services, she realized the benefits of service learning and art education which led her to focus on service learning art projects Ahr an had taught high school students in Korea for 6 years as an art teacher and advocate d that art can enrich the quality of lives. In particular, she would like to contribute to improve the lives of socio economically disadvantaged people in developing coun tries. Upon completion of her M A. program in Art Education at University of Florida Ahran is offered the University Fellowship for Ph.D program in Art Administration, Education, and Policy from Ohio State University. She will continuously study communi ty based art education and service learning through art education in the United States and encourage other people to help others and enjoy their lives with art