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KING HUNTER By ELENA K. DAHL SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE: WES KLINE CHAIR SERGIO VEGA MEMBER CRAIG SMITH MEMBER A PROJECT IN LIEU OF THESIS PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF FINE ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 201 3
! 2013 Elena K. Dahl
! # TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .................................................................. ...............................5 ABSTRACT........................................................................................ ...............................6 INTRODUCTION..... ........... ............................................................... ......................... ...... 8 CHAPTER ONE: HUNTING THE MAD BEAST OF HABIT.............. ..............................12 CHAPTER TWO: REDECORATING THE CELL.................................... ........................15 CHAPTER THREE: BELONGING IN THE WRONG PLACE.......... .............................. .. 18 WORKS CITED............................................................................................................... 21 PLATES....................................................................................................................... ... 23 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH............................................................................................. 28
! $ To Susan
! % ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Many thanks to my committee members: Wes Kline, for his technical support generosity, and always surprising questions that took me off guard and, in doing so, helped evolve the work. To Dr./Coach Craig Smith, whose unflagging enthusiasm, positivity, and utter disinterest in failure kept me forward thinking. And to Sergio Vega, for his intricate readi ngs and frank meaningful advice. Much gratitude to Dr. Judith Page, Director, and Donna Tuckey, Office Manager of the Cent er for Women's Studies and Gender Research for opening Ustler Hall to me. They allowed me to work so freely in this historically significant, beautiful space, reconfiguring and adding to it as I saw fit, and I am truly appreciative of their hospitality. S pecial praise goes to my parents, Susan and Peter Dahl, for their longtime encouragement of my various endeavors, and for helping me lay the groundwork for King Hunter, literally and figuratively. Great appreciation and love to my friends, Cailey Ambrose for being there always, including when eight boxes of tiles needed to be schlepped up a staircase. To Kelly Swope for his writerly input from afar, and for his assistance with the completion of the diagram after stepping off a midnight plane. To Budd Dees for his damn good suggestions and for being my grad school partner in crime. And to my roommate Marie Oh, who has been sitting directly in my field of vision the entire time I've been writing this, singing "How Do I Live Without You" on her makeshift floor couch. Throughout these three years she provided an essential lightness that lift ed the heavy thoughts on my mind.
! & Summary of P roject in Lieu of Thesis Presented to the College of Fine Arts of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Fine Arts KING HUNTER By Elena Dahl May 2013 Chair: Wes Kline Major: Art The philosophical approach of deconstruction has proven incredibly valuable for feminist thought and creati ve practice It demonstrates that what structures put women in their "place" can be dis placed through revealing the gendered ways those structures produce meaning. It encourages suspicion of any attempt to enact laws that would schematize an essentialist female specificity, and it employs language as a method of troubling claims to totalizing truths. Beginning around 1970, female artists started making visible the voids where women had been excluded from the art historical canon and by the (masculine) self reflexivity of the modernist avant garde through strategies of ironic revisions, strategic mimesis, collective actions, and parody. My work engages with this tradition, asking: Today, what remains of "woman," if not as a universal figure, then as an artis tic/activist/philosophical subject after her deconstruction? If she is to winkingly parody herself, a popular strategy in current feminist art practice, when does that parody become repetition that reifies oppressive power structures instead of changing th em, selling quickly to an art market eager to seem self conscious, edgy, and
! always new? If she is to mime patriarchal authority, and in so doing point to her position outside it, then where can she return, where is her home, if not infinitely outside? Wit h these questions my MFA thesis, King Hunter, appropriates a diagram of a revolutionary midcentury modern kitchen, designed by Margaret King Hunter. King Hunter was dissatisfied with the way male architects built kitchens that were hidden away in the back of the house. Her kitchen was meant to make ho usewives freer, allowing them to move about with streamlined ease, cooking and watching their children at the same time. Comprised of patterned vinyl floor tiles, this diagram is installed in the atrium of the University of Florida Center for Women's Stud ies and Gender Research, an impeccably preserved, nationally registered historic site. The building also was once the former UF women's basketball court. Throughout the space plays audio that mixes recordings of the current UF Gators women's basketball tea m practicing, sounds of a building being demolished, and the ironic laughter of Richard Wagner's Kundry. Instead of an academic model that points to more gaps where women weren't represented, the diagram has become not a plan for progress but a form that breaks the optical neutrality of the atrium with violent pops of color. It disappears into the building (being floor on floor) as much as it takes it over (being pure, bright, displaced color that moves the eye in all directions, problematizing the iconogr aphy of the other objects in the space that convey linear narratives of women's progress .) King Hunter revels in the joy of bringing things together and separating them, making fun of one's own fears, animating connections, creating problems. The impossibi lity of being "woman" establishes new modes of feminine expression.
! ( Lost in your labyrinth you look for me without even realizing that this maze is built from my flesh. You have put me inside out and you look for me in retroversion where you can't find me. You are lost in me, far from me. You have forgotten that I also have an interior... 1 Through an organized menagerie of 1950s Americana bought on eBay, webcams of natural phenomena, poetry scratched into film, scrap heaps that leak RGB blue, protest s igns, digital self portraits, and patterned surfaces within institutional architectures, my research and work to point to the possibilities that emerge when the limits to representability are exposed. The work is explicitly concerned with contemporary repr esentations of femininit y, non linear notions of progress, and with the question of how to wield power as a woman in an arguably postfeminist age. Over the course of my time in graduate school, I became conscious of myself as a feminist artist working in a University that commissioned the permanent installation of a two story statue of a male dancer whispering romantically to his female counterpart a scene straight out of a Nutcracker snow globe, in front of the campus's main library. A funny site, this un ironical anachronistic monstrosity literally blocking one's view of the designated place for innovative research. Interested in such physical contradictions at UF, I became drawn to artists who were engaged with how the physical site of art is construc ted by social, economic, and political processes. Mierle Laderman Ukeles, Andrea Frasier, and Daniel Buren all influenced my understanding of how bodies moving through and laboring in institutions could physically and ideologically !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 1 Irigaray, L. "O et comment habiter?" Les Cahiers du Grif 26 (March 1983), 27. Issue on Jouir.
! ) transform how those spac es operate. My growing interest in cultural representations of women was partly fueled by a resurgence in widely publicized political arguments over women's sexuality and reproductive rights, 2 and partly also on account of deeply personal questions I had about my own femininity I started looking for modern day anachronistic representations of domesticated and/or surrendering women, and I found them everywhere: greeting cards featuring snarky text superimposed on 1950's housewives, bestsellers like Fifty S hades of Grey, and on the covers of major news magazines Newsweek and Time. 3 I began to seek out physical and ideological spaces made by and for people questioning constructions of gender identity. My work needed these spaces to make its meaning. The sea rch took me to Ustler Ha ll. Ustler Hall is a nationally registered historic site that was originally a sports venue and home to the Gators men 's basketball team. When UF became co ed in 1948 and the audience for the men's basketball games grew significantly, UF built a bigger gym for the men and gave the old, smaller one to the women. Though it stopped being used for sporting events in 1979 and there was talk of demolishing the building, it was preserved. In 2004 the building was restored, and in 2006 the Women's Studies Department moved in, making it the first building on the UF campus renamed to honor a woman and the only freestanding campus building in the United States devote d solely to Women's and Gender Studies. As an academic discipline, Women's St udies is barely forty years old; what !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 2 Despite a growing global awareness that women's full participation in society promotes democracy, peace, and sustainability, 2012 and 2013 saw many U.S. efforts made to restrict abortion rights, limit women's access to contraceptives, and cut federal fund ing to women's health programs like Planned Parenthood. 3 An April 2009 Time cover reads: "The State of the American Woman: A new poll shows why they are more powerful but less happy." An April 2012 Newsweek cover featuring a glamorous, blindfolded woman reads: "The Fantasy Life of Working Women: Why surrender is a feminist dream."
! *+ began as a radical critique of institutional power is now a legitimate, respected scholarly field In her introduction to the book Women's Studies on its Own, Robyn Wiegman asks a series of provocative questions concerning the curre nt state of academic feminism: Has [it] betrayed its radical political roots, substituting abstraction for action, legitimacy for risk? Have the emergent generati ons of professionally trained feminists abandoned their foremothers' tradition by making feminism an academic career? Has our success, in short, engendered failure, transforming grassroots social movement and anti institutional ethics into prototypically l iberal and hence reformis t, not revolutionary, ideals? 4 These were similar questions my peers and I had been asking about art school and the larger art market simultaneously mocking the notion of "selling out" while fiercely competing for grants, scholarships, and recognition under the institutional umbrella. We were ambivalent about artist and UF graduate Kymia Nawabi winning the Bravo reality TV show "Work of Art." To some, being sponsored by a major TV network that owned th e rights to an artist's work cancelled out her artistic credibility, while to others, she had found a path for the promotion of her work, a necessary decision every artist must make. Who's a sell out and who isn't? To think beyond these sometimes debilitat ing and probably impossible questions, Wiegman suggests that academic feminists (and, to my mind, young artists in art school) can "inaugurate an object crisis !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 4 Wiegman, Robyn. Women's Studies on Its Own: A next Wave Reader in Institutional Change Durham: Duke UP, 2002. Print, p. 6.
! ** for the field" 5 that might playfully attempt to make this field strange through illuminating the ways it's indelibly shaped by immediate institutional forces, casting odd shadows on the icons and obj ects it uses to legitimize itself to the state Walking through Ustler Hall, one finds many objects loaded with histories of female progress and women generally being excellent. Display cases feature faculty's books on representations of women in pre modern China, framed photographs of UF female champion athletes hang on the atrium walls; a nod to the building's past life. Strategically placed at the top of the stairs, there is a photograph of a blazer clad elderly woman labeled with a gold plaque: "Daphne Beatrice Alexander Duval (now Duval Williams:) First black woman to en roll at UF, January 1959." All throughout hang paintings of Florida palm trees. In the library on the former women's track, a halfway stocked bookshelf containing various texts on feminist theory and women's history sits next to a totally empty bookshelf. I do not mock the various triumphs of these athletes on the wall and the richness of the activists' texts in the bookshelf, nor can I begin to understand what it must have been like to be the only black woman at a Southern university during the early rumb lings of the American Civil Rights Movement. What is unsettling is the way these triumphant images so easily become framed, packaged, into what Jeanette McVicker calls a University's tendency to represent itself through a "politics of excellence." She writ es, "Transnational corporations increasingly demand workers with technological skills and a common core experience.' Defining that common core' is also the goal of conservative administrators and educators who seek to reinscribe the centrality of an Amer ican !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 5 Ibid., p. 3
! *" heritage and Western civilization perceived to have been shattered' in the aftermath of the 1960s student protests." 6 These protests provided the very foundation for Women's Studies. And yet the Center for Women's Studies and Gender Research must co ntend with the agenda of arch Conservative Florida businessman turned governor Rick Scott, who created a task force in 2012 aimed at lowering tuition for students pursuing degrees most needed for Florida's job market (science, engineering, technology, math ) and raising tuition for students whose interests lay in the humanities. 7 Hunting the Mad Beast of Habit I wanted to trouble these objects that seemed to be too neatly excellent, and the historical site as an object itself, by introducing a parasite o f sorts into the Women's Studies building, one that highlighted the strangeness of these icons by seeming "wrong" in itself. "The inauguration of an object crisis for the field." In his essay "The Crisis of the Object," the surrealist Andr Breton demanded that everyday objects should be assigned different functions, rebelling against their utilitarianism through a process of mystification, the goal being to "hunt down the mad beast of habit." 8 What guest could be more antithetical to the habits of a progressive, academic setting than an anachronistic kitchen boasting sincerely about the revolutionary potential it offered for women? !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 6 McVicker, Jeanette Women's Studi es on Its Own: A next Wave Reader in Institutional Change Durham: Duke UP, 2002. Print, p. 235 7 See Alvarez, Lizette. "Florida May Reduce Tuition for Select Majors." The New York Times Th e New York Times, 10 Dec. 2012. 8 As quoted by Klingshr Leroy, Cathrin, and Uta Grosenick. Surrealismus Kln: Taschen, 2004. Print, p. 80.
! *# Enter Margaret King Hunter, a midcentury modern architect who, in 1956, designed a house with a kitchen that occupied t he center of the house rather than its far, hidden corners, as was common in most homes at the time. On account of her growing dissatisfaction with male architects' designs, she designed a kitchen "to suit her needs as a mother, cook, and laundress;" walls came down so she could cook and watch the children simultaneously. To anyone with a slightly ironic sensibility, her progress was slight; she was only designing for women a sleeker, more functional and perhaps more bear able, version of the same trap: a fe minine identity linked to the kitchen, fueling the patriarchal notio n of where a woman "belonged." But something powerful hid within King Hunter's kitchen diagram. I imagined it emptied of all historical context, the text indicating "oven" and "sink" erase d. It could have the potential to become something entirely un kitchen like. A string of messages without codes, an undefined game space, a purely decorous form. Giles Deleuze discusses the diagram in terms of its nonrepresentative traits comprised of col or patches, lines, and zones. He acknowledges that making diagrams is a kind of silent, preparatory, and invisible work, but that their power lies in their freedom from signification. He writes: Because they are destined to give us the Figure, it is all t he more important for the traits and color patches [of the diagram] to break with figuration. This is why they are not sufficient in themselves, but must be utilized.' They mark out possibilities of fact, but do not yet constitute a fact (the pictorial fa ct.) In order to be converted into a fact, in order to evolve into a Figure, they must be reinjected into the visual whole; but it is
! *$ precisely through the action of these marks that the visual whole will cease to be an optical organization; it will give t he eye another power, as well as an object tha t will no longer be figurative. 9 The question remains what is King Hunter doing here among these women who really have achieved something great? Her legacy was minor at best. She designed an efficient kitchen; she is decidedly not someone who was interested in questioning the fact of women's domain being the kitchen in the first place, she was a groundbreaker in the very literal sense of her being an architect. If nothing else, her floor plan may suggest the pos sibility of restructuring the walls of this recen tly legitimized space for women in the same way the kitchen was a legitimate space for women in King Hunter's day. Another question: what is the function of Women's Studies, and what does King Hunter's proj ect offer it? Must Women's Studies be defined as "a project to write women back into the historical record to fill the gaps and correct the omissions in the archive," as Ma rlene Manoff so neatly puts it? 10 And, moreover, in making these corrections, thus be coming a historical authority, does the field of women's studies risk losing its institutionally critical beginnings and becoming "just another cell in the academic beehive," as Jacques Derrida posits, referring to the original dilemma nam ed at the outset of this paper? 11 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9 Deleuze, Gilles. Francis Bacon: The Logic of Sensation Minneapolis: Univer sity of Minnesota, 2004. Print, pp. 101 102. 10 Manoff, Marlene. "Theories of the Archive from Across the Disciplines." Portal: Libraries and the Academy 4.1 (2004): 9 25. Print, p. 15. 11 Derrida, J. "Women in the Beehive: A Seminar with Jacques Derrida." Differences 16.3 (2005): 139 57. Print, p. 142.
! *% Redecorating t he Cell Instead of a model that points to more gaps where women weren't represented, a list that could go on forever and positions women as always having to catch up from somewhere outside the sphere of recognition, I have used King Hunter's kitchen diagram, and it was meant for use. GE was so impressed with it that they built the kitchen in houses throughout the United States (an example of how a revolutionary gesture becomes patented and sold to further the interests of the nation state.) But I have transformed its intended use into something non utilitarian, in a similar manner to the way Mona Hatoum's cheese grater becomes a six foot torture device that could slice off a hand. The functi onal parts (oven, sink, fridge) are removed and "filled in" with colored Vinyl Composition Tile, a flooring material popularized in the 1950s that is mainly used today in commercial and institutional settings. The diagram has become not a plan for progres s but a form that breaks the optical neutrality of the atrium with violent pops of color. It disappears into the building (being floor on floor) as much as it takes it over (being pure, bright, displaced color that moves the eye.) The tiles are not adhered to the floor, which is actually quite slippery. I thought after several days of its existence, it would begin to shake a little from people having walked on it, thought it could pose a hazard, but no one messed it up at all. It stayed clean, ordered, tact fully preserved like the building it lived in. On one level, the work can be compared to that of Daniel Buren, who has created large scale, site specific architectural installations using a striped motif since the late 1960s. Buren writes:
! *& In all my work there is the question of the boundary between what is decorative and what isn't, because the thing that hung on the wall itself becomes the wall. Here we come to another problem: this seems to imply that the wall itself it decorative! And here we (the view er) lose all points of reference and the question starts to become interesting. 12 The framed images of athletes, the grid they're in, vibrates visually with the gridded colors on the floor. A quote from King Hunter regarding the "decadence" of traditional a rchitecture hangs, sail like, in the library on the second floor of the building, backed with decorous drawings of glasses emptying themselves; in the background of this spinning sail is the half full bookshelf. 13 The knitted Women's Studies Program banner sits on a table with a recent issue of New York Magazine, whose cover story is called "The Retro Wife." The story highlights a woman who has chosen to be a stay at home mom because she wants to revert to the way men and women "should" be, quoting one woman as being "really grateful that my husband and I have fallen into traditional gender roles." 14 The athletic images become decorous, a library hovers between wanting to be full and wanting to be empty; a knitted sign is, like the retro wife, steeped in clic h s of !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 12 As q uoted in Hantelmann, Dorothea Von. How to Do Thi ngs with Art: The Meaning of Art's Performativity Zrich: JRP Ringier, 2010. Print p. 117 13 An excerpt from King Hunter's 1946 telegram to Wheaton College decrying its choice to build their new art center in the traditional Georgian style rather than a modernist style reads: "The restricting formula of traditional appearance inevitably imposes functional difficultiesThe major characteristic of all great architecture is its reflection of the life and techniques of its time and its freedom from the decade nce of empty book clichs which do not represent the thoughts and abilities of living people." For a full scan of the telegram, see Stickney, Zephorene L. "Academics." The Competition's Aftermath Making It Modern Wheaton College, n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013. *$ Miller, Lisa. "The Retro Wife." Editorial. New York Magazine 17 Mar. 2013: 20 25. NYMag.com 17 Mar. 2013. Web. 18 Mar. 2013.
! *' domesticated femininity International maritime signal flags hung in the rafters turn the building into a fully dressed ship, signifying old codes that have been turned into celebratory decoration. With the system of international maritime signal fl ags, flags represent individual letters of the alphabet and, when combined in certain ways, communicate messages between ships. During special occasions and holidays, a ship will display all its flags. The flags N (meaning "Negative,") U ("you are running into danger") and K ("I wish to communicate with you,") C ("Affirmative,") and X ("stop carrying out your intentions and watch for my signals") are all echoed in my diagram. The presence of the dissatisfied King Hunter in Ustler Hall reveals that there is always going to be an architectural excess, a part of a building steeped in multiple traditions that goes beyond functionality, efficiency, economy, and success, and into realms of ornament, affect, unsystematic forces and energies. A sound element playin g throughout the space further animates these spatial remainders. Belonging in the Wrong Place The hour long sound begins with the shouts and squeaking shoes of the UF women's basketball team. They are practicing. Suddenly, one player yells: "It's quiet in here, it's quiet in here!" Two operatic laughs from Kundry, the femme fatale from Wagner's Parsifal, cut through the silence, then sounds of a building being demolished at a construction site begin to weave throughout the players' practice. In Wagner's opera Kundry laughs at Christ while he carries his cross because she sees how he finds joissance in his suffering, undermining the notion that Christ is pure and
! *( expressing despair that there is no Master who can be a reliable support. Because of her laughter, she is cursed to wander the earth until Christ returns. Slavoj !i"ek writes of the subver sive power of Kundry's laughter that it is "The ironic undermining of the sphere of power, the denunciation of its fake, through hysterical laughter. It is in Kundry that the feminine excess arrives at its truth: that of the hysterical inconsistency, of no t wanting what one claims to want. With Kundry, the woman is no longer a substantial force opposing itself to the male object, but the pure non substantial excess of subjectivity itself" 15 Similarly, Marx emphasizes that the moment the proletariat experien ces himself as a subject is the moment he finds himself most alienated, reduced to a commodity and emptied of all content. What if Women's Studies, which began as a critique of the patriarchal structure of universities, did not want the proportional repres entation it once claimed to want? Rather than establishing itself as a legitimate discipline within the larger (still patriarchal) hierarchy of the corporatized University, what if it turned to face its representation as "another cell in the University bee hive," functional like all the other cells, and realized this is not what it wanted after all? What if the building r ead the flyer it houses, the flyer that declares: "On its own or as a double major with a more traditional field, International Perspectiv es on Gender serves as an excellent preparation for L aw, Business, or Medical School merely as the banner for a construction site owned and operated by Florida governor Rick Scott and shook with the strangeness of such an idea ? Does this not start to so und eerily similar to the way King Hunter's revolutionary kitchen was so quickly !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! *% Zizek, S. "The Feminine Excess: Can Women Who Hear Divine Voices Find a New Social Link?" Millennium Journal of Internatio nal Studies 30.1 (2001): 93 109. Print, pp. 15 16.
! *) patented and replicated to serve the capitalist desires of the nation state, whose interests were secured when women stayed in the kitchen? In first calling attention to the quietness of the building, then invoking a fictional woman who laughs at her masters, the sound begins with an injunction to radically change the functionality of a physical space, and playfully trouble its ideologies of efficiency and excellence. The atmo sphere that plays out is the building thinking itself within the midst of its "object crisis," negotiating between the memory of its original function as (a hand me down) athletic space and the fantasy about its own architectural instability, its potential to be radically altered once it has become too comfortable with itself. This is the spaciality I am proposing for Women's Studies and also for women living in an allegedly postfeminist age: a spacial awareness that occurs through a constant questioning of its own validity and necessity as being marked as essentially different from other spheres and sexed bodies a consciousness that makes apparent and embraces messy contradictions In her book, One Place After Another, Miwon Kwon engages with a variety of artists using site specific strategies in their art practice. Her last chapter deals with the notion of the "wrong" place, a place to which we do not necessarily belong. As inhabitants of such a place, we need to "understand ...seeming oppositions as sustaining relations. 16 Like the architectural movements of the Neo Gothic (the building style of Ustler Hall) followed by the midcentury m odern (King Hunter's style ) the languages of feminism have been historically defined agains t and out from the constraining traditions !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! *& Kwon, Miwon. One Place after Another: Site specific Art and Locational Identity Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2002. Print, p. 166.
! "+ of the preceding "waves." An incredibly brief and linear narrative: First wave feminism, largely propelled by middle class white women, focused on suffrage in the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries. Second wave fe minists fought for reproductive rights and social equality from the 1960s 90s, seeking universal sisterhood and drawing in women from developing nations and women of color. In the third "wave," the one we ride now, concepts like the existence of universal womanhood championed by preceding feminists have been brought into the light and destabilized. Differences are celebrated, derogatory words like "slut" and "bitch" have been re appropriated to deny sexist culture its verbal weapons, and what has been descr ibed as a second wave tendency towards victimhood has been replaced with rhetoric of empowerment, in which feminine beauty is defined by women for themselves as subjects, rather than as objects of male desire. If it is clich to think of feminism in waves too neat of a historical package, I at least like the metaphor, because an ocean wave is indeed a series of "sustained relations." Each wave is formed in respect to the strength of the wind over the water, responding to whatever solid surface it contacts and slowly eroding that surface. Each wave new, ca rrying with it sailing and sunken ships, violently dredging up things we assumed had drowned unmooring us from our dry and comfortable stations. Works Cited Stickney, Zephorene L. "Academics." The Competition's Aftermath Making It Modern Wheaton College, n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013. Alvarez, Lizette. "Florida May Reduce Tuition for Select Majors." The New York Times
! "* The New York Times, 10 Dec. 2012. Web. 18 Feb. 2013. Deleuze, Gilles. Francis Bacon: The Logic of Sensation Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2004. Print. Derrida, J. "Women in the Beehive: A Seminar with Jacques Derrida." Differences 16.3 (2005): 139 57. Print. Grosz, E. A. Architecture from the Outside: Essays on Virtual and Real Space Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2001. Print. Hantelmann, Dorothea Von. How to Do Things with Art: The Meaning of Art's Performativity Zrich: JRP Ringier, 2010. Print. "Housewife's House." Life 24 Dec. 1956: 135 37. Print. Kwon, Miwon. One Place after Anot her: Site specific Art and Locational Identity Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2002. Print. Malabou, Catherine. Changing Difference: The Feminine and the Question of Philosophy Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2011. Print. Miller, Lisa. "The Retro Wife." Editorial. New York Magazine 17 Mar. 2013: 20 25. NYMag.com 17 Mar. 2013. Web. 18 Mar. 2013. Manoff, Marlene. "Theories of the Archive from Across the Disciplines." Portal: Libraries and the Academy 4.1 (2004): 9 25. Print. Wiegman, Robyn. Women's Studies on Its Own: A next Wave Reader in Institutional
! "" Change Durham: Duke UP, 2002. Print. Zizek, S. "The Feminine Excess: Can Women Who Hear Divine Voices Find a New Social Link?" Millennium Journal of International Studies 30.1 (2001): 93 109. Print.
! "( BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Born in 1987 in Akron, Ohio, Elena K. Dahl is an artist currently living and practicing in Gainesville, FL. She received her BA in Fine Arts from the College of Wooster in Wooster, OH. She is a graduate of the University of Florida's School of Art + Art History where she received MFA in Photography in 2013 Dahl has been included in various national exhibitions including "Public/Private" at Woman Made Gallery in Chicago, IL and "Monu_mental" at Antenna Gallery i n New Orleans, LA. She has participated in artist residencies at Vermont Studio Center in John son, VT and ACRE in Steuben, WI. T his summer she will travel to Germany to participate in Berlin's Month of Performance Art and continue her creative practice in Berlin at the artist residency HomeBase BUILD.