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ATTITUDES TOWARD HOMOSEXUAL S IN GUYANA ( 2013 ) Report prepared by
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 2 of 50 CONTENTS SYNOPSIS ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 6 INTRODUC TION, METHODOLOGY AND LIMITATIONS ................................ ................................ .......... 8 Table 01: ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 8 Region of Interview ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 8 SURVEY DEMOGRAPHICS ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 11 Table 02: Sex of Respondent ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 11 Table 03: Race of Respondent ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 11 Table 04: Age Range of Respondent ................................ ................................ .......................... 11 ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 11 ................................ ................................ ..................... 12 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 12 ................................ ................................ ............. 12 ................................ ................................ ............ 12 ................................ ................................ 12 Table 11: Religious Orientation ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 14 ATTITUDE TOWARD HOMOSEXUALS ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 16 Table 12: Scale of Acceptability ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 18 UNDERSTANDING OF HOMOSEXUALITY ................................ ................................ ............................. 20 ................................ ................................ ...... 22 Table 14: Most important source in the formation of views and opinions on Human Sexuality ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 22 Table 15: Schools should teach children scientific facts about Homosexuality as part of sex and sexuality education? ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 23 ATTITUDE TOWARDS DISCRIMINATION/VIOLENCE AGAINST SEXUAL MINORITIES .......................... 24 ATTITUDE TOWARDS LEGISLATI ON ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 28 Table 16: Views and opinions on existing Laws ................................ ................................ ........ 30 Table 17: Moral and Practical Priorities ................................ ................................ ...................... 36 COMPARATIVE GUYANESE ATTITUDES ................................ ................................ ............................... 37 APPENDICES ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 40 Appendix I: Survey Instrument ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 40 Appendix II: Locatio n of Interviews ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 48
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 3 of 50 Figure 1: Sexual Orientation (Declared) ................................ ................................ ................................ 13 Figure 2: Religious Persuasion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 14 Figure 3: Gay Associations ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 15 Figure 4: General Attitudes Toward homosexuals ................................ ................................ ................ 16 Figure 5: Impact of Religion on Attitude ................................ ................................ ............................... 17 Figure 6: Impact of Association with Homosexuals ................................ ................................ .............. 18 Figure 7: Response to Homosexual Awareness ................................ ................................ .................... 19 Figure 8: Meaning of the word "Homosexual" ................................ ................................ ..................... 20 Figure 9: Origin of Homosexuality ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 21 Figure 10: Is Homosexuality an "Illness" that can be cured? ................................ ................................ 21 Figure 11: Violence against Gays or Sexual Minorities "IS" D iscrimination ................................ .......... 24 Figure 12: "Homophobia" can contribute to... ................................ ................................ ..................... 25 Figure 13: Acceptable to treat people differently (Discriminate) on the basis of... ............................. 26 Figure 14: The State needs to provide special protection from discrimination to... ............................ 27 Figure 15: General Support for the Guyana "Buggery" Law ................................ ................................ 28 Figure 16: Shoul d Homosexual Acts between Consenting Adults be Legal/Illegal (USA 1977 2010) .. 29 Figure 17: Rationale for Buggery Laws ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 32 Figure 18: "Common Law" Marriage versus "Same Sex" Marriage ................................ ...................... 32 Figure 19: Gay Rights Issues ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 33 Figure 20: Possible Reasons for Changing Laws ................................ ................................ .................... 34 Figure 21: The Guyanese State SHOULD penalise ................................ ................................ ................ 35 Figure 22: Legislative Preferences ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 36 Figure 23: Comparative Issues ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 38 Figure 24: Would change Party Support based on Gay Stance ................................ ............................ 39
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 4 of 50 SYNOPSIS Generally this survey demonstrates that Guyanese are largely either tolerant or accepting of homosexuals, with the quantity of persons that could genuinely be described as homophobic amounting to approximately 25% of the population. Conversely this means that 58 % of Guyanese are tolerant accepting while 17% were undecided It is al so immediately noticeable that homophobia or alternatively tolerance of homosexuals correlates directly with age, sex, race and to a lesser extent religion, place of origin and education. As such women, younger persons and Guyanese who were not born in G uyana tended to be more comfortable with homosexuals, while a ctive less well homophobic Notwithstanding the largely positive stance of the vast majority of Guyanese toward homosexuals it is also clear that fundamental misunderstandings exist among Guyanese regarding several basis facts about homosexuality and it is entirely possible that the se misunderstandings could impact negatively on attitudes. Guyanese generally think that homosexuality is largely a male phenomenon choice These are two misunderstandings that carry substantial baggage. There is also a heavy religious overtone regarding the proper location of sexual orientation and sexual expression, along with the presumption that the religious teaching With regard to discrimination (as manifested in violence) the survey demonstrates clearly that Guyanese do dislike the idea of violence against minorities and discrimination in all its manifestations. Moreover, Guyanese largely consider discrimination against homosexual wrong At the same time; however Guyanese do not seem to think that homosexuals are currently being discriminated against, or that the state needs to provide special protection for them. Interestingly, there is strong support for the provision of special protection s for P ersons L iving with AIDS (PLWA) and while some of these persons might be homosexual, there is no strong desire on the part of the population for specific protections for homosexuals against discrimination. The general Guyanese re action to the legislative environment that relates to homosexuals is to say the least, conflicting. A slender majority of Guyanes e support the retention of the b uggery law ; however further investigation reveals that many of these persons are both unfamiliar with the specific provisions of this law and when advised of the specifics believe it illogical instances. Notwithstanding there is a clear resistance o n the part of the population to let go of these laws which a majority standards as it relates to the propriety of Common Law m arriage, while the state is presumed to have an obligation to project religious principles as it relates to homosexual acts. Although there is no profound appetite for legislative change at this time, Guyanese believe that a clear demonstration that these laws are impacting negatively on the physical or psychological well being of young people or ad ults would provide good ground s for change. There is also support for change if it can be proven that the laws contribute to the spread of HIV/AIDS. It should be made clear; however that in neither instance has the survey demonstrated that Guyanese are convinced that either of these perils have manifested themselves locally on account of the existence of buggery laws.
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 5 of 50 The actually stated legislative preferences of Guyanese at this time are noteworthy since these speak to the activities that Guyanese wish to prevent. In this regard it is clear that Guyanese public sex are especially concerned about relations between two or three men. Although there is a stated preference for the retention of the buggery law, there is little interest in having the state prevent private sex between adults (of any sex) if that were possible. This peculiarity suggests that Guyanese are perhaps really concerned about public manifestations of sexual orientation as distinct from pr ivate manifestations and appear to b elieve that the changing of the laws would help to encourage these public manifestations. The juxtaposition of Guyanese support for decriminalisation (of homosexual acts) with their opinion on other major social issues d oes lend support to the suggestion that Guyanese are less committed to the retention of these law s than they are to issues like c orporal punishment which also have a religious justification. This distance is significant as is the finding in the survey that the position of a political party is not likely to affect its chances at the polls.
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 6 of 50 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This research was funded entirely by a research grant from the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office ( FCO) support for this project and inte rest in the broader subject matter as an aspect of Caribbean development is acknowledged with gratitude. Needless to say, the substance of this research was in no way influenced by the FCO and would in no way reflect the views or opinions. CADRES a nd SASOD as the primary partners are grateful to the FCO for their assistance and the interest shown in this project by FCO 2 nd Secretary (at that time) Mr Daniel rative requirements. This project was initially conceptualised by CADRES which executed a 2004 study on Barbados that was similar. Mr Joel Simpson of SASOD became aware of this study and quickly expressed an interest in having it replicated in Guyana. His personal interest in this work and contribution to initial negotiations to identify funding is therefore noted as distinct from any contribution that was later made by SASOD as an organisation. Similarly, the essential contribution of SASOD member Mr Jermaine Grant is noted since his individual contribution both to the development of the instrument and his management of the data collection and tabulation e xercises were indispensable Although this study was loosely based on a similar 2004 Barbados study, this present exercise represents a substantially improved research product which benefited from a considerably expanded research instrument that spoke to s everal issues that were contingent to and impacted on the Guyanese attitude toward homosexuals CADRES is grateful to the team of professionals who freely gave of their time to participate in the design of a comprehensive regional survey instrument and la ter comment ed on various drafts of this report. The specific names of persons who participated in the various aspects of the report are specifically identified here (in no particular order) with thanks: Initial Project Seminar (Port of Spain, Trinidad) Peter W. Wickham CADRES Kristen C. Hinds CADRES Jermaine Grant SASOD Tam a ra Sylvester CAISO Colin Robinson CAISO Brendon O'Brien CAISO Sheldon L. Daniel S X D Communication John Ha ssell UN AIDS Design and Refinement of Survey Instrument Peter W. Wickham CADRES Kristen C. Hinds CADRES Jermaine Grant SASOD Joel Simpson, SASOD Zenita Nicholson SASOD Tam a ra Sylvester CAISO Colin Robinson CAISO Nadine Lewis Agard, CAISO Arif Bulkan UWI Alana Griffith UWI J aneille M atthews UWI Tracy Robinson UWI Sheldon L. Daniel, SXD Communication John Hassell UN AIDS Data Collection and Tabulation Jermaine Grant, SASOD : Survey Team Leader
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 7 of 50 BACKGROUND This study is a seminal exploration of the Guyanese attitude toward homosexuals from different perspectives, but is also an individual component of a three country research project that sought to collect similar data in Trinidad and Tobago and Barbados. A similar study was first done b y CADRES in Barbados in 2004; however this was b ased on a small number of questions that were part of an omnibus UWI/CADRES study. In August of 2010 CADRES responded to an invitation from the Society Against Sexual Orientation Discrimination ( SASOD ) to present the Barbados findings to an OAS/LGBT Workshop on Human Rights in Georgetown and at this meeting discussion s were initiated to implement this 2013 study and expand the number of countries involved Having s ecured funding from the UK FCO for the execution of two identical studies in Guyana a nd Trinidad and Tobago and from the Barbados HIV/AIDS Commission for a similar Barbados study, CADRES solicited the assistance of a regional team that represented all relevant interests. Initially electronic contact was established with representatives fr om SASOD in Guyana, Trinidad and Coalition Advocating for Inclusion of Sexual Orientation ( CAISO ) and The United Gays & Lesbians Against AIDS Barbados ( UGLAAB ) in Barbados as well as academics from UWI with an interest in this issue. Thereafter a meeting was convened in Port of Spain with the principal researchers, which reflected on the 2004 study and identified specific research issues and received suggested questions which were later refined electronically. A single generic instrument was agreed upon in March of 2013 and deployed in all three territories around the same time; however it was agreed that it was unwise to rely on a research team that was exclusive ly drawn from any of the three LGBTQI organisatio ns since that would have presented a clear bias. Instead the partners agreed to the identification of country specific man agers that were known to CADRES, who would in turn recruit an independent team to collect and tabulate data in each instance. The re port that follows represents what could be considered a comprehensive presentation of data; however it was agreed that this report should not be seen or used as a strategic document. Instead SASOD and other partners would be expected to draw information f rom it to either inform their advocacy or to make pronouncements on specific aspects of any issue spoken to. The document is large, technical and perhaps presents too much data to be placed in the public domain, but should instead remain a resource for pe rsons or gro ups interested in these issues.
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 8 of 50 INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY AND LIMITATIONS The survey employed a stratified random sample of Guyana which identified as primary strata : Age; and Gender; In addition, other demographic information w as solicited and collated ; however the survey was not designed to replicate these characteristics in a manner that was proportionate to the population of Guyana Data that are presented in these instances would therefore bear some relation to the national sc enario, but would not be a conclusive indicator of the extent to which that variable is present in the population of Guyana Interviewers were each assigned areas based on a random selection normally associated with P olling D ivisions (PDs) in each administrative division. PDs are almost equal subdivisions of Administrative Divisions which are normally used for electoral purposes. In this instance; however the fact that PDs are numbered allowing for a random selection of specific divisions which were then roughly translated into geographical districts or zones. In each instance interviewers selected 12, 24, 36 or 48 households in a random manner ( one in three ) and conducted one face to face interview at each of 12, 24, 36 or 48 households. Interviewers were specifically advised not to conduct interviews in public areas like bars or among groups since the intention was to replicate national views and opinions based on a standard geographical distribution within households. The proportion Administrative Divisions is presented in Table 01 and Appendix II presents comprehensive information on the areas or districts in which interviews were conduct ed and the actual number of interviews conducted in each instance. Table 0 1: Region of Interview 1 4% 2 11% 3 17% 4 36% 5 7% 6 14% 7 3% 8 3% 9 3% 10 4%
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 9 of 50 The survey was largely interviewer administered; however interviewers were instructed to such a request was made. There was also a section that was set aside for self administr ation since it explored confidential issues. In that instance, the reverse instruction was given to interviewers who were advised to complete these forms for the respondent if such a request were made. The analysis that follows arises from these cases which were 1,034 in total and the specific questionnaire that was administered is presented in Appendix I. This survey was developed by a regional team that incl uded representatives from SASOD, CAISO, and UGLAAB, and submissions were ent ertained from all three of these organisations with respect to the areas of interest at a meeting in Trinidad during October deliberate since the partners were all regional organisations res ponsible for LGBTQI issues and therefore had similar concerns. Since the legislative environment is similar and cultural environments also roughly similar, it was considered prudent to take a similar approach which would ultimately also allow for regional comparisons. The initial survey planning meeting was held in Trinidad and Tobago (October 201 2 ) and t he team agreed on the broad issues that the survey would cover. Thereafter two drafts were circulated to concerned parties for comment and revision and t hereafter the final survey instrument was agreed upon, printed and deployed in the respective countries. The design team agreed on broad guidelines for the conduct of the exercise and among them was the critical agreement that the survey should be execute d by interviewers who obviously g ay exclusively confined to members of the LGBTQI Association in any of the countries involved. It was agreed that this arrangement would enhance the credibility of the research exercise. The analysis that follows speaks largely to national conclusions ; however in select instances comparative data has been presented which demonstrates the impact of demographic characteristics such as age, gender or religion which appear to influence the opinion being presented. In scientific terms these associations are known as correlations and throughout the report any instance in which influence impact it can be assumed that the correlation referred to is within a +/ 5% m argin of error which means that CADRES is 95% confident that such a correlation exists and is not accidental. The 95% measure is generally considered satisfactory within the scientific community and the tool of measurement used Chi Square In all instances Chi Square test has been applied, but in no instance is the test statistic presented since the audience for this report is generally not a scientific one In instan ces where mention is made of a statistically insignificant association this would mean that the measurement of such an association has fallen below the 95% confidence level.
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 10 of 50 This study is seminal in the case of Guyana and there has only been one previous study done regionally ( measurement of attitude and opinion and cannot speak to evolving attitudes in the Guyanese context. The data is likely to be useful nonethel ess since it can speak to contemporary views and opinions on the issue. T his study was conceptualised by CADRES and sought to build on a similar study conducted in Barbados (2004). That study was limited since it was part of a larger omnibus survey, homosexuality and attendant issues. This specialised focus is therefore advantageous and it is also fortunate that this study was able to address several of the deficiencies of the 2004 study. In this instance; however, some respondents complained about the length of the survey and the occasional complex nature of it. Several of the issues explored were technical and legal and although an effort was made to s implify the questions, there were instances in which the respondent did not understand what was being asked. In the case of Guyana there was one question which is identified specifically which was clearly not understood by a substantial quantity of respon dents and as such could not be used in the analysis. Another concern identified in the course of interviewing relates to the demographic categories Amerindians Such persons interviewed were therefore categorized as Mixed and Others Those that were Mixed preferred to be referred to as such Others many Hindus in Guyana are apparently also Christians and there was no option for a person to select both options. In both instances, the quantity of people affected would appear to be small and would not affect the reliability of the survey.
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 11 of 50 SU RVEY DEMOGRAPHICS In this section data are presented large ly for purposes of information as these demographic categories are used later in the analysis to determine the extent to which relationships exist between the different variables. Table s 0 2 through 11 and related charts speak to a range of demographics which are standard in surveys of this nature. It was intended that the Age and Sex categories should be almost similar to the national demographic spread; however it appears as though this survey slightly over represe nted young people at the expense of older people interviewed. This skew is perhaps a result of the fact that older people would have had less interest this subject matter and would therefore have been unwilling to respond to an interview this challenging. biases not avoidable and would not impact negatively on the reliability of the survey exercise. Table 0 3 : Race of Respondent Afro (Black) 37% Anglo (White) 1% Sino (Chinese) 1% Indo (East Indian) 26% Portuguese 5% Mixed 26% Other 4% The issue of race is of particular importance in Guyana and it would appear as though the interviewers captured a slightly higher proportion of Afro Guyanese, which is no doubt related to the areas that interviews were conducted. It should be stressed; ho wever that the survey was NOT designed to match the national racial distribution and moreover the selection of areas and respondents was random and no special attempt was made to identify respondents based on their race, but instead interviewers identified respondents and thereafter sought information about the Table 0 5 Yes, Native Born 90% Not native born 8% Prefer not to say 2% Table 0 2 : Sex of Respondent Male 47% Female 53% Table 0 4 : Age Range of Respondent 18 30 Years 42% 31 50 Years 34% 51 and over 24%
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 12 of 50 In the case of income CADRES is often sceptical of the information given, especially as close to one quarter of respondents did not provide this information which limits its utility. Table 07 Single 39% Married 34% Married (Common Law) 11% Divorced 4% Separated 6% Widowed 3% Won't Say 3% Table 09 0 29% 1 20% 2 19% 3 13% 4 8% 5 5% 6 3% 7 2% 8 1% 9 0.3% 10 0.3% 11 0.2% 12 0.1% 13 0.1% 16 0.2% Table 10 Primary 14% Secondary 37% Post Secondary 8% Technical/Vocational 10% Tertiary 31% Table 0 6 Less than $20,000 8% $20,000 $40,000 18% $40,000 60,000 19% $60,000 80,000 12% $80,000 $100,000 11% Over $100,000 9% Won't say 24% Table 08 Employed (Full time) 52% Employed (Part time) 6% Housewife/Househusband 7% Unemployed 5% Student 6% Retired 4% Self Employed 16% Other/Won't say 4%
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 13 of 50 Since Sexual Profile assessment. A lthough this information was tabulated based on a self admiss ion that was confidentially collected, CADRES remains sceptical of this type of information because the issue of sexuality is still very sensitive in Guyana and homosexual acts are still illegal there. As such caution is recommended on the side of admitted heterosexuality, since homosexuals will be less likely to admit to being this way inclined. There have been very few studies that have attempted to scientifically estimate the quantity of homosexuals resident in any country; however global estimates generally fall within the 1 10 assumption which would translate to a presumed 10% of any populatio n being homosexual. In this instance 3% have admitted to being homosexual (male or female) in Guyana with 4% admitting to bi sexuality. It is most interesting; however that 15% of persons indicated that they were unwilling to answer this question and if we assume that a heterosexual would have no difficulty stating this, the presumption is that an additional 15% of respondents could easily be homosexual or bisexual which of homosexuals and bisexuals hig h especially if we consider global estimates. The most generous assessment of these data would imply somewhere in the vicinity of 20% of Guyanese being either homosexual or bisexual. Figure 1 : Sexual Orientation (Declare d) The issue of r eligious persuasion was also isolated in the demographic discussion largely drivers this instance respondents were asked to select a Religious ca tegory and thereafter to state whether active passive T able 11 speaks to the initial question of r eligious o 79% 77% 77% 75% 80% 83% 77% 50% 76% 67% 77% 66% 78% 4% 3% 3% 4% 3% 3% 5% 7% 3% 3% 6% 2% 3% 5% 3% 2% 6% 2% 5% 11% 4% 12% 18% 16% 16% 14% 12% 23% 50% 14% 24% 16% 23% 15% 18-30 Years 31-50 Years 51 and over Male Female Afro (Black) Anglo (White) Sino (Chinese) Indo (East Indian) Portuguese Mixed Other Age Sex Race All Guyana Sexual Orientation (Declared) Heterosexual Homosexual Bi-Sexual I prefer not to say
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 14 of 50 Table 11 demonstrates that the single largest category Evangelical Christians active more traditional Christian worshipers that apparently acc ounted for 20% of respondents; however more than half of these not active Christianity Naturally respondents might have various interpretations of the active it is none theless noteworthy that it is only within this religious grouping (Christianity) that the majority of adherents confessed to not being active. while all other groupings accounted for 2% or less of t he population interviewed. There is no way of knowing the extent to which the survey over or under represents different religious groups within Guyana and as such comments relating to the impact of religion should be read within the context of the quantities surveyed. Moreover the small size of religious groups that are neither Christian, Muslim, nor Hindu would militate against any assessment of the impact of these beliefs on attitudes toward homosexuals Figure 2 : Religious Persuasion 59% 26% 48% 69% 80% 47% 83% 62% 25% 36% 30% 51% 30% 58% 39% 26% 47% 17% 31% 50% 36% 48% 37% 12% 16% 13% 5% 20% 5% 8% 25% 29% 22% 12% Christian (Evangelical) Christian (NonEvangelical) Muslim Hindu Jewish Rastafarian Baha'i Spiritual Baptist Atheist Agnostic Other All Persuasions Religious Persuasion Yes, active No, passive Unsure/Won't say Table 11: Religious Orientation Christian (Evangelical) 42% Christian (Non Evangelical) 20 % Hindu 16 % Muslim 10 % Other 5% Rastafarian 2% Agnostic 1.4% Spiritual Baptist 1.3% Atheist 0 .8 % Baha'i 0 .6 % Jewish 0 .5 %
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 15 of 50 In the confidential section of the survey, respondents were asked if there were persons who they knew to be gay in any of 05 categories which were specifically chosen since these reflected different p roximities away from the individual being interviewed. There was no attempt made to establish whether persons admitted being gay to the respondent or whether the respondents just assumed the individual(s) identified to be gay In this instance the basis of the assumption was considered to be less relevant and the focus was placed on the quantities of persons who admitted to familiar gay persons in some capacity. Data suggests that approximately one half of Guyanese admit to having a gay frien d, while one quarter believed that they have a gay family member. 30% of respondents believed that a Business Associate or person they worked with was gay and 21% believed a Political leader they know is gay It is perhaps most surprising that 13% of res pondents actually believed a r eligious l eader to be gay This is a relatively small quantity; however the extent to which Religion is proven to be a driver of homophobia in thi s paper implies the extent to which hypocrisy is pervasive (and accepted) among this relatively small group of people. Figure 3 : Gay Associations 49% 24% 30% 21% 13% I have friends who are Gay I have Gay family members I have Gay business associates/people I work with I know Political Leaders who are Gay I know Religious Leaders who are Gay "Gay Associations"
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 16 of 50 ATTITUDE TOWARD HOMOSEXUALS The initial attitudinal test was by way of a reaction to a simple question that is presented in Figure 04 and asks respondents to s best describes toward homosexuals Hate Tolerate Accept Homophobic Gay Tolerant Gay Friendly gay t olerant h omophobic gay f riendly It is interesting that the Crosstabulation of main demogra phic categories demonstrates that Wom en are more tolerant than Men, o lder people tend to be more homophobic and persons who are more educated tend to be less homophobic and more tolerant. There is also a noticeable impac t of rig in, since Native Born Guyanese also tended to be more homophobic. It is noteworthy that these demographic variables appear not to impact on the extent to which the gay friendly gay s, but there is a clear impact on the extent to which a person is naturally inclined to be homophobic or tolerant. Generally, this section implies that gender, age, place of origin and education are the major variables that would make a person more accepting of homosexuals, while the absence of Race from this category indicates that there is no statistically significant impact of race on the attitude of a Guyanese toward homosexuals Figure 4 : General Attitudes Toward homosexuals 29% 22% 24% 21% 32% 26% 17% 29% 30% 25% 22% 19% 25% 36% 42% 38% 41% 39% 39% 39% 33% 37% 32% 44% 46% 39% 19% 19% 22% 21% 13% 19% 23% 22% 18% 21% 19% 20% 19% Male Female 18-30 Years 31-50 Years 51 and over Yes, Native Born Not native born Primary Secondary Post-Secondary Technical/Vocational Tertiary Sex Age Origin Educational Level All Guyana General Attitudes Toward homosexuals Hate Tolerate Accept
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 17 of 50 The issue of Religion was also identified as a major driver of homophobia and this is explored in Figure religious orientation. active passive homophobic although active evangelical Christians are also more inclined to be tolerant of homosexuals. Certainly the highest level of tolerance measured exists among Christians (Cumulatively) active accepting but not necessarily more homophobic There is generally less diversity in opinion am ong M uslims and Hindus toward homosexuals and this could be related to the fact that more Christians were captured in the survey or because the Muslim and Hindus interviewed were more homogenous. One general observation of interest relates to the impact of the active orientation since it can be seen that active evangelical Christians are more inclined to be homophobic and less inclined to be accepting or tolerant, while active non evangelical Christians are significantly more inclined to be tol erant, and also significantly less inclined to be homophobic and accepting. The differences within the Muslim and Hindu groups are less dramatic and it can generally be argued that a ctive st homophobic, p assive on Evangelical Christians are the most accepting. Figure 5 : Impact of Religion on Attitude 26% 17% 24% 26% 22% 25% 27% 30% 24% 47% 51% 34% 42% 51% 35% 32% 34% 38% 14% 13% 16% 18% 17% 26% 32% 18% 25% Christian (Evangelical) Christian (NonEvangelical) Muslim Hindu Christian (Evangelical) Christian (NonEvangelical) Muslim Hindu Active Passive All Guyana Impact of Religion on Attitude Hate Tolerate Accept
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 18 of 50 Since respondents were asked about their Sexual Orientation and Gay Associations homosexuality or homosexuals would help to influence their opinions positively or negatively and Figure 06 helps to answer this question There was an obvious and perhaps predic self identification as a homosexual or bi sexual welcoming toward homosexuals It was; however surprising in that section that as many as 15% of persons who self identified as gay / lesbian indicated h ated homosexual s which communicates the existence of some l evel of s elf h ate within the Guyanese LGBTQI community. Figure 6 : Impact of Association with Homosexuals Among the other categories it can be seen that persons with gay family and friends are more inclined to be tolerant and accepting, while those without are most inclined to be homophobic The impact of other associations is less dramatic but it can nonetheless be argued that a person with some gay association on a personal level will be less inclined to be homophobic. It is also noteworthy that persons who have gay religious leaders in Guyana are more inclined to be accepting of homosexual s, but there is no other significant impact that this association could have. 28% 15% 13% 17% 34% 15% 29% 18% 29% 22% 26% 22% 25% 25% 44% 12% 23% 45% 34% 43% 37% 43% 37% 45% 37% 43% 39% 40% 15% 61% 55% 27% 12% 30% 16% 27% 16% 22% 19% 27% 19% 19% Straight/Heterosexual Gay/Lesbian Bi-Sexual Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No All Guyana Sexual Orientation Gay Friends Gay Family Gay Business Associates Gay Political Leaders Gay Religious Leaders All Guyana Impact of Association with Homosexuals Hate Tolerate Accept Table 1 2 : Scale of Acceptability Association MOST Acceptance Friend 1 Family Member 2 Employee 3 Employer 4 Teacher 5 Child 6 Public Official 7 Religious Leader 8
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 19 of 50 In an effort to fur ther probe this issue, respondents were asked to indicate what they would do if a person known to them were to indicate that they were a homosexual and in this instance, specific response categories were provided to respondents. Figure 07 presents the cum ulative findings which Acceptance popular reaction in all instances if a person admits to being a homosexual, although the level of acceptance does vary. Table 12 cumulatively presents this Scale of Acceptability least interesting to note that only with respect to a religious leader would the rejecti p ublic discrete Figure 7 : Response to Homosexual Awareness 50% 13% 20% 50% 13% 17% 45% 13% 23% 45% 12% 22% 39% 16% 22% 34% 21% 21% 26% 29% 21% 39% 13% 10% Accept Publicly reject Withdraw quietly Accept Publicly reject Withdraw quietly Accept Publicly reject Withdraw quietly Accept Publicly reject Withdraw quietly Accept Publicly reject Withdraw quietly Accept Publicly reject Withdraw quietly Accept them Publicly reject them Withdraw quietly Accept them Publicly reject them Withdraw quietly Homosexual Friend Homosexual Family Member Homosexual Employee Homosexual Employer Homosexual Teacher Homosexual Public Official Homosexual Religious Leader Homosexual Child Response to Homosexual Awareness
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 20 of 50 UNDERSTANDING OF HOMOSEXUALITY In this section, an attempt was made to establish what respondents understood by the term homosexual in turn would explain several assumptions and attitudes that are impacted by the ially, the meaning of the word homosexual was explored by way of a close ended question which sought to establish whether the term was understood to relate to Men Women or both. Figure 08 presents these responses along with key demographic variables and demonstrates that Two People of the Same Sex 2 7% believe that the term relates only to men and 1% believe the term relates exclusively to two women. The correlations presented demonstrate that younger people are less inclined to think that homosexuality refers exclusively to men, while older people a re more inclined to think so. Similarly, Men are more inclined to think that the term homosexual refers to them, while Women are more likely to think that it is a term that relates to two people of the same sex. Figure 8 : Meaning of the word "Homosexual" In addition to the meaning of the word homosexual an effort was made to explore other perceptions such as that which is presented in Figure 09. In this instance respondents were asked to source ty which is closest to their own understanding from a list provided. Most Guyanese argued that they c hoice choose to be that way. This was the case with regard to 31% of respondents, while the second lar gest group just born that way largest category (17%) suggested that homosexuality was a result of physiological trauma s exual a buse which is a perception held by a large number of Guyanese. Interestingly enough, the majority perception is not influenced by age or gender; however correct er people origin 23% 30% 31% 33% 22% 27% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 73% 63% 61% 61% 72% 67% 18-30 Years 31-50 Years 51 and over Male Female Age of Respondent Sex of Respondent All Guyana Meaning of the word "Homosexual" Two men (who have sexual relations) Two women (who have sexual relations) Two people of the same sex (who have sexual relations)
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 21 of 50 Figure 9 : Origin of Homosexuality Having established the fact that a majority of Guyanese believe homosexual ity to be a choice, CADRES probed their perception further to establish whether they believed that it might have been an cured they did not believe it was an illness, so the question was irrelevant to them. 46% or close to half of cure and not surprisingly this response was influenced by age and gender. The belief that it was an illness; however middle aged Figure 10 : Is Homosexuality an "Illness" that can be cured? 7% 6% 7% 8% 6% 7% 16% 15% 22% 16% 18% 17% 12% 13% 13% 13% 13% 13% 29% 34% 29% 29% 32% 31% 22% 22% 17% 23% 19% 21% 18-30 Years 31-50 Years 51 and over Male Female Age of Respondent Sex of Respondent All Guyana Origin of Homosexuality Psychological trauma/Sexual abuse Lack of/Poor moral or religious grounding/Bad parenting Some people are just born that way, the origin is irrelevant 22% 27% 20% 23% 24% 23% 49% 45% 43% 49% 43% 46% 28% 27% 37% 27% 32% 30% 18-30 Years 31-50 Years 51 and over Male Female Age of Respondent Sex of Respondent All Guyana Is Homosexuality an "Illness" that can be cured? Yes, it IS an illness and it can be cured No, it is NOT an illness and cannot be cured/fixed I am not sure/prefer not to say
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 22 of 50 Although it is only 23% of Guyanese that believe homosexuality is an illness, it was still prudent to ask everyone surveyed what type of remedy they would prefer and the results of this question are presented in Table 13. This demonstrates that although most persons did not consider homosexuality to be an illness, several of these persons offe red an opinion notwithstanding and the r eligious remedy m edical/ p sychiatric the second most popular. Table 1 3 : Preferred omosexuality I do not believe it is an illness that can be cured 23% Prefer a religious remedy 31% Prefer a medical (Psychiatric)/psychological remedy 18% I am not sure/prefer not to say 28% Table 14 presents information from the question of the most important source of t he uman s exuality and demonstrates that the Holy Bible/Bhagavad Gita/Holy Koran are the main source s of information on h uman s exuality for 53% of the Guyanese population. The next most popular source was from interaction with friends and family, while popula r culture was only a source for 13% of the population. This statistic confirms the suspicion that religion rights wrongs Table 1 4 : Most important source in the formation of views and opinions on Human Sexuality Religion (Holy Bible/Bhagavad Gita/Holy Koran) 52% Socialisation (Family and friends) 23% Popular culture (Music, literature, television and the social scene) 13% I am unsure/prefer not to say 13% I n the final question in this section, respondents were asked about the inclusion of homosexuality in the teaching of s ex e ducation in Schools and it should be noted that in this instance respondents were asked should be included. This question anticipated a potential response that would allow for the teaching of homosexuality if that teaching were to say that it was wrong. The closest that respondents could get to this type of respon It depends on what the facts ar surprising that this was the response from the single largest group (37%). The second largest group responding (33%) argue d for the scientific facts to be taught, which admitt edly also allows for a person s cience NO scientific facts about homosexuality. These responses cumulatively suggest that the Guyanese willingness to allow the teaching of Scientific Facts about homosexuality is entirely dependent on the facts the population is therefore not yet ready to embrace this type of education.
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 23 of 50 Table 1 5 : S chools should teach c hildren scientific facts about H omosexuality as part of sex a nd sexuality education? Yes, teach scientific facts 33% 22% 37% I am unsure/prefer not to say 9%
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 24 of 50 ATTITUDE TOWARDS DISCRIMINATION/VIOLENCE AGAINST SEXUAL MINORITIES In this section an attempt is made to establish the extent to which respondent s were familiar with the concept of discrimination and if there was an awareness of the extent to which there was discrimination against homosexuals in Guyana. In addition to the existe nce of discrimination there was an effort to establish whether respondents were comfortable with this type of discrimination, as distinct from any other type of discrimination. Initially the respondents were asked a direct question i f they beli eved that violence against gay s or s exual m inorities is (can be considered) discrimination It is clear that the vast majority of Guyanese believe that violence against gay s or other s exual minorities can be considered Yes argued that such violence could not be considered discrimination with a further 12% indicating that they were unsure. It is s ignificant that earlier in the General Attitudes section it was discovered that what could be descried as homophobia or extreme dislike of homosexuals existed among approximately 25% of Guyanese; however in this instance a slightly smaller quantity of pe rsons (18%) is approving of violence against gay s or other s exual m inorities. It is also consist ent with the foregoing that younger people are slightly more likely to see such violence as discrimination and also women are similarity inclined. These correlations are consistent with earlier findings and imply that these groups are less likely to be homop hobic. In this instance CADRES also discovered a positive correlation between race and opinion which is also presented in Figure 11 and implies that Afro Guyanese are less likely to see violence against gay s and s exual minorities as discrimination. Figu re 11 : Violence against Gays or Sexual Minorities "IS" Discrimination 75% 69% 63% 67% 74% 68% 85% 50% 73% 76% 72% 60% 71% 17% 17% 21% 22% 14% 18% 15% 40% 15% 11% 19% 16% 18% 8% 14% 16% 11% 12% 13% 10% 12% 13% 9% 22% 12% 18-30 Years 31-50 Years 51 and over Male Female Afro (Black) Anglo (White) Sino (Chinese) Indo (East Indian) Portuguese Mixed Other Age Sex Race All Guyana Violence against Gays or Sexual Minorities "IS" Discrimination Yes No
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 25 of 50 impact of homophobia which essentially speaks to the harm that di scrimination can do in real terms. There was no effort made here to explain the relationship between these concepts but respondents were asked a series of questions about the extent to which they believe that homophobia can cause a series of social proble ms The positive responses are cumulatively presented in Figure 12 which demonstrates that a majority of Guyanese are aware that all of these social problems can stem from Teen Suicide Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Temporary or Permanent Absence link to homophobia among close to 60% of Guyanese. Figure 12 : "Homophobia" can contribute to... The r esponses presented in Figure 13 are indicative of a population that has to some extent not identified s exual o rientation as a basis upon which people do discriminate o r alternatively believe that it is one of the more acceptable bases for discrimination This finding is perhaps one of the most central to understanding the nature of homophobia in Guyana The question presented to respondents essentially asked them to treat people differently discrimination at different times locally, regionally and internationally and moreover against wh ich there has been an international focus at different times. The list included attributes that are easily identifiable and over which the individual has no choice, such as age, sex and race. In addition reference was also made to religious discriminatio n which relates to an issue of choice and one about which people are extremely sensitive. In this instance, it can be seen that discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation is seen to be as acceptable Age which is interesting since a ge discrimination is a relatively new concern and some amount of age discrimination has traditionally been tolerated in Guyana. 73% 69% 66% 61% 59% Teen Suicide Alcoholism or Substance Abuse Mental Depression Increased incidence of HIV/AIDS Temporary or permanent absence from school "Homophobia" can contribute to...
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 26 of 50 The other findings in this section are also compelling since these suggest that Guyanese consider racial dis crimination MOST unacceptable, followed by r eligious discrimination and thereaf ter gender. The fact that r ace is not optional and is seen to be only m arginally more sacrosanct than r eligion ( which is optional ) implies that the Guyanese assum ption that se xual orientation is a matter of choice is not the only reason why they consider discrimination on that basis more acceptable. choose to make such choices, while right to choose Figure 13 : Acceptable to treat people differently (Discriminate) o n the basis of... The final aspect of this issue relates to the need for state involvement in the protection of gay s and other sexual minorities and this issue is explored by way of a series of questions which asked respondents if they believed that differ ent groups were in need of special protection by the state against discrimination These responses are cumulatively presented in Figure 14 and suggest that Guyanese believe that Children, the Disabled and W omen are in greatest need of protection by the st ate, while persons living with AIDS (PLWA) should be only slightly less entitled to protection by the state. Reference to the remaining categories reveals that in all three instances, a minority of Guyanese believe that the state has a responsibility to specially protect these groups. Minority racial appear to be gay self identify gay are only seen to be in need of protection by 35% and needy appear gay are seen as needing protection less than those who self identify. 15% 17% 22% 22% 16% Race Gender Age Sexual Orientation Religion Acceptable to treat people differently (Discriminate) on the basis of...
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 27 of 50 These findings are inter esting since there is no way of knowing whether the belief that a need distinction is not explored in the survey and emerges especially with regard to the question of special protection for persons of different race which is known to be a sensitive issue in Guyana. If then okay entirely possible that Guya nese see homosexuals similarly or alternatively their low level of interest in special protection is predicated on the belief that choice self identified hose who appear as such gay appearances femininity is avoidable and should not be encouraged . Figure 14 : The State needs to provide special protection from discrimination to... 70% 37% 35% 82% 43% 80% 83% Persons living with HIV/AIDS Persons who identify Persons who appear to be Persons who are Disabled/Handicapped need Minority racial groups Women Children The State needs to provide special protection from discrimination to...
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 28 of 50 ATTITUDE TOWARDS LEGISLATION s that criminalise the b uggery manner that would provide an appreciation of: I. The ex as is II. regulate ; III. The extent to which people are familiar with and support the perceived objectives of the laws; and IV. The extent to which people are conformable with the unintended consequences of these laws. Initially therefore respondents were provided with the following brief and simplified explanation of the Guyanese b uggery l aws : Presently the laws of Guyana outlaw the act of Buggery/Sodomy, whether between two men or a man and a woman and regardless of whether this act is in public or private, consensual or forced Re spondent s w ere then asked if they supported the law and the responses and relevant correlations are presented in Figure 15 These demonstrate that 53% or slightly more than half of as is and therefore oppose decriminalisation. In an effort to contextualise this level of support attention is dra wn to Figure 16 which consolidates support for similar American laws drawn from Gallup polls between 1977 and 2010 Although the questions asked are not identical and neither is (was) the legislative environment, the proximity of these two data sets help to facilitate a useful analysis. Generally, it can be seen that in the USA public opinion has moved from a similar level of disapproval as that which currently exists in Guyana, to a place where there is now majority support for decriminalisation (or lack of support for re criminalisation) Figure 15 : General Support for the Guyana "Buggery" Law 49% 57% 56% 52% 54% 58% 17% 50% 51% 56% 53% 38% 52% 55% 56% 54% 49% 55% 53% 29% 25% 28% 29% 26% 26% 75% 50% 28% 27% 25% 29% 28% 27% 28% 36% 29% 24% 28% 22% 18% 16% 19% 19% 16% 8% 21% 17% 22% 33% 20% 18% 16% 10% 22% 21% 20% 18-30 Years 31-50 Years 51 and over Male Female Afro (Black) Anglo (White) Sino (Chinese) Indo (East Indian) Portuguese Mixed Other PPP/Civic Supporter PNC Supporter AFC Supporter Other Party Supporter Prefer not to say Uncommitted voter Age Sex Race Political Affiliation All Guyana General Support for the Guyana "Buggery" Law Yes, I think Buggery/Sodomy laws should be maintained No, I think the Buggery/Sodomy should be changed (removed or modified) I am unsure/prefer not to say how I feel about this law
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 29 of 50 forced as is and the responses to later questions suggest that some respondents were somewhat confused regarding the reality of the legislation as distinct from what they believed it to be and this could have impacted on the level of support or opposition captured in this survey. Notwithstanding, it can be seen that a clear majority of Guyanese support the laws and only 28% support some change, while 20% preferred not to comment and could perhaps reflect a lack of clarity on what the laws say and intend. Figure 16 : Should Homosexual Acts between Consenting Adults be Legal/Illegal (USA 1977 2010) The correlations associated with this question are interesting since age is clearly a factor that impacts on support for the laws and it is not sur prising to note that older Guyanese are more inclined to support the laws; however older Guyanese are also more inclined to be unsure of their opinion on the matter. In this instance sex does not impact since almost similar quantities of males and females expressed support for and disapproval of these laws and as regards race, it is ONLY Afro Guyanese who support the laws in greater proportions. The other large racial group in Guyana, the Indo Guyanese are not significantly more supportive and while Anglo Guyanese appear to b e overwhelmingly more supportive, the small Anglos unscientific. In this instance party support data is used as a basis for comparison to demonstrate that there was no real significance between the opinions of political groups, as distinct from any suggestion that there was a relationship. Certainly it would appear that PNC support er s are more supportive of the laws and this could be easily explained by the demographic of the PNC supporter and earlier observations that Afros are more inclined to be uncomfortable with the issue of buggery The levels of support are; however statistically insignificant and imply t hat any correlation is relatively weak. 58% 56% 60% 50% 47% 43% 36% 40% 35% 43% 36% 43% 2010 2006 2003 1999 1989 1977 Should Homosexual Acts Between Consenting Adults be Legal/Illegal (USA 1977 2010) Should be LEGAL Should be ILLEGAL
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 30 of 50 Having established as is respondents were advised that the laws were not being enforced and various related issues explored, which are reported on in Table 16. Generally it is noticeable that in all instances the level of uncertainty approaches 20%, which is high for a social survey and suggests that Guyanese have not given the types of details explored in this survey sufficient thought to arrive at a definitive position. Simply put, persons might believe themselves to be supportive of laws, but when presented with an explanation of these laws and asked to ex plore related issues, Guyanese become less certain. As such a majority of Guyanese (61%) argue that the state ought buggery laws in their current form, although less than half (47%) believe that the laws in their current make sense support the enforcement of laws and th offenders they either doubt the logic of these laws, or agree that the laws are entirely illogical. Against this background, the punishment is directly relevant and respondents were therefore asked what punishment they believed was suitable for someone convicted of buggery In this instance respondents were not advised what pun ishment was presently applicable to buggery but were given a mix of options. The single largest quantity (29%) which does not represent a majority of Guyanese preferred a medium long mandatory prison term, while the second largest group opted for a fine or prison term. In this question it is noteworthy that 18% of respondents were unsure of what punishment they would prefer and 11% believed that the Death Penalty was an appropriate punishment for buggery It should also be noted that if the data in this section are cumulatively examined it becomes evident that there is substantial confusion among Guyanese regarding these buggery laws, what they state, what they intend and what is prohibited. Notwithstanding, almost 60% are prepared to support custodial punishment (or worse) for the offense, while a similar quantity of Guyanese consider themselves either tolerant or accepting of homosexual s. Table 1 6 : Views and o pinion s on existing Laws The State should enforce the Buggery/Sodomy laws by investigating and prosecuting persons who engage in these acts Yes, start enforcing laws 61% No, continue with non enforcement 21% I am unsure/prefer not to say 19% make sense Yes, I think these laws make perfect sense 47% No, I consider these laws illogical 28% I am unsure/prefer not to say 24% Punishment appropriate for someone convicted of Buggery/Sodomy No punishment, (I do NOT support the laws) 9% No punishment, (I support the Laws) 3%
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 31 of 50 Table 1 6 : Views and o pinion s on existing Laws Light punishment/Community Service 5% Monetary fine (no prison) 8% Monetary fine AND OR short prison term 16% Mandatory prison term (medium long) 29% Death Penalty 11% I am not sure/prefer not to say 18% Against this background of confusion it was appropriate to ask respondents why (they believed) the buggery laws were in place or what was the rationale behind these laws. In this closed ended potential options which wer e suggested by the survey design team. Respondents were asked to identify the option that appear ed to be closest to their opinion of the rationale behind the buggery laws This question was e specially relevant question since in the foregoing it is noted that the laws are not currently being enforced, but a majority of Guyanese want them retained. In each instance respondents were given a Yes No uld be noted that respondents were asked to comment on all five options presented Figure 17 The fact that the highest response level was just short of half of all respondents indicates that reasons actual rationale for the buggery laws, or a majority of Guyanese did not have an idea what the laws intended to achieve, or perhaps never even thought about the issue before. Among the mos t popular options w as fair and reasonable expression of moral and religious standards public health and young Guyanese from abuse least popular rationale was the suggestion that these stop the spread of homosexuality popular rationale for close to one third of Guyanese. The cumulative assessment of this question should be made against the background of an assumption that none of these responses were correct but were deliberately inserted to test extent of prevailing propaganda. Notwithstanding, there was support among a substantia l section of the population for all of these assumption s which demonstrate s that in the absence of a clear appreciation of the reasons for the existence of buggery laws, Guyanese have fabricated a rationale for the existence of laws which a majority suppor t the retention of.
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 32 of 50 Figure 17 : Rationale for Buggery Laws In Guyana there is legislative and to some extent popular support for the existence of Common Law people which does not have the blessing of any religious entity. As such it was considered appropriate to test the extent to which there was public support for this non religious marriage and moreover to test the extent to which this differed from gay marriage The comparison is important because the two concepts are similar in that neither is perceived to have a religious or spiritual basis, but the state sanctions one and not the other. As such this comparison provides a hint of the extent to which the reli gious factor contributes to the inclination to disapprove of gay marriage Figure 18 : "Common Law" Marriage versus "Same Sex" Marriage 49% 49% 47% 31% 49% A fair and reasonable expression of our moral standards A fair and reasonable expression of our religious standards Protect young people from abuse. Help to stop the Homosexuality" Important from a Public Health perspective Rationale for "Buggery" Laws 62% 28% 10% 14% 76% 9% Yes No Unsure/Won't say Yes No Unsure/Won't say different sexes) should be recognised by the state "Common Law" Marriage versus "Same Sex" Marriage
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 33 of 50 Unsurprisingly, there is support for common law marriage among a clear majority of Guyanese (62%), while 76% disapprove of s ame s ex marriage. This difference in support demonstrates that there is no relationship whatsoever between the support levels for t he two types of association and implies that the religious factor does not impact significantly on the lack of support for same sex marriage. There is also a possible implicit assumption that the fact that common law marriage is now legal, while gay marri age is still not legal could impact on this difference in support levels. If this were actually the case, it would mean that in the same way that support for the followed also entirely possible that the support for gay marriage would follow if per chance the Guyanese government were to pursue such a legislative change. Gay Rights which the Guyanese population might also have been confused about. Respondents were therefore asked what they understood by the term and thereafter if they believed that these rights should have been a priority for the G uyanese government. Figure 19 speaks to both issues and demonstrates that Guyanese have no clear understanding of the term gay r ights since a clear majority of persons do not identify with any of the three options presented and 17% admitted to being uns ure. The single largest quantity of Guyanese (44%) did; however correctly identify gay rights The r ight of all persons to be treated equally regardless of their sexual orientation gay rights was about two men or two women marrying and a minority (13%) thought the term related to right to private sexual relations The Gay Rights incorrectly believe that these r ights are not a priority, as is the case for 64% of Guyanese. Alternatively it can be argued that the single largest group of persons interviewed perceived gay rights correctly, but the majority still did not think that the rights of all persons to be treated equally regardless of sexua l orientation should be a priority for the Guyanese government at this time. Figure 19 : Gay Rights Issues 19% 64% 17% 27% 13% 44% 17% Yes, a priority No, not a priority Unsure/Won't say The Right of two men or two women to marry The Right of two men or two women to have sexual intercourse in private The Right of all persons to be treated equally regardless of their sexual orientation I am unsure what the term means or prefer not to answer The protection of the rights of persons who are gay should be a priority for the Guyanese Government Gay Rights Issues
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 34 of 50 Also related to the matter of legislative priority were questions relating to the possible preferred reasons for changing laws relating to buggery in Guyana and these issues are presented in Figure 20. Respondents were given two possible reasons for chang ing these laws and asked if they believed that the reasons were sufficiently good, or not. It is interesting that in both instances the good enough This means that if the Guyanese autho rities could demonstrate that the buggery l aws were contributing to social and psychological problems among young people, or to the increased incidence of HIV/AIDS, they would be persuaded of a need to change the buggery l aws. Although the majority in bot h instances was slightly above 50% of those interviewed, the results also demonstrate that there is a resolute 18% 20% of persons who are not convinced that either HIV/AIDS or potential psychological damage to young people are good enough reasons to change Figure 20 : Possible Reasons for Changing Laws Initially, respondents were asked about their support for the buggery as is d those responses were presented above and demonstrated that more than 50% of Guyanese supported the laws in their present form. This question; however correctly presumed the level of misunderstanding which manifested itself in later questions and it was fo rtuitous that the question presented in Figure 21 sexual offences Guyanese state needed to regulate. It is clear that Guyanese generally believe that all varieties of pub lic sex should be penalised by the state, but there is a marginally higher concern for the state to Gay Sex penalising Straight Sex There is an almost similar concern that the state shou Group Sex but it can be agreed Straight Sex criminalised. 52% 21% 27% 55% 18% 28% Good reason to change Not good reason to change Unsure Good reason to change Not good reason to change Unsure Prove that the buggery/sodomy laws contributed to social and Psychological problems, especially among young people Prove that the buggery/sodomy laws contributed to increased or high incidence of HIV/AIDS Possible reasons for changing Laws
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 35 of 50 In all other instances there was clearly a minority interest in the prosecution of private sexual intercourse (of all types) which demonstrates conclusively that Guyanese are genuinely more public iour. The data is compelling especially since the distinction straight gay intercourse from the perspective of the public concern / abhorrence is not vast (although statistically significant). On the side of private relations, the largest group 32% wished to see the state prosecute private relations between men, while a statistically similar quantity of people believed that private relations between two women or group sex of any variety should attract the sanction of the state. It is curious that 7% of people also believed that private relations between two persons of different sexes should be prosecuted by the state and it is unfortunate that there was no effort made in the design of the survey to account for the conditions un der which such legislative sanction would be appropriate. There was also no effort made to draw to the attention of respondents, or factor into their assertions, the likely degree of difficult that would be encountered if the state attempted to detect or regulate private sexual relations. Figure 21 : The Guyanese State SHOULD penalise In further pursuit of the issue of legislative change, the questions contained in Figure 22 were presented and these were somewhat more direct with respect to what persons wanted done with the relevant legislation in Guyana. In this instance one question was asked and as such respondents could only give one option. The fact that there was no consensus and moreover that the single largest group were unable to give an answer suggested that either Guyanese were confused about the issue or preferred not to state their preferred option. Among those who committed themselves, the majority opted for the status quo to be retained; however it is striking that only 27% of persons stated a preference for the status quo as is previously. This anomaly speaks volumes about the extent to which the bias towards retention of the buggery laws is a spontaneous react ion and is not supported by reasoned conviction. 32% 84% 7% 71% 27% 80% 27% 79% Two men for in private Two men for in public A man and a woman for in private A man and a woman for in public Two women for having in private Two women for having in public More than two people (of any sex) for having in private More than two people (of any sex) for having in public The Guyanese State SHOULD penalise....
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 36 of 50 Figure 22 : Legislative Preferences Table 17 represents an attempt to determine the preferred priorities of the Guyanese authorities with respect to buggery as compared to other offenses. In this instance it is acknowledged that a sufficiently large number of respondents did not properly understand the question and this ferred priority 1 6 1 6 two instances. On the left is presented the preferred priority from the moral perspective, while the preferred Police priority is prese nted on the right. Although the question was badly treated and as such, respondents avoided the lowest priority, it can be seen that there is least interest in a dultery while m urder appears to be of greatest concern in both instances. Buggery and homosexuality are of slightly greater concern than a dultery in both instances and thereafter incest The overall presentation demonstrates that homosexual ity/ buggery is not high on the moral priority list for Guyanese and is only of slightly greater concern than a dultery while Guyanese believe other offenses such as r ape m urder and child a buse are more immoral and should be of greater concern to the Police. Table 1 7 : Moral and Practical Priorities Morality Police Priority Adultery 3.3 3.1 Homosexual ity Buggery/Sodomy 4.5 4.6 Incest 4.8 4.8 Child Abuse 5.0 5.5 Rape 5.4 5.5 Murder 5.6 5.6 27% 15% 10% 3% 13% 31% Laws are fine, leave them "as is" Prohibit only public activity, allowing any private relations Prohibit only activities between two men, allowing private relations between a man and woman Prohibit only activities between two women, allowing private relations between a man and a woman Prohibit only activities involving minors/children, allowing relations between adults (of any sex) I am not sure/prefer not to say Legislative Preferences...
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 37 of 50 COMPARATIVE GUYANESE ATTITUDES In this final section of the survey, CADRES explored the relationship between the similar attitude toward comparable social issues, or put differently, the extent to which the attitude of Guyanese toward these issues differs from that of their attitude toward homosexuals Specific social issues were identified which were believed to be similarly reflective of conservative social values and these are presented in Figure 23 which also in cludes the quantity of Guyanese that are against the d ecriminalisation of buggery It is interesting that the proportion of Guyanese opposed the decriminalisation of buggery is higher than the quantity that support the d eath p enalty (generally), but slightly lower than the quantity that flog their children, and significantly lower than the quantity that support corporal punishment in schools and the home. The level of support for the death penalty is significantly lower than i s the case in other Caribbean islands and this could perhaps for m the basis of another study, but in this regard it is important enough to note that less people support the death penalty than there are people who oppose the d ecriminalisation of buggery T he fact that the support for one issue and the opposition to the other are both presumed to be sanctioned by the Bi ble, demonstrates the extent to which the state could greatly influence public opinion on an issue that is presumed to be entirely religious. In this regard it is noted that the Guyanese government has more recently taken a position in support of the abolition of the death penalty and no one has been executed there since 1997. These two facts could have potentially influenced the comparativel y low er level of support for the death penalty there. Death Penalty aside, it would appear as though Guyanese are less strong about their opposition to decriminalisation than they are about other major social issues such as corporal punishment in the home or school. This level of opposition should be encouraging to pro nerves the fact that Guyanese are stronger on these implies that although a majority of Guyanese oppose decriminalisation opposition levels are not overwhelming. Moreover the presumed basis of such unevenly applied moral issues
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 38 of 50 Figure 23 : Comparative Issues The final issue presented is based on information taken from the confidential section of the questionnaire that asked people to identity their current political affiliation and this is consolidated in Figure 24. This combines data that speak to political affiliation with that which speak to the gay issues. Summarily, the responses demonstrate that there are about as many persons who would change their support on account of these issues, as they are persons who would not. Within the party support cohorts, the PNC supporters appear to be the most inclined t o change their vote based on the gay stance most equally divided. Indeed the only group that showed a definitive disinterest in changing their party support group bas gay s tance support and this is perhaps not surprising. These findings are consistent with others presented above and confirm the position that the Guyanese attitude to homosexuals and their opinions on related issues arise from a combination of bases and are impacted by several factors. The political factors explored here suggest that no political party need to fear losing significant support on account of a position on these issues, but if any party did loose support, it would be the PNC. CADRES is primarily a political consultancy firm and as such is intimately aware of the factors that impact on political support in the Caribbean and specifically Guyana where race is a primary motivator. It therefore needs to be stated that both the traditional Moreover the PNC is at this time part of a coalition referred to as the APNU, which was deliberately exclud ed from the survey. The question therefore is whether a PNC supporter would be so moved by gay issues, to leave that party, cross racial lines and vote for the PPP/Civic which curiously enough appears to have supporters who are more liberal is inclined to think that there is little possibility of this happening 72% 66% 59% 38% 53% Support corporal punishment in the home Support corporal punishment in schools Flogs(ed) own Children Support the Death Penalty (generally) Against Decriminalisation (of Homosexual Acts) Comparative Issues
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 39 of 50 The other relevant aspect of party support is the extent to which it needs to be disaggregated core support important since elections in Guyana recently have been quite close and would be determined, not by the entire cohort of party support, but by a smaller number of persons who mi ght migrate between parties for different reasons. This survey was not designed to speak to this complexity, but it can be said anecdotally, that the mobile voter in Guyana tends to be younger, better educated and more middle class raphic that was isolated in the survey as being more liberal on these issues. Although the potential growth could be obliterated by the defection of core members of either party, it is important to note that this core (again anecdotally) tends to be incli ned to vote racially and historically and is therefore unlikely to change (easily). If these two principles are accepted, then a Political party that is seeking to grow its support is likely to have more to gain in the short to medium term from the adopti on of a progressive stance on gay issues which avoids some of the more contentious issues such as gay marriage and this is entirely possible. Figure 24 : Would change Party Support based on Gay Stance 40% 40% 50% 32% 45% 32% 39% 32% 30% 43% 42% 35% 40% 37% Yes, it would make a difference to my vote No, it would not make a difference Would change Party Support based on Gay Stance PPP/Civic Supporters PNC Supporters AFC Supporters Other Party Supporters Prefer not to say Uncommitted voters All Guyana
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 40 of 50 APPENDICES Appendix I : Survey Instrument Good Morning/afternoon/evening I am part of a group of 30 interviewers conducting a survey on behalf of the Caribbean Development Research Services, which is a regional research organisation. We have selected you randomly along with 1,0 00 other persons in Guyana and would ask that you give us your honest opinion on specific social issues. The survey is NOT a test W e are simply asking for your views and opinions and would give you the assurance that the answers given will be treated in the strictest of confidence. The final report will speak to national views and opinions and at no point will an effort be made to identify you specifically. This survey will largely be administered by me, the interviewer, however I will ha n d this questio nnaire over to you for you to complete the final questions confidentially due to their sensitive nature and you can thereafter drop the questionnaire into this envelope. 1. __ 3. Administrative Division/Parish__________________________________________________ 4. Location of Interview ( District and Place ): ______________________________________ 5. Date/Time Interview Started _________ 6. Date/Time Interview Ended _________ PLEASE CIRCLE NUMBER NEXT TO ANSWER GIVEN SECTION I Demographic information 7. Sex Male 1 Female 2 8. Race ( Ask respondent what they would consider themselves PREDOMINA N TLY ) : Afro ( Black ) 1 Anglo ( White ) 2 Sino ( Chinese ) 3 Indo ( East Indian ) 4 Portuguese 5 Middle Eastern 6 Mixed 7 O ther 8 9. Age Group ( If unsure call out age groups and ask person to state which one he/she belongs to ). 18 30 Years 1 31 50 Years 2 51 and over 3 10. Native Born : Were you born in Guyana? Yes, native Born 1 No, n ot native born 2 Prefer not to say 3 11. Income : In which of these broad categories would your monthly income fall ? Less than 20, 000 1 20, 000 40, 000 2 40, 000 60, 000 3 60, 000 80, 0000 4 80, 0000 100, 000 5 Over 100, 000 6 7
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 41 of 50 12. Marital Status: What is your marital status? Single 1 Married 2 Married @ Common Law 3 Divorced 4 Separated 5 Widowed 6 7 13. Occupational Status : What is your employment status at present? Employed (full time) 1 Employed (part time) 2 Housewife/Househusband 3 Unemployed 4 Student 5 Retired 6 Self Employed 7 8 14. Children: How many children (if any) do you have? __ __________ ________ 15. Religion: What ( if any ) is your religion ( Active or Passive/Practising or N on Practicing )? Christian (Evangelical) 1 Christian (Non Evangelical) 2 Muslim 3 Hindu 4 Jewish 5 Rastafarian 6 7 Spiritual Baptist 8 Atheist 9 Agnostic 10 Other (Specify) __________ 11 16. Religious Status active have identified above ( if any )? ( Does the respondent frequently attend prayer/worship sessions and observe most if not all of the religious principles ). Yes, active 1 No, Passive 2 3 17. What is the highest level of education you have completed ? Primary 1 Secondary 2 Post Secondary 3 Technical/Vocational 4 Tertiary 5 SECTION II: Attitude toward Homosexuals: 18. What word best describes your attitude toward homosexuals ? Hate 1 Tolerate 2 Accept 3 Don't know 4 19. If you became aware that any of these friends/relatives/associations of yours was a homosexual, would you? a) A friend: Accept them 1 Publicly reject them 2 Withdraw quietly 3 Uncertain 4 b) A family member: Accept them 1 Publicly reject them 2 Withdraw quietly 3 Uncertain 4 c) An employee: Accept them 1 Publicly reject them 2 Withdraw quietly 3 Uncertain 4 d) An employer: Accept them 1 Publicly reject them 2 Withdraw quietly 3 Uncertain 4 e) A teacher: Accept them 1 Publicly reject them 2 Withdraw quietly 3 Uncertain 4 f) A public official: Accept them 1 Publicly reject them 2 Withdraw quietly 3 Uncertain 4 g) A religious leader: Accept them 1 Publicly reject them 2 Withdraw quietly 3 Uncertain 4 h) A child: Accept them 1 Publicly reject them 2 Withdraw quietly 3 Uncertain 4
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 42 of 50 SECTION III: Understanding of Homosexuality: 20. What does the word homosexual mean to you ? Two men ( who have sexual relations ) 1 Two women ( who have sexual relations ) 2 Two people of the same sex ( who have sexual relations ) 3 4 21. In your opinion/to the best of your knowledge what is at the origin of homosexuality ? 1 Psychological trauma/Sexual abuse 2 Lack of/Poor moral or religious grounding/Bad parenting 3 choose that way 4 S ome people are just born that way the origin is irrelevant 5 I am not sure/prefer not to say 6 22. Do you think that homosexuality is an illness and if so, do you think it cured ? Yes it IS an illness and it can be cured 1 No, it is NOT an illness and cannot be cured/fixed 2 I am not sure/prefer not to say 3 23. remedies ? I do not believe it is an illness that can be cured 1 Prefer a religious remedy 2 Prefer a medical (Psychiatric) /psychological remedy 3 I am not sure/prefer not to say 4 24. Which of these sources would you say has been the MOST important to the formation of your views and opinions on Human Sexuality ( Taught you what was right and wrong about human sexuality ): Religion (Holy Bible/ Bhagavad Gita /Holy Koran) 1 Socialisation (Family and friends ) 2 Popular culture (Music, literature, television and the social scene) 3 I am unsure/prefer not to say 4 25. Should schools teach children scientific facts about homosexuality as part of sex and sexuality education ? Yes, teach scientific facts 1 2 3 I am unsure/prefer not to say 4 Section IV: Attitude towards Discrimination/Violence against Sexual Minorities 26. Do you generally believe that violence against gays or sexual minorities can be considered discrimination ? Yes, discrimination 1 No, not discrimination 2 3 27. Do you believe however you define it ) can contribute to: a) Suicide being committed by teens or young people Yes 1 No 2 Unsure 3 b) Alcoholism or other form of substance abuse Yes 1 No 2 Unsure 3 c) A state of mental depression Yes 1 No 2 Unsure 3 d) Increased or high incidence of HIV/AIDS Yes 1 No 2 Unsure 3 e) Temporary or permanent absence from school Yes 1 No 2 Unsure 3
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 43 of 50 28. Do you believe that any of the following provide an acceptable basis for treating people differently in Guyana? ( Is it acceptable to treat people differently a) Race Yes, acceptable 1 No, not acceptable 2 3 b) Gender Yes, acceptable 1 No, not acceptable 2 3 c) Age Yes, acceptable 1 No, not acceptable 2 3 d) Sexual Orientation Yes, acceptable 1 No, not acceptable 2 3 e) Religion Yes, acceptable 1 No, not acceptable 2 3 29. Do you feel that these groups need special protection from the state/protection from the discrimination of others: a) Persons living with HIV/AIDS Yes 1 No 2 3 b) Yes 1 No 2 3 c) Yes 1 No 2 3 d) Persons who are Disabled/Handicapped Yes 1 No 2 3 e) Minority racial groups Yes 1 No 2 3 f) Women Yes 1 No 2 3 g) Children Yes 1 No 2 3 SECTION V : Attitude to Existing and Future Legislation: 30. Presently the laws of Guyana outlaw the act of Buggery/Sodomy, whether be tween two men or a man and a woman and regardless of whether this act is in public or private consensual or forced Do you generally support the maintenance of this law? Yes, I think Buggery/Sodomy laws should be maintained 1 No, I think the Buggery/S odomy should be changed (removed or modified) 2 I am unsure/prefer not to say how I feel about this law 3 31. Currently, the laws of Guyana with respect to Buggery/Sodomy are NOT being enforced (except in instances of forced sex/rape) Do you think that th e state should enforce these laws by investigating and prosecuting persons who engage in these acts (by consent) ? Yes, start enforcing laws 1 No, continue with non enforcement 2 I am unsure/prefer not to say 3 32. Generally speaking, do you think that the laws of Guyana with respect to Buggery/Sodomy make sense Yes, I think these laws make perfect sense 1 No, I consider these laws illogical 2 I am unsure/prefer not to say 3
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 44 of 50 33. What punishment would you consider appropriate for someone convicted of Buggery/Sodomy? No punishment, (I do NOT support the laws) 1 No punishment, (I support the Laws) 2 Light punishment/Community Service 3 Monetary fine (no prison) 4 Monetary fine AND OR short prison term 5 Ma ndatory prison term (medium long) 6 Death Penalty 7 I am not sure/prefer not to say 8 34. Based on your understanding of the Guyana laws with respect to Buggery/Sodomy, which of these objectives do you think that the laws achieve in their present form? a) The laws are a fair and reasonable expression of our moral standards Yes 1 No 2 3 b) The laws are a fair and reasonable expression of our religious standards Yes 1 No 2 3 c) The laws protect young people from abuse. Yes 1 No 2 3 d) The laws help to stop the spread of homosexuality Yes 1 No 2 3 e) The laws are important from a Pub lic Health perspective. Yes 1 No 2 3 35. be recognised by the state ( Regardless of whether or not it currently is recognised ) ? Yes 1 No 2 3 36. Would ? Yes 1 No 2 3 37. Should the protection of the rights of persons who are gay be a priority for the Guyanese Government ? Yes, a priority 1 No, not a priority 2 3 38. Which ONE of the The Right of two men or two women to marry 1 The Right of two men or two women to have sexual intercourse in private 2 The Right of all persons to be treated equally regardless of their sexual orientation 3 I am unsure what the term means or prefer not to answer 4 39. IF it were to be proven that the buggery/sodomy laws contributed to either of these problems would you be MORE incl ined to support changing these laws ( in any way ): a) Social and Psychological problems, especially among young people: Good reason to change 1 Not good reason to change 2 Unsure 3 b) Increased or high incidence of HIV/AIDS Good reason to change 1 Not good reas on to change 2 Unsure 3
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 45 of 50 40. Do you think that the laws of Guyana SHOULD penalise: a) sexual intercourse Yes, penalise 1 2 b) sexual intercourse Yes, penalise 1 2 c) sexual intercourse Yes, penalise 1 2 d) sexual intercourse Yes, penalise 1 penalise 2 e) sexual intercourse Yes, penalise 1 2 f) sexual intercourse Yes, penalise 1 2 g) More than tw sexual intercourse Yes, penalise 1 2 h) More than two people (of any sex ) sexual intercourse Yes, penalise 1 2 41. I f there were to be any changes to the laws relating to Buggery/Sodomy, which of these options would you prefer: Leave the laws as is, I think they are fine 1 Change the laws to prohibit only public activity, with private relations being allowed betw een adults (of any sex) 2 Change the laws to prohibit only activities between two men, with private relations between a man and woman being allowed 3 Change the laws to prohibit only activities between two women, with private relations bet ween a man and a woman being allowed 4 Change the laws to prohibit only activities involving minors/children, with relations between adults (of any sex) being allowed 5 I am not sure/prefer not to say 6 42. offences a) immoral; and b) From the perspective of what you think the Police/Authorities SHOULD take greatest interest Offense (a) Immorality (b) Importance Adultery Child abuse Homosexual Sex/Buggery/Sodomy Incest Murder Rape
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 46 of 50 43. Do you support corporal punishment ( flogging ) in the home ? Yes 1 No 2 Unsure 3 44. Do you support corporal punishment ( flogging ) in the education system ? Yes 1 No 2 Unsure 3 45. Have you ever flogged your child/children ? Yes 1 No 2 3 46. Do you support the Death Penalty (generally) ? Y es 1 No 2 Unsure/ 3 47. gay issues an election? Yes, it would make a difference to my vote 1 No, it would not make a difference 2 3
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 47 of 50 CONFIDENTIAL SECTION In thi s last section of the survey, we ask that you take the questionnaire and tick the box next to your preferred answer. After you have done this privately, please fold the questionnaire and drop it in the bag provided. We ask that you tick only one response for each of the questions and you can feel free to ask your interviewer to clarify any issues for you before you start, or administer this section for you if you prefer. 48. How would you describe your (personal) sexu al Orientation? I am straight/heterosexual I am gay/lesbian I am bi sexual (male or female) I prefer not to say 49. Would you say that you actually know gay people who fall into any of the following categories? ( ) a) Friends ( of mine ) Yes No Prefer not to say b) Family members ( of mine ) Yes No Prefer not to say c) Business associates/people I work with Yes No Prefer not to say d) Political leaders Yes No Prefer not to say e) Religious leaders Yes No Prefer not to say 50. At this point in time how would you describe yourself politically? PPP/Civic Supporter PNC Supporter AFC Supporter Other Party Supporter Prefer not to say Uncommitted voter THANK YOU FOR YOUR COOPERATION AND ASSISTANCE
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 48 of 50 Appendix I I : Location of Interviews Administrative Division Total 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Adventure 1 1 Adventure/Airy Hall 3 3 Adventure/Aurora 2 2 Adventure/Good hope 1 1 Adventure/Hampton Court 1 1 Adventure/Suddie 3 3 Adventure/Supernaam 3 3 Adventure/airy hall 1 1 Adventure/airy Hall 1 1 Adventure/ D arthmouth 1 1 Adventure/good hope 1 1 Adventure/old road 2 2 Adventure/S uddie 2 2 Adventure/S upernaam 1 1 Advenutre/ W aouri 1 1 Agricola, EBD 11 11 Anna Regina 4 4 Anna Regina/Darthmouth 1 1 Anna Regina/Mainstay 1 1 Anna Regina/Queenstown 2 2 Anna Regina/H ampton Court 1 1 Anna Regina/old Road 1 1 Anna/Regina/Queenstown 1 1 Anna/Regina/old road 1 1 Bachelor's Adventure 36 36 Bartica 34 34 Bel Air 3 4 3 4 Belladrum, West Coast Berbice 3 3 Bristol Street/East Canjie 6 6 Burn Bush /East canjie 2 2 Campbellville 34 34 Cross Dam 11 11 DeEdward Village, West Coast Berbice 7 7 Diamond 36 36
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 49 of 50 Administrative Division Total 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Diamond, ECD 13 13 Go;den Grove 1 1 Goed Fortiun 35 35 Golden Grove 56 56 Hopetown Village, West Coast Berbice 2 2 Kitty 35 35 Leonora 38 38 Lethem 34 34 Lodge/ Georgetown 35 35 LordBush 4 4 Love Lass, West Coast Berbice 4 4 Mackenzie 18 18 Madhia 31 31 Mahacicony/Prospect 1 1 Mahacony 4 4 Mahaicony/ H armony H all 1 1 Mahaicony/Airy Hall 5 5 Mahaicony/ Dundue 4 4 Mahaicony/Novar 9 9 Mahaicony/Prospect 7 7 Mahaicony/ D undue 1 1 Mahaicony/ H armony Hall 1 1 Mahdia 1 1 McDoom, ECD 10 10 Meadow Bank 13 13 Nandy Park, ECD 6 6 New Amsterdam 106 106 No. 4 Village, West Coast Berbice 1 1 No. 5 Village, West Coast Berbice 3 3 No. 7 Village, West Coast Berbice 3 3 No. 8 Village, West Coast Berbice 4 4 North Ruimveldt 35 35 Parfait Harmony/ C anal 1 34 34 Parika/Essequibo 35 35
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Guyana Page 50 of 50 Administrative Division Total 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Percey smith dam 6 Pomona village /Essequibo 36 36 Port Kaituma 36 36 Riverview 12 12 Rosignol, West Coast Berbice 8 8 Sheet A nchor /Ministry road 5 5 Vreed en hoop 33 33 Wakenaam 3 7 37 Wismar 18 18 M ahaicony/Dundue 1 1 M ahaicony/Novar 2 2 Total Areas 36 109 175 367 71 140 34 32 34 36 1034