<%BANNER%>

Regenerating urban landscape: A framework for ecological urban design in Kai Tak River, Hong Kong

University of Florida Institutional Repository UFAFA
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00016070/00001

Material Information

Title: Regenerating urban landscape: A framework for ecological urban design in Kai Tak River, Hong Kong
Physical Description: Project in lieu of thesis
Language: English
Creator: Wong, Siu Jun
Publisher: School of Landscape Architecture and Planning, College of Design, Construction and Planning, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Genre:
Spatial Coverage:

Notes

Abstract: The purpose of this graduate terminal project is to explore contemporary theories for landscape urbanism and ecological design to understand their applications in real world situations. I used a qualitative research approach that employed an interpretative strategy. My project involved the analysis and synthesis of contemporary theories for the formulation of theoretical frameworks. These interpretative design frameworks were applied to a project located along a segment of the Kai Tak River located in Kowloon, Hong Kong. Within this qualitative research approach, interpretive and action research strategies were both utilized. My research goal was to gain a deeper understanding of current thinking on landscape urbanism and ecology-based design, particularly by three practicing designers (James Corner, Ken Yeang, Kongjian Yu) who are theorists. The theorists have articulated specific approaches that can serve as three different theoretical frameworks for ecological design in urban situations. As design inquiry, another important objective was to apply my interpretation of the selected contemporary theorists to a real-world project. My analysis of their work became the foundation for my synthesis of a new theoretical design framework that was applied to a site in Hong Kong. In this aspect, my project also reflected an action research strategy. Mixed-methods were utilized during my primary research tasks and involved archival research and field observation. Archival research included the review and analysis of technical government documents, development plans, design plans and planning documents of the Kai Tak River area and Hong Kong. Field research involved field visits to the Kai Tak River area to collect data and make field observations for site and context analysis. A key objective for this research project was to explore landscape urbanism and ecological design theories in a systematic process for application to sites in complex urban settings like Hong Kong. This graduate terminal project expands current theories on the practice of landscape urbanism and ecological design in mega cities. It also demonstrates the need for further research on theory-based methodologies that link ecology and community based design frameworks for application to complex landscape architecture projects in dense urban environments.
General Note: Landscape Architecture terminal project

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
System ID: AA00016070:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00016070/00001

Material Information

Title: Regenerating urban landscape: A framework for ecological urban design in Kai Tak River, Hong Kong
Physical Description: Project in lieu of thesis
Language: English
Creator: Wong, Siu Jun
Publisher: School of Landscape Architecture and Planning, College of Design, Construction and Planning, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Genre:
Spatial Coverage:

Notes

Abstract: The purpose of this graduate terminal project is to explore contemporary theories for landscape urbanism and ecological design to understand their applications in real world situations. I used a qualitative research approach that employed an interpretative strategy. My project involved the analysis and synthesis of contemporary theories for the formulation of theoretical frameworks. These interpretative design frameworks were applied to a project located along a segment of the Kai Tak River located in Kowloon, Hong Kong. Within this qualitative research approach, interpretive and action research strategies were both utilized. My research goal was to gain a deeper understanding of current thinking on landscape urbanism and ecology-based design, particularly by three practicing designers (James Corner, Ken Yeang, Kongjian Yu) who are theorists. The theorists have articulated specific approaches that can serve as three different theoretical frameworks for ecological design in urban situations. As design inquiry, another important objective was to apply my interpretation of the selected contemporary theorists to a real-world project. My analysis of their work became the foundation for my synthesis of a new theoretical design framework that was applied to a site in Hong Kong. In this aspect, my project also reflected an action research strategy. Mixed-methods were utilized during my primary research tasks and involved archival research and field observation. Archival research included the review and analysis of technical government documents, development plans, design plans and planning documents of the Kai Tak River area and Hong Kong. Field research involved field visits to the Kai Tak River area to collect data and make field observations for site and context analysis. A key objective for this research project was to explore landscape urbanism and ecological design theories in a systematic process for application to sites in complex urban settings like Hong Kong. This graduate terminal project expands current theories on the practice of landscape urbanism and ecological design in mega cities. It also demonstrates the need for further research on theory-based methodologies that link ecology and community based design frameworks for application to complex landscape architecture projects in dense urban environments.
General Note: Landscape Architecture terminal project

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
System ID: AA00016070:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

Regenerating urban landscape: A framework for ecological urban design in Kai Tak River, Hong Kong Siu Jun Wong (Boris) A THESIS PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA Committee Chair: Mary G. Padua Committee Member: Kay Williams Spring 2011

PAGE 2

2011 Siu Jun Wong (Boris)

PAGE 3

3ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSFirst and foremost, I would like to thank my parents for their endless support both Last but not least, I would also like to thank my peers, both undergrads and grads

PAGE 4

4ABSTRACT designers (James Corner, Ken Yeang, Kongjian Yu) who are theorists. The theorists

PAGE 5

5Acknowledgements Abstract Table of Contents Chapter 1: Introduction and Methodology IV. Assumptions V. Methodology Chapter 2: Contemporary Theory Analysis a. James Corner b. Ken Yeang Chapter 3: Design Application: Kai Tak River, Hong Kong b. Building Use d. Stormwater Management and Water Quality f. Building Height Chapter 4: Design Process I. Theory Framework and Site Synthesis IV. Master Planning Framework V. Pedestrian Framework Chapter 5: A New Vision I. Design Program II. Master Plan Chapter 6: Conclusions Appendix References 3 4 5 7 8 10 10 11 14 14 18 22 26 33 35 37 39 41 43 46 48 49 53 55 56 59 65 70 72 74 75 77 81 84 89TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE 6

Chapter 1: Introduction and Methodology

PAGE 7

7INTRODUCTION largely ignored (Corner 2006, p.28).

PAGE 8

8BACKGROUND FOR THE RESEARCHHong Kong, China is one of the most densely populated metropolitans in the world (Figure 1.1) (One World Nations Online). This has made land management in problems to the urban areas.

PAGE 9

9 Figure 1.4 Hong Kong Wetland Park (EMA) for wetlands lost as a result of the Tin Shui Wai New northwestern part of the New Territories (Figure 1.2 & 1.3). of surrounding wetland. The wetland supports a wide range of established by the British before they departed in 1997. SSSI Kong 2011). the urban areas of Hong Kong. At the same time other Wetland Park Hong Kong Wetland Park Site

PAGE 10

10 healthy manner (Jones Lang LaSalle 2008). GOALS, OBJECTIVES AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS ASSUMPTIONS

PAGE 11

11 METHODOLOGY

PAGE 12

12

PAGE 13

Chapter 2: Contemporary Theory Analysis

PAGE 14

14INTRODUCTION through different design elements and programs. THEORISTS-PRACTITIONERSJames Corner, Chair

PAGE 15

15Corner: Time and Process Terra Fluxus 3) Operation method 4) Imaginary Case Study: Fresh Kills Park by Field Operations

PAGE 16

16 spirit and imagination of people who will use the new park (NYC Department of City Planning 2006, p.8). Figure 2.1 Draft Master Plan, Fresh Kills Park

PAGE 17

17 areas (NYC Department of City Planning 2006, p.52) Figure 2.3 Phasing Plan

PAGE 18

18Dr. Ken Yeang, Principal Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia A Theoretical Framework for the Ecological Design and Planning of the Built Environment 2010).Yeang: EcomasterplanningEcomasterplanning (2009) (Figure 2.4), a book written by Yeang to elaborate his Figure 2.4 Ecomasterplanning by Ken Yeang

PAGE 19

19Table 2.5 Design strategy for different site types p.16): E cosystem hierarchy S ite data requirements for design Design strategy Ecologically mature mapping Highest of detail in analysis Ecologically immature Complete analysis and mapping Ecologically simplified Complete analysis and mapping P C I B uilt on low Mixed artificial and mapping C I Built on low Monoculture and mapping I Built on areas of non potential (nonarable R ehabilitate the and habitats Zeroculture Analysis and mapping of remaining trees, I R ehabilitate the Contaminated and brownfield sites Assess D and remediate R ehabilitate

PAGE 20

20 Case Study: West Kowloon Waterfront Masterplan Competition entry

PAGE 21

21 Figure 2.6 West Kowloon Waterfront Proposal

PAGE 22

22Kongjian Yu, Dean and Professor Beijing, P.R.C. won him a number of international design awards and made him one of the most Yu: Vernacular Landscapes The Art of Survival: Recovering Landscape Architecture Figure 2.7 The Art of Survival: Recovering Landscape Architecture edited by Kongjian Yu and Mary Padua

PAGE 23

23 The Big-Foot Revolution Case Study: Zhongshan Shipyard Park (Figure 2.8). The park is a former industrial shipyard park built in the 1950s during

PAGE 24

24 gateways on the western and southern edges of the park (Figure 2.9) (Yu & Padua modern Chinese history (Padua 2006).

PAGE 25

25

PAGE 26

26CRITICAL ANALYSISThree Designers, Three Approaches emphasis and problems. Designer Design Philosophy Technique and Tools The Role of Landscape Design Elements Emphasis Issues Ken Yeang Layering analysis strategy Biointergration of human the that layers Green Blue infr Grey Red Strong emphasis (hardware) (software) Kongjian Yu Cultural Relationship spirits (history) mediator that history and Land People Spirits of land Human oriented history) of humanity Related to daily life people James Corner based relationship Inter time and agents working in the as inter relationship that different together Time Multi dimensional relationship dimensional in our built from ideology to

PAGE 27

27Corners Process-based System: Landscape as a functional device that will sustain.

PAGE 28

28 reminds to be seen. Yeangs Infrastructural Connectivity: Landscape as a physical connectorBased on my interpretation of Ecomasterplanning (2009), Yeang uses an

PAGE 29

29 settings. Level of Disturbance Setting Ecological Resources Ecological Design Strategies Minimum Wilderness National Forest National Park (Paynes Prairie) Undisturbed and fully Strong linkage among Medium Suburb Some degree of Build on impaired areas and Re establi linkage High Urban (Boston, San Highly disturbed and little Weak linkage among Re Build on low Re linkage Severe Ultra Urban (New York, Tokyo, Hong Kong) No linkage among Re Re heritage if appropriate

PAGE 30

30Yus Cultural Relationship: Landscape as a mediator between nature and human settings.

PAGE 31

31 oriented philosophy that stresses identity and integrity with the integration of

PAGE 32

Chapter 3: Design Application: Kai Tak River, Hong Kong

PAGE 33

33HONG KONG: PROJECT CONTEXT AND MEGA CITY (Hong Kong Tourism Board 2010). Hong Kong people refer to the PRC as mainland China. Hong Kong is one of the has made Hong Kong an international tourist destination. It is Figure 3.2 Statellite Image of Hong Kong

PAGE 34

34K world (China Times, 2010). Hong Kong sustains numerous high international (Hong Kong Wikipedia 2010). 2004, p.20). freshwater wetlands and sandy shores.

PAGE 35

35SITE: KAI TAK RIVER of Wong Tai Sin, Sun Po Kong, Kowloon City and the new Kai Hong Kong in 1846 (Figure 3.7), the area was predominantly treated sewerage from Shatin Sewage Treatment Works and Tai Po Sewage Treatment Works, stormwater runoffs from its groups opposed and proposed transforming the nullah into a and ends at Kwun Tong Typhoon Shelter (2,000m).

PAGE 36

36 San Po Kong Wong Tai Sin Kowloon City

PAGE 37

37UPSTREAM: EXISTING NEIGHBORHOODS Character of Space Courtyard Buffer Planting Sidewalk Sidewalk Choi Hung Road Sidewalk San Po Kong Figure 3.8 Upstream Study Area Sung Po Kong Lower Wong Tai Sin Estate Morse Park Tun Tau Estate0 2 4 6 8 16 m

PAGE 38

38

PAGE 39

39Building Use edge, land use has been dominated by Wong Tai Sin residential (Figure 3.13). Estate and Tung Tau Estate were built after the demolition of Housing Authority 2011). East and Choi Hung Road. Many of the industrial buildings Figure 3.11 One of the residential buildings in Tung Tau Estate Figure 3.12 San Po Kong industrial buildings

PAGE 40

40 NPublic residential Private residential Commercial Education Institutional Industrial Historic Open Space VacantSan Po Kong Lower Wong Tai Sin Estate Morse Park Prince Edward Road EastChoi Hung RoadTung Tau Estate

PAGE 41

41 Figure 3.14 Swimming Pools at Morse Park no. 3 Figure 3.15 Morse Park no.1 Figure 3.16 Courtyard of Tung Tau Estate) Open Space

PAGE 42

42 Kowloon Walled City Shek Ku Lung Road Playground Viewing Choi Hung Road Playground Total Study Area 0 25 50 75 100 200 mN

PAGE 43

43Stormwater Management (STSTW) and Tai Po Sewage Treatment Works (TPSTW) 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 100-120 120-140 180-200 >200 Study Area 140-160 160-180 port.pdf) N2 12m bus stop and open 22m

PAGE 44

44 Water Quality

PAGE 45

45 2009Combined.pdf) Sidewalk Choi Hung Road Median Choi Hung Road 8m 8m 8m

PAGE 46

46Figure 3.23 Choi Hung Road Figure 3.24 Sidewalk on eastern edge Figure 3.25 Sidewalk on western edge Access, Circulation and Transportation Road Network Kong Village Road to Yin Hing Street (Figure 3.23). Public Transportation walk from my study area (Figure 3.26). The study area is the study area. Pedestrian denies people from getting right up to the railing (Figure 3.24). Bicycle are no designated bike trail systems in the study area. Most

PAGE 47

47 Po Kong and the residential use in Wong Tai Sin. There is the potential for a design opportunity to offer a different mode Pedestrian MTR Station Bus Station 0 25 50 75 100 200 mN

PAGE 48

48Building Height <40m N

PAGE 49

49 f the stud area:1. Wong Tai Sin Temple the most famous shrines in Hong Kong (Figure 3.28). This Taoist temple was built in 1921 and named for Wong Tai Sin a shepherd who began following Taoism at the age of 15. By the and to make a wish at the altar. The Wong Tai Sin Temple is 2. Chi Lin Nunnery (Chi Lin Nunnery Wikipedia 2011)3. Nan Lian Garden to the North. The garden was designed and built by the Chi Figure 3.28 Wong Tai Sin Temple Figure 3.29 Chi Lin Nunnery

PAGE 50

50 4. Nga Tsin Wai Village a temple to honor the sea goddess named Tin Hau. The Tin the same as it was hundreds of years ago, with three narrow (DeWolf 2010). by the Hong Kong Urban Renewal Authority (URA) and their Wai Village Figure 3.31 Nga Tsin Wai Village Figure 3.30 Ning Lian Garden

PAGE 51

51 5. Kowloon Walled City and Kowloon Walled City Park Territories were leased to Britain in 1898. After WWII, Kowloon Walled City was

PAGE 52

52 Wong Tai Sin Temple Chi Lin NunneryNan Lian Garden Nga Tsing Wai Village Kowloon City Walled Park

PAGE 53

53SUMMARY OF ISSUES AND CONSTRAINTS, AND OPPORTUNITIESIssues and Constraints 6. Walkability is poor in some parts of the area Opportunities network

PAGE 54

Chapter 4: Design Process

PAGE 55

55THEORY FRAMEWORKS AND SITE SYNTHESIS

PAGE 56

56 THREE DESIGN PRIORITIES FOR ECOLOGICAL URBAN DESIGN IN KAI TAK RIVER

PAGE 57

57Design Priorities Non-motorist circulations 1. Function 2. Passive interest. 3. Active Social Spaces 1. Neighborhood 2. Public Ecosystem

PAGE 58

58

PAGE 59

59 DISTRICT FRAMEWORKProposed non-motorist circulations

PAGE 60

60DISTRICT FRAMEWORKProposed non-motorist circulations 2. Land use surrounding residential neighborhoods. The inner roads further west will remain as

PAGE 61

61 DISTRICT FRAMEWORKProposed social spaces

PAGE 62

62DISTRICT FRAMEWORKProposed social spaces

PAGE 63

63 DISTRICT FRAMEWORKProposed ecosystem

PAGE 64

64DISTRICT FRAMEWORKProposed ecosystem 3. Topography 1. Catchment Basin (Morse Park) 2. Settling Cell 3. Plant Uptake Cells 4. Aeration water speed.5. Bioswales runoff from the road.

PAGE 65

65MASTER PLANNING FRAMEWORK

PAGE 66

66 Entry Point Settling Cell Plant Uptake Cell I Plant Uptake Cell II Dense Buffer Buffer MASTER PLANNING FRAMEWORKProposed neigborhood space

PAGE 67

67MASTER PLANNING FRAMEWORKProposed neigborhood space

PAGE 68

68 Tin Hau Temple Courtyard (residential tower) (residential tower) San Po Kong Buffer Buffer Aeration Path MASTER PLANNING FRAMEWORKProposed public space

PAGE 69

69MASTER PLANNING FRAMEWORKProposed public space

PAGE 70

70 PEDESTRIAN FRAMEWORK Figure 4.9 Aeration Typology Study Models

PAGE 71

Chapter 5: A New Vision

PAGE 72

72CONNECT, CONGREGATE, CLEANSE DESIGN PROGRAM major purposes: (water path). groups.

PAGE 73

73 Non-motorist circulations social spaces landscape as medium consolidated system ecosystem

PAGE 74

74 Settling Cell Shallow Marsh Cell Plant Uptake Cell Seating Jogging Path Cafe Aeration Path Bike and Jogging Path Outlet Urban Farm Learning Lab Green Street Shek Ku Lung Road Playground Morse Park Choi Hung Road Playground Outdoor Cafe Multimodal Path Tung Tau Estate Tung Tau Estate Courtyard Market and Cooked Food Stalls Tin Hau Temple MASTER PLANFigure 5.2 Master Plan0 25 50 75 100 200 mN

PAGE 75

75 Figure 5.3 Urban Wetland PlanUrban Wetland: Neigborhood Space Tai Chi Court Canopy Boardwalk Canopy Jogging Path Tung Tau Estate Marsh Cell Marsh Cell Multimodal Path Bridge Plant Uptake Cell Buffer Planting Amphitheatre Aeration Path 0 10 20 30 40 80 mN

PAGE 76

76 Figure 5.5 Urban Wetland

PAGE 77

77Riverfront: Public and Education Spaces The aeration path is the last stage of stormwater the study area (Figure 5.7). Instead of restoring Kai image to the area. Aeration Path 111 1 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 8 9 10 10 11 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 8 8 8 8 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 13 14 15 16 17 18 12 Tung Tau Estate Seating Planter with Seating Buffer Planting Courtyard Learning Lab Urban Farm Bike & Jogging Path Ting Hau Temple Outlet Street Market & Food Stalls ment at former Nga Tsin Wai Village0 10 20 30 40 80 mN

PAGE 78

78 Figure 5.7 Aeration Path Urban Farm Path Planting Path Green Wall Green Wall Bike & Jogging Path0 1 2 3 4 8 m

PAGE 79

79

PAGE 80

Chapter 6: ConclusionsA summary of insights and learning

PAGE 81

81CONCLUSION (Figure 6.1): the

PAGE 82

82 Designer Design Philosophy Technique and Tools The Role of Landscape Design Elements Emphasis Issues Ken Yeang Layering analysis strategy Biointergration of human s integrity, (green is the that other layers Green Blue infr Grey Red S trong emphasis on (hardware) I (software) Kongjian Yu Cultural Relationship spirits (history) mediator that history and Land People Spirits of land Human oriented of humanity Related to daily life of the es T he definition of James Corner based relationship I nter ary design D agents working in the networks of inter relationship different together Time Multi dimensional relationship dimensional influential built Lost in translation from ideology What did i learn?

PAGE 83

83So what now? rather

PAGE 84

84 APPENDIXGraduate Terminal Project Final Proposal Committee Chair Member Work Title

PAGE 85

85 ing of our urban area. elements.

PAGE 86

86 Research Questions Research Strategy Research Design

PAGE 87

87 types of urban parks in Hong Kong. Anticipated products 5. Types of urban parks in Hong Kong Preliminary Site Location design.

PAGE 88

88

PAGE 89

REFERENCES How cities use parks for climate change management Wong Tai Sin Temple China Times. 2010. MOTC unveils plan to increase public transport use CIA. 2010. The World Fact Book: GDP per capita (PPP) Urban Rivers: Kai Tak River Comments on Nga Tsin Wai Village Project 2011 Corner, J. 2006. DeWolf, C. 2010. Dudgeon, D. Corlett, R. 2004. The Ecoloigy and Biodiversity of Hong Kong Friends of the County Parks & Joint Publish ing (HK) Company Ltd. Hong Kong, China Dudgeon, D. 2003. Hong Kong Field Guides 2: Hillstreams Hong Kong. Wan Li Book Co., Ltd. Hong Kong, China. Urban China 2020 20 Years of Marine Water Quality Monitoring in Hong Kong: Southwestern New Territories & Kowloon Annual River Water Quality Reports Hong Kong Housing Authority. Residential Properties

PAGE 90

Hong Kong Nature Net. 2011. Ecology of Hong Kong Hong Kong Planning Department 2007. Kai Tak Planning Review, Chapter 6: Infrastructure and Utilities [Online Re Hong Kong Tourism Board. 2010. About Hong Kong: History Hong Kong Urban Renewal Authority. 2010. Nga Tsin Wai Village Project Hong Kong Wetland Park. 2011. Background Jones Lang LaSalle. 2008. China 2020: The Landscape of Change Koh, S. 2010. Datuk Ken Yeang, the master of green skyscrapers 2011 The Image of the City. The MIT Press. Cambridge, MA. Nan Liang Garden. 2011. Concepts and Planning; Landscape Gardening NYC Department of City Planning. 2006. Fresh Kills Park Project: Draft Master Plan 27, 2011 Population Density

PAGE 91

Padua, M. 2006. The Industrial Strength: Zhongshan Shipyard Park Padua, M. 2008. A Fine Red Line: Design tests the boundary between art and ecology World Wide Fund For Nature Hong Kong. Managing Mai Po Nature Reserve Wu, X. 2010. Biography. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection 2011 Yu, K.J. 2006. The Art of Survival: Recovering Landscape Architecture. In Yu, K.J. & Padua, M (eds), The Art of Yu, K.J. & Pang, W. 2006. Zhongshan Shipyard Park Australia. Yu, K.J. 2010. The Big-Foot Revolution Yeang, K. 2009. Ecomasterplanning