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Regenerating urban landscape: A framework for ecological urban design in Kai Tak River, Hong Kong Siu Jun Wong (Boris) A THESIS PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA Committee Chair: Mary G. Padua Committee Member: Kay Williams Spring 2011
2011 Siu Jun Wong (Boris)
3ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSFirst and foremost, I would like to thank my parents for their endless support both Last but not least, I would also like to thank my peers, both undergrads and grads
4ABSTRACT designers (James Corner, Ken Yeang, Kongjian Yu) who are theorists. The theorists
5Acknowledgements Abstract Table of Contents Chapter 1: Introduction and Methodology IV. Assumptions V. Methodology Chapter 2: Contemporary Theory Analysis a. James Corner b. Ken Yeang Chapter 3: Design Application: Kai Tak River, Hong Kong b. Building Use d. Stormwater Management and Water Quality f. Building Height Chapter 4: Design Process I. Theory Framework and Site Synthesis IV. Master Planning Framework V. Pedestrian Framework Chapter 5: A New Vision I. Design Program II. Master Plan Chapter 6: Conclusions Appendix References 3 4 5 7 8 10 10 11 14 14 18 22 26 33 35 37 39 41 43 46 48 49 53 55 56 59 65 70 72 74 75 77 81 84 89TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1: Introduction and Methodology
7INTRODUCTION largely ignored (Corner 2006, p.28).
8BACKGROUND FOR THE RESEARCHHong Kong, China is one of the most densely populated metropolitans in the world (Figure 1.1) (One World Nations Online). This has made land management in problems to the urban areas.
9 Figure 1.4 Hong Kong Wetland Park (EMA) for wetlands lost as a result of the Tin Shui Wai New northwestern part of the New Territories (Figure 1.2 & 1.3). of surrounding wetland. The wetland supports a wide range of established by the British before they departed in 1997. SSSI Kong 2011). the urban areas of Hong Kong. At the same time other Wetland Park Hong Kong Wetland Park Site
10 healthy manner (Jones Lang LaSalle 2008). GOALS, OBJECTIVES AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS ASSUMPTIONS
Chapter 2: Contemporary Theory Analysis
14INTRODUCTION through different design elements and programs. THEORISTS-PRACTITIONERSJames Corner, Chair
15Corner: Time and Process Terra Fluxus 3) Operation method 4) Imaginary Case Study: Fresh Kills Park by Field Operations
16 spirit and imagination of people who will use the new park (NYC Department of City Planning 2006, p.8). Figure 2.1 Draft Master Plan, Fresh Kills Park
17 areas (NYC Department of City Planning 2006, p.52) Figure 2.3 Phasing Plan
18Dr. Ken Yeang, Principal Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia A Theoretical Framework for the Ecological Design and Planning of the Built Environment 2010).Yeang: EcomasterplanningEcomasterplanning (2009) (Figure 2.4), a book written by Yeang to elaborate his Figure 2.4 Ecomasterplanning by Ken Yeang
19Table 2.5 Design strategy for different site types p.16): E cosystem hierarchy S ite data requirements for design Design strategy Ecologically mature mapping Highest of detail in analysis Ecologically immature Complete analysis and mapping Ecologically simplified Complete analysis and mapping P C I B uilt on low Mixed artificial and mapping C I Built on low Monoculture and mapping I Built on areas of non potential (nonarable R ehabilitate the and habitats Zeroculture Analysis and mapping of remaining trees, I R ehabilitate the Contaminated and brownfield sites Assess D and remediate R ehabilitate
20 Case Study: West Kowloon Waterfront Masterplan Competition entry
21 Figure 2.6 West Kowloon Waterfront Proposal
22Kongjian Yu, Dean and Professor Beijing, P.R.C. won him a number of international design awards and made him one of the most Yu: Vernacular Landscapes The Art of Survival: Recovering Landscape Architecture Figure 2.7 The Art of Survival: Recovering Landscape Architecture edited by Kongjian Yu and Mary Padua
23 The Big-Foot Revolution Case Study: Zhongshan Shipyard Park (Figure 2.8). The park is a former industrial shipyard park built in the 1950s during
24 gateways on the western and southern edges of the park (Figure 2.9) (Yu & Padua modern Chinese history (Padua 2006).
26CRITICAL ANALYSISThree Designers, Three Approaches emphasis and problems. Designer Design Philosophy Technique and Tools The Role of Landscape Design Elements Emphasis Issues Ken Yeang Layering analysis strategy Biointergration of human the that layers Green Blue infr Grey Red Strong emphasis (hardware) (software) Kongjian Yu Cultural Relationship spirits (history) mediator that history and Land People Spirits of land Human oriented history) of humanity Related to daily life people James Corner based relationship Inter time and agents working in the as inter relationship that different together Time Multi dimensional relationship dimensional in our built from ideology to
27Corners Process-based System: Landscape as a functional device that will sustain.
28 reminds to be seen. Yeangs Infrastructural Connectivity: Landscape as a physical connectorBased on my interpretation of Ecomasterplanning (2009), Yeang uses an
29 settings. Level of Disturbance Setting Ecological Resources Ecological Design Strategies Minimum Wilderness National Forest National Park (Paynes Prairie) Undisturbed and fully Strong linkage among Medium Suburb Some degree of Build on impaired areas and Re establi linkage High Urban (Boston, San Highly disturbed and little Weak linkage among Re Build on low Re linkage Severe Ultra Urban (New York, Tokyo, Hong Kong) No linkage among Re Re heritage if appropriate
30Yus Cultural Relationship: Landscape as a mediator between nature and human settings.
31 oriented philosophy that stresses identity and integrity with the integration of
Chapter 3: Design Application: Kai Tak River, Hong Kong
33HONG KONG: PROJECT CONTEXT AND MEGA CITY (Hong Kong Tourism Board 2010). Hong Kong people refer to the PRC as mainland China. Hong Kong is one of the has made Hong Kong an international tourist destination. It is Figure 3.2 Statellite Image of Hong Kong
34K world (China Times, 2010). Hong Kong sustains numerous high international (Hong Kong Wikipedia 2010). 2004, p.20). freshwater wetlands and sandy shores.
35SITE: KAI TAK RIVER of Wong Tai Sin, Sun Po Kong, Kowloon City and the new Kai Hong Kong in 1846 (Figure 3.7), the area was predominantly treated sewerage from Shatin Sewage Treatment Works and Tai Po Sewage Treatment Works, stormwater runoffs from its groups opposed and proposed transforming the nullah into a and ends at Kwun Tong Typhoon Shelter (2,000m).
36 San Po Kong Wong Tai Sin Kowloon City
37UPSTREAM: EXISTING NEIGHBORHOODS Character of Space Courtyard Buffer Planting Sidewalk Sidewalk Choi Hung Road Sidewalk San Po Kong Figure 3.8 Upstream Study Area Sung Po Kong Lower Wong Tai Sin Estate Morse Park Tun Tau Estate0 2 4 6 8 16 m
39Building Use edge, land use has been dominated by Wong Tai Sin residential (Figure 3.13). Estate and Tung Tau Estate were built after the demolition of Housing Authority 2011). East and Choi Hung Road. Many of the industrial buildings Figure 3.11 One of the residential buildings in Tung Tau Estate Figure 3.12 San Po Kong industrial buildings
40 NPublic residential Private residential Commercial Education Institutional Industrial Historic Open Space VacantSan Po Kong Lower Wong Tai Sin Estate Morse Park Prince Edward Road EastChoi Hung RoadTung Tau Estate
41 Figure 3.14 Swimming Pools at Morse Park no. 3 Figure 3.15 Morse Park no.1 Figure 3.16 Courtyard of Tung Tau Estate) Open Space
42 Kowloon Walled City Shek Ku Lung Road Playground Viewing Choi Hung Road Playground Total Study Area 0 25 50 75 100 200 mN
43Stormwater Management (STSTW) and Tai Po Sewage Treatment Works (TPSTW) 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 100-120 120-140 180-200 >200 Study Area 140-160 160-180 port.pdf) N2 12m bus stop and open 22m
44 Water Quality
45 2009Combined.pdf) Sidewalk Choi Hung Road Median Choi Hung Road 8m 8m 8m
46Figure 3.23 Choi Hung Road Figure 3.24 Sidewalk on eastern edge Figure 3.25 Sidewalk on western edge Access, Circulation and Transportation Road Network Kong Village Road to Yin Hing Street (Figure 3.23). Public Transportation walk from my study area (Figure 3.26). The study area is the study area. Pedestrian denies people from getting right up to the railing (Figure 3.24). Bicycle are no designated bike trail systems in the study area. Most
47 Po Kong and the residential use in Wong Tai Sin. There is the potential for a design opportunity to offer a different mode Pedestrian MTR Station Bus Station 0 25 50 75 100 200 mN
48Building Height <40m N
49 f the stud area:1. Wong Tai Sin Temple the most famous shrines in Hong Kong (Figure 3.28). This Taoist temple was built in 1921 and named for Wong Tai Sin a shepherd who began following Taoism at the age of 15. By the and to make a wish at the altar. The Wong Tai Sin Temple is 2. Chi Lin Nunnery (Chi Lin Nunnery Wikipedia 2011)3. Nan Lian Garden to the North. The garden was designed and built by the Chi Figure 3.28 Wong Tai Sin Temple Figure 3.29 Chi Lin Nunnery
50 4. Nga Tsin Wai Village a temple to honor the sea goddess named Tin Hau. The Tin the same as it was hundreds of years ago, with three narrow (DeWolf 2010). by the Hong Kong Urban Renewal Authority (URA) and their Wai Village Figure 3.31 Nga Tsin Wai Village Figure 3.30 Ning Lian Garden
51 5. Kowloon Walled City and Kowloon Walled City Park Territories were leased to Britain in 1898. After WWII, Kowloon Walled City was
52 Wong Tai Sin Temple Chi Lin NunneryNan Lian Garden Nga Tsing Wai Village Kowloon City Walled Park
53SUMMARY OF ISSUES AND CONSTRAINTS, AND OPPORTUNITIESIssues and Constraints 6. Walkability is poor in some parts of the area Opportunities network
Chapter 4: Design Process
55THEORY FRAMEWORKS AND SITE SYNTHESIS
56 THREE DESIGN PRIORITIES FOR ECOLOGICAL URBAN DESIGN IN KAI TAK RIVER
57Design Priorities Non-motorist circulations 1. Function 2. Passive interest. 3. Active Social Spaces 1. Neighborhood 2. Public Ecosystem
59 DISTRICT FRAMEWORKProposed non-motorist circulations
60DISTRICT FRAMEWORKProposed non-motorist circulations 2. Land use surrounding residential neighborhoods. The inner roads further west will remain as
61 DISTRICT FRAMEWORKProposed social spaces
62DISTRICT FRAMEWORKProposed social spaces
63 DISTRICT FRAMEWORKProposed ecosystem
64DISTRICT FRAMEWORKProposed ecosystem 3. Topography 1. Catchment Basin (Morse Park) 2. Settling Cell 3. Plant Uptake Cells 4. Aeration water speed.5. Bioswales runoff from the road.
65MASTER PLANNING FRAMEWORK
66 Entry Point Settling Cell Plant Uptake Cell I Plant Uptake Cell II Dense Buffer Buffer MASTER PLANNING FRAMEWORKProposed neigborhood space
67MASTER PLANNING FRAMEWORKProposed neigborhood space
68 Tin Hau Temple Courtyard (residential tower) (residential tower) San Po Kong Buffer Buffer Aeration Path MASTER PLANNING FRAMEWORKProposed public space
69MASTER PLANNING FRAMEWORKProposed public space
70 PEDESTRIAN FRAMEWORK Figure 4.9 Aeration Typology Study Models
Chapter 5: A New Vision
72CONNECT, CONGREGATE, CLEANSE DESIGN PROGRAM major purposes: (water path). groups.
73 Non-motorist circulations social spaces landscape as medium consolidated system ecosystem
74 Settling Cell Shallow Marsh Cell Plant Uptake Cell Seating Jogging Path Cafe Aeration Path Bike and Jogging Path Outlet Urban Farm Learning Lab Green Street Shek Ku Lung Road Playground Morse Park Choi Hung Road Playground Outdoor Cafe Multimodal Path Tung Tau Estate Tung Tau Estate Courtyard Market and Cooked Food Stalls Tin Hau Temple MASTER PLANFigure 5.2 Master Plan0 25 50 75 100 200 mN
75 Figure 5.3 Urban Wetland PlanUrban Wetland: Neigborhood Space Tai Chi Court Canopy Boardwalk Canopy Jogging Path Tung Tau Estate Marsh Cell Marsh Cell Multimodal Path Bridge Plant Uptake Cell Buffer Planting Amphitheatre Aeration Path 0 10 20 30 40 80 mN
76 Figure 5.5 Urban Wetland
77Riverfront: Public and Education Spaces The aeration path is the last stage of stormwater the study area (Figure 5.7). Instead of restoring Kai image to the area. Aeration Path 111 1 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 8 9 10 10 11 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 8 8 8 8 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 13 14 15 16 17 18 12 Tung Tau Estate Seating Planter with Seating Buffer Planting Courtyard Learning Lab Urban Farm Bike & Jogging Path Ting Hau Temple Outlet Street Market & Food Stalls ment at former Nga Tsin Wai Village0 10 20 30 40 80 mN
78 Figure 5.7 Aeration Path Urban Farm Path Planting Path Green Wall Green Wall Bike & Jogging Path0 1 2 3 4 8 m
Chapter 6: ConclusionsA summary of insights and learning
81CONCLUSION (Figure 6.1): the
82 Designer Design Philosophy Technique and Tools The Role of Landscape Design Elements Emphasis Issues Ken Yeang Layering analysis strategy Biointergration of human s integrity, (green is the that other layers Green Blue infr Grey Red S trong emphasis on (hardware) I (software) Kongjian Yu Cultural Relationship spirits (history) mediator that history and Land People Spirits of land Human oriented of humanity Related to daily life of the es T he definition of James Corner based relationship I nter ary design D agents working in the networks of inter relationship different together Time Multi dimensional relationship dimensional influential built Lost in translation from ideology What did i learn?
83So what now? rather
84 APPENDIXGraduate Terminal Project Final Proposal Committee Chair Member Work Title
85 ing of our urban area. elements.
86 Research Questions Research Strategy Research Design
87 types of urban parks in Hong Kong. Anticipated products 5. Types of urban parks in Hong Kong Preliminary Site Location design.
REFERENCES How cities use parks for climate change management Wong Tai Sin Temple China Times. 2010. MOTC unveils plan to increase public transport use CIA. 2010. The World Fact Book: GDP per capita (PPP) Urban Rivers: Kai Tak River Comments on Nga Tsin Wai Village Project 2011 Corner, J. 2006. DeWolf, C. 2010. Dudgeon, D. Corlett, R. 2004. The Ecoloigy and Biodiversity of Hong Kong Friends of the County Parks & Joint Publish ing (HK) Company Ltd. Hong Kong, China Dudgeon, D. 2003. Hong Kong Field Guides 2: Hillstreams Hong Kong. Wan Li Book Co., Ltd. Hong Kong, China. Urban China 2020 20 Years of Marine Water Quality Monitoring in Hong Kong: Southwestern New Territories & Kowloon Annual River Water Quality Reports Hong Kong Housing Authority. Residential Properties
Hong Kong Nature Net. 2011. Ecology of Hong Kong Hong Kong Planning Department 2007. Kai Tak Planning Review, Chapter 6: Infrastructure and Utilities [Online Re Hong Kong Tourism Board. 2010. About Hong Kong: History Hong Kong Urban Renewal Authority. 2010. Nga Tsin Wai Village Project Hong Kong Wetland Park. 2011. Background Jones Lang LaSalle. 2008. China 2020: The Landscape of Change Koh, S. 2010. Datuk Ken Yeang, the master of green skyscrapers 2011 The Image of the City. The MIT Press. Cambridge, MA. Nan Liang Garden. 2011. Concepts and Planning; Landscape Gardening NYC Department of City Planning. 2006. Fresh Kills Park Project: Draft Master Plan 27, 2011 Population Density
Padua, M. 2006. The Industrial Strength: Zhongshan Shipyard Park Padua, M. 2008. A Fine Red Line: Design tests the boundary between art and ecology World Wide Fund For Nature Hong Kong. Managing Mai Po Nature Reserve Wu, X. 2010. Biography. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection 2011 Yu, K.J. 2006. The Art of Survival: Recovering Landscape Architecture. In Yu, K.J. & Padua, M (eds), The Art of Yu, K.J. & Pang, W. 2006. Zhongshan Shipyard Park Australia. Yu, K.J. 2010. The Big-Foot Revolution Yeang, K. 2009. Ecomasterplanning