Urban Agriculture as a Tool for Community Development: A Case Study in Port‐au‐Prince, Haiti

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Title:
Urban Agriculture as a Tool for Community Development: A Case Study in Port‐au‐Prince, Haiti
Physical Description:
Project in lieu of thesis
Language:
English
Creator:
Pell, Bonnie
Publisher:
School of Landscape Architecture and Planning, College of Design, Construction and Planning, University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla
Publication Date:

Notes

Abstract:
The primary research goal of my graduate terminal project (GTP) was to explore the potential for urban agriculture as a community development tool in a setting like Haiti. My primary objective was to explore ways that urban agriculture could be applied in Haiti. Meeting this objective in my GTP led me to investigate the use of guidelines that focused on practical implementation techniques. My objective was also design‐oriented and I wanted to create an urban agriculture case study that would apply techniques and information from the new guidelines. I selected the Fort National neighborhood in Port Au Prince, Haiti as the case study for my design investigation. My secondary research objective was to utilize research based on previously developed strategies of community gardening, urban agriculture and the University of Florida’s Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences tropical production and extension techniques. My study approach was qualitative and used an action research strategy. The design process involved secondary and primary research. Secondary research was imperative for framing my research design. It involved a review of the literature on community gardens, urban agriculture, grass‐roots based education methods and community development tools. Primary research involved using mixed methods: a) Archival research and review of documents, maps and technical reports; b) case study methods; and c) content analysis of informal interviews and forums. In the process of my research, I was able to find a way to create a direct relationship between urban agriculture and landscape architecture. Formulating community‐oriented design guidelines that used landscape architecture and urban agriculture techniques proved to be a challenge. It also has the potential for helping communities become more self‐sufficient. The entire process helped to deepen my understanding of landscape architecture as a practical tool for creating productive landscapes in urban settings, as well as a community‐building tool that could improve the quality of life in Haiti.
General Note:
Landscape Architecture terminal project

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University of Florida Institutional Repository
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University of Florida
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All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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AA00016067:00001


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Urban Agriculture as a Tool for Community Development: A Case Study in Port au Prince, Haiti Written By: Bonnie Pell A Graduate Terminal Project Presented to the Department of Landscape Architecture of the University of Florida as a Partial Requirement for the degree of Master of Landscape Architecture. Committee Chair: Mary Padua Member: Glenn Acomb University of Florida College of Design, Construction and Planning April 2010

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To the People of Haiti Paske gen denmen. Se pa pou gremesi w'ap tann sa w'ap tann lan. Proverbs 23:18

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Acknowledgements My God, My Father and My Savior: Your love and blessings make me what I am. And your beauty inspires me. Thank you for answered prayer throughout this experience. Brent : I would have never made it to the end without you. Thank you for the months and months of support through all my complaints, tears and “angry elf” moments. My Parents : You’ve given me everything I ever needed and desired. Thank you. You’re the best Mom and Dad in the world! My Classmates: You made the long days and late nights a joy. I can’t thank you enough for the laughter you’ve provided me. My Committee, Mary and Glenn: I’m so grateful for the guidance, time and advice. Most importantly though, I want to thank you from the bottom of my heart for the compassion and devotion you bestow upon your students. You have no idea what it means to us to have mentors that care.

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Table of Contents List of Tables and Figures ............................................................................................................................. 1 Abstract ............................................................................................................................... ......................... 3 Chapter One: Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 4 Background ............................................................................................................................... ................ 4 Study Rationale ............................................................................................................................... .......... 4 Limits of Work ............................................................................................................................... ............ 5 Objectives ............................................................................................................................... ................... 6 Research Assumptions .............................................................................................................................. 7 Summary ............................................................................................................................... .................... 7 Chapter Two: Literature Review .................................................................................................................. 8 History of Urban Agriculture Around the World ....................................................................................... 8 Review of Urban Agriculture Projects ....................................................................................................... 9 History and Culture of Haiti .................................................................................................................... 12 Agriculture in Haiti ............................................................................................................................... ... 18 History and Review of Extension Education ........................................................................................... 19 Overview of Benefits of Urban Agriculture ............................................................................................. 22 Summary ............................................................................................................................... .................. 23 Chapter Three: Study Area and Methodology .......................................................................................... 24 Review of Methods and Criteria for Site Selection ................................................................................. 25 Study Area Characteristics ...................................................................................................................... 25 Port au Prince Context Analysis ............................................................................................................. 26 Limitations and Constraints .................................................................................................................... 28 Summary ............................................................................................................................... .................. 29 Chapter Four: Project Results Part I .......................................................................................................... 30 Scope ............................................................................................................................... ........................ 30 Purpose ............................................................................................................................... ..................... 32 Chapter Five: Project Results Part II .......................................................................................................... 33 Site Selection ............................................................................................................................... ............ 33 Analysis ............................................................................................................................... .................... 34 Synthesis and Design Program ................................................................................................................ 38 Concept ............................................................................................................................... .................... 41

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Chapter Six: Conclusion .............................................................................................................................. 42 General ............................................................................................................................... ..................... 42 What I learned ............................................................................................................................... .......... 42 Implications of the Guidelines and Case Study ....................................................................................... 43 Limitations of the Study and Suggestions for Future Research .............................................................. 43 References ............................................................................................................................... ................... 45 Appendix A: Community Member Guidebook .......................................................................................... 50 Appendix B: Leader Guidebook ................................................................................................................. 87 Appendix C: Concept I .............................................................................................................................. 105 Appendix D: Concept II ............................................................................................................................. 106 Appendix E: Fort National Damage Assessment ..................................................................................... 107 Appendix F: Graduate Terminal Project Proposal ................................................................................... 108

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Page | 1 [List of Tables and Figures] Item Page Number Figure 1 1: Onlooker of the Damage in Port au ………………………………………………………… ………………………………………….5 Table 1 2: Research Design ………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………….…………………6 Figure 2 1: War garden in Boston Commons, 1918………………………………………………………………………… …………….………..8 Figure 1 2: Rendering of Before and After the project …………………………………………….. ……………………………………………10 Figure 2 3: Solid Waste Composting in Kumasi ……………………………………………………………………………… …………………….11 Figure 2 4: Typical Flower Production in Haiti ……………………………………………………………… …………………………………..…12 Figure 2 5: Rubble after the 2010 Earthquake …………………………………………… ……………………………………………………….14 Figure 2 6: Traditional Gingerbread Architecture in Haiti ……………………………………………………………………………………..16 Table 2 7: Temperature Records in Port au Prince ……………………………………………………………………………………………….16 Table 2 8: Rainfall Records in Port au Prince ………………………………………………………………… …………………………………….17 Figure 2 9: Visual Deforestation on the Haitian/Dominican Border ………………………………………………………………………..17 Figure 2 10: A Child Faces the Bay in Cite Soleil …………………………………………………………… ……………………………………..18 Figure 2 11: Sloped Farmland outside of Port au Prince ………………………………………………… ……………………………………18 Figure 2 12: Typical Mango Transportation in Haiti ……………………………………………….………… ……………………………….…19 Figure 2 13: Traditional Haitian Rice Production …………………………………………………………… ………………………………….…19 Figure 3 1: View of Port au Prince from the South ………………………………………………………………………… ……………………25 Figure 3 2: Temporary Housing outside Port au Prince …………………………………………………………………… ……………………26 Figure 3 3: Women Filling up Jugs at a Water Station ………………………………………………………………………………………..…26 Figure 3 4: Port au Prince in Context of Haiti ………………………………………………………………… ………………………………….…27 Figure 3 5: Current Green Space in Port au Prince ………………………………………………………… ……………………………………27 Figure 3 6: Port au Prince Roadway Network ……………………………………………………………… …………………………………..…27 Figure 3 7: Major Shantytowns of the City ………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………….28 Figure 5 1: Shantytowns in Port au Prince …………………………………………………………………… …………………………………….33 Figure 5 2: Location of the Fort National Neighborhood within Port au Prince ……………………………………………………….33 Figure 5 3: 10 Meter Contour Lines on Site.………………………………………………………………… ………………………………..……33 Figure 5 4: Figure Ground of Fort National Neighborhood Post Disaster ……………………………………………………………..…34

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Page | 2 Figure 5 5: Areas of High Density and Location of Central Community Space ……………………………………………………….…34 Figure 5 6: Edges of the Fort National Neighborhood ……………………………………………………………………… …………………..35 Figure 5 7: Shade Analysis of Post Disaster Conditions …………………………………………………………………………………………35 Figure 5 8: Soil Analysis with Areas Acceptable for Planting Highlighted ……………………………………………………..…………36 Figure 5 9: Slopes Analysis showing Suitable and Unsuitable Slopes ………………………………………………………………………36 Figure 5 10: Steep Slopes of the Fort’s West Entrance ……………………………………………………………………………………….…36 Figure 5 11: Shade Analysis with Safe and Vulnerable Planting Areas ………………………………………………………………….…37 Figure 5 12: Site Synthesis with Element Location ………………………………………………………… ………………………………….…37 Figure 5 13: Perspective of the Fort National Site……………………………………………………………………………………………………………39Figure 5 14: Market and Open Space Perspective…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..39 Figure 5 15: Education Center with Rain Barrels……………………………………………………… …………………………………… ………………..40 Figure 5 16: Conceptual School Buildings with Garden……………………………………………………………………………………………………41 Figure 5 17: A West to East Section of the Prison Site…………………………………………………………………………………………………….41

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Page | 3 [Abstract] The primary research goal of my graduate terminal project (GTP) was to explore the potential for urban agriculture as a community development tool in a setting like Haiti. My primary objective was to explore ways that urban agriculture could be applied in Haiti. Meeting this objective in my GTP led me to investigate the use of guidelines that focused on practical implementation techniques. My objective was also design oriented and I wanted to create an urban agriculture case study that would apply techniques and information from the new guidelines. I selected the Fort National neighborhood in Port Au Prince, Haiti as the case study for my design investigation. My secondary research objective was to utilize research based on previously developed strategies of community gardening, urban agriculture and the University of Florida’s Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences tropical production and extension techniques. My study approach was qualitative and used an action research strategy. The design process involved secondary and primary research. Secondary research was imperative for framing my research design. It involved a review of the literature on community gardens, urban agriculture, grass roots based education methods and community development tools. Primary research involved using mixed methods: a) Archival research and review of documents, maps and technical reports; b) case study methods; and c) content analysis of informal interviews and forums. In the process of my research, I was able to find a way to create a direct relationship between urban agriculture and landscape architecture. Formulating community oriented design guidelines that used landscape architecture and urban agriculture techniques proved to be a challenge. It also has the potential for helping communities become more self sufficient. The entire process helped to deepen my understanding of landscape architecture as a practical tool for creating productive landscapes in urban settings, as well as a community building tool that could improve the quality of life in Haiti.

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Page | 4 [Introduction] Background information…………………………………….. Traditionally, agriculture and landscape architecture have been two separate practices throughout the last few decades. The profession of landscape architecture has, although, been integrated in ecology and the environment since its conception (Williams 2008). Ian McHarg (1969) studied and wrote about the integration of agriculture, landscape architecture and ecology in the mid twentieth century. Advances have been made in the integration of landscape architecture and ecology since the publications of McHarg’s text, but agriculture remains absent from the equation. Agriculture has become rapidly industrialized in the last century as demands for lower food prices and increased production have increased (Salvador 2010). Recently, however, trends have formed: calling for food to be produced locally, without pesticides and with more organically based fertilizers. Researchers at the Kellogg Foundation have designated the need for food to possess four qualities: affordable, green, fair and healthy (Salvador 2010). This demand has arisen due to several factors: people’s beliefs in reducing damage done to the environment, beliefs that organically grown food is more beneficial to one’s health, as well as promoting local agriculture to benefit the local economy (Salvador 2010). New studies are proving less industrialized agricultural systems more productive than those commonly industrialized. Landscape architects have the knowledge to work with agriculturalists and meet the new demands of the consumer. The profession educates itself in improving the environment and natural ecological processes/preventing damage to natural ecological processes, urban planning and zoning, and growing techniques. There is a great need for the integration of urban agriculture and landscape architecture to take place in developing countries where the separation of the two has not already caused social, economic and environmental damage. Study Rationale…. …………………….…………………………. At present, most agriculture takes places in a rural setting and the majority of people live in an urban setting. Over 80 percent of agriculture is rural and about 15 percent is done in peri urban areas (Redwood 2009). On average, produce and food products must travel over 1500 miles to get to their consumers. Food is transported nationally and internationally—its transportation creates the emission of carbon dioxide and use of excessive fossil fuels and natural resources. Younger generations have poor of comprehension of where their food comes from and the processes that take place in order for it to make it to their plates (Salvador 2010). These generations also have a gap between them and the older generations— prohibiting their knowledge from being passed down to youth, especially about food production and rural practices. The situation for industrial agriculture is promoted by the current cycle of production, allowing for fewer jobs, less productive crops and poor environmental practices. All of these problems could possibly be solved by landscape architects using a different approach. For those in the Third World, farming has traditionally been the primary source of income

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and Mor into per c 205 0 havi n ben e usin g agri c man fro m invo imp e urb a ele m its obje agri c will impl desi g stak e Figu r (Ma t Hai t whe eart h livelihood f e and mor e the urban c ent of the w 0 (Redwood ng this skil l e ficial for t h g their a c ulture is on y benefits m the pr a lvement i n e rative. In a n agricul t m ents, a pr o definition, ctives. c ulturalists, also need ementation g n would e holders. r e 2 1: Onlo o t hew Biggs 2 0 t i is one e x re many o h quake on J f or the maj e of these f a setting and w orld’s pop u 2009). Wit h l set in ur b h em to hav e gricultural e way for t h that have a ctice. n urban a order to p r t ure’s exi s o fessional w purpose Other ecologists a to be in v of urban a g be a pos s o ker of the D 0 10) x ample of a o f its citize n J anuary 12, ority of its a rmers are n it is expe c u lation will b h the majori b an areas, i e an outlet knowledg e h ose in citie s been prov e Landscape a griculture r operly plan s tence an d w ill need to goals an professio n a nd govern m v olved in g riculture. A s ible way D amage in P a Third W o n s were, p 2010, mov population n ow movin g c ted that 6 6 b e urban b y ty of peopl e i t would b e to continu e e Urba n s to reap th e e n to occu r architects ’ is almos t and desig n d progra m understan d d possibl e n als, lik e m ental staf f design an d A case stud y to educat e ort au Princ e o rld countr y rior to th e ing to citie s g 6 y e e e n e r ’ t n m d e e f d y e e y e s fro m a m of t h of P Por t rec e opp tha n cult u ero s Cur r to li bor d imp org a por t buil d opp arc h red e agri c pro v Wo r pot e pla n add i inte me n et.a Lim i Stu d qua n ran g pro d unc o inte urb a ho w m the rural s ore prospe r h e country’ s P ort au Prin c t au Prince e ntly alter e ortunity fo r n a food so ural benefi t s ion contr o r ently resid e i ving in any d ers of th e roved and a nizations ( T t ion of the d ings hav e ortunity ha s h itects to b e e signing of t c ultural inf r v ide the n e r ld and p e ntially incl n s. Bene f itional inc o rgeneration n tal and ph y l., 2000). i ts of Wor k dying urb a ntitative a n g e from m d uctivity a n o vers vari ractions b e a n agricult u w ever, creat e s etting beca r ous life. In s populatio n c e (Advam e where n a e d the i n r urban agr i urce. It co t s, income, o l and im e nts of Port available g e city, mos supported T hummarak u city so str e to be s arisen for e come a p a t he city mas t r astructure e cessary e x previously l ude simila r f its could o me, impr al interacti o y sical healt h k ….. …………… an agricul n d qualitat i m onetary b n d accessi b ous prod u e tween co m u re with c o e s a separat e use of noti o 2010 abou t n lived in th e e g 2010). I a tural dis a n frastructur e iculture to uld also pr o education, proved w a au Prince h reen space t of which by non g o u dy 2010). W ucturally d a torn dow n planners a n a rt of the p t er plan. In t in Port au P x ample for developed r ideas in include fo o oved com m o n, crime r e h improvem ………………… ture com b i ve researc enefits fo u b ility. Ot h u ction m e m munities. o mmunity d e research a Page | 5 o ns of havin g t 25 percen e capital cit y I n cities lik e a sters hav e e there i act as mor e o vide safet y a means o a ter qualit y ave resorte d in or on th e have bee n o vernment a W ith a large a maged tha n a grea n d landscap e p lanning an d t roducing a n P rince woul d both Thir d cities t o city maste o d securit y m unity an d e duction an d m ents (Brow n ……………… … b ines bot h h. Studie u nd throug h h er researc h e thods an d Combinin g d evelopmen a pproach. 5 g t y e e s e y f y d e n a l r t t e d n d d o r y d d n … h s h h d g t

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Res e Bec a agri c qual inve s met h Hait i any coll e to b arch dev e mer g reso grad and man crea com goal the g in t h Res e invo Sec o rese liter a agri c and revi e com appl Pri m Arc h tech con t Hait i agri c e arch Appr o a use of a la c c ulture as a itative res e s tigates i n h ods for ur i This wor k scientific fa c e ction as a s b uild on th e itecture, e lopment i n g e the thr e urces on u r uate termi n available s o agement o tion of a munity me m of this res e g uidelines t o h e form of a e arch Meth lved seco o ndary rese a arch desig n a ture on c ulture, gra s community e w was b e prehension ication as a m ary researc h h ival resear c nical repor t t ent analysi s i ans and for e c ulture, ant h o ach : This c k of quanti t tool for co e arch was n novative a ban agricul t does not s e c t, nor doe s s taple of its e body of k agricultur e n order to p e e fields a s r ban agricu l n al project o lutions for t o f urban a g series of m bers and l e arch was t o a site in t h conceptual ods : The r e ndary an d a rch was im p n It invol v commun s s roots ba s developm e e neficial in of urba n tool for co m h involved u c h review o f t s; b) case s of informa e ign aid org a h ropology a n research is t ative resea r mmunity d e more fe a a nd pract i t ure imple m e ek to prov e s it rely on i content. It nowledge o e and p rovide a r s well as i n l ture. The is to creat e t he implem e g riculture t guideline s eaders. Th e t o apply sol h e city of P o master plan e search de s d primary p erative for v ed a revi ity garde s ed educati o e nt tools. T h that it ai d n agricultu r m munity de v sing mixed m f document s study met h l interviews a nizers and n d design p r qualitative r ch of urba n e velopment a sible. I t i cal desig n m entation i n e or disprov e ntense dat a is intende d o f landscap e communit y e asoning t o n crease th e goal of thi s e affordabl e e ntation an d hrough th e s for bot h e secondar y utions fro m o rt au Princ e s ign proces s research framing m y ew of th e ns, urba n o n method s h is literatur e d ed in th e r e and it s v elopment. m ethods: a ) s maps an d ods; and c ) with nativ e forums wit h r ofessionals n t n n e a d e y o e s e d e h y m e s y e n s e e s ) d ) e h In t revi e dev e ma n ref o Tabl Obj e The set imp Prin of c o Uni v Agri ext e Spe c Spe c agri c …… … Spe c for i agri c Spe c imp Sp e stu d to i agri c t his resear c e w of ur b e lopment n agement p o rm of agric u e 1 2: Resea r e ctives…… … main obje c of guideli n lementatio n ce, Haiti us o mmunity g v ersity of cultural S c e nsion tech n c ific objecti v c ific Object i c ulture in t h … ……………… … c ific Object i dentifying p c ultural edu c ific Obje lementatio n e cific Objec t d y area, usi n i dentify ar e c ultural edu c h case st b an agricu in develo p p ractices an d u lture in Hai t r ch Design … ……………… … c tive of the n es for sol u n of urban ing previou s g ardening, u Florida’s I c iences tr o n iques. v es are to: i ve 1 : Identi h e area … ……………… i ve 2 : Locat e p otential ar e u cation and c ctive 3 : n in the stud t ive 4 : App n g tools ava i e as where u cation can b udy meth o lture and p ing coun t d current p t i. … ……………… … study was t u tions and agriculture s ly develop e rban agricul nstitute of o pical pro d i fy the ben e e and ident i e as for urba n c ommunity g Identify y areas. ly the stra t i lable to Hai urban agr i b e develope d Page | 6 o ds include d communit y t ries, wast e p ractices an d … …………… … t o develop a methods o in Port a n e d strategie ture and th e Food an d d uction an d e fits of urba n i fy strategie n agricultur e g ardens sources o t egies in th e tian citizen s i culture an d d 6 d y e d … a f s e d d n s e f e s d

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Page | 7 Specific Objectives 5 : Design concepts for a master plan locating public community gardens, agricultural education stations, locations for composting, animal husbandry and recreational spaces. Specific Objective 6 : Create a set of guidelines detailing these objectives for both community members and leaders. Research Assumptions …………………………..…………….. Certain limitations and assumptions will exist for a study in Port au Prince, Haiti. Within the realm of landscape architecture, one major conflict will be the balancing of creating culturally sensitive agricultural networks while dealing with the products of natural disaster simultaneously; it is recognized that the two topics may compete with one another. It will be vital to recognize that the occurrence of the natural disaster presents the opportunity for change. Additionally, assumptions had to be made during site analysis because of the lack of accurate and thorough data that is available. Haitian governmental involvement in the design and implementation of neighborhood master plans will be minimal due to lack of infrastructure and corruption. Planners and the government both, however, have released strategies that will reduce the population of Port au Prince by improving infrastructure in other cities and rural areas; therefore, it is assumed that the population of the city will fall from 3.5 million to 1.7 million (Schaaf 2010)). Another assumption also exists that because the Cadastre system of Haiti is outdated and currently in the process of being modernized, parcel ownership is nearly non existent. Summary…………………… ……………………………………….. Urban agriculture is a significant practice throughout the world and is growing in popularity. Benefits extend into social, economic and environmental areas and vary based on community needs. This research focuses on the importance of urban agriculture and its benefits in a post earthquake Port au Prince, Haiti. Currently the city has 1.4 million displaced people, masses of unhabitable buildings and a lack of Haitian produced food. Most residents of the city rely upon foreign aid for food, temporary jobs and healthcare. Through this research an attempt is being made to promote community development through urban agriculture. An important component of this research is to create strategies for attaining food security.

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[L i Hist o The tho u wer e gath Tec h and plac e cent And e sust a sho w irrig a syst e 200 2 gard city bee n tim e famiFigu r (Cha r Duri one gard wer e sho r i terat u o ry of Urba n history o f u sands of y e e cities, h u ering the n h niques for sophisticat e e within ci ury Machu e s was so i s a ining for f w n that th a tion, wast e e ms and mi c 2 ). Anthro p ens were t h of Pompei ( n popular i e s. Each w a lies had r e 2 1: War r les Lathrop P ng World W of the mo s en operati o e a reacti o r tages and a u re R e n Agricultur f urban a g e ars ago (S m u mans sur v n learned growing fo o e d growing t ies. One Picchu. T h s olated that f ood (Smit e town’s f e manage m c roclimate m p ologists an h e focus of t Burke 1994 i n Europe a lled city h a kitchen g a garden on P ack 1919) W ars I and I I s t intensive o ns to dat e o n to risi n a n act of p e view] e in the W o g riculture b m it 2002). B v ived on h to culti v o d advance d was soon a early exa m h e mountai n it had to b 2002). S t f ood syste m m ent, terrac i m anagemen t d historian s he family in ). Urban g a since befo r a d its own o a rdens (S p Boston Co m I the Unite d urban and e Commu n n g food p p atriotism s o o rld …………… b egan wit h B efore ther e h unting an d v ate food d over tim e a ble to tak e m ple is 16t h n city in th e b ecome self t udies hav e m s include d i ng, storag e t (Bhattarya s claim tha t the ancien t a rdening ha s r e medieva o rchard an d p irn 1984) mons, 1918 d States ha d communit y n ity garden s p rices, foo d o that foo d h e d e e h e e d e t t s l d d y s d d cou l wer Pre s con t hu m gar d the 193 0 gar d gar d me n con d and foll o Vict o afte Wa r pro g par t In t agri c Afri c the nut r urb a bei n abo u tha n Sou t Afri c and peo inc o con s Mo r syst res e l d be sent e called Lib s ident Wils o t ribute in t h m an rights” d eners prod u first year o f 0 ’s saw a d ening duri n d ening was n tal well b e d ucted in v a the govern o wed and ory garden s r Liberty g a r Food Ad g ram and h a t icipate (Bas t he later 2 c ulture in R c a all helpe d economy, r ition and a n agricultu r n g practiced ut urban a g n 90 cities w t h Asia, th e c a, South a n North Am e ple who pra o me backg r s umption o r e than 40 ems were e rves, home s overseas t o erty Garde n o n as a way h e war to e (Tucker 19 9 uced $350, 0 f their exist e revival of n g the grea t seen as a s e ing and t acant lots a n ment (Tuck brought t s Victory a rdens, onl y ministratio n a d more th a set 1981). 2 0th Centu r R ussia, Cu b d to improv e accelerate create job s re in devel o by the poo g riculture w w orldwide, i e Middle Ea s n d Central A e rica. It w a a ctice urban r ound with o n small pl urban and discovered s rights of w o military m n s and wer e “for every e stablish de m 9 3). Abou t 0 00,000 wo r e nce (Basse t community t depression ource of b o t hey were a nd finance d er 1993). W he imple m gardens w e y more stru c n oversaw a t 5.5 milli o r y exampl e b a, Tanzani a e food secu urbanizati o s (Smit 20 0 o ping count r r in vacant l w as conduc t i n countrie s s t, Europe, A merica, th e a s discover e agriculture the purp o ots they d peri urba n Sites in w ay, along r o Page | 8 m en. Thes e e deemed b y American t o m ocracy an d t 3.5 millio n r th of food i n t 1981). Th e y and urba n The act o o th food an d sometime d by citizen W orld War I m entation o e re modele d c tured. Th e the garde n o n gardener e s of urba n a and Sout h rity, stabiliz e o n, improv e 0 2). Toda y r ies is mainl y ots. A stud y t ed in mor e s in East an d sub Sahara n e Caribbea n e d that mo s are of a lo w o se of sel f o not ow n n productio n cluded lan d o adsides an d 8 e y o d n n e n f d s s I I f d e n s n h e e y y y e d n n t w f n n d d

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Page | 9 waterways, floodplains and hillsides, water bodies and wetlands (Smit 2002). It can be summarized that though urban agriculture has been in existence for thousands of years, its roles have diversified and it has adapted to the context of the developing city. Case Studies: Review of Urban Agriculture………….. A] Nairobi, Kenya : Nearly 70 percent of the 30 million Kenyans live in rural areas. The remaining 30 percent reside in the urban areas in and around the major cities of this east African country, such as Nairobi and Mombassa (Stanford 2008). Each day more and more of the rural residents of Kenya are moving to cities in attempts to find work, worsening the already deathly conditions of slums. The slums of Kenya are indeed problematic. One third of the Nairobi population, between 700,000 and 1 million people, live in the slum called Kibera. Slums are diminutive in acreage; Kibera is 225 hectares, about two thirds the size of central park (Sustainable Cities 2007). Children are said to be more likely to die before the age of five than those in rural Kenya and only 37 percent will complete primary school (World Food Programme 2008). Homes are usually one small room and are bunched as closely together as feasible. On average, there is one toilet for every 500 slum dwellers. This lack causes residents to use plastic bags as a means of disposing feces and with no designation for waste, is thrown into streets and rivers (Sustainable Cities 2007). The bags spread malaria, choke the soils and plants, and release chemical additives into agricultural crops (Crilly 2007: 2). East Africa correspondent Andrew Harding describes Kenyan slums as follows: “ This place is like an island—it’s not really part of Kenya at all. The state does nothing here. It provides no water, no schools, no sanitation, no roads, no hospitals. (Harding 1 2008). ” Architects in Nairobi would prefer to wipe the city clean and start afresh with planners, road systems and sewage systems in tow (Crilly 2007: 2). Much of the attempts at aiding those in the slums have indeed failed. It seems Kenya is a magnet for mission teams and non profit organizations hungry to change the lives of the needy only to become overwhelmed by the gargantuan problem and quit (Curran 2006: 3). There are successes though; many of them have just recently been created and implemented. Most worthwhile efforts tend to be small and localized; the UN sponsored “trash” oven and Harvard’s community parks are of interest to say the least. After realizations that Kenyans who live in slums have to have buy in to the projects proposed in order to be effective, the UN sponsored a project intended to help in more ways than one. Ten thousand dollars were provided to launch the United Nations Environment Programme’s giant “trash” oven (Crilly 2007: 1). The oven was built and placed in Kibera, the largest slum in Kenya. Its function is to allow residents a place to cook their food and brew their drinks. The oven is fueled by trash collected in Kibera. The oven was created with the ability to have temperatures as high as 930 degrees Fahrenheit so that it could burn much of the hazardous pollutants. Locally trained volunteers conduct the burns so that the oven is often accessible to its residents. Not only is the oven giving Kenyan’s a place to cook and picking up trash, it additionally saves trees and other resources that would have been burnt otherwise (Krilly 2007: 1).

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In 2 reali prof inco Kibe man com proj e KDI’ s eno u The area agri c resi d sma l eno u The curr e of diFigur e (Sou r 006 the H a zed the Ko u it design f me commu n ra slum, w ner that w mit and b e ct (Curran 2 s idea was u gh revenu e project co n a bank o f c ultural zo n d ents, with l l enough f o u gh to be p r cost for ea c e ntly accep t fferent mat e e 3 2: Rend e r ce: http://ww w a rvard Gra d nkuey Desi g f irm focus e n ities. KDI’ s w here they w ould have ecome a s 2 006: 1). to create a e so that it w n sists of fo u f toilets, pl a n e. Each p a purpose o r people t o r oductive (S u c h park is 1 t ing donatio e rials for sp a e ring of Bef o w .kiberapubli c d uate Scho o g n Institute ( e d on imp r focus in Ke chose to d the entire s take holde r a space tha t w ould be se u r areas: a a yground s p p roject will of making o be involv e u stainable C 0 ,000 US d o ns to fund t a ces in the p o re and Afte r c space.blogsp o o l of Desig n ( KDI), a non r oving low nya was th e d esign in a communit y r in the i n t generate d lf sustained compostin g p ace and a n serve 25 0 the projec t e d and larg e C ities, 2007) o llars; KDI i s he purchas e p ark. r the project o t.com/ 2008) n e a y n d g n 0 t e s e The bec a nei g surr val u Alm co m rev e ind u scat all m the ma n of b (Cu r par k aes t B] C Hai t foll o coll e mu n add i ten t was t ma n the not syst cea s 201 0 parks ar e a use of th e g hbors. Co m r ounding ar e u able fertili z ost 80 perc m posted. A e nue and a u stry. Toil e t tered throu m aintenanc e compostin g n ner that m a b eing squat r ran 2006: 3 k include: h e t hetic as we l C omposting : t i was comp o wing the e ction servi n icipal was t ition, the h t s and cam te to be g e n agement s fact that e v have a r em. There s ed since 0 ). e intended e benefits t h m post areas e as free of z er to be c ent of Ken y A gricultural z space for t h e ts help t o ghout the s e will be fu n g Lastly, pl a a kes them f ted on or 3 ). This in m e alth, finan c l l as others. : The imme d ounded by t earthquake ces collaps e t es piling u h eavy conc ps in open e nerated in ituation is v en before t r eliable sol i was a lan d the earth q to be m o h ey will pr o allow for a trash whil e sold to lo y an’s trash i z ones will a h e areas w a o prevent w lums in pla s n ded with r e a y areas ar e f unctional a n taken over m ind, the b e c ial, enviro n d iate debri s t he fact tha the mun e d, resultin g u p on the entration o areas is c new areas further co m he earthqu a i d waste m d fill but o p q uake (ThuPage | 1 0 o st effectiv e o vide to th e way to kee p e creating a cal farmer s i s able to b e a lso provid e a ter hyacint h w aste bein g s tic bags an d e venue fro m e design in a n d incapabl e by builder e nefits of th e n mental, an d s situation i n t in the day icipal wast e g in routin e streets. I n o f people i n c ausing soli d The debri m plicated b y a ke, Haiti di d m anagemen p eration ha mmarakud y 0 e e p a s e e h g d m a e s e d n s e e n n d s y d t s y

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Figu r (Sou r wm/ p asi A c In K u to P o are crea Diff e soli d sew a com that imp r Add i neg a by i Was in t h info r dec r and Usin Ku m com opti o was t a co m r e 2 3: So l r ce:.http://ww w p rojects/dece n c cessed: 2010) u masi, Gha n o rt au Princ generated. ted in 20 0 e rent comp o d wastes, m a a ge (Redw o posting pla n farmers r ovements, i ng the co m a tive effects nsects was tes used in h e surroun d r mal trash r ease in pol peri urban g the exa m m asi as a posting sys t o n. With a t e manage m m posting sy l id Waste w .eawag.ch/f o n tralised_com p n a, a city w e, large am o A pilot 0 1 to redu c o sts were pr o a rket waste s o od 2010). n t was fert i not onl y but were m post increa s on germin a also reduc e compostin g d ing area a s piles. Th e lution and spaces ov m ple of th e model for t em in Hait a similar p o m ent and th e stem could Composting o rschung/sand p osting/co_co m ith a popul a o unts of or g composting c e wastes o duced fro m s and dewat The re s i lizer and s o y desired willing to s ed fertility a tion. Dam a e d using t h helped im p s it reduced e re was al s trash cont e erall (Red w e composti n a comm u i proves to o pulation, s t e sever infe r likely thrive in Kumasec/gruppen/s m posting_ku m a tion simila r g anic waste s plant wa s in landfills m househol d e red huma n s ult of th e o il additive s for cro p pay for it and had n o a ge to crop s h e compost p rove healt h runoff an d s o a note d nt in urba n w ood 2010) n g plant i n u nity base d be a viabl e t ruggle wit h r tility of soil i m r s s d n e s p o s h d d n n d e h C] U has has rat h tha t US A Dev doll a agri c sust WI N Env i WI N pro d stre and rive r The the the (20 1 assi s ext e dev e the sta k U F WINNER been pres e been meet h er than im p t the popul a A ID, the Uni t elopment, i a r project t o c ultural infr a t ainable pr a N NER, Wate r i ronmental N NER foc u d uctivity t h ngthening f a supplying t rs, and cons University o WINNER H a program a 1 0), has d e s tance in e nsion se r e loping pa r private s k eholders h a provide d assesse d facilitat e and dist r protect e and ver t installe d assesse d topics o f begun a using te c Haiti Proj e e nt for dec a ing direct f o p roving loca a tion could a t ed States A i s funding a o aid in the astructure a a ctices. T r shed Initia t Resourc e u ses on h rough th e a rmer asso c t hem with tructing da m of Florida i s a iti project. a t the univ e emed sch o agricultur e r vices, ca r tnerships b s ector. S a ve made th e d technical s d soil fertilit y e d between r ibutors e d agricultu r t ical growin g d new irrigat d the cut flo w f food techn scholarship c hniques fo r e ct : Foreig n a des. Much o od and m e ls systems a a pply in th e A gency for I a five year, strengthen i a nd product i T he initiati v t ive for Nati e s (Sergi l increasing e followin g c iations, trai vital suppli e m s. s a major st Faculty c o ersity, Flor e o ol’s role a e and lif pacity bu b etween pr o S ince 2009 e following p s upport y n private m r e through g technique s ion techniq u w er produc t ology program r produce tr a Page | 1 1 n aid in Hai t of its focu e dical need s a nd practice e ir own live s I nternation a 126 millio n i ng of Haiti’ i vity throug h v e is calle d onal Natur a l e, 2010 ) agricultur e g activitie s ning farmer e s, widenin g akeholder i n o ordinator o e nce Sergil e a s providin g e science s ilding an d o ducers an d universit y p rogress: anufacturer constructio n s u es t ion market a ceability 1 t i s s s s a l n s h d a l ) e s : s g n f e g s d d y s n

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The larg e inte r of f o pro d gro w bed s equ a man tha n Uni v gro w stor a prot also ther e (Ser g Figu (Sou r The Hait i area was Fort pro d with University’ s e knowled g r views with o od storage d uction. E x w ers have r s of grower s a lly poor. goes on do n n thirty pe r v ersity facu w ers and c o a ge sheds f o otype for c suggested efore maki n g ile 2010, N P re 2 4: T y r ce: Florence cut flower i There is s of Haiti a n conducted Jacques re v d uct (Fethie small and s presence g e base t native gro w are far be x cess prod u r oom; som e s Transpor t Most pro d n key pouch e r cent of th lty sugges t o operatives o r produce. r ates and t h to reduc e n g it more d P R Haiti 201pical Flow e Sergile 2010industry s h a market f o n d for expo r in the area s v ealed a ye a re, 2010). large prod u in Haiti ha hrough re s w ers. Curr e h ind other u ce is store e times und e t ation of th e d ucers tra n e s, which da m e load (Se the colla b f or the con The use an d h eir transp o e bruising o esirable for 0). e r Producti o ) h ows vast o r cut flow e r tation. An s of Kensco f a r round m a Interviews u cers as we s created a s earch an d e nt practice s countries i n d whereve r e rneath th e e produce i s n sport thei r m ages mor e rgile 2010) b oration o f struction o f d design of a o rtation wa s o f produce exportatio n o n in Haiti potential i n e rs in urba n assessmen t f f, Furcy an d a rket for th e took plac e ll as florist s a d s n r e s r e f f a s n n n t d e e s and pur c qua l of t h bot h Hai t Fet h for (20 1 The Flor for c opp and well Hist Hai t wes cou n size surr the civil 149 2 A] cou n ind e for the alm o wit h Do m pre s the ced e isla n traders in u c hase from lity and per c he Universi t h native an d t i and sugg h iere also di s the return 1 0). research, f ida WINNE R c urrent an d ortunity fo r other cro p l as water c o t ory of Ha t i is a countr tern third n try is app r with a pop r ounded by C east. The ization afte 2 (Advameg Political: H n try until e pendence f almost 600 country, c a o st compl e h in 25 year m ingo. T h s ence on th e Treaty of R e d French w n d. The F u rban areas the Domini c c eption of b t y of Florid a d non nativ e g ests their p s covered th a of an Ext f indings an d R Haiti part d future pra c r improve m p productio n o llection an d iti…………… … r y in the Car i of the isla n r oximately 2 ulation of 9 C uba to the island was r being dis c g 2010). H aiti did n o 1804 w f rom France years. Th e a lled the T a e tely annih s after Col u h e Spanish e island unti R yswich wit h w ere given t F rench col o Currently c an Republi c b uyers. Ric h a noted se v e that thriv e production a t growers h ension sys t d work of U icipants pr o c tices in Ha m ents in flo n and trans d irrigation. … ……………… … i bbean that n d of Hisp a 2 .75 million 9 .2 million. west and P u introduce d c overed by o t become hen it r but has be e original i n a ino Ameri n ilated by t u mbus lan d were th e l 1697 whe n h the Frenc h t he western o nized thei r Page | 1 2 most florist c because o h ard Fetheir e v eral specie s e naturally i n to grower s h ave a desir e t em in Hai t U niversity o o vide a basi iti. There i wer, mang o portation a … …………… … occupies th e a niola. Th e hectares i n The island i u erto Rico t o d to wester n Columbus i n an offici a eceived it en inhabite d n habitants o n dians, wer e t he Spanis h d ed in Sant o e dominan n they signe d h The treat y third of th e r portion o 2 s f e s n s e t i f s s o s … e e n s o n n a l s d f e h o t d y e f

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Page | 13 Hispanola, calling it St. Domingue with sugarcane and forestry industries. The colony soon became the wealthiest in the western hemisphere, but only through the heavy importation of African slaves and severe environmental degradation. St Domingue became known as the Pearl of the Antilles and supplied Europe with the majority of its sugar and rum. In 1767, it exported 72 million pounds of raw sugar and 51 million pounds of refined sugar. Indigo and cotton also became important export items; one million pounds of indigo and two million pounds of cotton were exported in 1767. Saint Domingue produced about 40 percent of all the sugar and 60 percent of all the coffee consumed in Europe by the 1780’s (Advameg 2010). Near the end of the 18th century St. Domingue had over 500,000 slaves, accounting for almost a third of all those in the Atlantic Slave Trade mostly of western African origin. There were roughly 30,000 persons in the white population ruling over the slaves at the time (Advameg 2010). The Revolution of France in the 1790’s caused great change in the slavery laws of Saint Domingue. Slaves and wealthier men of color began to claim rights under the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Civilian. The conflicts soon began and the Haitian Revolution ensued. Slaves began rebelling against colonists and committed thousands of acts of murder against the French owners and their families. After more than a decade of rebellion led by General Toussaint L’Ouverture, the enslaved of the colonists celebrated their independence from the French on January 1, 1804. Haiti became the independent first country in the world where the majority of the population was of African descent. The remainder of the 19th century was plagued by civil war, instability with France, Spain and the United States, partial rule of the eastern two thirds of the island and political violence. The country soon went from being the wealthiest in the Western Hemisphere to one of the poorest. Though economic growth ensued in the late 19th century with the adoption of industrialized sugar and rum production, instability shortly followed and disrupted progress. In a four year period the country had 5 different presidents, all of whom were assassinated. By 1915, President Woodrow Wilson ordered US Marines into Haiti to establish control over ports and custom houses. The US feared Haitian relations with Germany upon entrance of the first World War and wanted the country as an ally since it was a location vital in trade routes. The Haitian Marine Corps is established during this time and roads are built by civilians who are forced into work. By the time the US Marines withdrew from Haiti in 1934 after President Franklin Roosevelt’s implementation of the Good Neighbor Policy, the port in Port au Prince had become the main receptor for trading within the country (Advageg 2010). Though the country was left with stronger health care systems, education, agriculture, infrastructure and democratic system when the US withdrew, the next twenty years proved to be more politically unstable until Dr. Francois Duvallier was elected president in 1957. The new president established a dictatorship that would last until 1971, when his son Jean Claude would take over as ‘President for Life’. Duvallier created an unofficial army called the Tontons Macoutte that terrorized citizens and church officials who opposed his political beliefs. The Tontons Macoutte continued to run the country when Jean Claude began rule. Jean Claude’s lifestyle was highly criticized by Haitians

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and milli like ho m rule arm y gov e 198 6 pres offic peo p Elec t pres In 1 Jean just the cou p kille d radi c foll o exp e cou n 41,0 In 1 9 Arg e to t h plac e De m Pres retu the p Ren e the l con s Hait i Pres the intern a ons of Haiti a his weddin m es outside o that the H y and afte r e rnment th e 6 The US g ident and o ial election p le could d e t ions were ident but fo 1 990, publi c Bertrand A a year after position by p d’tat A d during t h c al populis t o wers alarm i e rienced m n tries place d 00 Haitians 9 94 a naval e ntina, Fran c h e human ri e under th e m ocracy. O ident Arist rn to Haiti. p resident is e Preval. T h l ate 1980’s p s ecutive te r i an history ident woul d a tional pres s a n dollars f o g to Miche o f Port au P aitian peo p r pressure e Duvallier f g overnment o fficials to s could be e mocraticall held for th e r many yea r c favorite a A ristide is el e his inaugur a military p e A n estimat e h is time. t policies a ng. Over t h m ilitary ind d embargos tried to flee blockade w c e, Canada ghts violati o e UN autho r O n Octob e ide and h In 1996 e l replaced b y h e constitu t p revented A r ms. This that a d d be taking t s The pre s o r extravaga n lle Bennet rince. It w a le rebelled for the U n f amily fled t appointed a rule the c o held and y choose a e public to r s these effo a nd catholi c e cted presi d a tion, he is o e rsonnel by e d 3000 to Many fou n a nd bands h e next thre e uced viol e on Haiti an d the countr y w as induce d and France o ns. The bl o r ized Opera t r 15th of is govern m l ections too y former Pri t ion that w a A ristide fro m was the fi d emocratic a t he place of s ident spen t n t occasion s and severa a s during hi s against th e n ited State s t o France i n a temporar y o untry unti the Haitia n new leade r nominate a rts failed. c clergyma n d ent, thoug h o usted fro m the Haitia n 5000 wer e n d Aristide’ s of violen t e years Hait i e nce, othe r d more tha n y by boat. d by the US in respons e o ckade too k t ion Uphol d that year m ent in exil e k place an d me Ministe r a s revised i n m running fo r rst time i n a lly electe d another. A t s l s e s n y l n r a n h m n e s t i r n e k d e d r n r n d A gov e and wh e Aris t The foll o traf f reb e nu m assi s cou n as Ale x rem a U N hel d pre s In t peo pro t Por t sev e Figu r (Sou e rnment is there are n e n a flaw e t ide preside years foll o o wed by f icking and e l moveme n m ber of citi e s tance fro m n tries send i appointed x andre is s w ained in Ha N stabilizati d in 2006 a s ident. t he spring ple arose a t ests contin t au Prince e ral main ro a re 2 5: R u u rce: Scott M o formed by n o political u e d election e nt. o wing Aristi political v a flounderi n n t forms a n e s, forcing m US official i n over 7,00 Supreme w orn in as p iti to keep p on effort i n a nd Rene P of 2008, p a fter a hik e ued into 2 0 Internation a ds in the ci u bble after o nina 2010) Preval’s pr i u proars agai names J e de’s reinst a iolence, a l n g econom y n d seizes co Aristide to s. The UN 0 troupes t o Court chi e p resident. p eace unde r n Haiti. El e reval was t p rotests by e in food p 0 09 and re s al Airport, ty, closing.the 2010 Page | 1 4 i me ministe n until 200 0 e an Bertran d a tement ar e l leged dru g y In 2004 a o ntrol over a resign wit h and sever a o keep peac e e f Bonifac e The troupe r MINUSTA H e ctions wer e t hen electe d the Haitia n p rices. Th e s ulted in th e as well aEarthquak e 4 r 0 d e g a a h a l e e s H e d n e e s e

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Page | 15 On January 12, 2010 an earthquake with a 7.0 magnitude struck Haiti. Several aftershocks, one of a magnitude of 5.9, struck the country in the days following. The city of Port au Prince was left devastated. Over 300,000 people were killed and millions were left homeless or injured. The Haitian people banded together to rescue as many as they could before international aid arrived in the following days. Hundreds of aid organizations have set up hospitals, shelters, food banks and much more in an effort to help recover. After its second rainy season of the year, a Cholera outbreak struck several cities in the country, killing hundreds and affecting thousands. Several protests and riots have taken place as a result of the country’s current instability, making the country unsafe for citizens, aid workers and visitors (Thummarakudy 2010). Presidential elections took place in November 2010, but there was not a majority winner. Protests, violence and unrest followed in the country. In February of 2011 two individuals were identified as candidates for a runoff election scheduled March 20, 2011. B] Social and Cultural: Haiti is divided into ten departments, each with a capital city: 1. Artibonite (Gonaves) 2. Centre (Hinche) 3. Grand'Anse (Jrmie) 4. Nippes (Miragone) 5. Nord (Cap Hatien) 6. Nord Est (Fort Libert) 7. Nord Ouest (Port de Paix) 8. Ouest (Port au Prince) 9. Sud Est (Jacmel) 10. Sud (Les Cayes) Within each department are smaller governed territories called Arrondisimonts. There are 41 Arrondisiments in Haiti, which are further broken down into 133 communes. These serve as second and third level administrative divisions. The culture of Haiti is a mixture of French, African, Spanish and the island native Taino. Storytelling is an important part of the local culture. The country is also well known for its bold and colorful artwork. Music in the country varies from ceremonial Voodoo traditions, Dominican and Spanish fusion songs, Rara parading music and Compas. Soccer is the most popular sport in the country, with basketball growing in popularity. Food in Haiti traditionally consists of a nutritious mix of sweet potatoes, manioc, corn, rice, yams, peas, bread and coffee. When available, proteins such as poultry, fish and goat are common. Rice and black or red beans beans are considered the national dish. Sugarcane, mangoes, sweetbread, peanut seed clusters made with brown sugar are treats frequently eaten. Fruits are considered snacks for in between meals. Traditionally, Haitians eat two meals a day: a small breakfast and a large afternoon meal heavy with carbohydrates. Nutritional deficits are wide spread in the country. These deficits are not caused by lack of knowledge, as Haitians have a rich understanding of dietary needs, but rather poverty and lack of food access. A system of indigenous food categories that mimics the modern nutritional categorization is widely known in Haiti (Ever Culture 2010).

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Figu r Arc h In r roo m are f arra y do m leav e 190 0 Unit rura bric k turr e trim styl e the C disa p rem a au P dam woo styl e r e 2 6: Tradit (So h itecture in ural areas m shacks w i f inancially a y of pastels. m inant mate e s and roc k 0 s, homes w ed States V l gingerbre a k and timb e e ts, cornice were all p r e was a pro C atholic cle p peared du a ining are s P rince to n age becaus e d framing. e is moder n ional Ginger b urce: Triangl e Haiti varies homes co n i th a front a ble, home s Materials v rials are pi n k In urban w ere a blend V ictorian ar c a d house d e r, tall dou b s extensiv e r evalent in duct of for e rgy. Most o e to maint e ome of the n ot sustain e of their pi t Today the n cement a b read Archite e A&E 2009) from regio n sist of on e porch. If h s may be p a v ary with lo c n e woods, w areas duri n of French a c hitectural s d etails of m b le doors, s e balconies this constr u e ign entrep r f these str u e nance or f only buildi significan t t ched roofs dominant a a nd block cture in Haitin to region e story, tw o h omeowner s a inted in a n c ation; som e w oven pal m n g the earl y nd souther n s tyles. Th e m ulticolore d s teep roofs and carve d u ction. Thi s r eneurs an d u ctures hav e ires. Thos e ngs in Port t structura and flexibl e a rchitectura homes. I n o s n e m y n e d d s d e e l e l n we a gin g buil d wor ho m not mix t are a sup p cor r poo alm o ear t 201 0 C] E mo u and ran g fert i de S a y e Jun e Fau n ani m Tabl 6 0 65 7 0 75 8 0 85 9 0 95 10 0 a lthier are a g erbread st d ings, alth kers claim t m es are not contain e t ure (UF H A a s of Por t p lemented r ugated alu m r construct o st all o f t hquake on 0 ). E nvironme n u ntainous a r coastal pl g es in Haiti a i le: the Plai n S ac plains. H e ar. There a e and Octo b n a include t m als. e 2 7: Te m 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 January February March April a s, the g ructures a r ough Uni v t hat almos t structurally e nough ce m A ITI Talks, 2 0 t au Prince with avail a m inum, tarp s ion of the s f their d e January 1 2 n tal: Haiti’s r eas inters p ains. The r a nd three pl n du Nord, H aiti receiv e a re two rain y b er throug h t ropical and m perature R e April May June July August Sb g reat deta r e embedd e v ersity of t all block a sound bec a m ent in t h 0 10). In bli the bloc k a ble materi s and spare s e buildings e struction 2 2010 (E v geography p ersed with r e are thr e ains that ar e the Artibo n e s over 54 i n y seasons, A h Novembe r sub tropic a e cords in P S eptem b er October November December Page | 1 6 ils of th e e d into th e Florida ai d a nd concret e a use they d o h e concret e ghted urba n k home i als such a lumber. Th e resulted i n during th e v ery Cultur e consists o river valley e e mountai n e considere d n ite and Cu l n ches of rai n A pril throug h r Flora an d a l plants an d P ort au Princ e Average Temp Maximu m Temp Minimu m Temp 6 e e d e o e n s s e n e e f s n d n h d d e m m

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Tabl e Duri ferti plan ran g Abo u clea r rem a rem a only The bee n sev e Alo n had oce a floo d estu regi o exc e due 201 0 with poll u com insti t issu e reso prac 0 2 4 6 8 10 e 2 8: Rainfalng the Spa le areas we tations an d g es were cl e u t 60 perc e r ed. The f o a in barren t o a ining fores t an estima t result of t h n unfertile e re flood c o n g with lim e a major im p a n. Limesto n d ing episo d aries they f o ns of the e ssive sedim to the la c 0 ). Chemica high lead u tion in H a prehensive t utional ca p e s (Thumm a urce about tices. Abo u R l Records in P nish and F r re used as s d the natur a e ared for p r e nt of all fo o rests wer e o this day. A t ed areas h a t ed 2% of f h is environ m soils, soil e o nditions d u e stone qua r p act on fres n e sedimen t d es colorin g f low into a country ri v ent; there i s c k for plan t ls such as D contents a a iti. The c legislation, e p acity to go v a rukudy, 20 1 95% of it u t 49% of ci ainfall i n P ort au Princ e r ench reign s ugar cane a a lly foreste d r ofit and le f r ests in Hai e never re p A fter 1925, a ve been c u f orests in H m ental degr e rosion, m u u ring the w r ries, defor e hwater flo w t flows into r g both th e chalky whit v ers are br o s no source t life (Thu m D DT and th a re a majo c ountry ha s e conomic r e v ern the im p 1 0). Water is used for ty dwellers n Inche s e over Haiti a nd tobacc o d mountai n f t depleted ti had bee n p lanted an d much of th e u t down an d aiti remain adation ha s u dslides an d w et seasons e station ha s w ing into th e r ivers durin g e river an d e. In othe r o wn due t o of filtratio n m marukudy e use of oi r source o f s a lack o f e sources an d p act of thes e is a limite d agricultura and 45% o f s o n n d e d s d s e g d r o n l f f d e d l f the (Ad v Figu r Hait i Env i maj o ma n run n mill i wit h dis p sou r The val u Abo agri c is g e 201 0 D] esti m Prio pop 1,6 9 Prin rural pop u v ameg, re 2 9: ian/Dominic a i ronmental o rly due to n agement, s n ing water i ons of ton s h in cities l p lacement c a r ce of conc e Plaine de l’ u able region o ut 66 pe r c ultural sec t e nerally onl y 0 ). Demograp h m ated the r to the ulation of P 9 9,000. In c ce, the p o u lation havVisual D a n Border issues wi t a lake of s olid waste c After t h s of solid w ike Port a u a mps are q u e ntrated pol l Artibonite i because o f rcent of H t or. Most f a y for subsis t h ics : In 20 0 population earthquak e P ort Au Prin c luding the o pulation w e pure dri D eforestation t hin urban s ervices like c ollection, e l h e earthqu a w astes wer e u Prince. u ickly beco m l ution. s Haiti’s mo s f its ability t o H aitians w a rming is s m t ence farmi n 0 3, the Un i was abou t e s in early ce, the cap i perimeter w as close t o Page | 1 7 nking wate 2010 ) on th e areas ar e wastewate l ectricity an d a ke tens o e generatin g Additionall y m ing a sever e st fertile an d o be farme d ork in th e m all scale an d n g (Advame g i ted Nation t 8,326,00 0 2010, th e i tal city, wa of Port a u o 3,500,00 0 7 r ) e e r d f g y e d d e d g s 0 e s 0

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(Ad v of t tem p Afri c con s anc e Afri c E] I info r run Port itsel f also Figu r (Sou r Sew a city syst e tha n inef f pot a pur c prio r con s eart h v ameg, 201 0 t he city a r p orary hou s c an descent s ider thems e e stors wer e c an I nfrastructu r mal. Ther e from North au Prince t f has many dispersed t h r e 2 10: A c r ce: Valentin a a ge and w a of Port au e ms were b n today’s a n f icient. W a ble water m c hased daily r to the e s istent (Tha m h quake 0 ). Today a b r e living i n s ing. Most A small p o e lves to be likely a m re : Roads e are two n to South a t o surroun d concrete r o h roughout t h c hild faces t a Pasquali 20 a ter system s Prince in t uilt for a p o n d have t h ater pipes m ust be d e Electricity arthquake, m es 2010). remain b out 1,400,0 0 makeshift people in o rtion of th e Mulatto, m e m ixture of in Haiti ational Hig h nd connect d ing cities. o ads, but di h e city. t he water i n 10) s were inst t he early 1 9 o pulation m h erefore be are spars e e livered by was presen but its flo Power lin e severely 0 0 resident s camps o r Haiti are o f e populatio n e aning thei r French an d descent are mostl y h ways; bot h the capital The capita rt roads ar e n Cite Soleialled in th e 9 00’s. Th e m uch smalle r en deeme d e and mos t vehicle an d t in the cit y w was no t e s after th e damaged s r f n r d y h l e l e e r d t d y t e Agr i Agri hun Hai t met can e end e to p Fig u (SouFoll o larg e for s scal e pra c Bec a duri inef f edu c Live pou pro p not slo p far m is o 201 0 of n to c i culture in H culture ha dreds of ye t i began in t t hods of agr e cocoa, c eavors by t h rovide eno u u re 2 11: Slo p u rce: Florenc e o wing the o e plots of l a slaves, who e farming o c tice for t h a use of the ng French r u f icient and cation, te stock man ltry, swine a p er nourish provide gr o p es are als o m ed areas o f o nly availab 0 ). The re s n utrient loss c rops. Slop e H aiti ………… … a s been p ars. As Fre t he 1700s a n iculture we r c offee and h e French. S u gh labor fo r p ed Farmlan d e Sergile 201 0 overturn o f a nd were di o were later o perations h e majorit y environme n u le, agricult because t chniques n agement i a nd rabbits. ment and w o wers with o farmed i n f Haiti exce e le in the v s ult is farml a and erosio n e improving … ……………… … p racticed i n nch and Sp a n d 1800s, v e r e used. Fo indigo we r S lavery was v r the intensi v d outside of P 0 ) f the Frenc vided into s called pea s have been y of Haiti n tal degrad a ural practic e here is no have not ncludes c a Animals d o w ater and t maximum p n Haiti. Slo p e d 50 perce n v alleys bell o a nd with la r n which ca u practices li Page | 1 8 … ……………… … n Haiti fo a nish rule i n e ry intensiv e restry, suga r e the mai n v ital in orde v e practicesort au Princ e h by slave s s maller plot s ants. Sma the gener a since the n a tion of lan d e s have bee n system fo improve d a ttle, goat s o not receiv e t herefore d o p rofit. Stee p p es in som e n t and wate o w (Fthir e r ge amount u ses damag e ke terracin g 8 … r n e r n r e s s l l a l n d n r d s e o p e r e s e g

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com Hait i Figu r (Sou Prio r neg o deci s valu a stru g hav e in s com pro b pro d tran s well stor a maj o cou n mon in As i an farmers. r e 2 12: Typ i rce: Floren c r to the 19 9 o tiated the t s ion actual l a ble and in g gled to co m e had to qui t s earch of a petition fr b lematic. N d ucts like s portation a Damage s a ge, transp o o rity of crop n tries like i a, have n o i cal Mango c e Sergile 20 9 0’s when U t rade of ric e l y made H less dema n m pete with U t farming a n a more pr om foreig n N ot only ar e mangos a nd packagi n s of mang o o rtation an d s to be den i France an o t been in t Transporta t 10) U S Presiden t e with the c o aitian gro w n d. Rice f a U S grown ri c n d move to osperous l i n growers e growing less effi n g practices o s, like bru i d packagin g ed exporta t d the Uni t roduced t o t ion in Haiti t Bill Clinto n o untry. Th e w n rice les s a rmers hav e c e and man y urban area s i fe. Othe r has bee n practices o f cient, bu t are poor a s i sing durin g g cause th e t ion to othe r ted States o n e s e y s r n f t s g e r Figu r (So u Tod a coc o and agri c lack and (Ft Hist Prio Uni t Eng l clas s min nin e pur s nee d tra d agri c into Stat Fed e inst i far m re 2 13: T r u rce: Oxfam a y the mos t o a, sugar ca n coffee. T h c ulture pro of knowle d crop dam a hire 2010) t ory and Re v r to the 1 8 t ed States h l ish. Cour s s ics and p istry and l a e teenth ce n s uit. In or d ed to edu c d itional deg c ulture. In law. The a e Universit y e ral land w o i tution. Th e m ers saw a n r aditional H 2010) t common c ne, rice, av o h e most co m duction ar e dge, insuffi c a ges due to view of Ex t 8 60’s the u h ad been m o s es of stud y p repared s a w. As th n tury, agri c der for th e c ate those n ree, but r a 1862 the a ct intende d y system f o o uld be don a e act was a n eed for its i m aitian Rice rops in Hait o cado, citru s m mon probl e inadequa t c ient soil a weather a t ension…… … niversity s y o deled afte r y were fou tudents fo e country c ulture was e country t o ot intendin g a ther those Morrill Act d to provide o r the indu s a ted to eac h a struggle t o m plementa t Page | 1 9 Productio n i are mang o s cut flower ems seen i n t e irrigatio n nd nutrient nd practice … ……………… … y stem in th e r that of th e nded in th e r medicin e entered th e its centr a o prosper i g to pursue a involved i n was writte n a plan for a s trial classe s h state for a n o begin, bu t ion. 9 n o s n n s s … e e e e e a l t a n n a s n t

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Page | 20 “We do not want science floating in the skies; we want to bring it down and hitch it to our plows.” Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station During the foundation of the land grant colleges, agricultural experimentation had become popular among schools like Columbia, University of Maryland and Pennsylvania State University. The idea soon turned into the Hatch Act of 1887. The act required each college of the Morrill Act to have an agricultural experiment station. The stations would conduct experiments and research and distribute the findings to the public through periodic bulletins and reports. In 1890 the Morrill Act was amended to allow additional schools in each state for other races. Sixteen additional colleges were founded for African Americans through the southeastern United States. The bill also allowed for the arts to be taught at land grant institutions. The concept of “university extension” soon followed. Similar to a community meeting with guest lectures, extension provided noncredit courses for the public. Course offerings had become so frequent at Rutgers University, they began and agricultural extension program with focus on soils, crops and animal nutrition. The model spread and by 1899 around 2000 seminars were held around the country. Soon topics of interest for women and children were added to the education curriculum. Children had the opportunity to join “Boys’ and Girls’ Club, now known as 4 H clubs, where they learned the latest agricultural techniques and innovation. Schools began to mobilize their agricultural stations through railroad cars and provide their research and education to more and more people. Because of the success of agricultural education stations, the Smith Lever Act was established in 1914. The act extended the federal aid to both 1862 and 1890 land grant colleges (Seevers 2010). The act’s purpose was to: “…inaugurate, in connection with these colleges, Agricultural Extension work which shall be carried on in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture…in order to aid in diffusing among the people of the United States useful and practical information on subjects relating to Agriculture and Home Economics, and to encourage the application of the same.” (Eddy 1957) Cooperative Extension was formed under the act and created a grass roots, community based system to provide education to the public at no cost. Educational topics were chosen based on the community and formed through the county, state and USDA. The system expanded from agricultural education to topics of nutritional education, pesticide applicator training, renewable resources, youth education, homemaking and other practical applications. Today the Cooperative Extension System is funded by the public and is an informal educational system that merges the education and research resources of land grant universities, the United States Department of Agriculture and county administration units. Its mission is to allow self improvement and community enrichment through learning partnerships (Seevers 2010). The definition of Cooperative Extension System at the University of Florida is as follows:

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Page | 21 Responsible for outreach and bringing knowledge and research generated at the university to address the local needs of citizens in communities across the state. Has many departments or units. Administered by: Director of Cooperative Extension. Extension in Florida is a part of IFAS. (IFAS, April 2006). Today, Extension is a component of every county, within every state of the United States. Each of the states’ extension programs is led by its land grant university. Extension is believed to be the largest informal educational system in the world for both youth and adults (Seevers 2010). Cooperative Extension is credited in being a major contributor to the United States’ advances in agricultural production. Its success is attributed to being a grass roots organization; meaning decisions made for the organization begin with meeting the needs of individuals within a community. Extension has also become an international practice in the last 130 years. About 180 countries have an extension system implemented; Japan, United Kingdom, India, Egypt, Nigeria, Taiwan and Brazil are some of the first countries to have Extension. The focus of Extension in these countries is slightly different than the United States model. Most of the systems outside of the US are controlled by the ministry of agriculture. In developing countries most emphasis is placed on agriculture, though there is often a weak linkage to research and the approach is top down. Not all Extension systems are associated with a university system. Because of limited resources, the United Nations and its main agencies provide support for extension services. The Food and Agriculture Organization, International Fund for Agricultural Development and The World Bank all assist in the continuation of Extension education in developing countries (Seevers 1997, pp203 212). Extension approaches in the developing world are varied and their success depends on culture. The main approaches are the following: Training and Visit, Project Approach, Farming Systems Research and Extension and Participatory. The Training and Visiting System is a centrally controlled operation where individuals or groups of farmers are visited every two weeks by village Extension workers. The Extension workers are themselves trained before they enter the field. This approach is intensive and focused on crop improvement. The Project Approach deals with technology transfer. The government oversees program planning at a broad concept for the improvement of rural development. The Project Approach is generally funded and advised by foreign organizations and has the ability to stop when funding ends. The Farming Systems Research and Extension is an approach in which on farm research is the focus. Actual conditions drive the educational materials rather than controlled experiments. This approach requires extensive time and travel funds by educators. The Participatory approach distributes information to and from local farmer’s associations and groups (Seevers 2010). Forms of Extension in the international realm have been successful in that they have been an aid to individuals learning ways in which to improve their own lives. Extension was a part of the Haitian government for a portion of the 20th Century. The system in place was Training and Visit approach in which Extension educators visited farmers in rural areas and taught available agricultural techniques. The government cut the extension program in Haiti in the 1990’s when funding was no longer available

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Page | 22 (Fthire 2010). Aid organizations and missionary groups continued Extension services in rural areas using the project approach, but funding ended around 2000. Haitians have expressed their value for Extension and desires for it to return to the country. The University of Florida along with USAID’s Haiti WINNER Project has performed agricultural research and educational seminars in rural areas of the country within the last five years. In nearly every interview with farmers, a need for Extension is mentioned. Extension should be a priority in the rebuilding of the country as it will educate farmers, who make up about 66 percent of the population, to improve production and storage of crops for urban consumption and export (Fethiere, 2010). Extension could be implemented in urban areas as well, similar to the United States, for public education on agriculture and other areas Overview of benefits of Urban Agriculture…………… Numerous health professionals, urban planners, environmental activists, community organizers and policy makers in the United States are recognizing the value of urban agriculture for economic development, food security, and preservation of green space. Lawn care is currently most prevalent form of gardening acknowledged in the US. Researchers analyzed trends in urban agriculture with a focus on public health potential in the following areas: nutritional health, food security, personal wellness and community betterment, and environmental health. Monetary benefits included examples like that provided by Representative James Burcke of Massachusetts, who claimed that in Washington DC the average gardener could produce $240 worth of food for no more than an outlay of $9. Benefits such as relieving stress, regular exercise, food sources for the hungry in the form of community gardens, reductions in uses of pesticide, herbicide and fungicides, reductions in run off and food transportation, income redistribution, preservation of green space, and community involvement and participation can all be a product of urban agriculture. As limited capacity becomes another constraint in urban settings Brown suggests cities must minimize environmental impacts and reduce dependency on energy intensive transportation of distant food sources. (Brown, K. 2000) In Canada, cities such as Winnipeg, Montreal and Quebec have been heavily promoting urban agriculture for more than a decade. A study conducted by Hall (2000) observed four typologies of urban agriculture: rooftop gardens, greenhouses, allotment gardens and community gardens to determine their feasibility. The practices were proven to be adaptable to current programs in the urban context while being physically, economically, socially and ecologically sustainable. Physically the practice of urban agriculture is beneficial because it is practiced on unused space. Economically, each typology stimulates the local economy and reduces the amount of produce bought by users. The community becomes interactive, educated and stimulates social sustainability. Ecological sustainability is attained through organic growing methods, air quality improvements and stormwater runoff reduction (Bhattarya, 2005). Reasons for practice were economics, food quality, environmental considerations, education and community development (Hall, 2000). Studies conducted in the United States have shown that each of the following is a possible benefit of urban agriculture and community gardens. These

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Page | 23 benefits not only transcend to a developing country like Haiti, but can have an even more intense impact: Urban commercial gardens using intensive methods of agriculture generally have yields 13 times more per acre than rural farms. Transportation costs and damages are eliminated since there is close proximity of urban farms to markets. Gardening provides physical exercise in the forms of fine motor involvement like cutting flowers, to aerobic gross motor tasks such as turning a compost pile. Plants and gardening lead to improvements in quality of life and overall health. Recreational gardening reduces stress, promotes relaxation and creates refuge from noise and commotion of life in the city. Studies have shown that looking at a plant can reduce fear and anger, lowers blood pressure and muscle tension. Studies of relationships between the neighborhood physical environment and social problems proved that the presence of vegetable gardens is a positive community influence. Studies have shown the potential of urban gardens reducing crime. Two American cities observed significant reductions in thefts, burglaries and illicit drug dealing in neighborhoods with community gardens. Urban agriculture creates leadership development and community organizing opportunities for members dealing with planning community meetings and managing resources. For plants not grown for consumption, like bamboo and timber, a process called “phytoremediation” helps to remove pollutants from the earth. Composting can boast environmental health by collecting waste and using it to break down many chemicals and contaminants while enriching garden soils. Gardens increase biodiversity by attracting soil microorganisms, insects, birds, reptiles and animals. Urban agriculture has the ability to eliminate poverty, provide quality education, control environmental pollution, alleviate hunger and preserve green space (Brown et al., 2000). Summary ………………………………………………………………………. Given the benefits urban agriculture, extension education and the current situation in Haiti, implementation of community gardens and agricultural practices could benefit its urban areas tremendously. There is proof that urban agriculture improves livelihoods and health, composting creates healthier environments and more fertile soils and current practices in Haiti are in need of improvement. Given the steps of creating long term community gardens by Milburn and Vail (2010), a clear vision can be laid out for urban agriculture in Haiti. The primary and secondary research detailed in the literature review provides reasoning for using urban agriculture to improve living conditions and production practices in a country where government is too corrupt to complete the task. Given the situation with the governments corruption a model for implementation must be provided to community members and local leaders of urban areas. The grass roots approach of extension provides a sound foundation for implementation and management of community gardens.

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Page | 24 [Study Area and Methodology]This graduate terminal project required several research tasks. Secondary research was exploratory and helped guide the project toward a feasible outcome. In depth secondary research framed the project through highlighting a need for solutions and an outlet to disperse them. Aspects of the primary research included informal and in depth interviews with Haitians, faculty and aid organizations and thorough literature reviews. Qualitative research techniques were performed simultaneously using GIS analysis and review of archival government and United Nations maps and documents. This work highlighted difficulties in agriculture production, leadership and food security as well as dependence on non government organizations. Through this research, I determined that the solutions, applications and leadership standards were needed. The implementation of urban agriculture at an individual or community level would incorporate these. The primary research question in this project is “How can urban agriculture be practically implemented in Haiti without significant financial and logistical support from the government or aid organizations?” The research for this project began in early 2010 after the highly publicized earthquake in Haiti had highlighted current and existing issues within the country. Initial research explored the possibility of a network of productive spaces throughout Port au Prince as a means of food security. More in depth research revealed a lack of reliability on the Haitian government for implementation; and no means to attain accurate spatial data required for analysis. During this process, the desire by the community for independence, security and self reliance was discovered. This led me to community based objectives that guided the project to focus more on practical applications and implementation than locating and connecting primary productive spaces. The methods used for attaining information and data involved various techniques based on a holistic objective to gain a complete perspective of urban agriculture in a developing country such as Haiti. This included: A city scale analysis of existing conditions, future plans and available materials was conducted using GIS analysis, government and United Nations supported maps and damage, as well as, collecting photographs. Archival studies, interviews and preliminary findings were used to explore already implemented urban agriculture projects in the developing world. Exploration of agriculture and associated aid existing and planned in Haiti occurred through six months of: archival document reviews, forums and two interviews with experts in aid funding, Haitian culture, economics and sociology, agriculture, sustainability and community development. A thorough review of technical documents on: policies, government actions, funding and foreign aid plans, through literature reviews, multimedia and interviews. User needs, short and long term planning, solutions and implementation were examined. Each of these opportunities were explored, researched, verified and modeled for the implementation of urban

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agri c Port Revi Site com con s ope n pop u serv i hou s stat u et a con d Stat e gard rese rese the F The guid com Suc c fou n ten u dev e com Lan d trus t Sust a gard inte r com Co m com phy s com c ulture as a t au Prince. ew of Met h selection ponent. s ideration i n n space, s c u lation gro w i ces, acces s s ing availa b u s and phys l. 1995, Ad a d ucted res e e s to deci en succes s arch was s arch provid F ort Nation a intent of elines and munities t o c essful lon g n d to pos s u re, sus t e lopment a n posed of im d tenure in c t s, leases a ined inter e eners and r ested was munity ou t m munity dev e munity’s c a s ical needs munities in t ool for co m h ods & Crite for urban Site s e cluded the f c ale and d w th and den s ibility, cos b ility and c ical charact e a m 1999). M e arch nati o pher what s ful. A m s ite selecti o ed the maj o a l neighborh their res e suggestio n o impleme n g term co m s ess four “ t ained i n n d appropri a portant ide a c luded acq u and par t e st was the their co m attained th t reach, le a e lopment m a pacity for Garde n age, sex, ra c m munity dev ria for Site S agriculture e lection c r f ollowing: a v istribution sity, availab t, market c ost, land u e ristics of l a M ilburn and o nwide in makes a m ajor porti o o n and d e o r criteria f ood of Port e arch was n s for indi v n t commun i m munity ga r “ seeds”: s e n terest, a te design. a s for attain i u iring land t h t nering o p interest an d m munities. rough corr e a dership a n m ust be able economic, n s that se r c e and inco m elopment i n S election.... is a vita r iteria fo r v ailability o f of poverty ility of basi c integration u se, tenur e a nd (O’Reill y Vail (2010 ) the Unite d communit y o n of thei r e sign. Thi s f or selectin g au Prince. to provid e v iduals an d i ty gardens r dens wer e e cured lan d communit y Seeds wer e i ng success. h rough lan d p portunities d support o f Sustaine d e ct location n d funding to meet th e social an d r ve divers e m e are mos t n l r f c e y ) d y r s g e d e d y e d f d e d e t suc c dev e wid e use r em p fou n rela t suc c ste p Eac h con s Stu d The for m Prin The Prin pri m sou t mo u The the per c city kilo m den s squ a City Figu r (So u c essful. e lopment i n e range of r s, dramati c p owers peo p n d to be su c t ionships a n c ess was t h p s: site sele c h step incl u s iderations ( d y Area Ch a city of Port m y investig a ce is situat e city rests o ce; a wat e m ary locatio n t h sides o u ntains that city is con s mountains c ent are no t covers a n m eters, or sity of the a re mile, n e re 3 1: Vie w u rce: Scott M Other fa n cluded sel skills, gard e c visual e f p le. Com m c cessful wit h n d organiza t h e design. c tion, site l a u ded guidel i ( Milburn, 2 0 a racteristics au Prince, a tion of urb e d in the C u o n the edg e e r body th a n for shippi n o f the cit y are up to 1 s idered to b but slop e t uncommo n n area of 13.9 squar city is ov e arly twice t w of Port a u M anina 201 0 a ctors in l f sustaining e n evolutio n f fects and m unity devel h the follo w t ion. The f Design in c a yout and si t i nes for ph y 0 10). ……………… … Haiti was th an agricult u u l de Sac Pl a e of the Ba y a t makes t n g. The no r y are sur r 1 1,000 feet b e flat in c o e s of grea t n in Port au roughly 3 e miles. T er 50,000 t he density u Prince fro m 0 ) Page | 2 5 communit y g gardens, a n challenge the proces opment wa w ing: buildin g f inal seed o c ludes thre e t e element s y sical desig n … ……………… … e study are a u re. Port a u a ins of Hait i y of Port a u t he city th e r th, east an d r ounded b y in elevatio n o mparison t o t er than 4 0 Prince. Th e 3 6.04 squar e T he averag e persons pe of New Yor m the Sout h 5 y a s s s g f e s n … a i e d y n o 0 e e e r k h

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The with deg r 54 i n eart h far m esti m une m stati or t r au P and The r ho m hot e One par e drai n inef f Figu r (Sou r The abo u esti m bet w Im m peo p area reso city is cha r temperatu r ees Fahren h n ches per y e h quake wa m ers seekin g m ated 80 p m ployed, b u stic do hav e r ansportatio P rince was u bathroom s r e is only a m es in the ci t e ls and the w of the gr e e nts and c h n age, was t f icient and r e 3 2: Tem p r ce: Scott M a results of t u t 60 perc e m ated time w een four t o m ediately aft p le left the s. Howeve r urces to s r acterized b res averagi n h eit. The a v e ar. Growt h s rapid as g more lucr a p ercent of p u t some of e untaxed i n n jobs. Th e u sed for sl e s were out bout one h t y, althoug h w ealthier cl a e atest dem h ildren was e manage m for the m p orary Housi n a nina 2010) t he earthqu e nt of buil d just to c l o five year s er the eart h city to see r most rural upport th e y a subtro p n g betwee n v erage rainf a h in the city a result a tive empl o p eople in t those incl u n comes fro m e average h o e eping and side of th e h our of po w h governme n a ss have re g ands in th e sanitation. m ent and m ost part n g outside Pake include d ings in th e l ean up th e s (Thames e h quake abo u k refuge in towns did n e increase p ical climat e n 70 and 9 0 a ll is aroun d prior to th e of peasan t o yment. A n t he city ar e u ded in tha t m agricultur e o me in Port the kitche n e structure w er to mos t n t buildings g ular access e city fro m The city’ s sewage i s inoperable ort au Princ e damage t o e city. Th e e rubble i s t al., 2010) u t 1,500,00 0 more rura n ot have th e in persons e 0 d e t n e t e n t m s s e o e s 0 l e Figu r (SouTod a info na m info acc e dist r The r gro w of t urb a sec u pla c des t lea v Por t Site bas e for t aid Por t pop As t it is the urb a wh e re 3 3: Wo m u rce: Scott M a a y there ar rmal housi n m ed. Tho u rmal space s e ss to aid r ibution, h e re has be e w ing banan a t heir home s a n agricultu u rity. Mor e c e within th e t royed buil d v ing open sp t au Prince Suitability A e d on avail a t he country and gover n t au Prince i ulation of a he central p likely that t city will ha v a n areas of t e re agricul t m en Filling u p a nina 2010) e about 1, 4 n g or tent c i u gh sanita r s are not i d in the for e althcare a e n evidenc e a and plant a s therefor e re as a te m e permane n e damaged d ings must b aces for agr Context A A nalysis : Si t a bility and a of Haiti as w n ment docu m i s the large s bout 25 pe r p ort and bus t rends and i v e the oppo r t he country t ural prac t p Jugs at a W 4 00,000 pe o i ties, as the r y conditio n d eal, reside m of wat e nd very b a e of some a ins near t h e making t m porary sol u n t solution s areas of th e b e torn do w icultural pr a A nalysis…… t e suitabilit y a nalysis of w ell as avail mentation. s t in the co r cent of Hai iness hub o f nformation r tunity to tr a as well as t o t ices need Page | 2 6 W ater Statio n o ple living i n y have bee n n s in thes e nts do hav e e r and foo d a sic shelte r household h e perimete he case f o u tion to foo d s could tak e e city wher e w n, therefor e a ctices. ……………… … y was chose n GIS materi a l able histor y The city o untry with a tian citizen s f the countr y disbursed i n a vel to othe o rural farm the mo s 6 n n n e e d r s r r d e e e … n a l y f a s y n r s t

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mo d Figu r Geo g Hait i enti r epic e grea city resi d a gr e well The roa d sew a spa c Figu r d ification. r e 3 4: Port a g raphically, i allowing f r e country. e nter of t h t deal of da m is horrific d ents alike h e at opport u as proble m city requir e d s, access to a ge system s c e. r e 3 5: Curre n u Prince in C o Port au Pri n or informa t Additional h e earthqu a m age. Whil e and dishe a h ave noted t u nity to rep a m s created e s improved electricity, w s and incr e n t Green Spa c o ntext of Hai t n ce is near t t ion distrib u ly, the city a ke and it e the devas t a rtening, pl hat the dis a a ir existing p after the job and f o w aste mana e ased gree n c e in Port au t i he center o f u tion to th e is near th e sustained a t ation of th e anners an d a ster has lef t p roblems a s earthquake od security gement an d n and ope n Prince f e e a e d t s d n Cur r city stru spa c and spa c ano t in t h abs o the tha t Figu r Por t 170 0 the gre w por t beg a pre d org a affil are a ow n r ently abou t is located ctures and c e, like thos e physical h c e could a t her earthq u h e country, o rb stormw a wet seaso n t can have d e re 3 6: Port a t au Prince 0 ’s. Origina French ro o w and Am e t and activi t a n to aris e d ominantly a nic (Figur e iated parts a s becam e n ership bec t 80 perce n in areas wi agriculture. e of commu h ealth. A d llow for a u ake or hur r occur. Gr e a ter; this is n is plague d e adly effect s a u Prince Ro a has been a lly its desig n o ts of the c e rican gove t y in the co e Roadw a a gridded e 3 6). Hi s of the cit e incredibl ame a pr o n t of green s th slopes t o The bene f nity garden s d ditionally, reas of re f r icane, whic e en spaces a great ne e d with inte s a dway Netw o a city in Ha n and dichot c ountry, bu t rnment ce n untry, infor a y network s pattern b e s toric and y remaine d y dense. o blem as r u Page | 2 7 space in th e o o steep fo f its of gree n s are ment a more gree n f uge shoul d h is commo n also help t o e d in Haiti a nse rainfall o rk iti since th e omy were o t as the cit y n tralized th e mal section s that wer e e came mor e governmen d but othe Propert y u ral familie 7 e r n a l n d n o s s e f y e s e e t r y s

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mov pro p Afte for m havi n den s mat e hou s that disa s dam 201 0 Figu r Rub b hav e the c the billi o afte r bee n Prin c imp r inte r proj e v ing into t h p erty owned r a few dec m ed. Shan t ng small, in f s ities and v e e rials avail a s es; making are suscep t s ters. The s aged durin g 0 r e 3 7: Major b le plagues e crumbled. c ity in a m a needs of i t o n dollars w r the earth n allocated c e, while r oving the c r est in rede v e ct seeks to h e city bui by someon ades, areas ytowns are f ormal settl e ry little in f a ble are us e for structu ible to grea t s e areas w e g the eart h Shantytown s most of t h A unique a nner that a t s residents ere donate d quake. M u to rebuildi n another p c ountry’s a g v elopment a merge the t lt informal e else. known as s commonly ements, inc f rastructure e d for con s rally unsta b t damage d u e re general l h quake on s of the City h e city whe opportunit y a llows it to b has arisen d to the cou u ch of the n g the city p ortion d e g riculture s e nd food pr o t wo. Thoug h homes o n s hantytown s known fo r redibly hig h Whateve r s truction o f b le building s u ring natura l y the mos t January 12 re building s y to rebuil d b etter mee t .Nearly tw o ntry of Hait i money ha s of Port au e dicated t o e ctor. Wit h o duction thi s h instead o f n s r h r f s l t s d t o i s o h s f pro v Prin pra c bot h duri reb u Lim i This imp limi t bea r In H viol e of a rec e limi t Add lite r any res e Gar d v iding desig n ce, this pro j c tical appli c h as a post e ng the de u ilding. i tations an d s study a n lementing t ations an d r ing on the f H aiti there e nt protest s a ctions tak e e nt preside n t ations hav e Two fiel Prince, the viol e place a n too grea Contact s unreliab organiz a posing data an d area. itionally, r ature yield e peer revie w e arch from d ens Assoc ns for spac e j ect’s goal i s c ations tha t e arthquake sign and c d Constrain t n d explora t urban a g d constrain t f inal result. has been a s kidnappin g e n after t h n tial electi o e arisen in a l d visits we Haiti; both e nt kidnapp i n d safety c o a t to travel t o s in the le. Gove a tions have b challenges d feedback f research g e d some ar t w ed refere n the AGCA iation) is h e s in the cit y s to provid e t can be i m survival eff o c onstructio n t s…………… … t ion of s o g riculture t s that co a great de a g and murd e h e earthqu a o n results. number of w re planned were canc e i ngs of fore i o nerns. Th e o the city. country rnment, U b een difficu l for receivi f rom profes s g athered t icles that d n ce. The fi n (American h as not be e Page | 2 8 y of Port a u e much mor e m plemente d o rt as well a n phases o … ……….……… o lutions fo had som e uld have a a l of unres t e r as a resul a ke and th e As a resul w ays: for Port a u e lled due t o i gners takin g e risks wer e have bee n N and ai d l t to contac t ng accurat e s ionals in th e during th e d id not hav e n dings of th e Communit y e n validate d 8 e d s f r e a t t e t o g e n d t e e e e e y d

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Page | 29 through formal, practical research for its importance for starting and maintaining community gardens. Summary…………………… ……………………………………… This chapter discussed the review of methods, site selection and analytical techniques used in the process. This revealed the need for areas with proper density and population distribution, available open space, and a means and desire to practice urban agriculture. Through context analysis of the study area and Port au Prince, the following was found: The study area is centrally located and accessible to the city The urban areas is in need of green space and infrastructure improvements The masses of rubble from the earthquake have the potential to be transformed into open space. Site selection methods included a suitability analysis containing a review of the area’s history, availability of documents, accuracy of information and GIS analysis on the site. The main limitations of the study were the personal safety risks, dangerous conditions of the city, as well as lack of accurate data related to site suitability analysis for urban agriculture.

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Page | 30 [Project Results Part I]Both prior to and after the earthquake in Haiti there was a desire for the conditions of the country to be improved. Citizens’ greatest desires were better sanitation through stormwater and waste management, the reinstatement of the Extension education systems and the ability to be self reliant. Unfortunately, due to corruption and instability in the political system, the government is not able to fulfill these requests. Given the benefits and community development opportunities that urban agriculture provides, it proves to be a viable resource for the people of Haiti to gain independence and better living conditions. Scope………………………… …………………………………….. Guideline Creation : Because Haitians desire independence from their government and the aid organizations that provide their food and healthcare, the most viable solution would come in the form of creating something that they could imagine, create and manage themselves. The review of past options and case studies of urban agriculture, there are no step by step instructions for implementing urban agriculture in developing countries. Therefore, it was decided the most practical and beneficial solution for implementation was to create a set of guidelines for users. The primary targeted audience for the guidelines was community members and leaders. Secondary audience members include aid organizations, students, schools and churches and current urban farmers. Because of the varied audiences two sets of guidelines were created: 1) a guidebook for community members, whether individually or in a group and 2) a second guidebook that focuses on community leaders and their roles in design and implementation of urban agriculture. Both guidebooks are intended to be applicable to temporary, post disaster relief situations, as well as permanent, long term situations. Content : Content of the “ community members ” guidelines begins with the “what” and “why” for urban agriculture as a community benefit (Appendix A). Explaining to the user how urban agriculture can benefit them on a personal level was considered a vital component. Examples of possible urban agriculture were presented next. This section presents types, tools and applications of urban agriculture that can be implemented in Port au Prince. Each example can be built by individuals with local materials that are available at little or no cost. It was concluded that showing users the simplicity and everyday applicability of urban agriculture would allow for more acceptance

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Page | 31 among the community. Throughout the examples of urban agriculture photographs of possible applications as well as construction documents with instructions are provided. Following examples of urban agriculture, was the technical growing section titled “What to Grow. When to grow it. And Where.” Given the climate in Port au Prince, there are a number of existing crops that can be grown. Research as well as informal interviews with native Haitians informed this section and identified crops that are already and likely in the future to be embraced by farmers and consumers. Two charts were created to inform users of what crops to choose, when they are likely to grow, how to sow them and the yields they are expected to produce. Users can refer to these charts to determine what will be most successful in their growing spaces. A seasonal chart detailing the two rainy seasons of Haiti and how they interact with sowing and harvesting is provided as well. Most growers would assume that the country is warm enough to produce year round, but without year round irrigation temperatures can sometimes be too hot. It is also important that users be informed that rainy seasons in urban areas can be so intense that damage to crops is very common. Because most of Port au Prince is developed and soils are typically compacted, water has nowhere to be absorbed; therefore large amounts of stormwater flow through the city with destructive effects. The final part of the section reveals how to analyze a site in order to find the best growing conditions. In landscape architecture there can be dozens of factors of an analysis that will guide a design, but in order to avoid confusion or guidelines that users have difficulty connecting to, only four analysis factors are presented. Analyzing shade, wind, soil and slope will give users the greatest advantage when locating sites for productive landscapes. An guided example of analysis, complete with graphics, is provided in the guidelines for comprehension. The conclusion of the guidebook for residents provides very basic elements of design. Though aesthetic design in urban agriculture is not necessary, there are proven mental health benefits to entering functional spaces that are also pleasing to the eye. Design elements like lines and repetition are explained while graphics depict the outcome of each element. Because resident guidelines detail proper growing, construction and design techniques, an additional set of guidelines was created for leaders to use as a manual for implementation and management (Appendix B). Used together, referencing one another, both guidelines provide users with all the necessary tools and knowledge to implement

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Page | 32 urban agriculture within their geographical neighborhoods. The guidebook for leaders begins with an introduction to urban agriculture. This introduction is more detailed and complex compared to the resident guidebook as its intended audience is more educated and able to comprehend its content. Both the purpose and benefits or urban agriculture are detailed in this section. Next are the guidelines for developing community gardens. Researchers Milburn and Vail (2010) have found that four key factors contribute to the success of long term viable community gardens. The four key factors are: secured land tenure, sustained interest, community development and appropriate design. This research is detailed and modified for application in Haiti. A 10 step approach for cultivating community gardens follows the guideline section. A chart and section detailing the ten steps is provided so that users can better comprehend the steps. Examples of urban agriculture are briefly presented in this document. Types or urban agriculture are detailed as to guide users in what type of spaces they could plan. Applications were left out as they are already provided in the resident guidebook. The final stage of the leader guidelines are policy suggestions. The suggestions were included in order to give leaders a briefing of what government and United Nations decisions to support in terms of what benefits urban agriculture and community development practices. Purpose………………… ……………………………………………. Creating guidelines or instruction manuals seemed to be the most viable and easily adopted design action in a country with a corrupt government and dealing with the effects of a natural disaster. The true purpose of the guidelines was to present Haitians living in urban areas with something tangible that would help them to help themselves. The guidebooks are meant to empower users and provide them with an opportunity for social, economic and environmental improvements. During in depth interviews with staff of the UF WINNER Haiti project, it was suggested that the users most likely to become invested in urban agriculture were school children and the literate (Sergile 2010). As it stands, landscape architecture, community development and urban agriculture can be interpreted as amenities of developed urban cities; these guidelines introduce them as a way to improve standards of living for a developing nation.

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[PSite As s t Port arch dev e area sha n area case wer e sele c orga stru c One dam neigFigu r The Mar c rojectSelection… t ated in pr e au Prince c itecture e lopments d s of rapi n tytowns a n of the city study for i e various fa c c tion, the nizations h a c tural dama of the fi r age asses s hborhood ( A r e 5 1: Shant y area, also c hand is c o Resu l ……………… … e vious secti o c onsists of t and lay o d ue to rapi d d urbaniz a n d a dozen When sel e mplementi n c tors involv United N a d a team o g e assessm e r st areas f o s ment wa s A ppendix E) y towns in Po r sometime s o nsidered s l ts Pa r … ……………… … o ns, the ur b t raditional F o ut, and d urbanizat a tion are or so exist e cting a sit e n g the guid e e d. At the N ations an d o f engineer s e nts in area s o und with s the Fo r r t au Prince. s referred s uitable be c r t II] … ……………… b an fabric o f F rench styl e informa ion. Thes e known a s in the cor e e to use as a e lines, ther e time of sit e d affiliate d s conductin g s of the city a complet e r t Nationa to as Pos t c ause of it s f e l e s e a e e d g e l t s clos Pal a Figu r The tha t rec o The Nat i rev e co m oppFigu r e proximity a ce and oth e re 5 2: Locatinearly 90 a c t the surro o gnizable a n high elevat i i onal area d e als vast s p m pletely r e ortunities ore 5 3: 10 M e of less tha n e r governm e i on of Fort N a c res site is a unding are n d navigabl e i ons also m a d esirable. T p aces wher e e moved, m o f spaces fo r e ter Contour n a mile to e nt building a tional in Por t a lso at a hig h a, making e landmark a ke views o u T he damag e e buildings m aking f o r productiv e Lines on Site Page | 3 3 the Nation a s in the cit y t au Prince. h er elevatio n it an easil y in the cit y u t of the Fo r e assessmen need to b e o r possibl e e landscape s 3 a l y n y y t t e e s

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Fin a area succ had SeleFigu r Neig h a lly, as des c s with high e essful, and a populatio n ction of an r e 5 4: F i h borhood Po c ribed in th e e r densities prior to t h n of approxi d Case Stu d i gure Grou st Disaster e guidebook are also ty p h e earthqua mately 11,6 0 d y Site An a nd of Fo for leaders p ically mor e ke, the sit e 0 0 persons. a lysis ………… rt Nationa e e l The min o resi d nei g lay e ma p stru the s all h for lFigu r Cen t This lan d be a wo m ear t adv a ow n The analysis th a or GIS anal y d ent gui d g hborhood b e rs and the d p areas w i ctures wer e s e areas wa s h ave simple a asting com m re 5 5: Are a t ral Commun s central loc a d use prior t a women’s m en and le t hquake, pr i a ntage of t h n ership is o n surroundi n a t took pla c y sis with th d elines. b oundaries w d amage ass e i th higher e highlighte d s highlighte d a nd fair acc e m unity gard e a s of High ity Space a tion was al t o the earth q prison th a ss than tw i soners aro u h e 2.5 acres n ly one an d n g areas of c e on the si t e steps pr o The Fo r w ere identi f e ssment ma densities o d A locati o d so that re s e ss as it is a e ns. Density an d so chosen b q uake. The a t housed a enty youth u nd the cit site is that d it has no the neigh b Page | 3 4 t e combine d o vided in th e r t Nation a f ied with GI S p. Using th e o f remainin g o n central t o s idents coul d requiremen d Location o b ecause of it site used t o a bout eight y After th e y fled. Th e its propert y current us e b orhood ar e 4 d e a l S e g o d t o f s o y e e y e e

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own wou larg e with sim p four landFigu r Oth e are: exis t neig ther e barr a wer e wer e pro g ben e no w area use d ed by seve r ld have to e enough si t the curren p ler with on to eight la s into one t r r e 5 6: Edges e r factors c o site dam a t ing ameni hborhood v e were ap p a cks for pri s e irreparabl e e conside g ramming. e ficial in sel e w ater sourc e but the p d to be fille d r al persons be combin e e for a com t Cadastre s ly one land nd owners r act. of the Fort N o ntributing a ge cause d ties and v isitors. P r p roximately s oners. Ab o e The re m red for Exiting a m e cting the s i e s or pipes s i p rison site h d for use b y and the in d e d in orde r m unity gar d s ystem wo u owner as c all leasing ational Neig h to selectio n d by the accessibilit y r ior to the 10 buildi n o ut half of t m ainder of t h use duri m enities w e i te. Curren t i ted in the F h as a large y prisoners d ividual lot s to make a d en. Dealin g u ld be muc h ompared t o or donatin g h borhood n of the sit e earthquake y for non earthquak e n gs used a s he building s h e building s ng desig n e re seen a s t ly there ar e ort Nationa cistern tha t and guards s a g h o g e e s s s n s e l t The site nea r Nat i offi c in t h Aft e ana l be c Figu r Sha d are wall feet pla n pro g cistern co u Finally, th e r the road s i onal priso n c ial road on h e neighbor h e r the spe l ysis of sha d c onducted, a re 5 7: Shad e d e : The onl y the existin g around th e t in height. n t growth, g ram items u ld be used e guideline s s or in visi b n is situat e site and is h ood. cific site w d e, soil, top o a s instructe d e Analysis of P y obstacles g remaining e site that r These ar e but are p o ……………… … for water s suggest ch b le location s e d on the at the high e w as select e o graphy and d by the gui d P ost Disaster for sunligh t buildings, t r r anges fro m e as are not o ssible sit e … ……………… … Page | 3 5 collected o n oosing a sit e s The Fo r only pave d e st elevatio n e d, detaile d wind had t o d elines. Conditions t in the are a r ees and th e m eight to 1 2 optimal fo e s for othe … ……………… … 5 n e t d n d o a e 2 r r …

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Figu r Plan t Soil : mos t exis t suit a con s con t Figu r Uns u r e 5 8: Soil t ing Highligh t Soil on si t t ly limesto t ing growth a ble for cro s idered po o t ainers may r e 5 9: Slo p u itable Slope s Analysis wi t t ed. t e is assum e ne (Sergile are highli g ps. With t o r for prod u have to be i m p es Analysi s s t h Areas A c e d to be c o 2010). g hted as t h he majorit y u ction, rais m plemente d showing S c ceptable fo r o mprised o f Areas wit h h ey may b e y of the sit e ed beds o r d S uitable an d r f h e e r d Top o Nat i bet w lev e site of t metFigu r Sou r Usi n suit a da m the ography : C o i onal neig h w een 15 an d e l. Topogra is suitable f he site has t ers. re 5 10: Ste e r ce: Google M n g retainin g a ble for c r m age and nu site. o mpared w h borhood, w d 30 percen t phy on th e f or growth, a change i e p Slopes of M aps g walls ma r op produc trient loss a ith the res t w here slo p t the site is c e east two t but the we s n elevation the Fort’s W y help m a tion as it a nd slow do w Page | 3 6 t of the Fo r p es averag e c onsiderabl e t hirds of th e s tern portio n of over te n W est Entranc e a ke the sit e will reduc e w n water o n 6 t e e e n n e e e n

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Figu r Plan t Win d fro m also com the buff e prot Desi pur p typ e disc u thei r mul t wer e mar k area coll e duri n r e 5 11: Sha d t ing Areas d : Predomi m the East a an indicat e from dur i wall aroun d e r crop d a ection met h gn Progra m p ose of a c e s and a p u ssed in th e r feasibility. t iple functi o e : commu n k et space, e s, animal e ction. M a n g the e a d e Analysis w nant winds a nd Southe a ion of wh e ng the rain y d the fort a maging w h ods may be m and Sy n c ase study p plications e guideboo k With a sit e o ns, progra n ity garde n e xperiment a husband a ny school s a rthquake w ith Safe an in Port a u a st year ro u e re violent y seasons. and trees inds, but necessary. n thesis : Th was to inc o of urban k s in order e large enou m elemen t n s, educat i a l gardens, ry and s had bee n therefore d Vulnerabl e u Prince ar e u nd. This i s storms wil Fortunatel y on site wil some win d e intende d o rporate al l agricultur e to examin e gh to hous e t s propose d i on center compostin g stormwate r n destroye d the vacan t e e s l y l d d l e e e d g r d t pris o into ele m eco n Figu r Loc a thr o cho o Asi d det e buil d thei edu c to b the 201 0 The surr coll e exp e o ner barrac school b u m ents sho u n omically re 5 12: Site S a ting each o ugh inte g o sing the m d e from an a e rmine pro g d ings will b r location cation cent e b e centrally entrances t 0 ). location r ounds the c e ction, sch e rimental g a ks were pla u ildings. E u ld be ac c S ynthesis wi t site elem e g rating an m ost suitabl e a lysis, ther e g ramming l b e used as s is stationa r e r and exp e located an d t o ensure v of the co m c entral are a ool buildi n a rdens and nned to be ach of th e c essible, p r t h Element L o e nt was a alytical fi n e area for e a e are other ocations. T s chool roo m r y. The m a e rimental g a d easily acc v iability (Mi m munity g a s of comp o n gs, educa t market spa c Page | 3 7 transforme d e se progra m r actical an d feasibl e o cation ccomplishe d n dings an d a ch elemen t factors tha T he existin g m s therefor e a rket spac e a rdens nee d essible fro m lburn et al arden plot o sting, wate t ion cente r c e. Plots ar e 7 d m d e d d t t g e e d m s r r e

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Page | 38 in areas receiving at least six to eight hours of shade a day. They also need to have pathways throughout so that users and materials can be easily transported through the space. Most spaces will need to have raised beds, containers or use compost or soil additives and the soil is too compacted and infertile for growth. Animal Husbandry is located in areas of shade and current growth. Rabbits and poultry are commonly raised in urban spaces and both provide excellent sources of fertilizer for crops. Rabbits, especially, are susceptible to heat and therefore it is necessary to locate them in shaded areas. Concept……………………… ……………………………………… Although inspiration was not mentioned in the guidelines, it is considered to be an important part of the design process. Inspiration was not mentioned in the guidebooks because it is not considered vital to the design and viability of urban agriculture spaces. Inspiration for this site was drawn from the current agriculture practices in rural Haiti. Photographs were collected of rice fields and other crops and the repetition of forms is mimicked in the site design. There was only one synthesis and analysis completed in the case study, but two concepts are provided. One concept deals will traditional agriculture practices and the other draws form from the concepts of permaculture. Concept I { Appencix C } : The first concept is designed with the idea in mind that gridded agriculture systems are more functional and accessible for users. When looking at rice fields in rural Haiti, the grid represents a simplicity and manageability of the space. The gridded system is also a design that could be easily adopted and implemented by residents of the area. The purpose of this concept is not to present a case study driven by design theory, form and aesthetics, but rather through feasibility and comprehension by the users and leaders of the space. Concept II { Appendix D } : The second concept is more organic in nature, but permaculture forms drive the design and are proven to be more productive than the more common gridded systems (Redwood 2009). Community garden areas use a keyhole shape for more access to plants and less water consumption. The forms used in the design promote a mixed planting method which can be beneficial for soil fertilization or pest control. The second concept is recommended over the first because of its greater productivity and economic and environmental sustainability, although its implementation would be more challenging because of the organic forms. Residents involved in implementing this design may

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find layo Pro d an a gro w an e pro d met h pro d foo d mar k mo n coul d Abo u hus b vary Site con c loca t bot h Figu r the meas ut. d uctivity : B o a cre of gro w w th of each stimate of p d uctivity wil h ods, it w a d uce betwe e d per year. k et price in n etary valu e d yield bet w u t half a n b andry, but greatly, ma Elements : c epts, most t ions and p r h master pl r e 5 13: Pe r urements a o th concept w ing space crop menti p roductivity w l vary give n a s estimate d e n 30,000 Each cro p the United e All crop s w een 23,35 0 n acre is values in king estima t Though th e elements r ogrammin g ans can b e r spective of a nd forms s boast jus t for crops. oned in th e w as calcula t n the differ e d that the y and 40,00 0 p yield wa s States to d s combined 0 and 42,00 0 dedicated US and Ha i t es unreliab l e re are tw o are locate d g is the sam e e done simthe Fort N difficult t o t more tha n Considerin g e guidelines t ed. Thoug h e nt growin g y are coul d 0 pounds o f s valued a t d etermine a the spac e 0 US dollars to anima i tian dollar s l e. o individua l d in simila r e Detailin g ultaneously N ational Sit e o n g h g d f t a e l s l r g e The j ust beg i plot bec a plot tim e recrFigu r The tha t eve n for t wit h gro u rub b of s sea t Wa t nee d duri coll e communit y more than i n at three m t s are ten b y a use users w t and some e consumin g r eational an d re 5 14: Mar k market sp a t its uses co n ts to infor m the space a h a groundc o u nd. Ther e b le filled ga pace that c t ing during e t er collectio d s of crops. ng the w e e ction will y garden pl half of the t m eters by t h y ten meter s w ill have dif f may requi r g practices w d not requir e k et and Ope n a ce was des uld range f r m al sports a a re large pi e o ver growin e are a se bion walls c an be used e vents. n on site is Because o f e t seasons, be massiv e ots of the t wo acre sit h ree meters s in size. Siz e f erent funct i r e larger pl o w hile others e as much s p n Space Pers p igned to b e r om farmer’ a nd activitie e ces of con g between t ries of thr e surroundin g as market intended t o f the heavy r the natu r e amounts Page | 3 9 design tot a e. Plot size The large s e s are varie d i ons for eac h o ts for mor e uses may b e p ace. p ective e informal s o s markets t o s. Material crete rubbl e t hem for th e e e levels o g the borde tables or a o fulfill wate r ain episode r e of wate of water i n 9 a l s t d h e e o o s e e f r s r s r n

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sho r desi g Coll e buil d req u thre e for m a m o as t avai l fro m wat e barr e are o and stor a into allo w be t a Co m desi g abs o addi ho m was t sign i ferti r t periods o g nated for e cting wate d ings is a s u ire piping f r e cisterns. T m and will fil o re standar d t hey are m l able. The s m the rooft o e r is tunnel e e ls line the o n wheels. heavy, rain a ge area fo r their place w for them t a ken from p m posting is g n. The p r o rb waste a s tion to ani m m es of users t e left i n i ficantly. T h lizer and o f time. T water c o r from the s imple desi r om roofto p T he cisterns l in order o f d series of ci m ore cost s econd are a o p of the e e d into mo v south side Because t h b arrels can b r later use w to be filled. t o become lot to plot f o another t o r actice of c o s sociated w m al waste a n Composti n n streets h e waste c o soil a T wo areas o llection a n rooftops o f gn task th a p s to an arti s specified a f largest to s sterns can b efficient a a for water e ducation c v able rain b a of the buil d h e rain stor m b e filled an d w hile other s The whee l movable ta n o r plant irri g o ols design a o mposting c w ith the gar d n d waste ac q n g on site c and drai n o uld then b e a dditive f o n site ar e n d storage f the schoo l a t will onl y s tic series o f re artistic i n s mallest, bu t b e used also a nd readil y collection i s enter. Th e a rrels. Rai n d ing and al m s are brie f d moved to a s are move d l s on barrel s n ks that ca n g ation. a ted in th e c an help t o d en plots i n q uired in th e ould reduc e n age area s e used as a f or crops e l y f n t y s e n l f a d s n e o n e e s a Figu r An a site edu c rein edu c cen t circ u gat h spa c on t The buil d gro w Exp e ext e add i by gro w met gar d of t not re 5 15: Edu c a dditional p is a co v cational m troduced i n cating gro w t er was d u lation and h erings tha t c e. Vertical t he east and plants will d ing and in s w ing techni q e rimental g e nsion educ a ition to plo t leaders an d w ing and pl a t ers plots a r d ens. Thes e he site so t only to use r c ation Center p rogram el e v ered area m eetings. n Haiti, this w ers and sit e d esigned w to accom m t might e x agriculture west sides provide a c spire users q ues. g ardens, lik e ation practi t s, these gr o d advance d a nting tech n re designat e e are placed t hat they a r r s but visito r with Rain B a e ment prop o for com m If ext e could be a e users. T h w ithout w a m odate for x tend into takes the p of the educ a c ooling effe c to adopt f o e those u s ces are als o o wing areas d growers n iques. Tw o e d as the e near the w r e visible a n r s of the site Page | 4 0 a rrels o sed for th e m unity an d e nsion wa location fo h e educatio n a lls for ai extra larg e the mark e p lace of wall a tion cente r c t within th e o r innovativ e s ed in earl y o on site. I n can be use d to try ne w o ten by te n e xperiment a est entranc e n d accessibl e 0 e d s r n r e t s r e e y n d w n a l e e

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Ani m pro d thes for m foo d Stat e It w a wou met h free Entr a The the w on t that site dowFigu r Barr The inco sch o m al husband d uction is l o e areas wer m aximum p r d moveme n e s, was ent e a s decided t ld incorpor a h ods, so th e to roam th e a nces to th only existin g w est end. A t he east be area was e for about n. r e 5 16: Concacks will be only chang e rporate a s o ol to provi d ry in the fo r o cated in s h e designate d r oduction, b n t, similar t e ring Haiti p t hat growth a te organic e areas are f e ir areas an d e site occu r g entrance o A n addition a cause the d e nough that ten meter s eptual Schootransform e e s suggeste d s mall raise d d e lunches r m of rabbit h aded areas d as terrace ut an organ i t o that in p rior to the and produ c and free ra n e nced, but l d will not be r to the we s o f the site i s a l entrance d amage to for that p o s of the w a l Buildings w i e d into scho o d for the ar e d bed gar d or snacks f o and poultr y Originall y d and cage d i c and mora the Unite d earthquake c tion on sit e n ge growin g ivestock ar e caged. s t and east s located o n was locate d buildings i n o rtion of th e a ll to take n i th Garden o l buildings e a will be t o d en for th e o r students y y d l d e g e n d n e n o e Buil d for r Figu r Top o terr a min wat e wat e Con Site co m in t h Onc ana l to g wer dist i for a d ings are pr r ain collecti o re 5 17: A W e o graphy o n a ced so t h imalized. B e r and give e r for plant clusion…… … selection m ponents fo r h e leadersh i e the Fort l ysis of soil, uide the sy n e created o i nct growin g a griculture a r oposed to b o n. e st to East S e n site, as p r h at slopes etween ter r users an o p irrigation. … ……………… … began w r viable com ip guideline National P shade, win d n thesis and o f similar sp g methods: a nd permac u b e equipped e ction of the P reviously m on the w e r ace levels s p portunity t … ……………… w ith usin g munity gar d s (Milburn e P rison was d and topog r program. T atial qualiti e rectilinear u lture. Page | 4 1 with gutter P rison Site m entioned, i e st end ar e s wales retai n o collect th e …….………… g the ke y d ens detaile d e t al., 2010 ) chosen, a n r aphy helpe d wo concept e s, but use d gride form 1 s s e n e y d ) n d s d s

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Page | 42 [Conclusion] General……………………… ………..……………………………… The original purpose of this graduate terminal project was to explore the possibility of merging agriculture and landscape architecture. After exploration, the project outcome was practical and intended to explore ways to implement urban agriculture in Haiti as a tool for community development. Solutions were provided to both community members and to community leaders in the form of guidelines. A combination of agricultural planning, community development tools and education were combined to create a vision for improved livelihoods in Port au Prince, Haiti. In urban areas of Haiti, like the capitol Port au Prince, an immediate need for food security and safety as well as long term needs for community development were the primary issues in need of a solution. Guidelines were created in order to solve these problems as well as highlight ways in which both leaders and community members can implement solutions. The focus or leader guidelines were to inform users the steps needed to create community gardens, as well as keys to creating viable, lasting spaces. Resident guidelines provide an introduction to urban agriculture and its benefits. Types, tools and applications for urban agriculture and instructions for plant selection, sowing and site analysis were also laid out. Following the creation of guidelines, a case study in Port au Prince was developed. The case study in the Fort National neighborhood was created to showcase the tools, types and applications of urban agriculture. The community and leaders can use the case study as an example of urban agriculture application and to demonstrate what is possible for them to create as individuals or a community. What I learned……………………… ………………………….. Throughout this entire process I have gained a great deal of knowledge about Haiti, international design challenges and current trends in urban agriculture. I also found out that primary and secondary research were critical to inform this process, as well as the development of the guidelines and case study application. I began this project with an interest in further developing urban agriculture through the practice of landscape architecture. During my research process the Haitian people experienced the January 12, 2010 earthquake on and a great need arose. Aside from medical, mental health and sanitary needs, food security and income needed to be addressed. Learning about Haiti, its rich and dramatic history and its resilient people, allowed

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Page | 43 me to gain new perspectives of the developing world and its challenges. I also learned about the challenges and success of international design. I found it not only interesting, but incredibly challenging to design for different cultures, political systems and budgets. Creativity and innovation is imperative in order to not only meet the needs of a design, but to bring visual interest to it as well. Urban agriculture has been growing consistently in popularity for approximately the last decade in advanced countries. Most cities that have adopted urban agriculture are, however, in developed countries. Montreal, Los Angeles, Philadelphia and Seattle are leading cities for urban agriculture practices, but their existence did not help to inspire this project, as the funding and planning of the cities are so much greater than what is available in Haiti. There was ample research for agriculture in urban planning in cities of developing nations; but the research was technical and quantitative and only benefitted this project in technical matters such as the possible success of fertility of compost. Overall I learned that comprehensive design from beginning to end in the developing world is challenging and time consuming, but the need for creativity and innovation are very rewarding. Implications of Guidelines and Case Study………… It was the intention of this graduate terminal project to be implemented in Haiti after its completion. This study will help aid workers and those involved in rebuilding urban areas to inform and inspire Haitians. The study also informs readers that design is not just for the privileged, but can be practiced by everyone through the use of affordable and available materials. Contributions of the Study and Suggestions for Future Research……………………… ………………………….. This study will be submitted to the United Nations, USAID and aid organizations in hopes that guidelines will reach populations in Haiti as well as possible implementation of the case study in the Fort National neighborhood. The contributions of the study are accessibility of design and the benefits of urban agriculture to individuals in cities of developing countries. The majority of urban agriculture and community development in the Third World is developed by government and aid organizations; this project gives the power of design to residents to practice urban agriculture individually. In the future, if further research and design applications are created for Port au Prince, more quantitative research and analysis may be helpful in order to gain support. This thesis begins to

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Page | 44 demonstrate the need for and education about urban agriculture and its benefits as a community development tool. Further analysis could present more detailed case studies in urban planning for Haiti after the Cadastre system is updated. The future of Port au Prince is full of possibilities for health, food security, safety and a better quality of life. The ultimate goal for the city is to become a place of hope, resilience and determination through the rebuilding of a self sustaining, lively and productive place.

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Page | 45 [References] Advameg. (2010). Haiti. Available: http://www.nationsencyclopedi a.com/Americas/Haiti.html. Last accessed 8 April 2010. Baker, L. (2004). Tending Cultural Landscapes and Food Citizenship in Toronto's Community Gardens. Geographical Review 94 (3), p305 325. Basset, T.J. (1981): Reaping on the Margins: A Century of Community Gardening in American, Landscape, 1981, v25 n2 Bhattarya, Shefali (2005) Strategy for Identifying and Evaluating Sites for Urban Agriculture: A Case Study of Gainesville, Florida. University of Florida p5 84. Boodhoo, N. (2010). Better Farming Could Boost Haiti. Available: www.miamiherald.com/2010/03/30/15541/better farming could boost haiti. Last accessed 2 April 2010. Brown, K and Jameton, A. (2000). Public Health Implications of Urban Agriculture. Journal of Public Health Policy 21 (1), p20 39. Burke, K (1994): “From a Vanished World, Images of a Green Tranquility.” Smithsonian, June 1994 25(3): 114 117 (1994) Chen, Y et al, (2005). Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) as a Parameter of Compost Maturity. Soil Biology and Biochemistry Rehovot, Israel: University of Jerusalem. 37(11): 2109 2116. CIA (2010) Central America/Carribian: Haiti. CIA World Fact Book Last Accessed: 16 March 2010. Available: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the world factbook/geos/ha.html Cole, D, Lee Smith, D and Nasiyama, G. (2007). Healthy City Harvest: Generating Evidence to Guide Policy on Urban Agriculture. Available:http://www.cipotato.o rg/publications/pdf/004361.pdf. Last accessed 4 April 2010.

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Page | 46 Council for Agricultural Science and Technology. (2002). Urban and agricultural communities: Opportunities for common ground Ames, Iowa: Council for Agricultural Science and Technology Douglas, PhD, L et. al (2007). The Lafitte Greenway: A Vision for the Lafiite Corridor New Orleans: Brown+Lanos Landdesign, Inc. p1 67. Every Culture: Haiti. Last Accessed: 16 June 2010. Available: http://www.everyculture.com/Ge It/Haiti.html#ixzz0xkXPViIg Fraiture, C and Wichelns, D. (2009). Satisfying Future Water Demands for Agriculture. Agricultural Water Management 97 (1), p502 511. Grayson, R (2008). Gardeners Guide for Carss Park Community Garden Carss Park Community Garden. Kogarah, Austrailia. Haeg, F., & Balmori, D. (2008). Edible estates: Attack on the front lawn New York: Metropolis Books Hall E. V. (2000): Manifestations of Community Based Agriculture in the Urban Landscape A Canadian Comendium and Four Winnieg Case Studies, Urban Agriculture Notes, Canada’s Office of Urban Agriculture. Available: http://www.cityfarmer.org/winnipeg.html#winnipeg Kashmanian, R. M. (1993). Quantifying the amount of yard trimmings to be composted in the United States in 1996 Compost Science and Utilization. 1(3):22 29. McHarg, Ian (1969): Design with Nature. John Wiley and Sons, 1995. Martin, Heide (2007). Rebel Tomato. American Community Garden Association. Available: http://communitygarden.o rg/rebeltomato/index.php. Last Accessed: 2 March 2011. Milburn, L and Vail, B. (2010). Sowing the Seeds of Success: Cultivating a Future for Community Gardens. Landscape Journal 29 (1), p71 89.

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Page | 47 Mossop + Michaels. (2008). Viet Village Urban Farm. Available: http://www.asla.org/sustainablelandsc apes/pdfs/Viet_Village_Fact_Sheet.pdf. Last Accessed 5 April 2010. Mukherjee, N (2001). Alternative Perspectives on Livelihoods, Agriculture and Air Pollution: Agriculture in urban and peri urban aeas in a developing country Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Company. p1 8, 153 188. Munton, R, et. al. (1988). Reconsidering Urban Fringe Agriculture: A Longitudinal Analysis of Capital Restructuring on Farms in the Metropolitan Green Belt. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, New Series 13 (3), p324 336. Newman, P and Isabella Jennings (2008). Cities as Sustainable Ecosystems: Principles and Practices Washington: Island Press. 188 215. Obosu Mensah, L. (1999). Food Production in Urban Areas: A Study of Urban Agriculture in Accra, Ghana Brookfield, VT: Ashgate Publishing Company. 1 28, 39 40, 121 211. Peters, K. (2001) Community Based Waste Management for Environmental Management and Income Generation in Low Income Areas: A Case Study of Nairobi, Kenya. Mazingira Institute and Canada's Office of Urban Agriculture 4 (4), p22 29. Phillips, R (Editor) (1996). Urban Agriculture: Food, Jobs and Sustainable Cities New York: United Nations Development Program. p3 253. Redwood, M (2009). Agriculture in Urban Planning Sterling, VA: Earthscan. p1 167, 201 242. Salvador, Ricardo (2010): AGR 4905 Speaker Series: Sustainable Food Systems, September 28, 2010. Schaaf, B (2010). Recovery and Agriculture in Haiti Haiti Innovation. http://www.haitiinnovation.o rg/en/2010/09/11/recovery and agriculture haiti. Accessed: 27 October 2010.

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Page | 48 Seevers, B. et al, (1997). Education Through Cooperative Extension. Albany, NY: Delmar Publishing. 5 76. Smit, J. (2002): Community Based Urban Agriculture As History And Future, Presentated at Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST) 2002, Urban Agriculture Network. Available: http://www.cityfarmer.org/comutybased.html Smit, J., Ratta, A., and Nasr, J. (1996). Urban Agriculture. Food, Jobs and Sustainable Cities New York: United Nations Development Programme Publication Series for Habitat II. Vol: I. Smith, D. (1998). Urban Food Systems and the Poor in Developing Countries. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, New Series 23 (2), p207 219. Sprin, A. W. (1984): The Granite Garden: Urban Nature and Human Design, New York: Basic Books, 1984 Stephens, J. (2009). Minigardenging: Growing Vegetables in Containers. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences 1 (1), 1 6. Thayer, Jr. R. (2008). The Word Shrinks, the World Expands. Landscape Journal 27 (1), p9 22. Tucker, D.M. (1993): Kitchen Gardening in America: A History, Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1993 Viljoen, A, Bohn, K and Howe, J. (2005). Continuous Productive Urban Landscapes: Designing Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Cities Burlington, MA: Architectural Press. p1 29, 89 92, 124 190, 217 265. Williams, K. (2008). History of Landscape Architecture. University of Florida. Department of Landscape Architecture, Course LAA 6718. Wilson, A. (2010). Growing Food Locally: Integrating Agriculture Into the Built Environment. Available: http://www.buildinggreen.com/auth/ article.cfm/2009/1/29/GrowingFood Locally Integrating Agriculture Into the Built Environment/. Last accessed 21 March 2010.

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Page | 49 Zuvekas, C (1978). Agricultural Development in Haiti Washington DC: US Department of Agriculture. p1 7, 16 26, 49 63, 327 337.

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Page | 50 [Appendix A: Community Member Guidebook]

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This manual is designed for resource-poor families and aims to help people in the cities and urban spaces of Haiti to grow, process, eat and sell their own healthy, organic, nutritious food. The guidelines presented are not only a resource for short term food security in temporary housing areas, but for long term community needs rebuild their urban areas. These guidelines will especially be useful to the following groups: € Urban Farmers € Schools and Churches € Community Members € Students € And all other stakeholders in Urban Agriculture Table of Contents URBAN AGRICULTURE What is it? WHY GARDEN? The bene ts of Urban Agriculture EXAMPLES OF URBAN AGRICULTURE IN HAITI Types, Tools and Applications for Urban Agriculture WHAT TO GROW. WHEN TO GROW IT. AND WHERE. Crops, Seasons and Analysis Tools DESIGN PRINCIPLES An Introduction into Design of Spaces 1 1 2 22 30

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Urban agriculture is the growing, processing, and distribution of food and other products through intensive plant cultivation and animal husbandry in and around cities. The practice of urban agriculture can take place on many scales, from potted plants in the home to multiple hectares of production. Products can include lumber, fruits, vegetables, meats, dairy, herbs, forage, owers and much more. Depending on climate, urban agricultural practices can take place for a growing season or year round. In warmers climates, like Haiti, the possibility of year round growth is feasible. Researchers in America have calculated that in one growing season of 130 days a 10 by 10 meter plot can provide one familys vegetable needs for the entire year. In Haiti, there are two growing seasons, and with proper access to water, gardening can take place year round. This means a family could have a surplus of food three times larger than the average grower in America. That surplus could be sold or traded. Urban agriculture can not only provide food for a family, but a means of income as well. Food security is the simplest way of a person or family becoming less dependent on aid and more selfsuf cient. Urban Agriculture: What is it? Why Garden?Health professionals, urban planners, environmental activists, community organizers and policy makers around the world are recognizing the value of urban agriculture for economic development, food security, and preservation of green space. Bene ts such as relieving stress, regular exercise, food sources for the hungry in the form of community gardens, reductions in uses of pesticide, herbicide and fungicides, reductions in run-off and food transportation, income redistribution, preservation of green space, and community involvement and participation can all be a product of urban agriculture (Brown et al., 2000). With all of the bene ts to gardening, one may want to begin to practice in their own space or community. Agriculture is possible on any scale, whether it be hundreds of hectares in size or in a single pot. Urban agriculture comes in many forms and scales. There are a number of types, tools and applications that can work speci cally in the city of Port-auPrince. Each can be created by residents of the city with little help from the government or other organizations; each also can be conducted at a very low cost. They are detailed in the following three sections: Types of Urban Agriculture, Tools for Urban Agriculture and Applications for Urban Agriculture. Urban Agriculture in Port-au-Prince11

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Exhibition & Experimental Gardens Exhibition and Experimental Gardens were wildly successful in the United States in the late 1800s. They show growers and new farmers what to plant and different ways to do it. Research can be conducted in these experimental gardens and then shown to the public for implementation. Experimental and exhibition gardens can be conducted on any scale but are usually larger than community gardens so that multiple growing conditions can be observed at once. They also need to be larger so that the public can visit. Many new practices are learned by starting exhibition and experimental gardens and if a citys urban agriculture movement becomes large enough they can be a great asset. Market & Education Areas Markets, like Le Marche en Fer, provide spaces for artists, farmers, ” orists and other vendors to sell their products. Having a market space within a neighborhood is convenient and gives residents the opportunity to earn a pro“ t or trade their produce. Market spaces can also be used as educational sites when not in operation. Growing and production techniques are always improving and having a consistent site for the education of new practices ensures a viable market within communities, cities and countries. Some market spaces are simply aligned along the existing streets; others are areas that have been set aside for speci“ c use. The only measure for a successful farmers market location is the ease of accessibility. Location off of a main road or path makes the market visible and attractive to possible users. Community Gardens & Spaces Community gardens allow those without space in their homes to have a place to grow produce. They can range from an area a small as 25 square meters to several hectares. Shared spaces are helpful because they allow community members to interact, share tools and ideas, educate one another and much more. Organizing a community garden can be achieved through concepts in the guidebook for leaders. The most important concepts of community garden management are democratic procedures, participation by all members and fair treatment in regard to process. In the Home Growing produce in the home is the simplest way to be involved in urban agriculture. A household can just have a potted herb or tomato plant or can have a large plot and several fruit or nut bearing trees. The scale is determined by the growers time, interest and lot size. Several options for applications exist, including vertical, container, terraced and raised beds, and will detailed in this manual. Figure 1: Experimental Gardens, Hole 2007 Figure 2: Haitian Market, Labadee 2006 Figure 3: Eastside Community Gardens, St Louis 2010Figure 4: House Garden in Rome, Katie Parla 2010 Types of Urban Agriculture 2 3

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Composting: Small & Large ScaleCompost is used in elds such as the residential gardener, in agricultural practices, as a cover for land lls, as topsoil in new construction, etc. In America it is a practice of the environmentally cautious and gardeners. In 3rd-world countries the uses can act as a process for cleaning slum with no designated areas for waste as well as an economic stimulus (Kashmanian, 1993). Composting is a complicated process that if done incorrectly can actually emit gasses that will kill plants. There are multiple ways to compost, but for the gardener, aerobic digestion is most common. The basic de nition is that it decomposes with the help of oxygen. Basically, soil microbes oxidize compounds and release nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur and other minerals needed by plants. The process is called respiration and it acts to release water, carbon dioxide and energy through minerals (Chen, 2005). Composting speeds up the natural process of decomposition. Smaller decomposers are called microorganisms, and include fungi and bacteria. Microorganisms account for most decomposition and the most important are aerobic bacteria. Aerobic bacteria break up the most material and require carbon for energy and nitrogen for reproducing and growth--all obtained by the organic matter of a compost. As organisms decompose temperature will rise to 140 to 160 degrees Fahrenheit. The high temperatures allow for killing of weed seeds and disease organisms. Because of their size and lack of complexity, changes in oxygen levels, temperature and acidity cause them to become inactive. A typical oxygen level for aerobic digestion is 5%, otherwise decomposition can slow down by up to 90% (USDA, 1982). There is debate as to what should and should not be composted. Some scientists suggest that any organic material can be composted, while other warn that some matter may be harmful or a nuisance in compost bins. Yard waste is common and has a long history of being composted. Yard waste can include leaves, grass clippings, branches, sod, hay, straw, garden refuse, sawdust, soil, wood ashes and wood chips. Many items found in the kitchen are useful and have the minerals needed for healthy plant growth. Vegetables and fruit, nut shells, crushed egg shells and cardboards fall into thiscategory (UI Extension, 2008). Other items are lint, coffee grounds, paper (non-recyclable) and non-recyclable cardboard. Coffee grounds are said to be especially helpful in speeding up the process of decomposition. There is debate as to whether sh waste and animal wastes are safe; most recent research agrees with its use. Chicken, cattle, rabbit and goat feces are all acceptable as long as the compost has had considerable time to decompose. The following should be avoiding in compost bins: bones, cat litter, charcoal, briquettes, meats, fatty or oily foods, dairy products, peanut butter and human waste. There are a variety of materials one can use to make their own compost. Basically anything that can house about 100 cubic feet of mass while allowing for air to enter and exit will do. The minimum size of a compost bin is 3 by 3 by 3 feet, though an ideal size is 5 feet tall, 5 feet wide and 5 feet deep. The most ideal time to install a compost bin is in the fall when carbon and nitrogen levels are highest, though any time of the year will prove successful in Haiti. Tools needed in composting are a pitch fork or similar instrument used to turn matter, a compost thermometer or metal pole to gage the temperatures of the inside of pile and a machete or shredder to cut larger pieces of organic waste. The types of enclosures are basic: woven wire fencing, wood slat fencing, cement blocks, gabian walls, bricks or scrap lumber. All can be used to enclose a heap as long as corner supports are in place. If constructing ones own compost is not ideal, prefabricated bins can be purchased at a price range of 40 to 500 US dollars.MulchingMulches are used by gardeners to moderate soil temperature, control weeds, and improve moisture retention. Inorganic mulches perform these basic functions, while organic mulches also help improve soil composition as they decompose. While inorganic mulches can be added any time of the year, many recommend that organic mulches should always be added in late fall or winter, so that they will help retain winter moisture, normalize soil temperature, and reduce the growth of weeds in the early spring. Organic mulches can be added any time during the growing season, however, and if added in the spring or summer they will still do a great job of reducing your watering and weeding time. Mulch should typically be spread across the surface of the soil to a thickness of 2 to 4 inches. Compost Examples: 1. Wooden Bin 2. Gabian Pile 3. Galvanized Pipe The Compost ProcessTools for Urban Agriculture Figure 5 Figure 6: Examples of Compost Storage5 4

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1 Burlap: retains soil moisture; very good for pre venting erosion on new slopes2 Felt Paper: Provides weed control and insulation; must be weighted to keep from blowing away3 Newspaper: Paper should be moistened bef ore installation and covered with another mulch for security; provides weed control, and should typically only be used between rows and on paths4 Plastic: Provides notable moisture retention and w eed control5 Bark: Retains moisture well6 Cocoa Hulls: Common for cocoa farmers; should be spread no thicker than 1 or 2 inches to pre vent mold; will add nitrogen to the soil as it decomposes7 Coffee Grounds: Best used in container gardens; should be spread no thicker than 1 inch8 Grass Clippings: Grass should be dried bef ore application; add nitrogen to the soil9 Dried Leaves: Should be chopped h a machete or shredder bef ore application10 Straw: Decomposes rapidly and insulates soil; avoid oat straw or hay, which may lead to weed problemsWater CollectionLike much of the Caribbean, storms in Haiti tend to include intense periods of rainfall rather than an extended period of light rainfall. Because of this manner of rapid precipitation, the earth is not able to soak up or absorb all of the rainwater. In the past poor land management and extremes slope have resulted in erosion of soil, loss of fertility and no means of collecting excess water for future use. It is important to be able to harvest stormwater to avoid damage to plants in heavy rain and ooding conditions. It is also important because harvesting rainwater can lengthen a growing season through the periods of drought or during dry seasons. Many ways of capturing rainwater exist. Some are small scale and are performed at a family home and others require infrastructure to be built so that thousands of gallons can be captured during a single rain event. Because of the variation in techniques it is necessary to mention that some may require 1 2 3 4 5 6789 10the assistance of the government or a non-government organization for funding and regulation. Rooftop collection: Collecting rain from rooftops is an old practice.Smaller collections of rain can be with a rain barrel. Rain barrels can be bought prefabricated, or can be made with common objects like 50 gallon drums, tarps and other waterproof items. Cisterns are a larger solution and can provide water sources for irrigation and practical home. Cisterns are more costly and may not be the best solution for irrigation. Construction of gutters or forms of water collection into a cistern or rain barrel is required. Catchment: Rainwater catchment systems are based on collection of rainwater and gravity ow. Open or sloped areas of Haiti have proven successful for the implementation of catchments at the bottom of slopes. Catchments most acceptable for Port-au-Prince would be larger multiple thousand gallon catchments that collect water from several acres and could be accessed by the public. Open Air Collection: Collecting rainwater can be easy and cost free with open air collection with buckets, barrels and pots. When heavy storms common in Haiti occur objects can be placed in open, uncovered areas to collect water. Swales: Swales are de ned as a depression in the land and can occur naturally or be manmade. Swales are used in permaculture and are designed to slow and capture runoff by spreading it horizontally across the landscape. Collection and retention areas can help defer runoff during storms and also divert that water to productive areas. Swales can also work well with terracing, which is discussed next.Figure 8: Roofwater Collection System Accessed: 12 February 2011. http://www.tide-india.org/ products/06polyhouse.html Figure 9: Catchment on Slopes of Haiti (Boman, 2010) Figure 10: Swale During a Storm Event Accessed: 14 February 2011. http://livingindryden. org/2006/12/digging.htmlFigure 7: Mulching Materials7 6

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Terracing and RetentionMost land in Haiti is severely sloped; in many areas of Port-au-Prince the slope can range from 10 to 40 percent. This makes conditions for not only agriculture, but architecture and infrastructure dif- cult. Terracing is a way to reduce slopes while also preventing runoff and erosion that normally occurs with steep slopes. Like many other practices mentioned, terracing takes place on many scales and each have many applications. For some urban agricultural practices small terraces may act as a way to distribute water, retain water or save space in a productive area. In larger applications, terraces can reduce severe slopes over areas like mountains. Terracing is common in many rice farms in Asia and Haitians could bene t from similar practices. What is most vital in urban areas of Haiti is to prevent erosion as it can cause severe damage during hurricanes and earthquakes. Gabion Walls: Given the recent earthquake and massive quantities of rubble, there is a unique opportunity to reuse the material. Gabion baskets are constructed of a wire mesh that surrounds rocks, rubble, crushed stone or concrete and other solid objects. Rubble can be used in these baskets and be made into barriers, retention walls and areas, land terracing and building foundations and walls. The bene ts of using rubble in gabion walls is that it reduces the demolition and clean-up efforts because the materials are being reused. Gabian Speci cations Gabions shall comply with the following speci cations:1 Materials: Preferred to be made from a hard dra wn steel wire formed into a bi-axial mesh grid by tying or welding the cross wires at every intersection.2 Mesh Size: Opening shall be square and of nomin al dimension of 76.2mm of the grid.3 Geotextile: If used for terracing or planting beds a waterproof lay er such as a tarp or geotextile shall be used to prevent erosion.4 Jointing: Gabions shall be provided with lacing wire f or site assembly. Wire shall be of minimum wire diameter 2.2mm (all in accordance with the corrosion speci ed) for nal jointing.5 Rock Fill: Gabion ll shall be of crushed (recycled) concrete ha ving a minimum dimension not less than the mesh opening and a maximum dimension of 200mm.6 Construction: All rock ll shall be packed tightly to minimize voids and rock ll on the e xposed face of the gabion is to be hand packed.7 Construction: Adjacent units to be join ed by continuous lacing on vertical and horizontal joints at front and rear of coursing joints. Figure 11: An example of Terracing used f or slop reduction and Water Collection Terracing with gabion walls requires reinforment with rebar. A geotextile layer is also needed to provide a waterproof barrier along the surface exposed to earth.Gabion Basket Detail Gabion Reinforcment Detail Gabion Plates Detail 1 Gabion Plates Detail 2 Terracing and Retentions DetailBench Detail 1Bench Detail 2Gabion Construction 9 8

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Applications of Urban AgricultureUrban agriculture practices are not limited to traditional applications of agriculture. Produce can be grown in a vertical manner, in containers and raised beds and using methods of terracing and retention. Scale is not a factor either, as a person can grown one plant or have their own multi-acre plot. The following are examples of applications urban agriculture using local available materials in common locations suitable for growth. Section ElevationBefore After Vertical AgricultureApplication I: Coffee Can GardenCoffee cans or other household items between one and three liters can be attached to walls as planters for herbs or transplantable produce. Gravity supported irrigation systems could even be attached to allow for more simplicity.Other Alternatives: 2 liter soda bottles, plastic storage containers, milk jugs, buckets or any other waterproof item.. Attach them to walls, buildings, retention walls, porches, etc. 11 10

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Vertical AgricultureApplication II: Container Garden Section Elevation With a structurally reinforced wall, waterproof containers can be attached as planters. Each must be attached with durable screws at all corners. Alternatives: Cont ainers dont have to be hung on walls. If there is space, they can be planters on the ground.13 12

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Vertical AgricultureApplication III: The Ikea Garden Section Section Large, socially conscience companies like Ikea sell products that could contain seedlings in a safe environment. Kitchen containers like the Bygle are less that one US dollar and come in a variety of colors. Elevation Vertical AgricultureApplication IV: PVC GardenThis method uses PVC or Galavanized metal pipes as planters. It is best used against reinforced walls or buildings or on the ground. The pipe size is determined by the plant choice, although it should not exceed 1 foot in diameter. This application requires little space.Elevation 15 14

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Raised Bed AgricultureApplication I: Gabion Beds Gabion walls or benches can be made out of rubble and act as raised planting areas which can prevent ooding. Over ow pipes made of metal or PVC should be inserted to prevent water retention in beds. Gabion structures can be constructed of rubble from damaged buildings. Section ElevationAlternatives: With proper st acking rubble can create raised beds without the typical gabion reinforcement.17 16

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Raised Bed AgricultureApplication II: Tarp Gardens Section Tarps are abundant in temporary housing areas and can act as railsed bed walls with support of bamboo or wooden posts. Posts should be burried at least half their length and space only far enough to intertwine tarp.Raised Bed AgricultureApplication III: Basket Beds SectionBasket weaving, already common in Haiti, can be made into raised beds with the addition of a waterproof layer and reinforcement with wood or rebar. Use materials already common in weaving and line with items like tarp or plastic. Alternatives: Tarps can be supported with rocks, metal or wood or can be placed against a structure.19 18

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Container AgricultureApplication I: Sticks and Stones Garden This method blends vertical agriculture with raised beds made of gabion walls. It is best used against existing reinforced walls or buildings. The depth of soil is determined by the plant choice. Excess or scrap wood can be used and tired together with twine or wire for plant support. Section ElevationAlternatives: A similar option would be to use rebar from ru bble or damaged buildings instead of wood for support. After Before 121 20

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Haitis climate is very favorable to farming and gardening. The temperatures are warm year round and the two rainy seasons are lengthy enough to produce abundant crops if other conditions were optimal as well. The following chart provides planting, transplanting and harvesting information for crops that could be grown in urban areas of Haiti.What to Grow When to grow it. and Where. What to Grow: Crops 23 22

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When to Grow it: Growing SeasonsThere are two growing seasons in Haiti. The seasons coincide with the two wet seasons of the country. If a water source is available, the growing seasons can be longer or even last year round since temperatures and sunlight are optimal year round. The following chart shows when sowing can take place during the year and when the crops are ready to harvest. The chart below depicts the raining seasons and how they relate to proper sowing and harvesting seassons. And Where: How to Analyze Shade, Wind, Topographay and Soil When selecting your site for urban agriculture it is important to use four simple tools for analysis: Shade, Wind, Topography and Soil. The best location for a site would have between 6-8 hours of sunlight a day, protection from harsh winds that occur during the wet and hurricane seasons, be on slopes between 1 and 16% and have soils with proper nutrients and drainage. In urban spaces, some of these criteria are more important than others, since lands can be modi ed for more favorable conditions. ShadeAs mentioned, plants need between six and eight hours of sunlight each day (Grayson 2008). Select an open site free of trees and other light blocking obstacles. Since Haiti is just north of the equator, there are no major shadows from buildings that could be a hindrance. However for vertical and other applications that may take place next to walls or buildings, avoid planting on the north side of buildings as they will see shade for most of the day. South, southeast and southwest faces will get the needed sunlight for plant growth. Table 2: Growing and Rainy Seasons, FEWS Net 201025 24

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Because heavy storms and hurricanes are common during the wet seasons of Haiti, it is important to protect plants from damage that could occur. Determining the wind direction during these storms could protect plants. In Haiti, the prevailing winds during storms come from the east and southeast. Planting in direct path of prevailing winds will not be damaging if there is some sort of obstacle protecting those plants. Coverings may be an option if a site is considered suitable otherwise. WindSlopes in agriculture should not exceed 16 percent (Council for Agricultural Science and Technology 2002). Finding a site without steep slopes is optimum, but remember that slopes can be modi ed with tools like terracing. For container and vertical gardens, topography matters very little. As long as slopes are not so steep (greater than 30%) that erosion will damage container and vertical gardens, this will not be a factor in choosing a site. Topography 27 26

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Like topography, soil is not a major factor in choosing a site. With tools like composting, soil additives can make a sites soil more desirable. Preferred soil is fertile, with organic materials, able to hold moisture, but also able to drain properly. A mixture of one part sand, one part silt and one part clay is ideal. The natural soils in Port-au-Prince are mostly limestone; a generally poor soil for productive landscapes because of poor fertility and drainage. Compost can be used as an additive to the limestone and will solve this problem. Another factor of soil analysis is contamination. Without scienti c testing it is hard to determine if a sites soils are contaminated with heavy metals or harmful chemicals. If a site is known to house these items, like an old gas station or industrial area, raised beds or container gardens should be used to avoid intake from the plants (Brown et al., 2000).. Some agricultural practices may still be able to take place on contaminated sites, and can help to purify them as well. The production of bamboo or other forestry products can be grown on contaminated sites as they will not be ingested. Testing soil texture is a simple process. Take a small handful of moist soil into your hand, and shape it into a ball. Then try to work it into a tube shape, and rub it between your ngers. Different soils will act in different ways: Clay Soil Feels smooth and sticky when f ormed into a ball Will hold up well when rolled into a tu be; will bend into a ring Shiny when rubbed between ngers Sandy Soil Feels gritty and will not form a ball or tu be Crumbles when rubbed between ngers Loamy Soil Will form a ball, and will show nger impressions Smooth when rubbed between ngers, without being sticky Depending on the consistency of your soil, you may want to add other types or a compost additive in order for the mixture to be as close to equal parts clay, sand and loam as possible (Martin 2007).Soil 29 28

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Design PrinciplesIn addition to the many economic, social and physical health bene ts, urban agriculture can improve mental health. One way for improvements is considering the aesthetics, or look and feel, of the space. There are ways to make each productive space pleasing to the eye. Use the characteristics of the elements provided below in your space as tools to de ne the overall look and feel. By applying a few basic design principles (Martin 2007) a garden will not only be productive, but an enjoyable place to spend time. These design elements include:LineLines work to help guide someones eye through a garden. They can be used in a number of ways. For example, a horizontal line, like a row of low plants, will draw someones eye across a garden and while a vertical line, like a tree or trellis, will draw their eyes up. The shape of lines can also make a difference gentle, curving lines can have a calming effect, while harsh, jagged lines can add excitement and energy.RepetitionRepetition is the use of a certain characteristic in your garden over and over again. It can be used with color, texture, form or line. Repetition can be used to unify different parts of a garden, or to emphasize a certain element of the garden.VariationSome of the most interesting gardens to visit are those with the right amount of variety. Variety refers to the mixing of different colors, forms, and textures in a garden to add visual interest. It also takes place over different seasons and periods of time. Variety can be overdone, however, and too many design elements may lead to a chaotic outcome. Balancing repetition and variety is the key to a rewarding outcome.Focal PointThe most striking element when viewing the garden will often be the focal point. Focal points give the viewer a place to rest the eye. Focal points can be a unique plant, a water feature, piece of art or other garden element. Focal points are not always necessary, and for a developing area they may not be a priority.TransitionTransitions, or gradual changes, are useful when using several elements. An example of this would be a line or group of plants that move gradually from smaller plants like herbs to larger plants such as tomatoes or beans. This is more pleasing to the eye than one small plant placed directly next to a very tall plant. The same idea can be applied to color and texture.ContinuityContinuity ties all distinct parts of a space together into a greater whole. It is a design principle that may be challenging when designing a community garden with a group of people who have different ideas of what a garden should look like. When working with a group of gardeners, the smallest use of color or form may be able to give the entire garden unity. Another example could be using the same materials, like stone or gabion baskets, throughout the space. 31 30

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Sources:Brown, K and Jameton, A. (2000). Public Health Implications of Urban Agricul ture Journal of Public Health Policy. 21 (1), p20-39. Bhattarya, S. (2005). Strategy for identifying and implementing sites for ur ban agriculture: A case study of Gainesville, Florida. Gainesville, Fla.: University of Florida. Chen, Y et al, (2005). Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) as a Parameter of Compost Maturity. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. Rehovot, Israel: Univer sity of Jerusalem. 37(11): 2109-2116. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology. (2002). Urban and agricultural communities: Opportunities for common ground Ames, Iowa: Council for Agricultural Science and Technology Grayson, R (2008). Gardeners Guide for Carss Park Community Garden Carss Park Community Garden. Kogarah, Austrailia. Kashmanian, R. M. (1993). Quantifying the amount of yard trimmings to be composted in the United States in 1996 Compost Science and Utiliza tion. 1(3):22-29. Martin, Heide (2007). Rebel Tomato. Amerivcan Community Garden Association. Avail able: http://communitygarden.org/rebeltomato/index.php. Last Accessed: 2 March 2011. Seevers, B. et al, (1997). Education Through Cooperative Extension Albant, NY: DelmarPublishing. 5-76. Smit, J., Ratta, A., and Nasr, J. (1996). Urban Agriculture. Food, Jobs and Sus tainable Cities. New York: United Nations Development Programme Publica tion Series for Habitat II Vol. I.33 32

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garner community involvement, participation and interaction, while possibly raising property values in an area. New urban agriculture techniques could be created to garner attention to the practice in order to fortify and stabilize its existence. Landscape architects involvement in urban agriculture is almost imperative. In order to properly plan and design urban agriculture’s existence and program elements, a professional will need to understand its definition, purpose, goals and possible objectives. Other professions, like agriculturalists, ecologists and city/county staff will also need to be involved in the design and implementation of urban agriculture. A case study design would be a possible way to educate stakeholders. In cities like Port au Prince, Haiti where natural disasters have recently altered the infrastructure there is opportunity for urban agriculture to act as more than a food source. It could also provide safety, cultural benefits, a means of erosion control and improved water quality. Currently residents of Port au Prince have resorted to living in any available green space in the city. With a large portion of the city so structurally damaged that buildings have to be torn down, a great opportunity has arisen to replace those buildings with an agricultural infrastructure. Certain limitations and assumptions will exist for a study in Port au Prince, Haiti. Within the realm of landscape architecture, one major conflict will be the balance of creating culturally sensitive agricultural networks while dealing with the products of natural disaster simultaneously; it is recognized that the two topics may compete with one another. It will be vital to recognize that the natural disaster is what presents the opportunity for changes (i.e. the agricultural network system). Additionally, assumptions must be made during GIS analysis because of the lack of accurate and thorough data that is obtained. Opportunities and constraints include the following: climate (including working with wet and dry seasons), topography, additional natural disasters (earthquakes, landslides, hurricanes) and water availability. Research and interviews, at present, have indicated the Haitian government will be a minimal participant and stakeholder in research, planning and restoration efforts (SERGILE, 2010). The government does not appear to be economically stable enough or have the required staff to undertake a masterplanning of the city; therefore the assumption must be made that efforts will be dictated by aid organizations and outside government institutions. It is estimated that clearing of the rubble in Port au Prince will take approximately 5 years, therefore efforts of the Graduate Terminal Project will focus on a

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long term (implementation of approximately 10 years) masterplan of agriculture networks (SEGILE, 2010). Research Question/Topic : I plan to experiment with combining traditional techniques in GIS and green/blue infrastructure planning and design and recent applications of urban agriculture, composting and agricultural education This method will hopefully create a new type of landscape planning. Hypothesis : Can a masterplan focused principally on urban and peri urban agriculture be created as a means for relieving outcomes of natural disasters? Researcher’s Perspective and Research Strategy : Experimental, Action and Interpretive Research will all be incorporated through interpreting case studies and using and compiling research done by the University of Florida’s Institute for Food and Agricultural Sciences as a basis for the design and planning process. Research Methods : Both Qualitative and Quantitative data collection will be used. The use of case studies, informal and open ended interviews with experts, aid organizations and residents of Port au Prince, Field Research, GIS and mapping exercises will all be a part of the research process. Research Design, Critical Path/Schedule : See Attached Gantt Chart Anticipated Products : Final products of the Graduate Terminal Project will include a detailed masterplan of an urban and peri urban agricultural network throughout the city of Port au Prince, Haiti. The intention of the masterplan is to locate public and private community gardens, agricultural education stations, locations for composting and possible anaerobic digestion, green spaces, livestock, silviculture, recreational spaces and streetscapes. Following the masterplan, a a detailed prototype of a community garden or village scaled area (possibly an orphanage already introduced by IFAS researchers) will be produced as a basis or example of other spaces to be implemented in the masterplan. Working Bibliography : Advameg. (2010). Haiti. Available: http://www.nationsencyclopedi a.com/Americas/Haiti.html. Last accessed 8 April 2010. Baker, L. (2004). Tending Cultural Landscapes and Food Citizenship in Toronto's Community Gardens. Geographical Review 94 (3), p305 325. Boodhoo, N. (2010). Better Farming Could Boost Haiti. Available:

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www.miamiherald.com/2010/03/30/15541/better farming could boost haiti. Last Brown, K and Jameton, A. (2000). Public Health Implications of Urban Agriculture. Journal of Public Health Policy 21 (1), p20 39. Cole, D, Lee Smith, D and Nasiyama, G. (2007). Healthy City Harvest: Generating Evidence to Guide Policy on Urban Agriculture. Available: http://www.cipotato.org/p ublications/pdf/004361.pdf. Last accessed 4 April 2010. Douglas, PhD, L et. al (2007). The Lafitte Greenway: A Vision for the Lafiite Corridor New Orleans: Brown+Lanos Landdesign, Inc. 1 67. Fraiture, C and Wichelns, D. (2009). Satisfying Future Water Demands for Agriculture. Agricultural Water Management 97 (1), p502 511. *Hough, M (2004). Cities and Natural Processes 2nd ed. New York: Routledge: Taylor and Frances Group. pp1 292. *Merrett, S (2002). Water for Agriculture New Yrok: Spon Press. p1 18, 121 181. Milburn, L and Vail, B. (2010). Sowing the Seeds of Success: Cultivating a Future for Community Gardens. Landscape Journal 29 (1), p71 89. Mossop + Michaels. (2008). Viet Village Urban Farm. Available: http://www.asla.org/sustainablelandsca pes/pdfs/Viet_Village_Fact_Sheet.pdf. Last accessed 5 April 2010. Mukherjee, N (2001). Alternative Perspectives on Livelihoods, Agriculture and Air Pollution: Agriculture in urban and peri urban aeas in a developing country Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Company. p1 8, 153 188.

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Munton, R, et. al. (1988). Reconsidering Urban Fringe Agriculture: A Longitudinal Analysis of Capital Restructuring on Farms in the Metropolitan Green Belt. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, New Series 13 (3), p324 336. *Newman, P and Isabella Jennings (2008). Cities as Sustainable Ecosystems: Principles and Practices Washington: Island Press. 188 215. Obosu Mensah, L. (1999). Food Production in Urban Areas: A Study of Urban Agriculture in Accra, Ghana Brookfield, VT: Ashgate Publishing Company. 1 28, 39 40, 121 211. Peters, K. (2001) Community Based Waste Management for Environmental Management and Income Generation in Low Income Areas: A Case Study of Nairobi, Kenya. Mazingira Institute and Canada's Office of Urban Agriculture 4 (4), p22 29. Phillips, R (Editor) (1996). Urban Agriculture: Food, Jobs and Sustainable Cities New York: United Nations Development Program. p3 253. Redwood, M (2009). Agriculture in Urban Planning Sterling, VA: Earthscan. p1 167, 201 242. Stephens, J. (2009). Minigardenging: Growing Vegetables in Containers. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences 1 (1), 1 6. *Smith, D. (1998). Urban Food Systems and the Poor in Developing Countries. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, New Series 23 (2), p207 219 Thames, A. athames@ufl.edu. UF/Working Group Concept Paper. 12 April 2010. Thayer, Jr. R. (2008). The Word Shrinks, the World Expands. Landscape Journal 27 (1), p9 22. Viljoen, A, Bohn, K and Howe, J. (2005). Continuous Productive Urban Landscapes: Designing

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Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Cities Burlington, MA: Architectural Press. p1 29, 89 92, 124 190, 217 265. Wilson, A. (2010). Growing Food Locally: Integrating Agriculture Into the Built Environment. Available: http://www.buildinggreen.com/auth/article.cfm/2009/1/29/Growing Food Locally Integrating Agriculture Into the Built Environment/. Last accessed 21 March 2010. Zuvekas, C (1978). Agricultural Development in Haiti Washington DC: US Department of Agriculture. p1 7, 16 26, 49 63, 327 337. Note: *Reading to be completed over the course of the summer. Committee : Mary Padua (Chair), Glenn Accomb, and possibly Allen Thames of IFAS Necessary Graphics and supporting Materials :