Integrating ecological, cultural & multi-modal resources in downtown Jacksonville, Florida

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Material Information

Title:
Integrating ecological, cultural & multi-modal resources in downtown Jacksonville, Florida
Physical Description:
Project in lieu of thesis
Language:
English
Creator:
Jiang, Junhao
Publisher:
School of Landscape Architecture and Planning, College of Design, Construction and Planning, University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla
Publication Date:

Notes

Abstract:
This thesis project focuses on the development of landscape architecture design approach to aid in establishing green infrastructure that will enhance pedestrian connectivity, the project’ s potential ecological impact, and stormwater management, while reducing unsustainable impact on the urban core. Proposed Jacksonville Regional Transportation Center (JRTC), which is adjacent to the project site, will become the multi-modal center of Downtown Jacksonville. To enhance pedestrian connectivity from the JRTC, an inventory of the city’ s mobility system vision and assessment of potential risks and opportunities have been performed. Exploration of the project’ s potential ecological impact was approached by using the Florida Ecological Corridor and existing rail trails as shortcuts to establishing a green corridor. As an effort to improve the stormwater issue, a new concept of “hydro-chromatography” has been proposed based on scientific research in plant undertaking and pollutant distribution. The resulting design establishes a green pedestrian connector in the form of an urban park designed to improve downtown connectivity. The new concept for stormwater management has been integrated into the design, providing design approach for landscape architects.
General Note:
Landscape Architecture terminal project

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID:
AA00016065:00001


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INTEGRATING ECOLOGICAL, CULT URAL & MULTI-MODAL RESOURCES IN DOWNTOWN JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA By Junhao Jiang A PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2011

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CHAPTER 1: ASSESSMENT OF DOWNTOWN JACKSONVILLE ‘S WALKABILITY & MULTI-MODAL INFRASTRUCTURE

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2 Figure 1.1: Location of Project Location of Project City of Jacksonville CHAPTER 1: WALKABILITY & MULTI-MODAL INFRASTRUCTURE

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4 Figure 1.2: JRTC Location & Existing Rail Corridors Project site located at the convergence of intersta te highways and rail networks, and the JRTC site. (DMJM HARRIS, Inc. AECOM, Inc. & RSH, Inc. 2010.) CHAPTER 1: ASSESSMENT Project Site JRTC E x i s t i n g R a i l CHAPTER 1: WALKABILITY & MULTI-MODAL INFRASTRUCTURE

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5 Figure 1.3: Perspective of the New JRTC This rendering represents the overall JRTC concept. Op tions for detail such as the configuration of parking structures and architectural treatments are still under consideration. This drawing shows integration of Rapid Transit System (RTS), Skyway and Parking with pedestrian improvements and ground level retail/support activities. (DMJM HARRIS, Inc. AECOM, Inc. & RSH, Inc. 2010.) AMTRAK TERMINAL MANAGEMENT CENTER SKYWAY STATION JTA BUS TERMINAL GREY HOUND TERMINAL JAX TERMINAL

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6 Figure 1.4: Existing Rail Corridors (Gannett Fleming, Inc. 2009. pp.35) JRTC CHAPTER 1: ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 1: WALKABILITY & MULTI-MODAL INFRASTRUCTURE

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7 Figure 1.5: The Skyway http://upload.wikime dia.org/wikipedia/ commons/a/a1/JTA_Skyway_train.jpg

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8 Figure 1.6: Existing Skyway Alignment Plan http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F ile:Jacksonville_Skyway.jpg Project Site JRTC CHAPTER 1: ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 1: WALKABILITY & MULTI-MODAL INFRASTRUCTURE

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9 Figure 1.7: Riverside Trolley Rou te and Desirable Destinations (Jacksonville Transportation Authority. 2010) Project Site JRTC 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

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10 Figure 1.9: 2. Water Street (Jacksonville Landing, Omni Hotel, TU Performing Arts Center, CSX, etc.) Figure 1.8: 1. Downtown Jacksonville (Pearl, Forsyth, Laura Streets) Figure 1.10: 3. Riverside Avenue (Times-Union, Haskell, Everbank, Blue Cross Blue Shield, Fidelity Campus) Figure 1.11: 4. Riverside Arts Market (All photos taken by Ennis Davis. 2010) CHAPTER 1: ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 1: WALKABILITY & MULTI-MODAL INFRASTRUCTURE

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11 Figure 1.12: 5. Cummer Art Museum Figure 1.13: 6. Riverside Park Figure 1.14: 7. Five Points Figure 1.15: 8. Margaret Street

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12 Figure 1.17: 10. St. Johns Avenue Figure 1.16: 9. Riverside Memorial Park Figure 1.18: 11. Boone Park Figure 1.19: 12. Fairfax CHAPTER 1: ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 1: WALKABILITY & MULTI-MODAL INFRASTRUCTURE

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13 Figure 1.21: Riverwalk Plan (Jacksonville Economic Development Commission) Figure 1.20: Downtown Riverwalk http://www.dtjax.org/directory/ detail/980/ Project Site JRTC

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14 Project Site JRTC Figure 1.22: BRT Project Phase I Route Alignment (Jacksonville Transportation Authority. April 30 2009) CHAPTER 1: ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 1: WALKABILITY & MULTI-MODAL INFRASTRUCTURE

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15 Figure 1.23: Tacoma Link Streetcar This is an example of the type of streetcar proposed for Jacksonville (Jacksonville Transportation Authority. Jacksonville Streetcar Pre-Feasibilit y Study. September 2008) Figure 1.24: Modern Streetcar, Portland Streetcar, Inc. (Jacksonville Transportation Authority. 2008)

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16 CHAPTER 1: ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 1: WALKABILITY & MULTI-MODAL INFRASTRUCTURE

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17 Figure 1.25: Proposed Streetcar Route Alignment (Jacksonville Transportation Authority. 2008) Project Site

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18 Figure 1.26: Candidate Rail Corridors http://www.jtafla.com/JTAFuturePla ns/Media/Images/JTA%20Candidate% 20Rail%20Corridors%20map.jpg CHAPTER 1: ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 1: WALKABILITY & MULTI-MODAL INFRASTRUCTURE

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19 Figure 1.27: Proposed Ra il Corridors Alignments http://www.jtafla.com/JTAFuturePla ns/Media/Images/JTA%20Candidate% 20Rail%20Corridors%20map.jpg Project Site JRTC

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20 Figure 1.28: Map of McCoy’s Creek McCoys Creek connects the neighborhoods of Lackaw anna, North Riverside and Brooklyn with downtown and the St. Johns River. http://photos.metrojacksonville.com/gallery/13810328_3tzcs 1013949573_vhhnW Project Site McCoy’s Creek Brooklyn North Riverside Lackawanna CHAPTER 1: ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 1: WALKABILITY & MULTI-MODAL INFRASTRUCTURE

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21 Figure 1.29: McCoys Creek through Brooklyn in 1946 http://photos.metrojacksonville.com/ gallery/13896800_5xwxD#1019618971_WRie7-A-LB Figure 1.31: An 1903 image of McCoys Creek flooding nearby railyards http://photos.metrojacksonville.com/ gallery/13896800_5xwxD#1019618909_fjKJ8-A-LB Figure 1.30: Photo of McCoy’s Creek Looking west towards I-95 from the Myrtle Avenue bridge Photography by Ennis Davis http://photos.metrojacksonville.com/ gallery/13810328_3tzcs#1013896952_42w4G-A-LB

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22 CHAPTER 1: ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 1: WALKABILITY & MULTI-MODAL INFRASTRUCTURE

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23 Figure 1.32: Plan of McCoy’s Creek Greenway Corridor http://www.metrojacksonville.com/artic le/-0001-nov-mccoys-creek-greenway-begins Project Site

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24 Figure 1.33: Synthesis of transportati on vision for Downtown Jacksonville and critical pedestrian connector shown as green dashed line CHAPTER 1: ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 1: WALKABILITY & MULTI-MODAL INFRASTRUCTURE

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25 Figure 1.34: Synthesis of transp ortation vision for Downtown Jacksonville and Project Site The proposed urban park will tie the new JRTC toge ther with the Riverwalk and the downtown commercial corridor by improving the pedestrian connectivity. Riverside Trolley Streetcar Commuter Rail Ramp JTA Skyway Riverwalk Industrial Residential Commercial Public Proposed JRTC New Commercial Area Downtown Jacksonville New Mixed-use Area Proposed Urban Park N

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26 CHAPTER 1: ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 1: WALKABILITY & MULTI-MODAL INFRASTRUCTURE

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CHAPTER 2: ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL CONNECTIVITY OF ECOLOGICAL & CULTURAL RESOURCES

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32 Figure 2.1: Two Most Critical Ecological Corridors in Florida DATA: FLORIDA ECOLOGICAL GREENWAYS NETWORK CRITICAL LINKAGES & PRIORITIZATION RESULTS 2008 JACKSONVILLE CHAPTER 2: ECOLOGICAL & CULTURAL RESOURCES

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33 Figure 2.2: One Critical Ecological Corridor in North Florida DATA: FLORIDA ECOLOGICAL GREENWAYS NETWORK CRITICAL LINKAGES & PRIORITIZATION RESULTS 2008 JACKSONVILLE

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34 Figure 2.3: Two Major Trails Connecting Jacksonville Urban Area DATA: FLORIDA ECOLOGICAL GREENWAYS NETWORK CRITICAL LINKAGES & PRIORITIZATION RESULTS 2008 EXISTING RECREATIONAL TRAILS IN FLORIDA JULY 2010 SOIL SURVEY GEOGRAPHIC (SSURGO) DATABASE FOR FLORIDA RAIL NETWORK IN FLORIDA 2010 Baldwin Trail Black Creek Trail CHAPTER 2: ECOLOGICAL & CULTURAL ANALYSIS CHAPTER 2: ECOLOGICAL & CULTURAL RESOURCES

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35 Proposed Trail Proposed Green Loop Figure 2.4: Proposed Green Loop DATA: FLORIDA ECOLOGICAL GREENWAYS NETWORK CRITICAL LINKAGES & PRIORITIZATION RESULTS 2008 EXISTING RECREATIONAL TRAILS IN FLORIDA JULY 2010 SOIL SURVEY GEOGRAPHIC (SSURGO) DATABASE FOR FLORIDA RAIL NETWORK IN FLORIDA 2010

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36 Figure 2.5: Baldwin Rail trail Figure 2.6: Photo of Raldwin Rail trail http://0.tqn.com/d/ jacksonville/1/0/5/0/-/-/XLGRailstrails.jpg Figure 2.7: CTF O2O Project Corridor http://www.dep.state.fl.us/gwt/network/network.htm Baldwin Trail CHAPTER 2: ECOLOGICAL & CULTURAL ANALYSIS CHAPTER 2: ECOLOGICAL & CULTURAL RESOURCES

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37 Figure 2.8: Baldwin Rail Trail Connects The Downtown and Suburban Area. DATA: EXISTING RECREATIONAL TRAILS IN FLORIDA JULY 2010 SOIL SURVEY GEOGRAPHIC (SSURGO) DATABASE FOR FLORIDA RAIL NETWORK IN FLORIDA 2010 FFWCC POTENTIAL HABITAT BY SPECIES – 2009 B a l d w i n T r a i l Project Site Downtown Suburban

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38 Figure 2.9: Gap between Baldwin Rail Trail and Historical Resources DATA: EXISTING RECREATIONAL TRAILS IN FLORIDA JULY 2010 RAIL NETWORK IN FLORIDA 2010 FLORIDA HISTORICAL STRUCTURE LOCATIONS JULY 2010 Project Site B a l d w i n T r a i l P r o p o s e d T r a i l CHAPTER 2: ECOLOGICAL & CULTURAL ANALYSIS CHAPTER 2: ECOLOGICAL & CULTURAL RESOURCES

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39 Figure 2.10: Proposed Trai l Connects Nature with The Riverfront DATA: EXISTING RECREATIONAL TRAILS IN FLORIDA JULY 2010 RAIL NETWORK IN FLORIDA 2010 P r o p o s e d G r e e n T r a i l B a l d w i n T r a i l R i v e r w a l k Project Site

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40 P r o p o s e d T r a i l Project Site B a l d w i n T r a i l R i v e r w a l k CHAPTER 2: ECOLOGICAL & CULTURAL ANALYSIS Figure 2.11: A Synthesis Map Showing The Green Infrastructure Complex CHAPTER 2: ECOLOGICAL & CULTURAL RESOURCES

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41 Figure 2.12: Downtown Land Use Condition DATA: GENERALIZED LAND USE DERIVED FROM 2009 PARCELS FLORIDA DOT DISTRICT 2 Project Site Redidential C o m m e r c i a l

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42 Figure 2.13: The Proposed Trail Serves Residence at A Maximum DATA: 2000 Census Blocks P ro p o s e d T r a i l Project Site CHAPTER 2: ECOLOGICAL & CULTURAL ANALYSIS CHAPTER 2: ECOLOGICAL & CULTURAL RESOURCES

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43 Figure 2.14: Interface Between Proposed Trail and Brownfield DATA: BROWNFIELD AREAS IN FLORIDA MAY 2010 P r o p o s e d T r a i l Project Site Brown Field

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44 Phase I Phase II Phase III Phase IV Figure 2.15: Phases of The Green Infras tructure Proposed Al ong The Rail Trail CHAPTER 2: ECOLOGICAL & CULTURAL ANALYSIS CHAPTER 2: ECOLOGICAL & CULTURAL RESOURCES

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45 Project Site P r o p o s e d Gr e e n I n f r a s t r u c t u r e o f T h e R a i l T r a i l C o m m e r c i a l C o r r i d o r Residential Residential Figure 2.16: The Proposed Park Functions As The Head of The Proposed Green Infrastructure DATA: BROWNFIELD AREAS IN FLORIDA MAY 2010

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46 Figure 2.17: The Proposed Park Lead s to Cultural And Historical Resources DATA: BROWNFIELD AREAS IN FLORIDA MAY 2010 Project Site Historical Resources Cultural Resources CHAPTER 2: ECOLOGICAL & CULTURAL ANALYSIS CHAPTER 2: ECOLOGICAL & CULTURAL RESOURCES

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CHAPTER 3: CASE STUDIES

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50 Red = Completed S-Line Greenway Yellow = Proposed S-Line Greenway Extension Green = JTA/TPO/COJ Mobility Plan potential North Commuter Rail corridors Green Circles = Potential north commuter rail station locations Figure 3.1: Map showing the phase I of the S-Line Greenway’s as red line (Ennis Davis. 2010) Figure 3.2: Picture showin g the bikeway of S-Line Greenway Phase I (Ennis Davis. 2010) CHAPTER 3: CASE STUDIES

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51 Figure 3.3: Railyard Plaza http://www.railyardsantafe.com/ Figure 3.4: The Alameda http://www.railyardsantafe.com/

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52 Figure 3.5: Santa Fe Railway Park Plan (The Santa Fe Railyard Community Corporation and Suby Bowden & Associates. 2009.) CHAPTER 3: CASE STUDY (The Santa Fe Railyard Community Corporation and Suby Bowden & Associates. 2009.) CHAPTER 3: CASE STUDIES

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53 Figure 3.6: Detail Plan http://www.railyardsantafe.com/ Figure 3.7: Santa Fe Farmer's Market http://www.ecodaddyo.com/santa-fe-farmersmarket-railyard-park-opening

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54 Figure 3.8: Bird-eye View of The Park http://pearldistrict.com/phototour.html?tournum=4 Figure 3.9: Tanner Springs Park is on the Streetcar line http://pearldistrict.com/phototour.html?tournum=4 CHAPTER 3: CASE STUDIES

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55 Figure 3.10: Tanner Spring s Park is on the Streetcar line http://pearldistrict. com/phototour.html? tournum=4 Figure 3.11: Construction Will Eventually Surround Tanner Springs Park http://pearldistrict. com/phototour.html? tournum=4

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56 Figure 3.12: Special Pavement in a Segment of the Highline http://www.archdaily.com/24362/the-new-yorkhigh-line-officially-o pen/1121250496_dsr-highline -09-06-5054/ Figure 3.13: Urban corridor provides habitat for wildlife http://www.asla.org/su stainablelandscapes/ highline.html CHAPTER 3: CASE STUDIES

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57 Figure 3.14: Railway Structure Are Re-used http://www.thehighline.org/blog Figure 3.15: Section 1 plan http:// landscapearchiteck.wordpress.com/2008/ 08/27/highline-finalsection-1-and-section-2-designs-here/ Figure 3.16: Change of dimension http://www.thehighline.org/blog

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58 Figure 3.17: Park at Night Is Well Lit http://www.asla.or g/2009awards/images/ largescale/104_15.jpg CHAPTER 3: CASE STUDY CHAPTER 3: CASE STUDIES

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59 Figure 3.18: Park at Night Is Well Lit http://archrecord.construction.com/projects/ lighting/archives/0705Observatoire.asp Figure 3.19: Aerial Photo of The Buffalo Bayou Park https://www.topos.de/Previous-issue/detail959.html

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60 CHAPTER 3: CASE STUDY CHAPTER 3: CASE STUDIES

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CHAPTER 4: STORMWATER MANAGEMENT CONCEPT

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64 CHAPTER 4: STORMWATER MANAGEMENT CONCEPT Figure 4.1: Drainage Analysis Runoff is collected on the project site and disc harged into the St Johns River with pollutants Sheet Flow Project Site

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66 STORMWATER MANAGEMENT CONCEPT Figure 4.2: Possible fates of pollutants during phytoremediation The pollutant (represented by red circles) can be stabilized or degraded in the rhizosphere, sequestered or degraded inside th e plant tissue, or volatilized. (Elizabeth Pilon-Smits. 2005) CHAPTER 4: STORMWATER MANAGEMENT CONCEPT

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68 Technology Pollutant Plant Property Species General Phytoremediation Organic and inorganic fast growing, high biomass, competitive, hardy, and tolerant to pollution cattail (Typha sp.), parrot feather (Myriophyllum sp.), Elodea sp., Azolla sp., duckweed (Lemna sp.), water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), and Spartina sp. Poplar (Populus sp.) and willow (Salix sp.) Phytostabilization prevent leaching or runoff of organic or inorganic terrestrial species with large roots and good capacity to a ccumulate inorganics combination of trees and grasses Phytoextraction metals and other toxic inorganics (Fe, Se, As) high level of uptake, translocation and accumulation in ha rvestable tissues floating species water hyacinth, Azolla, duckweed, cattail, poplar, Indian mustard and sunflower phytodegradation organics that are mobile in plants (herbicides, TNT, MTBE, and TCE) large, dense root systems and high levels of degrading enzymes Parrot, feather, poplar, Elodea, phytostimulation hydrophobic organics that can be degraded by microbes (PCBs, PAHs, and other petroleum hydrocarbons) large root surface area to promote microbial growth Mulberry trees, Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) or Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), fescue (Festuca sp.), ryegrass (Lolium sp.), Panicum sp., and prairie grasses (e.g., Buchloe dactyloides, Bouteloua sp.) Phytovolatilization VOCs (TCE and MTBE); inorganics which can exist in volatile form (Se, Hg) High transpiration rate Poplar; rice, rabbitfoot grass, Azolla, and pickleweed (for Se particularly) Table 4.1: Suitable Plant Species for Certai n Types of Phytoremediation Technologies. (Elizabeth Pilon-Smits. 2005) STORMWATER MANAGEMENT CONCEPT CHAPTER 4: STORMWATER MANAGEMENT CONCEPT

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69 Figure 4.3: Thin layer chromatography is used to separate components of chlorophyll http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ File:Chromatography_of_chlorophyll_-_Step_7.jpg

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70 STORMWATER MANAGEMENT CONCEPT CHAPTER 4: STORMWATER MANAGEMENT CONCEPT

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72 CHAPTER 4: STORMWATER MANAGEMENT CONCEPT

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CHAPTER 5: PROJECT SITE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

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76 Figure 5.1: Site used as a rail yard, 1943 Aerial photographs of Duval County Flight 2C (1943) Date: 1943 Author: U.S. Department of Agriculture Publisher: U.S. Department of Agriculture Figure 5.2: Site used for rail yard and storage, 1960 Aerial photographs of Duval County Flight 3AA (1960) Date: 1960 Author: U.S. Department of Agriculture Publisher: U.S. Department of Agriculture Figure 5.3: Site used for storage, 1971 Aerial photographs of Duval County Flight 1MM (1971) Date: 1971 Author: U.S. Department of Agriculture Publisher: U.S. Department of Agriculture Project Site Project Site Project Site CHAPTER 5: SITE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

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77 Figure 5.4: Streetcar will be implemented on Water St. (Photo from Google Maps) Figure 5.6: Steam engine on display at the Jacksonville Convention Center (Photo from Google Maps) Figure 5.5: Rail under I-95 (Photo by Junhao JIang) Figure 5.7: Contamination under I-95 (Photo by Junhao JIang)

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78 Figure 5.8: Under the Acosta bridge at Southwest corner looking at the St Johns River (Photo from Google Maps). The south side has a nice view over the St Johns River Figure 5.9: Space under the Acosta bridge at Southwest corner is not used much. (Photo from Google Maps) Figure 5.10: Times Union Railroad from Walkway at Night. How to use the space under the freeway should be addressed. (Photo from Google Maps) Figure 5.11: Under the Acosta Looking Back at Elevated Walkway over Railroad Bridge. (P hoto from Google Maps) CHAPTER 5: SITE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

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79 Figure 5.12: Birds eye view of entire site (Photo from Bing maps)

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80 Figure 5.13: Birds eye view from west entr ance (Photo from Bing maps) Figure 5.14: Birds eye view from south si de (Photo from Bing maps) Figure 5.15: Birds eye view of freeway structure from east entrance (Photo from Bing maps) Figure 5.16: Birds eye view of freeway structure from south side (Photo from Bing maps) CHAPTER 5: SITE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

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81 Site Analysis & Synthesis The cultural, commercial and residential corridors are shown on this map. The project site is located at the inters ection of these three corridors. This project will address the interaction betw een these three important resources. The urban park will support uses for different purposes. Project Site

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82 The park is bounded by various transit systems, enhancing the pedestrian connectivity between these systems. The JRTC will become the most important destination from where most of the people are coming. Project Site CHAPTER 5: SITE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

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83 Site Analysis & Synthesis Transition from the green infrastructure to the downtown area, and from the new mixed use to the new commercial use is important to pe destrian connectivity. Many workers will walk between the JRTC and the downtown offices. The park will improve the walkabil ity between these destinations.

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84 The site is basically divided into two pa rt. The north part will mostly used by the public while the south part by the re sidents. Along the axis from the JRTC to the downtown area, it is divided in to several sections. Each section has different functions related to its location. CHAPTER 5: SITE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

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85 Site Analysis & Synthesis Entrance from the JRTC Proposed entrance from the Brooklyn Neighborhood Entrance from Davis St. Entrance from Madison St. Vehicular entrance from Jefferson St. Vehicular entrance from the downtown Vehicular entrance the Riverwalk An entrance at the Southwest corner has been proposed for the Brooklyn neighborhood.

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86 Sheet Flow Project Site Runoff are collected from the driveways, the freeways and the parking lot on the site. Stormwater manageme nt is a critical issue. CHAPTER 5: SITE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

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87 Site Analysis & Synthesis

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88 CHAPTER 5: SITE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

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89 Concept Technology Species General Phytoremediation cattail (Typha sp.), parrot feather (Myriophyllum sp.), Elodea sp., Azolla sp., duckweed (Lemna sp.), water hyacinth (Eichhorni a crassipes), and Spartina sp. Poplar (Populus sp.) and willow (Salix sp.) Phytostabilization combination of trees and grasses Phytoextraction floating species water hyacinth, Azolla, duckweed, cattail, poplar, Indian mustard and sunflower phytodegradation Parrot, feather, poplar, Elodea, phytostimulation Mulberry trees, Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) or Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), fescue (Festu ca sp.), ryegrass (Lolium sp.), Panicum sp., and prairie grasses (e.g., Buch loe dactyloides, Bouteloua sp.) Phytovolatilization Poplar; rice, rabbitfoot grass, Azolla, and pickleweed (for Se particularly) Table 5.1: Suitable Plant Species for Certai n Types of Phytoremediation Technologies (part). (Elizabeth Pilon-Smits. 2005)

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90 CHAPTER 5: SITE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

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92 Cattail ( Typha latifolia ) http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/41950 Sand cordgrass ( Spartina bakeri ) http://plants.usda.gov/java/largeImage? imageID=spba_001_ahp.tif Smooth cordgrass ( Spartina alterniflora ) http://plants.usda.gov/java/largeImage? imageID=spal_002_ahp.tif Eastern cottonwood ( Populus deltoids ) http://www.cirrusimage.c om/tree_cottonwood.htm Weeping willow ( Salix sepulcralis Simonkai ) http://vivastock.deviantart.com/art/WeepingWillow-80703648 CHAPTER 5: SITE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

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93 Florida Maple ( Acer barbatum ) http://vivastock.deviantart.com/art/Weeping-Willow80703648 Floating marshpennywort ( Hydrocotyle ranunculoides ) http://www.flickr.com/photos/ noelzialee/1313342618/sizes/l/in/photostream/ Cattail ( Typha latifolia ), http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/41950 American lotus ( Nelumbo lutea ) http://www.flickr.com/photos/ newyorkbotanicalgarden/3729671617/sizes/l/in/ photostream/ Tulip poplar ( Liriodendron tulipifera ) http://greenspade.com/tuliptree-liriodendrontulipifera Lombardy poplar ( Populus nigra ) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ File:Populus_nigra-bekes.jpg

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94 Common Fig (Ficus carica) http://back40feet.blogspot.com/2008/04/eleanorcommunity-garden-in-palo-alto.html Sunflower ( Helianthus annuus ) http://plants.usda.gov/java/largeImage? imageID=hean3_016_avp.jpg Switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum ) http://plants.usda.gov/java/largeImage? imageID=pavi2_013_avp.jpg Blue grama grass ( Bouteloua gracilis ) http://www.oregonlive.com/hg/index.ssf/2009/09/ autumn_rains_mean_its_time_to.html Another image for blue grama grass ( Bouteloua gracilis) http://www.silverplains.ca/flora/grass/ blue_grama_grass.htm# blue_grama_grass_09AU0 6_004_rgm Sideoats grama ( Bouteloua curtipendula ) http://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/ zq69OpGtYhDKM2X0HQDvqQ CHAPTER 5: SITE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

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96 1 Entrance from JRTC 2 Pedestrian Path from the Brooklyn Neighborhood 3 Sidewalk for Street Art & Performance 4 Retention Pond with Extended Detention Basin 5 Water Flows into Cells 6 Cell 1 (for phytostimulation) 7 Cell 2 (for phytodegradation) 8 Cell 3 (for Phytoextraction) 9 Retention Pond 10 South Boardwalk with Limestone-faced Seating 11 Outdoor Classroom 12 Exibition/School Display Area 13 Reading Area 14 Resting/Lounge Area 15 Outdoor Cafeteria 16 Stone Mound for Interaction with Water 17 Permanent Sculpture Display Area 18 Bird Watching Deck 19 Outdoor Exercise Area 20 Resting/Lounge Area 21 Yoga Deck 22 Senior Activities Pavilion 23 Grand Lawn 24 Civic Plaza 25 LED Media Screen 26 Plaza with Water Play Fountain 27 Hanging Structure for Restaurant 28 Restaurant with Train Facade 29 Basketball Court/Farmer’s Market under Freeway 30 Indoor Cafeteria 31 Riverfront Plaza 32 Connecting Ramp 33 Existing Riverwalk Bridge 34 Vehicle Entrance/exit 35 Entrance from Davis St. 36 Entrance from Madison St. 37 Entrance from Jefferson St. 38 Water Overflows into Bioswale 39 Bioswale Along with The Existing Rail Track 40 Water Collector at The End of McCoy’s Creek CHAPTER 5: SITE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

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98 Retention Pond with Extended Detention Basin captures runoff from the street and freeway collects trash and garbage Provides landscape feature along sidewalk Cell 1 (for phytostimulation) removes extremely hydrophobic pollutants (oil, petroleum hydrocarbons, PCBs, PAHs) Cell 2 (for phytodegradation) removes organics with moderate solubility (herbicides, TNT, MTBE, and TCE) Cell 3 and Retention Pond (for Phytoextraction) removes extremely soluble inorganics (metals like Fe, Al) CHAPTER 5: SITE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN Cattail ( Typha latifolia ) Switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum ) Tulip poplar ( Liriodendron tulipifera ) American lotus ( Nelumbo lutea ) CHAPTER 5: SITE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

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100 CHAPTER 5: SITE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

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102 CHAPTER 5: SITE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

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CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION

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104 CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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107 GLOSSARY

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108 APPENDIX

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110 Market Share of Development Along the Streetcar Line vs. Elsewhere Source: Portland Streetcar, Inc. and E. D. Hovee & Company APPENDIX

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111 Seattle Analysis Areas Source: City of Seattle and Bruce C. Allen & AssociCity\Item initial investment ($) developmentinvestment ($) ROI Kenosha 6.2M 150M 2,319% Little Rock 19.6M 200M 920% Tampa 48M 1B 1,970% Portland 73M 2.4B 3,288%

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112 Name Mile Post Approx/mm:ss Station Area/Cross Street Transportation Center 0 Jacksonville Regional Transportation Center Prudential Drive/San Marco 1.1 3:31 Prudential Drive Emerson Street Jackson Sq 3.6 3:36 Emerson Street J.T. Butler Boulevard 7.2 4:42 J.T. Butler Boulevard Baymeadows Road 9 2:54 Baymeadows Road Avenues 13.3 4:51 Sunshine Boulevard Old St. Augustine Road 15.8 3:21 Old St. Augustine Road Race Track Road 19.3 4:06 Race Track Road Palencia 27.5 7:40 International Golf Parkway St. Augustine/ St. Johns County Airport 31.8 4:43 Big Oak Road St. Johns County Complex 33.6 2:46 Lewis Speedway St. Augustine 35.7 3:04 Orange Steet West Augustine 38.4 3:34 BTW West King & McLaughlin St. Total Travel Time: 51 minutes Stations: 13 stations (Gannett Fleming, Inc. 2009) Southeast Corridor Statio n Areas and Travel Times APPENDIX

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113 Jacksonville Citibook showing the Brooklyn Neighborhood for Redevelopment “Jacksonville citibook”. (JEDC. 2007)

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114 Datasets Used for GIS Analysis APPENDIX

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115

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116 City Fees Assessment by the site http://fl-duval-taxcollector.governmax.com/ collectmax/collect30.asp? sid=D12E3E4E31DA48639A381FCE4E75878A APPENDIX

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117

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118 CHAPTER 1: INVENTORY APPENDIX

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119

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120 STORMWATER MANAGEMENT CONCEPT APPENDIX

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121

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122 STORMWATER MANAGEMENT CONCEPT APPENDIX