Sustainability Guidelines For The Urban Landscape

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Title:
Sustainability Guidelines For The Urban Landscape
Physical Description:
Project in lieu of thesis
Language:
English
Creator:
Tsai, Su-Hui
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School of Landscape Architecture and Planning, College of Design, Construction and Planning, University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla
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Abstract:
Sustainability is an area of research that combines ecological health, social justice, and economic prosperity. Since people are considered the most critical factor in the success of a city and urban design, social needs are critical for urban sustainability. The goal of this thesis project is to explore social sustainability and ways to create design guidelines for public spaces that take into account the significance of the social and cultural aspects of a city as a core principle for urban sustainability. This thesis uses a qualitative research strategy that incorporates mixed-methods. Primary and secondary research tasks are utilized in this research. My research goal explores the social aspects of urban sustainability and is based on the research question: how can I incorporate social factors to achieve urban sustainability? This thesis project seeks to answer this question by using the following research methodology: 1) secondary research- the literature review, and 2) primary research tasks: case study method, field research and informal interviews. The literature review studies precedents for design guidelines that focus on social sustainability. While the case studies located in San Antonio, Texas and Boston, Massachusetts, focus on existing conditions. Both are considered economically sustainable, functional, and have successful downtowns. Downtown Jacksonville is used as the testing ground for the application of the research. The final products of this thesis are: 1) sustainable urban design guidelines, that can be applied to any City, and 2) the application of these 5 guidelines and formulation of a conceptual master plan for downtown Jacksonville. This research project demonstrates the importance of social sustainability and demonstrates ways to achieve it: 1) provide places to live and work downtown that will bring people back to urban core; 2) create diverse and compact development that will increase the city’s overall vitality; 3) generate people-friendly social center and accessible open space linkage; 4) and enhance the natural, cultural, or historical features to help build a unique sense of place.
General Note:
Landscape Architecture terminal project

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University of Florida Institutional Repository
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University of Florida
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All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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AA00016064:00001


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Sustainability Guidelines For The Urban Landscape Su Hui Tsai

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2 A THESIS PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTU RE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA Committee Chair: Lester L. Linscott Committee Member: Mary G. Padua Fall 2011

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3 Acknowledge ment s I w ant to sincerely thank my family, especially my parents, for endless support and love during my educatio n career I would also thank my committee Les ter Linscott and Mary Padua, for their guidance and contribution to this thesis project. John Paul Weesner, my editor and mentor, who also help ed me during the thesis journey. And last but not l east, I would like to thank all of my peers, both MLA classmates and UF Taiwanese friends, who accompan ied me during my graduate student life at the University of Florida.

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4 Abstract Sustainability is an area of research that combines ecological health, social justice and economic prosperity. Since p eople are considered the most critical factor in the success of a city and urban design, social needs are critical for urban sustainability. T he goal of this thesis project is to explore social s ustainab ility and ways to create design guidelines for public spaces that take into account the significance of the social and cultural aspects of a city as a core principle for urban sustainability. This thesis uses a qualitative research strategy that incorporates mixed method s P rimary and secondary research tasks are utilized in this research My research goal explores the social aspects of urban sustainability and is based on the research question: how can I incorporate social factors to achieve urban sustainability ? This th esis project seeks to a nswer this question by using the following research methodology: 1) secondary research the literat ure review and 2) primary research tasks: case study method field research and informal interviews T he literature review studies p recedents for design guidelines that focus on social sustainability W hile t he case studies located in S an Antonio Texas and Boston Massachusetts, focus on existing conditions Both are considered economically sustainable, functional and have successf ul downtown s D owntown Jacksonville is used as the testing ground for the application of the research. The f inal products of this thesis are : 1) sustainab le urban design guidelines, that can be applied to any City, and 2) the application of th e se

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5 guide lines and formulation of a conceptual master plan for downtown J a cksonville This research project demonstrates the importance of social sustainability and demonstrates ways to achieve it: 1) provide places to live and work downtown that will bring people back to urban core; 2) create diverse and compact development that will increase the city s overall vitality; 3) generate people friendly social center and accessible open space linkage; 4) and enhance the natural, cultural, or historical features to help build a unique sense of place.

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6 Table of Contents Acknowledgements ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 3 Abstract ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 4 List of Figures ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 8 List of Tables ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 10 Chapter 1: Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 11 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 11 Research Background ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 12 Goals and Research Questions ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 13 Research Map ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 14 Research Strategy ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 15 Chapter 2: Literature Review ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 17 Sociability and Urbanism ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 17 Part I: Interpretation of People, Place, and Sustainability ................................ ............................ 18 Part II: Synthesis for Building Sustaina ble Human Environments in Urban Places ................... 33 Chapter 3: Case Studies ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 38 Downtown San Antonio, TX ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 39 Downtown Boston, MA ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 41 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 46 Chapter 4: Synthesis of Guidelines for Urban Sustainability ................................ ...................... 52 Strategies/Guidelines ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 54 Chapter 5: Design Application: Site Analysis ................................ ................................ ............... 60 Context ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 60 Historical and Cultural Resources ................................ ................................ .............................. 63 Circulation ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 65 Land Use and Activities ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 67 User Analysis and Social Space ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 69 Informal Interview ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 74 Problems and Opportunities ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 77 Chapter 6: Design Application: New Vision ................................ ................................ ................. 80

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7 Concept Diagram ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 80 Conceptual Master Plan ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 81 People Place ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 84 Linkage ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 86 Sense of Pla ce ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 91 Chapter 7: Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 95 Major Findings and Contribution ................................ ................................ .............................. 95 What I learned ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 96 Limitation of this Research Project and Suggestions for Future Research ............................... 97 Appendix A ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 99 Appendix B ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 104 Social Plaza Areas ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 104 Riverwalk ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 109 Bibliography ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 1 15

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8 List of Figures Figure 1.1: Downtown Jacksonville Skyline. ................................ ................................ ............... 12 Figure 3 1 : (L) Downtown San Antonio Street Map; (R) Downtown San Antonio Land Use Map. 39 Figure 3 2 : (L) San Antonio Riverwalk; (R) San Antonio Riverwalk. ................................ ............. 40 Figure 3 4 : Downtown Boston Land Use Map ................................ ................................ ............... 42 Figure 3 5 : Boston Subway System Map. ................................ ................................ ..................... 43 Figure 3 6 : (L) Part of Freedom Tra il; (M+R) Downtown Crossing. ................................ ............. 44 Figure 3.7 : Quincy Market. ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 45 Figure 5 1 : Context. ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 60 Figure 5 2 : North Bank Core Boundary. ................................ ................................ ...................... 61 Figure 5 3 : Downtown Jacksonville figure ground. ................................ ................................ ....... 62 Figure 5 4 : Downtown Jacksonville 3D Map. ................................ ................................ ............... 62 Figure 5 5 : Historical Resources ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 64 Figure 5 6 : Circulation Mapping. ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 65 Figure 5 7 : Downtown Jacksonville Streetscape. ................................ ................................ ........ 66 Figure 5 8 : (L) Existing Land Use; (R) Future Land Use ................................ ................................ .. 67 Figure 5 9 : Activity Density (L) @ Daytime; (M) @Night; (R) @ 24/7 ................................ ........... 68 Figure 5 10 : Open Space ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 71 Figure 5 11 : Usage Situation of Open Space. ................................ ................................ ................ 71 Figure 5 12 : (L) Hemming Plaza; (M) Courthouse Plaza; (R) Public Library Plaza. ...................... 72 Figure 5 13 : (L) AT&T Plaza; (R) River walk. ................................ ................................ ................. 74 Figure 6 1 : Concept Diagram. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 80 Figure 6 2 : Conceptual Master Plan. ................................ ................................ ............................. 81 Figure 6 3 : Mixed Use Diagram (U: Upper Floor; M: Middle Floor; G: Ground Floor). ................ 84 Figure 6 5 Ground Floor Improvement @ Existing Building. ................................ ....................... 85 Figure 6 6 : Skyway Extending Plan. ................................ ................................ ............................... 86 Figure 6 7 : Existing South Laura Street ................................ ................................ ........................ 87 Figure 6 8 : The Improvement of South Laura Street (Social Boulevard). ................................ ..... 88 Figure 6 10 : The Improvement of South Hogan Street (Social Boulevard). ................................ 89 Figure 6 11 : Sm all Urban Space in front of new buildings @ Social Boulevard. ........................... 90 Figure 6 12 : Mediterranean Revival Style. ................................ ................................ .................... 92

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9 Figure 6 13 : Proposed Ar chitecture Image. ................................ ................................ .................. 93 Figure B 1 : User and Space Character Analysis. ................................ ................................ .......... 104 Figure B.2 : Detail Plan: Social Plaza Areas. ................................ ................................ ................. 105 Figu re B 3 : Water Fountain & Sculpture Entrance Area of Courthouse Plaza. ........................... 106 Figure B 4 : Hemming Plaza. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 107 Figure B 5 : Main Street Plaza. ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 108 Figure B 6 : Detail Plan: Riverwalk. ................................ ................................ .............................. 109 Figure B 7 : Sunset Amphitheater: (L) Plan; (R) Perspective. ................................ ....................... 111 Figure B 8 : Fountain Plaza and Endless Pool: (L) Plan; (R) Perspective. ................................ ..... 111 Figure B 9 : Social Plaza: (L) Plan; (R) Perspective. ................................ ................................ ....... 112 Figure B 10 : Sunrise Playground: (L) Plan; (R) Perspective. ................................ ........................ 112 Figure B 11 : West Section of Riverwalk ................................ ................................ ..................... 113 Figure B 12 : Middle Section of Riverwalk (adjacent to Jacksonville Landing) ............................ 114 Figure B 13 : East Section of the Riverwalk ................................ ................................ ................. 114

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10 List of Tables Table 1 1 : Research Structure ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 14 Table 2 1 : Guidelines summarized from The Social Life of Sma ll Urban Space (Whyte, 1980) and People Place ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 27 Table 3 1 : Summary of successful aspects of downtown San Antonio and Boston. .................... 49 Tabl e 5 1 : Jacksonville History ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 63 Appendix A.1: Sustainability Evaluation Table: Behavioral Design Guidelines ........................... 101 Appendix A.2: Sustainab ility Evaluation Table: Safety and Security ................................ .......... 102 Appendix A.3: Sustainability Evaluation Table: Street and People ................................ ............. 103 Appendix A.4: Sus tainability Evaluation Table: Urban Ecology ................................ .................. 103

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11 Chapter 1: Introduction Introduction S ustainability is defined as meeting the needs of present, without compromising the ability of future generation s to meet their own needs. ( WCED 1987) However, sustainability is often interpret ed as only eco technology (Meyer, 2008:13) Actually sustainable lands cape design is more complex than ecological performance Social and cultural factors are as important as ecologically and physical environment especially in an urban context (Meyer, 2008:16) L andscape architect s often people urban design which becomes a crucial factor for sustainable landscape design This research project takes into account the importan ce of human ecology as a social factor for s ustainable landscape design in urban places The makeup of the c ity is not just the physical form, but also includes the social environment and places where people live U rban sustainability considers people a nd the social environment, not solely the environment and ecology (Hancock 2011 ) According to Jacobs, planners and designers should learn how to promote vitality in social and economic aspect from practice. Jacobs claims t hat is how the city works. ( Jacobs, 1961:4)

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12 Research Background Figure 1 1 : Downtown Jacksonville Skyline Image Source : http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fa/Jackson ville_Skyline_Panorama_5.jpg A sustainable city should be as functional as a natural ecosystem (Beatley & Manning, 1997:8 7) C reating a functional and successful urban space is an important factor for urban sustainability. Jacksonville ( one of the large cities in Florida ) was chosen as the focus for the application of sustainable urban design guidelines for several reasons. It is one of the largest cities in the state of Florida and as Jacksonville s motto here Florida B egins it is an impor tant city. However, downtown Jacksonville currently is just a place to work. According to Jenks, Burton, and Williams (1996), downtown Jacksonville is not livable ; it lacks the original function of downtown that should be mixed use in a compact developme nt form Daily activities for Jacksonville residents occur primarily at suburban areas and do not contribute to downtown Jacksonville s urban sustainability. For this research project, the under utilized and defunct downtown serves as the perfect la borat ory to explore urban sustaina bility and the potential of design guidelines for public spaces and space making Additionally, the goal of Downtown Vision Inc. a non prof it downtown development association operates with the goal to make Downtown Jacksonvi lle a nice place to work, live, play, and visit. ( http://downtownjacksonville.org/DowntownVisionInc/WhoWeAre.aspx ) S ince the community has demonstrated their interest and is eng aged in thinking about urban

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13 sustainability, downtown Jacksonville was selected to explore social consideration in urban sustainability for this thesis. Also, it appears that the city should consider sustainable alternatives. In conclusion downtown Jacks onville is selected for the following reasons: 1) Jacksonville is an important city in the State of Florida; 2) because the existing downtown is under utilized it will serve as a good opportunity to apply the principles of urban sustainability; 3) the dow ntown community already ha s a vision to make it a more sustainable place to live, work, play, and visit. Goals and Research Questions T he goal of this thesis project is to focus on the social aspect s of urban sustainability. To build a foundation fo r this thesis project, research was undertaken that examined other d esign guidelines with similar characters urban sustainability This research would in turn help to derive sustainable design guidelines that could help revitalize downtown Jacksonville an impo rtant research goal for this project. This thesis project looks to answer the research question, how can people oriented design guidelines demonstrate urban sustainability? J acobs (1961) contends that the major principals of a useful great city are gener ated by social behavior of people and the economic behavior of a city. (Jacobs, 1961:14) Inspired by this statement, this thesis will take into account the social

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14 and economic behavior at work in the c ity. The following are the sub questions of this thesi s project: 1) What were the previous design guidelines that focus ed on the social aspects of urban sustainability ? 2) How can urban sustainability make a more successful and functional city ? Research Map Table 1 1 : Research S tructure

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15 Research Strategy This th esis project uses a qualitative approach and uses mixed methods Secondary and primary research tasks were involved in the mixed methods. Secondary research involved a literature review on urban sustainability that deals with social factors, as well as pr ecedents for design guidelines. T he pr imary research methods involved field observation, archival research, expert interview, and case studies. The literature review examines the first sub question : how has pre vious design guidelines dealt with the socia l aspects of urban sustainability? The s ocial ly based design guidelines were generated from the works of W hyte (1980) and Marcus & Francis (1997) The behavioral design guidelines were drawn from Newman (1976) and Whyte (1980) S afety and security guid e lines were based on work by Richards Thompsons and Orski (1974) and Appleyard (1981) The second sub question searches for strategies and solutions for revitalizing urban space s like downtown Jacksonville. By exploring the successful and popular dow ntowns, Boston Massachusetts and San Antonio, Texas, this research identif ies practical place making design strategies for successful and functional downtown The case studies also aid in understanding how various social and economic behavior can create a more diverse, mixed use city

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16 The final product involves integrating proposed design guidelines and the formulation of a conceptual master plan for downtown Jacksonville. The goal of the proposed guidelines is to make Jacksonville a more functional and s ocial ly sustainable city. Due to time constraints for this project th e thesis does not include advocacy planning a type of planning process that engages with community stakeholders and involves community workshops.

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17 Chapter 2: Literature Review Sociabi lity and Urbanism There are three important urban design theories: figure ground, linkage, and place theory. ( Trancik, 1986: 97 ) The figure ground theory suggests understanding the relationship between the structure and order of space in a two dimensional p attern. The linkage theory connect s elements together as part of city. Sitte (1945) likes the linkage system in the ancient European city linking the social and physical space in a city. P lace theory discusses the additional richness in urban form that com es from the inherent culture, history and natural context. In describing place theory, Lynch ( 1960) offers specific design principles with in urban space such as legibility, structure and identity, and imageability. That is why the designer should enhance the identity and the sense of place. Moreover, the function that people experience a place is as important as structure in urban space. Today t here are many urban design issues withi n the city, such as large amount s of vacant and unused space s in the dow ntown core, and an awkward fusion between the architecture of urban buildings and urban landscape. (Trancik, 1986:1) Although there are many reasons that create these problems, the lack of understanding of human behavior in these urban conditions is a pri mary reason. (Trancik, 1986:1) T he incorporation of behavioral design into the design process is an important aspect to

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18 consider in order to avoi d creating an additional undesirable urban area that make s no positive contribution to the surrounding or user s (Trancik, 1986:4 5) In the urban fabric the designer should deal with space using an integrated approach. (Trancik, 1986:219 ) The objective is to arrange the lost spaces into a meaningfu l and cohesive fabric and provide a meaningful social and physi cal place. (Trancik, 1986:20 ) Part I: Interpretation of People, Place, and Sustainability P art I summarize s my interpretation strategies for sustainability in terms of social aspects in urban context The term sustainability will be defined first and t hen an investigat ion of the concepts in herent in both sustainability and urban ecology will be examined With regards to the social aspect of urban fabric there are previous design guidelines for plazas and streets. Whyte (1980) and Marcus & Francis (199 7) provide design guidelines for designers to understand how people will use a given public place The relationship between people and the street is summarized in the design guidelines from Livable Streets (Appleyard, 1981) and Streets for P eople ( Richard s & Thompson & Orski, 1974)

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19 Sustainable Landscape Design : Defining Sustainability Many designers misunderstand the definition of sustainable landscape design. In many common theories of sustainabl e landscape design the sustainability aspect is only as sociated with eco technology methods and material s in design. (Meyer, 2008 :13 ) It is believe d that minimal design is the key to sustainable landscape design avoiding human impact. (Meyer, 2008 :13 ) However, i n Sustaining Beauty (Meyer, 2008), Meyer addre sses t he se concept s of sustainable landscape design. Generally, sustainable landscape design is the combination of ecological health, social justice and economic prosperity (Meyer, 2008) Meyer addresses attitudes, f eelings, images, and narratives in landscape design by providing t he following key principles in sustainable design: Sustaining culture through landscapes (Meyer, 2008 :15 ) S ustainable landscape design is not the same as sustainable development, ecological design, restoration ecology, or co nservation biology. Design is a cultural act, a product of culture made with the materials of nature, and embedded within and re flected by particular social formatio n, while employed principles of ecol ogy. S ustainable landscape design must perform sociall y and culturally. (Meyer, 2008 :16 ) Nature is not out there but in there, interwoven in human urban condition.

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20 Hydrology, ecology, and human life are intertwined. The mimicry of natural process is more important than the mimicry of natural forms. (Meyer, 2 008 :16 ) S ustainable beauty is dynamic not static It changes over time. (Meyer, 2008 :19 ) Designed landscapes need to be constructed human experiences as much as constructed ecosystems : t hey need to move citizens to action. (Meyer, 2008 :21 ) The 2009 Sustai nable Site Initiative (SSI) (LEED, 2009) establishes and encourages sustainable practice in landscape design, construction, operation, and maintenance. In this case, the definition of sustainab ility com es from Our Common Future ( WCED 1987) and is defined as the meeting the needs of present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs. Additionally, SSI defines add resses human health and well being The e mphasis of sustainability is not only about the natural ecosystem s but also about the human aspect. It should address the human biosphere that includes human and nonhuman impact according to these principles: P rovide the economic or social benefits to the local community (LEED, 2009:142 145) P romote sustainability aware ness and education (LEED, 2009:146 148) P rotect and maintain unique cultural and historic places (LEED, 2009:149 151) P rovide for site optimum accessibility, safety and wayfinding (LEED, 2009:152 155) P rovide opportunities for outdoor physical activiti es (LEED, 2009:156 160)

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21 P rovide views of vegetation and quiet outdoor space for mental restoration (LEED, 2009:161 164) P rovide outdoor space for social interaction (LEED, 2009:165 167) Urban Ecology In Cities and Natural Process ( Hough 1995 ) Hough a ddresses the situations and problems of urban ecology in a modern city and he suggests some principles for urban ecology. Hough (1995) provides the sustainability principles as follow s: The form of the place reveals its natural and human history and the co ntinuing cycle of natural process. (Hough, 1995:18) Set a goal to minimize resources and energy consumption, and maximize the environmental, economic and social values. (Hough, 1995:20 21) Providing diversity in urban place s is as essential as biodiversi ty (Hough, 1995:23) Connections in urban place s are as essential as they are in nature (Hough, 1995:24) The topic of urban ecology is also addressed in The Ecology of Place ( Beatley & Manning 1997 ) Beatley and Manning discuss vision s and thoughts of a sustainable community or place. A s ustainability communit y should focus on t he environment quality of life, and social and economic opportunities. The goal for a sustainable community is living well within limited resources and also seeks for high quali ty of life and the identity of each

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22 place. In order to minimize human consumption of the land compact development and high density are the main principles in creating sustainable community. Additionally, t he new development should avoid the ecologically sensitive land and the natural hazard areas. Ecology issues are equally as important as human issues as it relates to a s ustainable community. Crucial to being a sustainable community is creating strategies for controlling the urban growth boundary and making the city more compact Because of the focus on these strategies, t he city core plays a n important role for achieving the goal of a sustainable community Key strategies by Beatley and Manning (1997) for creating sustainable communities especially for the city core include : Creating c ompact development (Beatley & Manning, 1997:156) Focusing population and commerce activities in h igh er densit ies. (Beatley & Manning, 1997:32) Creating more l and efficient projects and mixed use opportunities. (Beatle y & Manning, 1997:29) B alanc ing transportation system s and walkability (Beatley & Manning, 1997:29) R eus ing existing building s and focusing on re urbanization (Beatley & Manning, 1997:29) Providing a ffordable housing (Beatley & Manning, 1997:193) Allowi ng d iverse activities twenty four hour city (Beatley & Manning, 1997:166) Designing for a s ense of place (Beatley & Manning, 1997:32)

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23 In conclusion, su stain ability is not only about natur al environment but also about the economic, social and cultural values. Both human s and natural environment need to be consider ed when defining sustainability. T he strategies and principles discussed above are making urban environments more livable for people. Additionally, the designer should provide mo re social opportunities for people as a part of the regular daily life Natural feature s historical features or man made features a ll help to establish the sense of place. Creating and enhancing these physical and social opportunities helps to establish a sense of place which reinforce s the belonging between people and place. People and Place in Urban Space : Behavioral Design In this part, th e research will compare two series of design guideline s f or urban design and plazas: T he Social Life of Small Urb an Space ( Whyte 1980) and People Place ( Marcus & Francis 1997). The se guidelines were cr eated primarily for landscape architect s, land developers, architects, urban designers and related fields. Consequently these guidelines have become very popular and quantify the typical understanding of social behavior in urban design. The two authors formed their guidelines using a qualitative research methodology: O bserv ing urban space users from plazas and using their habits and actions to form guidelines. The fo llowing is a table summarizing the findings of their research :

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24 Social Life of Small Urban Space People Place Context Location Service Area Streets The influence zone of an urban space is a bout 3 blocks ( Whyte 198 0 : 16 ) A plaza must address the stre et ( Whyte 198 0 : 54 ) A good plaza starts at the street corner ( Whyte 198 0 : 54 ) S ightlines and visibility are important. If people cannot see and sense a place, they will not use it ( Whyte 198 0 : 58 ) On average, people are willing to travel 2 blocks or 4 m inutes walk to go to a plaza ( Marcus & Francis 19 97 : 32 ) When considering a location, it should try to attract a variety of users ( Marcus & Francis 19 97 : 23 ) L ocation of plazas should be at the intersection of different land uses ( Marcus & Francis 19 97 : 23 ) A corner location, a place to pass through, a place to watch passerby will provide highest use ( Marcus & Francis 19 97 : 24 ) A plaza with high visibility tends to have a much larger attraction area ( Marcus & Francis 19 97 : 25 ) Size Capacity Clusterin g patterns: people would locate themselves about one or two spaces removed from other people or groups ( Whyte 198 0 : 68 ) Function, structure and context of space and plaza should determine their size ( Marcus & Francis 19 97 : 25 ) V isual dimension or person al space may determine the size of space. Space Setting A front row position is prime space ( Whyte 198 0 : 57 ) A n appropriate elevation or steps can make a nice ambiguity to your movement ( Whyte 198 0 : 57 58 ) Large plaza may want be divided into subspaces to encourage use ( Marcus & Francis 19 97 : 36 ) The size of space should not be so small that one feels one is entering a private room and intruding on the privacy of someone who may already be there ( Marcus & Francis 19 97 : 37 ) The transition from street to plaza is a crucial part of plaza design : create a sense of entering ( Marcus & Francis 19 97 : 34 ) Because people prefer to sit on the edge of spaces rather than in the middle of them, the edges or boundaries of a plaza should be planned for seating and vie wing ( Marcus & Francis 19 97 : 36 )

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25 Social Life of Small Urban Space People Place It is important to maintain a visual connection between levels to enhance a specific experience ( Marcus & Francis 19 97 : 47 ) Users Main users are groups ( Whyte 198 0 : 17 ) Women seek back yard experiences (comfort, relie f, security, control, and relaxation) whereas men seek front yard experiences (public, social interaction, and involvement) ( Marcus & Francis 19 97 : 27 ) Sitting 33 to 38 people per hundred feet occupy sitting space in high use areas ( Whyte 198 0 : 66 ) Pe ople tend to sit where there are places to sit ( Whyte 198 0 : 28 ) Ledges and steps are also a kind of sitting ( Whyte 198 0 : 28 29 ) S itting height: optimum : 17 inches; range 1 to 3 ft; both side, minimum depth ledge is 30 inches ( Whyte 198 0 : 30 31 ) S itting Width: 30 inches ( Whyte 198 0 : 36 ) Corner can be face to face sitting and is often preferred ( Whyte 198 0 : 32 ) Movable chairs are often t he big asset ( Whyte 198 0 : 34 ) S itting space: 6 % to 10% of the total open space Secondary seating: m ounds of grass, steps with a view, seating walls, and retaining walls that allow seating ( Marcus & Francis 19 97 : 42 ) Height of secondary seating: 16 to 30 inches; bulk of secondary seating: 16 to 18 inches ( Marcus & Francis 19 97 : 42 ) M ovable chairs are t he most popular type of sitting ( Marcus & Francis 19 97 : 42 ) W ood is a warm and comfortable material for public seating ( Marcus & Francis 19 97 : 44 ) O ne linear foot of seating for each 30 square foot of plaza space ( Marcus & Francis 19 97 : 44 ) A wide seat bench (no back) is preferred because two people can sit back to back and be comfortable in tight space ( Marcus & Francis 19 97 : 42 )

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26 Social Life of Small Urban Space People Place ( Whyte 198 0 : 39 ) Micro climate R elative warmth is important ( Whyte 198 0 : 44 ) P eople will actively seek the sun and suntraps especially in c old winter ( Whyte 198 0 : 44 ) T he principal factors affecting outdoor comfort are temperature, sun, humidity, and wind ( Marcus & Francis 19 97 : 32 ) A plaza should be located so as to receive as much sunlight as its surrounding environment will permit ( Marc us & Francis 19 97 : 32 ) In very hot summer, a plaza should provide some shade by trees, buildings or site structure ( Marcus & Francis 19 97 : 32 ) Designers should consider using borrowed sunlight reflected from building windows to brighten or warm a plaza space ( Marcus & Francis 19 97 : 33 ) G lare that comes from the highly reflective building surface on sunny days can be a serious problem. ( Marcus & Francis 19 97 : 33 ) Planting T rees ought to be related closely to sitting spaces ( Whyte 198 0 : 46 ) Joardar and Neil (1978) : P eople were attached to plazas that offered visual variety and complexity with trees, uncommon shrubs, and colorful annuals being especially important ( Marcus & Francis 19 97 : 45 ) T h e smaller or sunken plaza is, the more feathery leafed, quasi open trees should be selected ( Marcus & Francis 19 97 : 45 ) I f one or more sides of a plaza is bounded by buildings that cannot be accessed from the plaza, their walls might be screened by trees ( Marcus & Francis 19 97 : 45 ) W ind conditions known as cornerf lows, downwashes, and wakes are the strongest and most problematic wind effects, with the most effective mitigating strategy being to redesign

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27 Social Life of Small Urban Space People Place the building envelope itself or, when possible, to orchestrate the relationship of sizes and shapes of the buildi ngs near the affected area ( Marcus & Francis 19 97 : 33 ) D esigners should prepare a solar access analysis of the site before designing ( Marcus & Francis 19 97 : 34 ) Food Vending Food attract s people who in turn attract more people ( Whyte 198 0 : 52 ) A plaza with a food kiosk or outdoor restaurant is much more likely to attract users than is one without ( Marcus & Francis 19 97 : 51 ) Programs Triangulation S culpture can have strong social effects ( Whyte 198 0 : 96 ) Musicians and entertainers draw people togeth er ( Whyte 198 0 : 96 ) A rt in a public place should provide a sense of joy, promote contact and communication, provide sensory experience and encourage the interaction ( Marcus & Francis 19 97 : 48 ) A noisy fountain located close to seating may successfully sc reen out surrounding traffic noise ( Marcus & Francis 19 97 : 50 ) P rograms and activities can be crucial elements in a plaza s success. ( Marcus & Francis 19 97 : 52 ) Table 2 1 : Guidelines s ummarize d f rom The S ocial Life of Small Urban Space (Whyte, 1980) and People Place (Marcus & Francis, 1997) In con clusion, the main concerns of these authors regarding social space deal with: provide a variety of oppor tunities for social interaction ; provid e for diverse users ; provid e a visual and physical comfort. The func tion of a n urban place for social sustainability deal s with people gathering ; but it is also a place for physical and mental restoration Therefore, the designer should think about h ow to make space more attractive and physically comfortable for social div ers ity. This creates a more inviting place that understand s their needs They also believe that the focus should be on how those users will feel comfortable with in the space as it relates to size, capacity,

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28 microclimate, and program. Using food, street e ntertainment or sculpture as triangulation provide s a linkage to create more social opportunities. People and Place in Urban Space : Safety and Security The issue of safety and security is also an important issue in behavior al design. A safe urban space i s the basic factor in creating a people friendly space because it helps to create comfort and peace of mind for the user. In Design Guidelines for Creating Defensible Space (Newman, 1976) Newman believes that the defensible space can be built by physical design. According to Newman s definition, defensible space is a term used to describe a residential environment whose physical characteristics building layout and site plan function to allow inhabitants themselves to become the key agents in ensurin g their own security. (Newman, 1976 :4 ) In this research, I will focus on the guidelines for site plan ning A basic concept of creating defensible space according to Newman, is to residents to be more awa re of their eeping an eye on the neighborhood would be to use a doorma n at multi family dwellings. ( Newman, 1976:69) In Social Life of Small Urban Space Whyte discusses plaza mayors building g uard s newsstand operators, and/ or food vendors are t he communication center of outdoor

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29 urban space. (Whyte, 1980:64) The se urban role players help t o keep an eye on various undesirables mak e the plac e feel safer to users. (Whyte, 1980:6 3) In short, there are t hree basic principles for creating defensible space: (1) building the environmen tal recognition for users ; ( 2) making the space visible to enhance the safety people watching and (3 ) hiring a doorman or a plaza may or to secure the space. Using those principles makes the environment more livable and safer. In the residential site plan, there are two ways to create the defensible space : (1) creating zones of influence and (2) incorporating the city street into the zo ne of influence of residents. T he concept of recognition of property builds the zone of influence. (Newman, 1976:111 116) Real, symbolic barriers and placement of amenities are all ways to define the zone of influence (Newman, 1976:108) F or example, chang es in the walls and/ or hedges are both boundary typologies that help to let residents and strangers know they are moving from property to property. The placement of playing area s and parking space s also further identify the zone of influence space s. Add i tionally, the transition from private space to the public space plays an important role in the zones of influence. Symbolic barriers help to shap e the hierarchy from private to semi private to semi public to public space. (Newman, 1976:109) The concept of creating zones of influence can be applied on the adjacent streets. Newman (1976) says if the building and street can be designed we ll, the adjacent street would be seen as the extension of their homes by residents. In conclusion there are five design gu idelines

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30 f rom Design Guidelines for Creating Defensible Space (Newman, 1976) that can be used for sustainable urban design guidelines : The choice of building types and the subdivision of the properties within a development should be set so that as few fami lies as possible share a common entry. (Newman, 1976:121) P osition buildings, shrubs, and fences as to clearly define particular areas of a site for the use of specific families. (Newman, 1976:121) The choice of building types and their positioning as to d evelop close physical associations between the interior areas of buildings and the adjacent grounds. (Newman, 1976:121) The placement of amenities recreation, parking, planting within the areas defined for the use of particular inhabitants. (Newman, 19 76:121) The positioning of buildings and their entries as to incorporate the city streets into the sphere of influence of adjacent inhabitants. (Newman, 1976:121) People and the Streets O utside of the home, streets are the most important part of our urban environment (Appleyard 1981 :243 ). People living and working in urban settings experience it every day. Streets and walks are at the core of the urban experience. In Streets for People ( Richards & Thompson & Orski 1974) discusses the ways of improving p edestrian movement, especially in the city cent er Additionally, in Livable Street s, (A ppleyard,

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31 1981 ) addresses various s trategies for making people friendly street s using traffic management, especially in residential area s The theories of the two books stem from c ase studies and experiential research based in pedestrian area and street improvement. Therefore, combining the findings of the se two books creates a series of guidelines for a people friendly urban environment. Richards ( 1974 ) says that people might be encourage d to walk 30 % 50% more if the conflict from traffic problems is minimized. Reduced, restricted or removed traffic will be good choice and it will also reduce air pollution at street level, reduce noise problem, and reduce car accidents. (Richards, 1974:19 20) Additionally, people are more friendly A pedestrian friendly street may also benefit the commercial activities too (Orski, 1974:43) When planning for pe ople and the streets, the designer or planner should address es the whole circulation system including such factors as : emergency vehicles, accessibility, goods delivering, public transportation, parking, and circulation. (Richards, 1974:17) Many issues an d questions need to be addressed. Moreover, they should consider the existing and future pedestrian movement at different times, such as lunch time trips and home to working trips. What s more, before a pedestrian improvement policy is decided, planners ca n the policy as a specific time only or a short term

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32 experiment. Using the experimental stage s, the planner can see the effects or response from pedestrian and drivers. In Livable Street s (A ppleyard, 1981 ) Appleyard mentions the problems of the s treet environment such as danger, noise, and air pollution, and suggests strategies for creating livable street s such as traffic management What are improving methods for creating a livable street? First, general reduction of traffic is the common way to deal with the conflict between people and automobiles. In addition, traffic control devices, such as adjusting the speed limit, stop signs, traffic signals, and street bumps, are also a way to make drivers pay attention. For pedestrian safety, the cross walk is very effective as a pedestrian safety device. In terms of maintenance and policy, street cleaning can help to make the street environment better. Greenery and play space are also extra amenities for community. (A ppleyard, 1981:99 ) In conclusion, when the designer or planner deal s with the issues of people and the streets, the goal is providing people an enjoyable urban experience, comfortable and walkable environment. In addition, those pedestrian streets should connect well with the public trans portation system. In short, high accessibility and safety are main concerns for issues of people and the street.

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33 Part II: Synthesis for Building Sustainable Human Environments in Urban Places In Part II, the aforementioned principles and strategies for und erstanding people, place, and sustainability are combined to establish a theory for the sustainable urban landscape. According to the principles of sustainability, s ustainability is not only about the natur al environment but also the human environment, es pecially within urban space s The following elements, therefore, are critical in defining a common set of principles regarding sustainability in urban environments: S ocial values E conomic values C ultural or historical values I dentity of place D iversity Q ua lity of life E ducation E nvironmental values In the sustainability guidelines evaluation table ( Appendices A ) the X axis is based on sustainability principles mention ed above, and the Y axis is based on the guidelines of social and behavioral design safe ty and security, street and people, and urban ecology.

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34 The stars in the shaded areas within the table show where the re are relationship s between sustainability and the social and behavioral d esign guidelines. The matrix findings under behavior design gui delines show the relationships between the common set of principles and intended guidelines. In particular are the following guidelines: P roviding seating and creating program ming in urban space s are of particular importance. T he principle guidelines of b ehavior design in urban landscape are to provide place s for people to s it and social ize. In concert with adequate seating areas, the designer must also create appropriate p rogram ming that will not only attract more users, but also make users want to retur n to the space. P roviding food is a sustainable way to attract people and make the urban place different. A plaza must address the street. Addressing the quality of the visual aspect especially as it relates to clear s ightlines through the space and the overall visibility within the spac e. Integrating a ccessibility into the urban space is a crucial aspect to lead all people into the place. A s the space setting, the concept of subspace is a sustainable way to create more social space.

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35 Utilizing sun and s hade aspects within an urban space aids in the reduced consumption of energy. Important safety and security issues that are included in the merged guidelines are : Building users environmental recognition in order to increase user awareness of the surro unding environment. Making the spa ce visible helps to enhance safety. Hiring a doorman or plaza mayor help to make the space safer and more secure. Creating zones of influence by real or symbolic barriers create more defensible and therefore more comfort able space. Defining a particular area to a specifi c group of people increases the identification by physical association. Important street and people issues that are included in the merged guidelines are : C reating pedestrian oriented street s create mo re social opportunities, reduce air pollution, reduce noise problems, and enhance the overall quality of life. E nhancing pedestrian safety makes the urban space feel more comfortable and encourages users to return to the space

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36 Maintaining and clean ing th e network of street s enhances the overall draw to the urban spaces. Creating greenery and play space s increase the quality of life within the urban space. Creating an organized transportation system allows many users from many different places to get to th e urban space in an efficient manner. Ecology of Place Nearly all of the strategies encourage compact development, attracting a high density of population and comme rce, building mix use, allowing for diversity activities and twenty four hour city. Specifically, guidelines as they relate to the matrix include: Encouraging compact development reduc es the energy consumption and provide s more social and eco nomic opportunities. city increases livability and increases attraction of many different users and user types. Encouraging a ffordable housing also helps to attract a diverse population, both socially and economically. Organizing a balanced transportation system and walkability also encourage the connection and circulation in urban space.

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37 In dealing with the issues regarding social sustainability in urban context creating a people friendly environment is the primary goal. Providi ng more social opportunities, diverse and exciting activities, an organized transportati on system, and highly accessib le and walkable areas are the major principle s for creating a sus tainable city. This gives a stronger sense of a sustainable and revitali zed urban context as a place to live, work, and play.

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38 Chapter 3 : Case Studies Since the St. Johns River is an important water feature in downtown Jacksonville, this thesis examines two downtowns which have similar waterfront features : San Antonio, Texas and Boston, Massachusetts. These case studies provide examples for building popular and sustainable place s San Antonio is a historic city which is famous for its River Walk among other things The mix of uses along San Antonio River Walk and the histori c features help to build sense of place. Although the scale of San Antonio River is not as same as St. Johns River, the se ways of building the sense of place serves as a powerful example for Jacksonville. Similarly, Boston is an older c ity s urrounded by the Charles River and Boston Harbor The open space and public transportation connects the entire city together. Additionally, the compact development of Boston makes the urban space vital and livable. Thus, these two case studies will s ho w appropriate strategies for revitalizing under utilized downtown s like Jacksonville

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39 Downtown San Antonio, TX Figure 3 1 : (L) Downtown San Antonio Street Map; (R) Downtown San Antonio Land Use Map As (Figure 3 1 ) shows the San Antonio River f lows into the central downtown area. The Riverwalk is located at the center of central business district. The central business district is primarily made up of commercial and institutional use. Add itionally, the central business most popular sightseeing district which includes t he historic Alamo, the Riverwalk, and t he h istoric Market Square. The business activities and tourism makes downtown San Antonio vital every day. S outh of downtown San Antonio is primarily residential use In the residential area, the two sides of major roads are commercial use which makes the environment more livable.

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40 The San Antonio R iver is an important feature here and connects the city together What s more, the Riverwalk brings tourists from t he A lamo t o the river. A long the River Walk which is at a lower level than the City streets there are many retail businesses and restaurant s. Th ose restaurants provide outdoor dining area s along River Walk that provides purpose and physical space to make pe ople stay, while at the same time creates a r elationship between people and water Up a t the street level, there are hotels and some traditional retail businesses, which are good examples of m ulti use development. Those retail businesses at street level ar e easy to access by residents helping permanent residents avoid more of the tourist based sites on a daily basis Figure 3 2 : (L) San Antonio Riverwalk; (R) San Antonio Riverwalk Image Source : Author Because San Antonio is a popular tourism destina tion the public transportation system has been effective for many years. Although there is no subway system, the bus system is still effective in travelling around the downtow n. In addition, the River Walk is the pedestrian street. Although it is not too wide, people still can walk comfortably and enjoy the place. The River Walk builds the sense of the place successfully

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41 There are two major commercial areas, the h istoric Market Square and River Center Mall in downtown San Antonio. The h istoric Market Squa re is a festival market and famous for the celebration of Hispanic culture. The River Center Mall is the downtown shopping mall that serves many diverse commercial activities, including the IMAX Theater. Because the mall is within walking distance of most of downtown, local r esidents do not need to go to the suburban mall for shopping which makes the city more livable. Downtown Boston, MA Figure 3 3 : Downtown Boston Street Map

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42 Figure 3 4 : Downtown Boston Land Use Map Shown in Figure 3 4 the Charles Riv er and Boston Harbor separate Boston into different part s However, the open space along the water body links the whole city together T he Commonwealth Avenue Mall, the linear green space shown in the middle of Boston land use map, connects the west side residential district with downtown commercial use. Th is linear greenery provid e s citizens a space to do exercise and relieve stress Additionally, this green space helps to preserve and provide natur al features for the people of Boston Since it is an old city, there are cultural and historic features in the city that help to define quality and uniqueness of place Since Boston has a large resident population, there are numerous activities in the city from day to night. The high amount of mixed use proper ties also makes the city

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43 interesting, livable and convenient. For example in some buildings, the ground floor may be either a restaurant use or retail shopping use the mid level floor can be school o r institut ional use and the upper level is usually an office use or residential use. Downtown Crossing, which is the major shopping district in downtown Boston, emerges from within the central business district. T he central business district provides not only business activities but also shopping activiti es which is the main reason that makes downtown Boston vital even at night and on the weekend. Additionally, t here are many commercial uses and mix ed use in the residential areas. Th is allows the City of Boston to have a more compact development pattern which is a primary sustainability goal. Furthermore, there are many historic building s that create the overall character of Boston. The r eusing historic building s helps to create a positive sense of the place for users, while also preserv ing the core his toric values of the City and helping to solve the problem of vacant space. Figure 3 5 : Boston Subway System Map. Image Source : http://www.gnik.com/mbta/mbta.html

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44 In Boston, subway is a major part of the pu blic transportation system As shown in Figure 3 5 the subway system comes from the downtown Boston and goes to d ifferent parts of Boston which cover s many of the urban areas. The subway system links the entire city together which is separated by the Char les River and Boston Harbor. Boston is a pedestrian friendly city. The central shopping district, Downtown Crossing, is composed by pedestrian streets. People walk and cross the s treet s to enjoy the shopping without interruption from automobiles There ar e also many street vend o rs in this area. reedom T rail brick path that goes through the whole downtown. Along the Freedom Trail, there are many small urban spaces, such as seating space or small corner plaza. T he commercial activities on the ground floor, hi storical feature/buildings, street vendors /performers and small urban space make the walking experience interesting. Finally, t he subway runs under the entire city creating walking distances no longer than 10 minutes between each attraction and subway station. It is definitely walkable in downtown Boston. Figure 3 6 : (L) Part of Freedom Trail; ( M+ R) Downtown Crossing Image Source: (L) http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=282874419664&set=a.282830429664.175823.630519664&type=1&theater

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45 (M) http://www.everest uncensored.org/archives/photo_blog/000575.html (R ) http://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/vjaHAisyunpjITxAgQQwDw Quincy M arket was historically a n important grocery market for the res idents of Boston and the location before i s near the waterfront. However, over time, the market lost importance and value as the grocery market use moved outside of the City center. The Quincy Market was redeveloped into a festival market Today, t here are many restauran ts, food vendors bars, gift shops, special stores and offices as well as many street performers actively engaging the space. This public space provides diverse shopping activities as well as indoor, semi outdoor, and outdoor shopping spaces. I t is a popular lunch time place for downtown workers because of the location Therefore, the Quincy Market is a successful redevelopment project that preserves the historic buildings and place a s well as provides appropriate modern uses at the same time. It makes Quincy Market a popular place for citizens and tourists. Figure 3 .7 : Quincy Market Image Source : Author.

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46 Summary T he size of downtown San Antonio and downtown Boston is around 1505 acres and 930 acres. The entire downtown Jacksonville is around 1515 acres which is similar to the size of San Antonio, but North Bank Core which is the main area that I focus on in this thesis is only 200 acres which is similar to the size of central business district in Boston. The central business dist rict in Boston includ es Downtown Crossing, the major shopping area in downtown Boston, and other business activities. Boston and Jacksonville have similar size of central business district, but the livability and vitality of Boston are much better than Jacksonville. San Antonio and Boston are definitely successful people places that provide mix use and diverse activities to make the city compact, livable, and vibrant. Providing commercial act ivities, substantial office spaces, and affordable housing in the downtown core are the first step s to make it sustainable and successful. Additionally, San A ntonio and Boston both reuse historical buildings with commercial mix ed use or tourism based use This helps to protect the historic value, creates new opportunities, and enhances the sense of place. T he linkage of San Antonio and Boston are very strong in terms of open space linkage, balanced public transportation system, and walkability. In con clu sion a people friendly environment in terms of people friendly social spaces and stree ts is critical in making San Antonio and Boston both successful and sustainable cities The

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47 following t able (Table 3 1 ) summarize s the various approaches that make San Antonio and Boston successful urban place s San Antonio, TX Boston, MA People Place L and U se and Activities M ix retail, hotel, office, and entertainment use In residential district, commercial uses are still provided at two sides of major roads. The mixed use zoning creates more job opportunities while also benefit ing the residents of local community and the local economy through sales and/or increased property tax Mix Use in different buildings level, such as ground floor, mid level floors and upper floors Provide lots of residential use in downtown area. Provides mixed use in the residential districts. Central business district provide not only business activities but also shopping activities. Diverse activities in the city, including night life S treet performers make the place active R euse and renovate historic building s or vacant space s. M arketplace H istoric market square is the largest Hispanic festival market P rovides indoor and outdoor space Provides diverse stores, such as fashio n stores, gift shops, imported good, hand crafted furniture, restaurants, bars, and art galleries Quincy M arket is a successful revitalization project Provides indoor, semi outdoor and outdoor space s. Provides diverse uses, such as food vendors, restaur ants, clubs, bars, gift shops, special shops, and office. P opular lunch venue s and after work for downtown workers

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48 San Antonio, TX Boston, MA Linkage T ransportation and Walkability P edestrian orientated Public transportation is convenient C urrently working on bike lane system an d providing bike share services P ublic transit is convenient to commute The walking distance is less than 10 minutes from each destination to the subway station Downtown Crossing contains a few pedestrian street area s for shopping reedom T rail provide s tourist s a walking area experience the culture and history of the city. Small urban spaces play an important role in walkability such as seating or social space. The commercial activities, street vendors/performers, and historic features/buildings rich the walking experience. W aterfront and Open Space Bring people to the river walk Riverwalk is the major and popular open space in the heart of downtown for all workers, residents, and tourists. Good example of multi use that put tourist oriented r estaurant, shop and services at the river level and the traditional retail, shopping and office on the street level The river provides a linear greenway system for diverse user groups T he goal of the river area is providing citizens an isolation place fr om city to release the stress and enjoy the natural feature Linear green spaces link the entire city together, especially for the residential district and central business district.

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49 San Antonio, TX Boston, MA Sense of Place Sense of Place U rban development integrated with cultural and historic elements. Activities and tourism along the Riverwalk build the sense of place. Maintain the historic and cultural values and make the new development/building to compatible with the historic features and context Table 3 1 : Summary of succe ssful aspects of downtown San Antonio and Boston. As Table 3 1 shows, a successful urban sp ace should integrate the local features as well as cultural resources and historic places San Antonio and Boston built the sense of place by emphasizing both cultur al and historic features along or adjacent to the wa terfront. San Antonio develop s the commercial activities along the R iver walk and Boston develops the series of linear green connections both a long the river and within the core of the city pulling the val ue of the waterfront into the city core. The waterfront is not only a good opportunity to build the sense of place but also provide different social space for the city. According to the examples of San Antonio and Boston, a successful market place should provide diverse activities and have its own character built from the inherent qualities of the place such as Hispanic style large Hispanic population The downtown market place should be distinguished fro m the typical suburban malls and satisfy demands of downtown residents at the same time. Moreover, programming and street performers can make the place better.

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50 Another important feature for creating a successful downtown is to provide a pedestrian oriente d environment. The p edestrian should be the primary user group in downtown area. In addition, the pedestrian oriented environment should be connect ed with the public transportation system whether a s ubway bus, or trolley system to complete the linkages wi thin the city system. Finally, a successful downtown utilizes a mix of use s, both horizontally and vertically, to provid e diverse activities day and night which in turn, provides attracts many different user groups For instance, the commercial use in gr ound floor and residential use in higher level makes the space vital all the time. Even a restaurant space can provide meals in the daytime and becomes a bar in the night to enhance the diversity and utilize a space better M ix ed use and multi use are effi cient way s to make the city compact which is a principle of building a sustainable urban landscape Boston is a good example that provides lots of residential use and commercial use at the same time. The waterfront and the historic features are good resour ces to build the sense of place for Jacksonville. As in the cases of San Antonio and Boston, there are some similar features within Jacksonville. As an older city in the State of Florida, Jack sonville has an important historic value. Another good opportuni ty f or Jacksonville is the R ive r walk which provides the open space for city. Similar to Boston, Jacksonville utilizes the waterfront to provide outdoor places for people to walk around, especially for downtown workers. Like Downtown Crossing and the San An tonio Mall, J acksonville

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51 Landing, the only shopping mall in downtown provides some outdoor dining space along the R iverw alk as well as limited shopping opportunities However, different than Boston or San Antonio, Jacksonville lacks adequate mix of use s a nd a pedestrian friendly environment Creating this walkable environment, building a sense of place unique to Jacksonville, and leveraging t he existing vacant space in downtown will be critical to the successful, sustainable urban landscape.

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52 Chapter 4 : Syn thesis of Guidelines for Urban Sustainability The main principle of sustainability in an urban landscape is making a n efficient, viable and vital environment for people (Beatley & Manning, 1997) Creating livable environments helps to counteract the c urrent function of many downtowns in America as a business only workplace and increases the potential for creating people places. The two major goals in achieving the s e principle s are to make a livable environment in a city and creating special places to attract more people to denser, more urban areas This thesis researches guidelines in s ustainab ility from three different angles: background information of urban design and place making literature review, and case studies. The literature review includ es s ustainability design guidelines for creating a successful people place s safety and security, and theories of creating a balanced relationship between people and street. In the case studies of San Antonio and Boston, it is evident that integrating and a mi x of spaces are successful strategies for creating a popular downtown space. For a successful social place, the city needs a critical mass of people. The primary goal in achieving urban sustainability is to bring people back in to city The first step in creating this urban sustainability is increasing residential spa ce.

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53 A sustainable urban landscap e can be achieved by three components: 1) the people place s ; 2) linkages ; and 3) sense of place People place s are where people gather, regardless of whether it is an indoor or outdoor space. For instance, the market place is a component of the social space in the city. Creating or providing a friendly, social space, especially through reusing existing vacant space, is critical to a sustainable urban landscape. A network of strong linkages within the circulation system is also part of a sustainable urban landscape. The high interconnectivity and more connection choices that are provided in a city provide more walkable space, which increases the usage of social and commercial spaces Finally, building and maintaining a sense of identity or place is overall goal in creating a sustainable urban landscape. This research focuses on guidelines for creating a people friendly urban environment in a sustainable manner. As the existing situation of downtown Jacksonville is very complicated this research primarily focuses on opportunities to increase the livable and vital environment of downtown Other strategies for creating a successful downtown, such as creating eff ective sto rmwater, runoff conservation area, and the use of sustainable materials are also important. However, for clarity in this research project, it is not includ ed in t his research focus The following are guidelines for creating a people friendly sustainable, urban environment

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54 Strategies/Guidelines Primary goal for urban sustainability: A c ritical mass of people builds a sustainable urban space for work, live, and play. Significantly increas e affordable housing which is especially important i n a business only workplace city. Encouraging affordable housing helps to attract a diverse population and different income levels Provide substantial office space for work. Creating sense of place by managing the characters of a place can attract more tourists. A. People Place Goal: Creatin g or providing a friendly people space, especially through reusing existing vacant space, is critical to a sustainable urban landscape. Objective 1: Create a livable and vibrant downtown by encouraging m ix u se d evelopm ent and allowing for d iverse a ctivities The downtown area should provide different uses and stores to make the place livable and attract a variety of uses especially for daily activities such

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55 as restaurants, groceries, entertainments, cultural and arts, bookstores etc. M ix ed use strategies should be implemented both vertical ly and horizontally. Commercial activities on ground floor and residential use in upper floor are economic way s to mix uses for making a compact and vital downtown. Additionally, af fordable housing is the key issue to make it happe n Multi use zoning is a good strategy for creating an efficient and compact downtown. A space can have different uses over the course of the day. For instance, a restaurant can be shared at different tim es such as breakfast, lunch, dinner and bar in the night. Providing commercial activities into central business area can attract people -otherwise the central business area would become silent city at night and on the weekend. A c ompact and efficient d evelopment function and structure is critical for the creation of a sustainable urban landscape. Events and programs are good strategies for gathering people. The market place should provide different types of shops to attract diverse group customers inclu ding both indoor and outdoor shopping spaces. Food can be a good additional and effective value for a place. For instance, a food kiosk (hot dog stand) bring s more people to an urban open space. Objective 2: Encourage a daptive r e use

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56 Vacant space s and unde rutilized building s should be reused for mix use, multi use, or small urban spaces Historic buildings are also good opportunities to reuse as restaurants, studios, shops, offices, and other uses that create pedestrian activities, etc. This preserve s the historic values of place provide s an appropriate use for city and creates a pedestrian oriented environment Infill with new architecture that addresses the historic qualities of the city Vacant lots should be converted to open space s to better utilize all the outdoor spaces and provide green connection s. Objective 3: Establish d esign g uidelines for s ocial s pace s. The small urban spaces provided by the private buildings are important for people to use the downtown space such as the seating space s aroun d building entrance s. Visibility and accessibility are key factors for creating a successful social space and enhancing the overall safety The primary users of social space are groups usually small groups of two or three Provide diverse seating place, s uch as movable chairs, wide seat bench (no back), seating wall, mounds of grass, step with a view, ledge, etc.

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57 If the front row position in plaza can be seated, it can attract more people. People watching is very popular in attracting more people into an y given public space. Attractive and plentiful landscape helps to make outdoor spa ce feel more welcoming and safe for users. Street performance and outdoor art exhibition have strong social effects and draw people together. Creating subspace and sense of e nclosure makes higher and better usage of space. Human comfort is an important part in creating a successf ul urban space especially in the hot climate of Florida. For instance, utilizing sun and shade microclimates can benefit the level of human comfort a s well as create opportunities for more efficient energy consumption The b uilding use and environmental recognition is the first step for defensible space, and then using real or symbolic barriers create zones of influences. Hiring a plaza mayor or setti ng a food kiosk in the plaza can strengthen the safety. B. Linkage Goal: P rovide a well managed l inkage system in terms of open space circulation and walkability

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58 Objective 1: Create o pen s pace l inkage s Connecting the open spaces within the city will crea te a successful social network. Using parks, greenery, etc. can enforce the connection, especially between residential and commercial areas. Utilizing the waterfront is a good opportunity for connecting a series of open spaces Underutilized spaces should be converted into open space to help with the overall connection of green spaces such as utility corridor and unused industrial area Objective 2: Focus on c irculation l inkage s, and w alkability The city should provide an integrated transportation circula tion system, such as subway, trolley, bus, ferry, etc. Increased w alkability especially the commercial area is important. A balance b etween pedestrian and traffic must be struck. Pedestrian streets not only let pedestrians feel comfortable but also bene fit the commercial activities a s well as reduce local air and noise pollutions. Increase d node s or pedestrian intersection s can also enhance the walkability, such as small urban plaza or seating space. Nice streetscape, which includes elements like well li t spaces, enough shade in summer, and beautiful landscape, makes the overall walkability

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59 better. Additionally, street vendors/performers, commercial activities on ground floor, and historical features/buildings can make the walking experience interesting. Street cleaning and enforcing polic ies improve the street environment. C. Sense of Place Goal: Integrate different characters to build the identity for the place Managing historic al and cultural characters to enforce the sense of place such as historical bui lding, events, evolution of places Those features can be mixed with tourism, art, or commercial uses. Creating a l inear green space help s to build a sense of place especially when the local natural phenomenon, such as the river or lake, is utilized. Peop le love a bit of nature, especially in heavily develop ed urban places. Human scale and comfort are critical concerns for establishing identity of place. Enhance the existing sense of place. Restore or restructure preexisting sense of place. Creating new se nse of place by tying to history through materials or architecture style establish es strong theme to unify the whole identity.

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60 Chapter 5 : Design Application: Site Analysis Context The City of Jacksonville is located in n orth Florida and it is situated on the banks of St. Johns River. As the city motto suggests Jacksonville is where Florida begins. However, downtown Jacksonville faces the same issue as many other cities in the United States. Because much of the development is not in the downtown, t he downtown now lacks many of the traditional f eatures of other more successful downtowns. In short, the downtown Jacksonville is only a place for business work, not for living. Figure 5 1 : Context. Image Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jaxhoods2.PNG

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61 The boundary of the study area is identified as North B ank Core according to the Downtown Vision, Inc. The site is bounded by Broad Street to the west, Church Stree t to the north North M arket Street to the east and St. Johns River to the south This area is major business district including many large employers such as Bank of America, AT&T, and Sun Trust Bank Also within the North Bank Core are Jacksonville City Hall, the Federal and C ounty Courthouse, Main Library, and the Jacksonville Museum of Contemporary Art Figure 5 2 : North Bank Core Boundary Image Source : Google Map.

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62 Figure 5 3 : Downtown Jacksonville f igure ground Figure 5 4 : Downtown Jacksonville 3D Map. Image Sourc e: Google Earth As shown in Figure 5 .3 and 5.4 the middle of North Bank Core is the more d ense area in terms of building footprints Many of these footprints comprise tall buildings or which in within the North Bank Core is not really high density in terms of buildings and block footprints There are many open blocks with no buildings, rather they contain parking lots. Indeed, Jacksonville does not

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63 need so many open parking lots Those parking s paces have negative visual impact on urban landscape and it make s the downtown empty during the weekend. Because of these open lots, Jacksonville has the potential to develop more of these spaces Additionally, Jacksonville has a typical grid system which is good for block organiz ation. Historical and Cultural Resources Table 5 1 : Jacksonville History The City of Jacksonville can trace its history to the 16 th century. As the town grew, it was a popular winter resort for the famous and the rich In 190 1, there was a great fire that consumed much of downtown The fire destroyed almost all the business district as well as much of the residential neighborhoods, making many people homeless Subsequently Jacksonville begins 16th Century popular winter resorts late 19th century Great fire of 1901 1901 reconstructed buildings 1901 1912 winter film captial of the world 1910s becomes banking and insurance center 1940s now

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64 over the next ten years, numerous new buildings were c onstructed which began a period of major development. In the 1910 s, because of the warmer climate and greater rail access, many silent film studios relocated to Jacksonville. However, Hollywood California eventually attracted many of those studios and en inter F ilm 940s, Jacksonville bec a me a banking and insurance center. After World War II, Jacksonville had grown to be li ke other major cities in the United States However, t he urban sprawl that foll owed pulled growth out of the city. Because of this, t he cit y began to lose its importance and function as center Figure 5 5 shows the location of historic buildings and structures, such as the Florida Theater. The Florida Theater is the high style movi e theater and was built in the 1 920s. Despite its age, the Theater still holds many cultural and entertainment events, remaining a popular destination in downtown Jacksonville Figure 5 5 : Historical Resources

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65 Each month, the city hosts concert s or art walk, or some other popular cultural event in the urban core Th e s e are good cultural activities that combine art galler ies museum s bar s and restaurant s People can walk from place to place and experience the downtown core. Additionally, a farmers marke t is held each week at Jacksonville Landing the only mall in Jacksonville However, m ost of the activities such as events at the Times Union Center for Performing Arts are indoor activities. The city should have more outdoor events to let the people expe rience the urban space. Circulation Figure 5 6 : Circulation Mapping

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66 As shown in Figure 5.6, t he circulation i n North Bank Core is composed of automobile trolley, skyway and pedestrian movement. Most p eople arrive in the downtown automobile The publ ic transportation system is not very effective in North Bank Core. The skyway is not popular and it is closed on the weekend s The trolley routes only run in a portion of North Bank Core area. However, the overall district is fairly walkable. On average, a person can walk from Jacksonville Landing to Hemming Plaza with in five minutes A ten minute walk radius covers nearly the entire North Bank Core. Therefore, the walking environment is an important issue in regarding circulation. However, most of street s ar e directionally one way which causes faster automobile speeds and therefore reduces the overall walkable experience for pedestrians. Additionally, the lack of street trees makes the walking environment especially bad in Florida climate Many of the street trees in Jacksonville are palm trees which offer little shade at their current spacing. T he overall walkability of the urban environment needs to be improved in order to make the pedestrian circulation more effective Figure 5 7 : Downtown J acksonville Streetscape Image Source : Author.

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67 Land Use and Activities Figure 5 8 : (L) Existing Land Use; (R) Future Land Use In the North Bank Core, the primary existing land uses are retail office a nd institutional use s. There are only few places for residential use in North Bank Core. In the South Bank and areas around the edge of North Bank Core, there are few more residential uses, but still not many. However, the future land use is all mix ed use which will allow more opportunities to provide residential use Providing that opportunity for future r esidential use is fundamental to making downtown Jacksonville more l ivable. As the report from Downtown Vision Inc concludes there are still available spaces for office use in the downtown core There are some advantages to locating more office use in the downtown core, such as great location, diverse business, cheap parking, safe neighbor hood etc. Additionally, Downtown Vision and JEDC (Jacksonville Economic Development Commission) provide a great support structure for new businesses to get

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68 settled within in downtown J a cksonville. ( http://downtownjacksonville.org/DoingBusinessDowntownJacksonville/W hy_Downtown.aspx ) Figure 5 9 : Activity Density (L) @ Daytime; (M) @Night; (R) @ 24/7 As the activities density showed above, the highly use time is the daytime in weekdays. It also shows that people come here mainly for work because it lacks divers e activities especially the daily activities. Based on field research there is only one small grocery store in the district. Additionally, there are only few bars and many of the retail zoned properties are vacant, especially in th e Jacksonville Landing, the primary mall in downtown. The stores that are still open offer b outique retail a shoe store, a jewel ry shop, a sports store, toy stores and few art galleries. But the primary function of t he Landing is dining. Restaurants in the North Bank Core are located around Hemming Plaza, Florida Theater and t he Jacksonville Landing. Based on field research, there could still be more restaurants like some special style restaurants. In conclusion because the existing activities of North Bank Core are only work ing and dining i t becomes silent city at weekend void of the daily activity during the work week. Lack of residential use in

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69 downtown is the main reason of this void of daily activity. Providing affordable housing and more daily activity are the first two step s to solve this problem. User Analysis and Social Space Qualitative research was conducted in the form of field observation to better understand downtown Jacksonville, users, and usage of open space This research includ ed general observation s roug hly counts of users and brief conversation s with the downtown users The research was undertaken in January and February T he observation time included both weekday s and the weekend in order to understand the usage of open space over the course of the we ek. The research was conducted over five different periods during the day including: morning (around 10am), lunchtime (11am 1pm), afternoon (around 3pm), evening (around 6pm), and night (after 8pm) B rief conversation s with downtown users were conducte d in order to understand their thought s about open space and livable environment in downtown Jackson ville. The purpose of the conversation was to a nswer the following three questions : Are the existing open spaces enough for people to use? Where do you l ive ? H ow do you come to work?

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70 Based on field observation, t he major ity of the open space users in downtown Jacksonville are business and professional employees Based on various conversation s with these user s most do not live in downtown Jacksonville; rather they live in the outlying suburban areas. They may commute up to thirty or forty minutes from their suburban homes When asked about the reasons why they did not chose to reside in downtown the answers often included high cost of living, unlivabl e physical environment, and no schools for children Based on these conclusions, the lack of residential use and low daily activity are major concerns in downtown Jacksonville. Many of the users including the downtown workers, think the existing open sp ace in Jacksonville are adequate in terms of physical space during the workday ; however, the high population of homeless in the public spaces make that open space very undesirable. Because of this, f inding solutions to help solve the homeless issue will e ncourage more usage of the public spaces in downtown Jacksonville.

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71 Figure 5 10 : Open Space Figure 5 11 : Usage Situation of Open Space

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72 Most of the users of downtown Jacksonville a re the employees of the numerous businesses. Based on field research the most popular open spaces are Hemming Plaza and the R iverwalk. However, as shown in Figure 5.11, most of outdoor spaces in downtown Jacksonville are facing some usage problems, such as misuse and underutilization Figure 5.12 shows that Hemming Plaz a and Main Street Park are occupied by the undesirable homeless. There are only a few users beyond the homeless that would use that space. In this situation, people may avoid using this most important open space in downtown Jacksonville. However, there i s no one, including the homeless that use t he C ourthouse P laza adjacent to H emming Plaza. This lack of use may be caused by the dis connection between the plaza and the street or the character of C ourthouse. T he trees in Courthouse plaza do not provide en ough shade. Users avoid staying in the plaza too long and just walk directly into the building. The Public L ibrary Plaza which is located on the second floor of Public Library is a newly constructed plaza, but it is also under utilized Because of the lo cation, there are only a few people that come to enjoy the space during lunch time Figure 5 12 : (L) Hemming Plaza; (M) Courthouse Plaza; (R) Public Library Plaza Image Source : Author.

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73 The Riverwalk, most popular open space is wel l used, but there are some aspect s that can be improved. For instance, there is a high amount of undefined hardscape which encourages users to walk through the space as opposed to stopping and helping to create a sense of permanence This lack of permane nce contributes to the weak character of the Riverwalk and ultimately disconnects the St. Johns River from downtown Jacksonville. Since the primary population of the downtown during the day is the business and professional workers, the l unch hour is the important peak time in downtown J acksonville in terms of public open space. Based on field counts, most of users in the Riverwalk during lunch time are workers The Riverwalk is an important outdoor space for downtown workers. There were both active and passive users including walking, jogging and din ing out. During the lunch time period approximately half of the users are walking tow ards various destinations, and the other half of users are running or jogging. Almost half of those joggers are downto wn workers exercising within the Riverwalk during lunch time. However, t here are only a few users that would sit and stay within the Riverwalk Although there are a few pavilion s and small open spaces provided, the users are not attracted to the spaces b ecause of poor design and therefore those spaces lack any real function for attracting people to stay.

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74 The o ther major social space in the North Bank Core is the AT&T P laza. Users utilize the space in both groups or by themselves. Users were observed chatting, smoking or talking on the phone. The peak hour for usage of the plaza is the lunch hour ; however, users were observed stay ing in the plaza after lunch and returning later in the afternoon during breaks. The AT&T P laza is the only semi public s pace and in the best usage condition in the North Bank Core. Figure 5 13 : (L) AT&T Plaza; (R) Riverwalk Image Source : Author. Informal Interview In addition of the user group field obs ervation and brief conversation s with users an informal interview with Christopher D. Flagg was also conducted. Mr. Flagg is the pres ident of FLAGG Design Studio LLC, and vice chair of Downtown Vision, Inc. His landscape architectural studio portfolio includes many urban design projects and community advocacy planning in and around downtown Jacksonville.

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75 Mr. Flagg noted that street life is the major issue in downtown Jacksonville. The street environment and overall system should be improved. Because of the inconvenience and lack of public transportation, people rely primarily on the private cars Mr. Flagg noted that the one way system tends to make pe destrians feel uncomfortable because the drivers travel at high speed s Additionally, the one way system is complicated and ironically, not convenient for drivers Al though people rely primarily on private cars Mr. Flagg believes the amount of open space dedicated to the existing surface parking lots in downtown Jacksonville are still too much. Skyway and trolley system are the major public transportation system in downtown Jacksonville, but the service areas covered do not meet the demands of the users. Mr. Flagg noted that i f the public transportation system c ould reach and connect to major residential areas, the usage of public transportation will increase. Addit ionally, the above ground skyway makes the urban landscape unattractive In conclusion, the whole circulation system needs to be modified to increase the usage. The streetscape is also an important concern especially for pedestrian experience. Mr. Flagg believes that the whole downtown circulation should be convenient for users. Users can go wherever they want to go easily by the circulation system and walkability is definitely as important as others. Finally, he also noted that the connection between th e

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76 North and South Bank is an interesting issue and good opportunity for downtown Jacksonville. Mr. Flagg said the residential usage within the e xisting downtown district housing is low Residential use is primarily outside of the urban areas because of c heaper land outside of the downtown, combined with the high cost for living in the downtown. In order to attract people to come here, downtown Jacksonville needs to provide not only for daily life use but also more and diverse activities and events. Th e existing condition of the Jacksonville Landing needs to be improved as well, Mr. Flagg noted. While the location of the Landing is great, it d oes not function well. Jacksonville Landing is a good opportunity to become a popular landmark and an importan t social place. Besides those mentioned above, the homeless issue is also an important issue concerning Mr. Flagg. He believes solving the p roblem of homeless occup ying the urban plaza s will help to make the urban space s downtown more livable and popular Finally, Mr. Flagg lauded the opportunities afforded by the St. Johns River. The St. Johns River is a great feature in downtown Jacksonville, and should be the focus of efforts to

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77 help create a sense of place unique to downtown Jacksonville. This above all, is most important to the success of a sustainable urban downtown. Problems and Opportunities According to the guidelines from Chapter 4, t he most serious problem in downtown Jacksonville is that it is not a livable urban space because it lacks resi dential use, daily or diverse activities, and people Defunct public transportation system and low walkable environment make downtown Jacksonville unsustainable. Downtown Jacksonville also lacks a sense of place. The only thing that seems to attract peo ple to the downtown core is their work. Thus, downtown Jacksonville is not sustainable in terms of the failure of people place, linkage, and sense of place. The existing vacant spa ces in downtown Jacksonville are great opportunities for office, commercia l, hotel, and residential use T he greatest opportunity for downtown Jacksonville is the St. Johns River. It is a good resource to begin to b uild the sense of place and the R iverwalk provides the opportunit y for c onnect the urban landscape. Additionally the Jacksonville Landing which is located at the middle point of Riverwalk is another good opportunity. It should be improved as a popular and function social space and a great node of Riverwalk. Beginning to affect these areas will begin to make downto wn Jacksonville more of a 24/7 activity center while still working within the sustainable urban design concepts.

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78 Based on the field research and the synthesis guidelines from chapter 4 the following are problem s evident in the downtown : Jacksonville is not livable because it lacks residential development people, activities, and sense of place. The existing housing in downtown Jacksonville is not affordable. After working weekday hours downtown Jacksonville is mostly deserted of users North Bank Core lacks commercial use. The only use in NBD is business use and it only provid es daytime activities. T h ere are many vacant space s and buildings. Many of the existing open space s are occupied by the homeless. Some plazas are under use d because of low visibili ty or accessibility. Some plazas and the Riverwalk lack subspaces for efficient use. The downtown open spaces and streets need more seating and diverse s paces Food can be huge attraction for people, but there are only few temporary food stands in downtown Jacksonville. Jacksonville lacks diverse small urban space s such as AT&T P laza. The identity of Jacksonville does not read strong enough within the urban landscape. While the location of Jacksonville Landing is good, it is under utilized as a dining only venue. The Landing only provides indoor shopping.

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79 The one way street system presents safety and functional problems for a quality walkable place. There are not many outdoor activities in downtown such as outdoor events, programs, or street performers. Th e R iverwalk lacks spaces for people to stay and functional softscape such as planting. The public transportation system is not extensive enough to effectively move users in or out the downtown area. Too much land is dedicated to surface parking lots and ga rages in the downtown core The overall walkability in downtown Jacksonville is not good enough and boring because the pedestrian is not the primary concern The existing streetscape is not nice and is unattractive because of the lack of street trees.

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80 Cha pter 6: Design Application : New Vision Concept Diagram Figure 6 1 : Concept Diagram As the concept diagram showed, there are two major social spaces in downtown Jacksonville: Social Plaza Areas (See Appendix B ) which is a series of open spaces that surr ounded by governmental use and art/cultural use, and the Riverwalk (See Appendix B ) In order to achieve the guidelines from C hapter 4 (C onnecting the open space within the city will creat e a successful social network (Guideline B. O bjective 1 ), Hogan Str eet

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81 and Laura Street are great opportunities fo r connecting the city by creating Social B oulevard Social Boulevards play several roles in downtown Jacksonville: 1) they connect the Social Plaza Areas and the Riverwalk together; 2) they serv e as pedes trian friendly streets; 3) they provid e commercial activities to help animate the urban core; 4) they provid e more social opportunities for users. Th e vacant spaces, such as parking lots, are also great opportunities for adaptive reuse (Guidelines A. Obje ctive 2 p.54 ) and effective use (Guideline A. Objective 2 p.54 ) Conceptual Master Plan Figure 6 2 : Conceptual Master Plan

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82 According to t he premise of urban sustainability, which is to bring people back to the urban space, the conceptual master pla n transforms downtown Jacksonville into a place for work, live, and play by increasing residential and office use. The major improvements in North Bank Core include two major social space improvements, a series of streetscape improv ements, and creating mo re commercial use /m ix use areas. Along the se commercial use / mix use areas, the automobile circulation system returns to a two way traffic system, instead of the original one way system. The two way system allows the traffic to move slower which in turn allows the pedestrian to feel safer and more comfortable. (Guideline B. Objective 2 p.57 ) According to the Guideline A Objective 1 (p. 53) a livable and vibrant downtown is achieved by providing mix use and diverse activities. The existing office and hotel buildings should be e ncouraged to develop more of the commercial use s missing in downtown at the ground level, such as cafs restaurants, bookstands, and galleries (Guideline A. Objective 1 p.53 ) The commercial use should also include adding reta il use at ground level of existing office/hotel building s Other vacant buildings and spaces downtown should be design ed to allow for residential spaces on the upper floors to create more affordable residential units for downtown workers. (Guideline A. Obj ective 2 p.54 ) Commercial uses, such as retail and restaurants, should be located on the ground floor and the upper floors should be for residential use. Example retail uses that

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83 are lacking in downtown Jacksonville include: grocery stores, pharmacy, depa rtment s tores, cinema, bookstores, fitting center, special restaurants, and bars T he location of commercial use /mixed use areas are chosen for two reasons T he first reason is to connect the two major social spaces (Guideline B. Objective 1 p.56 ) th e social plaza areas and the Riverwalk. This is also the primary pedestrian circulation. The second reason is to take advantage of the Riverwalk frontage The commercial activities along Water St reet, which is the street in front of the Jacksonville Landi ng is also part of the Riverwalk experience with commercial activities on one side and open space on the other Combin in g the commercial activities and the Riverwalk experience will help to build the sense o f place by integrating these different open spac e character i s tics (Guideline C., p.58 ) T he newly const ructed buildings for mix use will also provid e waterfront view for residents achieving the goal creating diverse areas along the St. Johns River As the streetscape improvement is implemented the planting of additional trees for walking comfort will greatly enhance the pedestrian experience In a ddition to planting trees, part of the streetscape improvement should include providing small social space s such as seating space s. These small urban sp aces within the commercial areas located between the social plaza areas and the Riverwalk, are important for creased social opportunities and higher walkability. (Guideline B. Objective 2 p.57 )

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84 People Place Figure 6 3 : Mix ed Use Diagram (U: Upper Floor ; M: Middle Floor; G: Ground Floor) Figure 6.3 shows a diagram of how mixed use development works within the context of diverse activities. Providing certain uses, such as hotels and /or convention center uses attract more people to stay in the urban core Based on the people watching concept, these uses will attract more people to stay in the downtown core. In addition, the downtown core should provide more activities for daily needs such as pharmac ies grocery store s restaurant s or cinema s

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85 Figu re 6 4 : Existing Building. Image Source : Google Map. Figure 6 5 Ground Floor Improvement @ Existing Building Image Source : Author In existing building s the architecture can be restr uctured at ground level, providing retail uses or restaurants (See Fig ure 6.4). These uses are good opportunities for compact development. For buildings that cannot be reconstructed at ground level, residential use provided at the upper level s is another approach for mixing office and residential use

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86 Linkage Figure 6 6 : Skyway Extending Plan Water St reet Laura St reet, and Hogan St reet are experiment of converting to the two way street system s in downtown Jacksonville. If the se two way street system s work well, the n the whole downtown should be conve rted to a two way system which ultimately will enhance safety for drivers and pedestrians alike. The transportation improvement for North Bank Core is not only the two way street system that was show n in the master plan, but also the expanding the existin g skyway system. (Guideline B. Objective 2 p.57 ) Currently the existing skyway is not popular therefore leading to very low usage In order to increase usage, and increase the overall sustainability of the transit system, the skyway should be extended to the major residential areas out side of downtown. Th i s could potentially lead to m ore people

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87 commut ing from their neighborhoods to downtown by skyway instead of private cars. In order to preserve the downtown and residential aesthetic, the new skyway should be built underground to avoid the ugly structure above ground as well as disruptions to the viewshed and existing streets and sidewalks In order to enhance the overall walkability, there are three strategies : 1) create an aesthetically pleasing l andscape d environment so people will feel welcome and comfortable ; 2) provide food/ restaurant or retail use on the ground floor to make the walking experience interesting and animate the space ; 3) provide small u rban spaces to encourage interaction and enh ance the walkability. The streetscape could be improved to create a Social Boulevard, where the pedestrian environment is enhanced along with new uses on the ground floor. The following are design options for the Social Boulevard streetscape improvements : Figure 6 7 : Existing South Laura Street

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88 Figure 6 8 : T he I mprovement of South Laura Street (Social Boulevard) Existing South Laura Street is a one way street that p rovides on street parking on both sides of the street The vehicular traffic o n th e one way street is typically faster than the traffic on a two way street which creates an un safe environment for pedestrian s There are only street trees in the pedestrian zone. Because t he streetscape lacks certain social opportunities for users the o verall walkability is reduced. C ommercial use such as a r estaurant or a retail space is designed at the ground level in existing office building this activates the streetscape and provide s diverse activities while offering the passing pedestrian s opportu nities to window shopping at the same time. Provide s outdoor dining space in front of the restaurant. Utilizes on s treet parking and landscaping to create a buffer between the pedestrian and passing traffic. Adding more softscape, such as planting, provide s the pedestrian a better walking experience.

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89 The proposed t wo way street circulation system can make traffic slower than the original one way system which leads to a s afer environment. Adding on s treet parking narrows down the drive lane which forces aut omobile traffic to drive slower. P rovide s seating space in the form of large landscape planters. Figure 6 9 : Existing South Hogan Street. Image Source : Author. Figure 6 10 : T he I mprovement of South Hogan Street (Social Boulevard) Image Source : Autho r. E xisting South Hogan Street is a wide pedestrian only sidewalk under the skyway. The overall quality of place is hindered because of the ugly concrete structure of the skyway.

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90 Additionally, t here are only street trees and limited shrubs provided adjac ent to the sidewalk. There is no sub space for people to use. Potential for green walls, lighting or other amenities under the monorail structure. M ore planting is provided in the form of shrubs and trees in planters S eating Areas are included both per manent benches and moveable tables and chairs The ground floor of the buildings p rovide s food stands, restaurants, or other retail Figure 6 11 : Small Urban Space in front of new buildings @ Social Bo ulevard. The existing condition of this space and others like it, is a vacant space on the Social Boulevard. The vision of this space is to reuse this vacant space by p roviding retail or

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91 restaurants on the ground f loor of the new buildings and creating s mall urban space s in front of the building. Create sub space for efficient use and social opportunities. Provide diverse and flexible seating, such as seating for one and two people, movable chair, and wide wood bench (no back). Use water feature as focal point. Soften the harsh existing pedestrian environment with landscape design elements such as water feature s and planting. Provide not only ordinary outdoor dining table s, but also bar tables to create more social opportunities and flexibility Sense o f Place According to the Guidelines C from Chapter 4 (p.58) the sense of place can be created b y tying to history through materials to establish a strong theme of place. Jacksonville was a popular winter resort at the end of 19 th century ( http://downtownjacksonville.org/DowntownVisionInc/HistoryofDowntown.aspx ). The architectural style popular during this time period was Mediterranean Revival Because this style is d is a good theme to build the sense of place for Jacksonville. The structure and characters of Mediterranean Revival style are as follow s:

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92 Structure: U shaped or L shaped plan, designed around a centra l courtyard (Spain 1987: 79) Symmetrical primary facades (Spain, 1987: 39) Characters/Materials: Stuccoed wall surface (Spain, 1987: 130 ) W all colors: pastel tones (Spain, 1987: 130) Flat or low pitched terra cotta and tile roof (Spain, 1987: 39) Arches ( Spain, 1987: 39) Scrolled or tile capped parapet walls (Spain, 1987: 39) Articulated door surrounds (Spain, 1987: 106 ) W rought iron or wood balconies and windows (Spain, 1987: 114 ) L ush vegetation (Spain, 1987: 90) T iled fountain or pool (Spain, 1987: 90) Figure 6 12 : Mediterranean Revival Style. Image S ources: (L) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Breakers_CIMG0089.JPG (M) http://www.dreamhomedesignusa.com/Luxury%20home%20plans.htm (R) http://www.house arch.com/a mediterranean style house.html

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93 Fi gure 6 13 : Proposed Architecture Image Figure 6.12 shows example s the Mediterranean Revival style. Using those stylistic characters previously mentioned as well as large a mount s of glass help to create the new sense of place for downtown Jacksonville. Utilizing large amounts of glass especially at the ground level, enhances walkability through more opportunities for window shopping. Additionally, the streetscape images are showed under Linkage (Figure 6.8, Figure 6.10, Figure 6.11 ). Using water fe ature s lush vegetation and some palm trees build the identity of Mediterranean Revival style. In conclusion, the new vision of downtown Jacksonville should include revitalization strategies that include: 1) generating downtown user groups by providing c ommercial office, retail, entertainment/cultural, hotel, office, residential and other residential related uses; 2) creating places w h ere diverse activities and social networking can occur; 3) re designing the streetscape to includ e plentiful greenery s ma ll urban space s building faade improvements, modified pedestrian path widths and modified alignment s; 4) establishing a design theme like Mediterranean Revival style

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94 architecture All of these revitalization strategies will help to create a critical mass of people and an active pedestrian environment that will help to create a stronger sense of place for downtown Jacksonville It will also improve the identity for downtown and the incr pedestrian activities w ill help to create a greater sense of security

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95 Chapter 7: Conclusion Major Findings and Contribution Many American cities have same or similar problems with downtown Jacksonville in that those cities are o nly a place for work and not a very people friendly environment This thesis project establishes specific strategies for fix ing th e se defunct under utilized and unsustainable downtowns. The contributi on of this thesis is the formulation of a set of strate gies and principles that can help direct designers to transform these defunct downtowns into sustainable urban cores for people to live, work, play, and visi t. My research for this thesis, demonstrated that the first goal is to bring people and related us er groups back to the city by significantly increasing hotel, affordable residential and office use Waste d or under utilized space s in a city are major problem s but also provide opportunities for viable infill Reducing and managing the amount of waste d space in a city will increase the overall vitality Encouraging c ompact development is a key strategy to achieve urban sustainability. In order to make a city more livable, diverse activities, especially for daily use, should be provided This can be achieved by inc reasing commerc ial and/ or mix use. At the same time, designers and planners should provide more social opportunities for a diversity of

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96 users, connect open space, provide for the human scale and follow the behavioral design guidelines prov ided in the text. In conclusion, creating an urban sustainable landscape has four components : 1) provide attractive working and living space s ; 2) develop with an efficient use of space utilizing multi use concepts for diverse activities that appeal to div erse user groups ; 3) create people friendly social space s and appropriate linkage s; and 4) establish an identity of place by leveraging the existing valu natural, cultural, and/ or historical resources. What I learned Before starting this research, my understanding of sustainability wa s very narrow The idea I had about sustainability was related to the ecological and natural aspe ct s such as strategies for reduc ing the impact o f pollution on the natural environment. However, through this research process, it became clear that human and non human issues are both critical factors in sustainability. Subsequently I discovered that p eople are a critical factor in healthy cities; those social human issue s are a crucial concern in urban sustainability. D uring my travel experience s in the United States, I was su rprised by the various defunct under utilized, vacant and boring downto wns Most cities in Taiwan and Asia where I am from, are built in a compact development form that provides both higher density residential and commercial use s Downtown s in Asia are typically the most popular and

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97 vi gorous place s in some cases even incl uding 24 hour a day activities. Comparatively, t his seems to be the complete opposite of the typical American downtown. In this thesis project, I learned ways to revitaliz e the defunct downtown specifically the major Florida city, Jacksonville During the research process, it became evident that people are the primary concern in revitalizing defunct downtown s The primary goal in revitalizing these downtowns is to bring people back to the urban core for me, as well for the stakeholders and local poli ticians If there are no people in the urban core, the n the people friendly environment s are non existent Limitation of this Research Project and Suggestions for Future Research Due to time limits, the advocacy planning was not included in this thesis project. Since people were determined to be a crucial factor in social sustainability future research should include advocacy planning Advocacy planning can further help to illuminate the needs of the users and thereby making the overall social sustain ability more effective. Additional future research should also focus on the human scale and the design of pedestrian oriented environments for downtowns. Many existing skyscrapers in American downtown s ignore human scale especially within the streetscap e environment, which ultimately lead s to an unfriendly pedestrian environment I believe both landscape architecture and architecture students should focus their designs to explore the human scale in both the vertical and horizontal planes in these urban

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98 contexts Ultimately this kind of collaboration and acknowledgement of the human scale will create more people friendly environment s within the downtown core.

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99 Appendix A Sustainable Principles S ocial V alues E conomic values C ultural or H istoric al V alues I dentity of P lace D iversity Q uality of Li fe E ducation E nvironment V alues B ehavioral D esign G uidelines C ontext and L ocation street is key space for a plaza a corner location, a place to pass through, and a place to watch passerby will pr ovide highest use sightline and visibility are ways to attract more people S ize and C apacity clustering patterns: people would located themselves about one or two spaces removed from the other space S pace S etting a front row position and edges or boundaries of plaza are prime space for seating; if it can be sat, it draws more people the transition from street to a plaza is a crucial part of plaza design; it can be appropriate elevation or steps to make a nice ambiguity to the movement a p l aza must be visible and accessible by people large plaza may want to be divided into subspaces to encourage their use the space provided should keep the personal privacy U sers main users are groups women are more sensitive to where they sit and environment men show a tendency to take the front row seats; woman seek back yard experience that tend to favor places slightly secluded S itting corner can be face to face sitting and is often preferred movable chairs are the most popular type of sitting a wide seat bench (no back) is preferred because two people can sit back to back and be comfortable in tight space

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100 Sustainable Principles S ocial V alues E conomic values C ultural or H istoric al V alues I dentity of P lace D iversity Q uality of Li fe E ducation E nvironment V alues B ehavioral design guidelines S itting secondary seating: mounds of grass, step with a view, seating walls, retaining walls allows seating, and ledge wood is warm and comfortable material for public seating M icro climate relative warmth is impor tant people will actively seek the sun and suntraps especially in cold winter the principle factors affecting outdoor comfort are temperature, sun, humidity, and wind a plaza should be located so as to receive as much sunli ght as its surrounding environment will permit in very hot summer, a plaza should provide some shade by trees, buildings, or site structure designers should consider using the borrowed sunlight reflected from building windows to brig hten or warm a plaza space glare that comes from the highly reflective building surface on sunny days can be serious problems P lanting trees ought to be related closely to sitting spaces people were attached to plazas that offer visual variety and complexity with trees, uncommon shrubs, colorful annuals being especially important the smaller or sunken plaza s should contain more feather leafed trees if one or more sides of a plaza is bounded by buildin gs that cannot be accessed from the plaza, their wall might be screened by trees

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101 Sustainable Principles S ocial V alues E conomic values C ultural or H istoric al V alues I dentity of P lace D iversity Q uality of Li fe E ducation E nvironment V alues B ehavioral D esign G uidelines P lanting wind conditions are known as co r ner flows, downwashes, and wakes are the strongest and most problematic wind effects, with the m ost effective mitigating strategy being to redesign the building envelop itself or, when possible, to orchestrate the relationship of sizes and shapes of the buildings near the affected area desig n ers should prepare a solar access analysis of si te before designing F ood and Ve nding food attract people who attract more people a plaza with a food kiosk or outdoor restaurant is much more likely to attract users than is one without such features P rograms sculpture can have strong social effects musicians and entertainers draw people together art in a public place should provide a sense of joy, promote contact and communication, provide sensory experience and encourage the interaction a noisy fountain located close to seating may successfully screen out surrounding traffic noise programs and activities can be crucial elements in a plaza success Appendix A. 1: Sustainability Evaluation Table: Behavioral Design Gui delines

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102 Sustainable Principles S ocial V alues E conomic V alues C ultural or H istoric al V alues I dentity of P lace D iversity Q uality of L ife E ducation E nvironment V alues B ehavioral design S afety and security build user's environmental recognition Make the space visible hire a doorman or plaza mayor create zones of influence incorporate the city street into the zone of influenc e as few families as possible share a common entry define particular area to a specific group of people Appendix A. 2: Sustainability Evaluation Table: Safety and Security Sustainable Principles S ocial V alues E conomic V alues C ultural or H istoric al V alues I dentity of P lace D iversity Q uality of L ife E ducation E nvironment V alues S treet and P eople W alk A bility create a pedestrian oriented street enhance pedestrian safety A dditional S ervice and A menities street cleaning and policy Greenery play space

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103 Sustainable Principles S ocial V alues E conomic V alues C ultural or H istoric al V alues I dentity of P lace D iversity Q uality of L ife E ducation E nvironment V alues organized transportation system Appendix A. 3: Sustainability Evaluation Table: S treet and People Sustainable Principles S ocial V alues E conomic V alues C ultural or H istoric al V alues I dentity of P lace D iversity Q uality of L ife E ducation E nvironment V alues U rban E cology Sustainable C ommunity compact development high density of population and commerce activities land efficient project and mix use balanced transportatio n system and walkability reuse of building and r e urbanization affordable housing diversity activities and 24 hour city sense of place Appendix A. 4: Sustainability Evaluation Table: Urban Ecology

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104 Appendix B Social Plaza Areas Figure B 1 : User and Space Character Analysis

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105 Figure B.2 : Detail Plan: Social Plaza Areas

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106 The social plaza areas are made up of the three individual spaces: US Courthouse Plaza, Hemming Plaza, and Main Str eet Plaza. This area is one of the major social spaces in downtown Jacksonville. These spaces should be r edesign ed using Quiet Resting Zones that will connect the spaces together as a more powerful social space corridor. According to the behaviors of dif ferent users, the social space corridor provides different spaces/activities, such as outdoor cafs fountain plaza s or gardens. These d ifferent activities meet the active or passive needs of the different downtown users. The passive use inc ludes sittin g, gathering, or di ning. The active use includes children playing. For example some users can just sit and rest to enjoy the space, while their children can run or play within the same place lawn area and fountain plaza Th e se detail designs follow the design guidelines for social space previously established (Guideline A. Objective 3) Figu re B 3 : Water Fountain & Sculpture Entrance Area of Courthouse Plaza Provide more trees to make the space more comfortable especially in the hot summer.

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107 The no ise of the fountain can reduce the overall noise of vehicular traffic. Use sculpture at the entrance area to attract people to t he space. The sculpture can make the courthouse space more relax ing and interesting. Figure B 4 : Hemming Plaza The caf kios k is a version of William Whyte plaza manager that can keep an eye on the plaza safety and also provide eating options The Hemming Plaza provides a different level of shadow spaces. The lawn area can enjoy the sunshine totally, and the quiet resting a rea is all covered by trees. Other spaces are in between. The s eating areas are provide d by using movable chair s at the outdoor caf deck and permanent benches at the fountain plaza a s well as quiet resting zones. The edge of monument pool is another seati ng option.

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108 The fountain plaza is can also be used as a playground for children. Figure B 5 : Main St reet Plaza Main St reet Plaza is t he backyard of the art museum and the P ublic L ibrary, like a minor plaza. Movable seating is provided at the outdoor d ining plaza. The outdoor dining area can also be used as a flexible open space including a performance space for special events. The fountain and waterfall will help to reduce the traffic noise. The fountain can be playground for children.

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109 Riverwalk Figu re B 6 : Detail Plan: Riverwalk

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110 The Riverwalk is another popular social space in downtown Jacksonville. Downtown workers use the Riverwalk often especially during the lunch hour. The primary concept of the Riverwalk improvement is to mak e it a more compl ete green corridor by providing additional plant ing This additional planting will create a more plentiful landscape which in turn will make people feel safer and more welcome. Inspired by the City of Jacksonville logo, the R iverwalk uses a series of sun sculpture s to connect each space. The sun sculptures are used for two reasons Firstly, the sculptures establish the identity for place by reinforce the city image (Guideline C. Objective 1) Secondly, the use of sculpture increase s the social and cult ural value within the open space. ( Guideline A. Objective 3) T he plan provide s more opportunities to access the river f rom the downtown, thereby enforc ing the uniqueness and importance of St. Johns River. T he J acksonville Landing retail area is current ly designed to open to the water, but its back is facing the downtown. In order to alleviate some of this awkward urban design, the plan proposes adding additional f ood kiosk s, potentially from the existing restaurants within Jacksonville Landing along th e corridor s that connect the Landing to the R iverwalk and downtown

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111 Figure B 7 : Sunset Amphitheater: (L) Plan; (R) Perspective. Sunset Amphitheater provides more seating space and softscape for people. Sunset Amphitheater provides a performance area for special events. Provide s sculpture to enhance more cultural and social values Figure B 8 : Fountain Plaza and Endless Pool : (L) Plan; (R) Perspective. Fountain Plaza p rovide s more water feature s to enforce the waterfront character of Riverwalk The endless pool is inspired by the St. Johns River further connecting the plaza to the River. The fountain plaza can be used as a playground for children.

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112 The fountain plaza is a flexible use; it also acts as a performing space when there are special even ts. Provide s more softscape, such as water feature and planting Figure B 9 : Social Plaza : (L) Plan; (R) Perspective. The Social Plaza provides group seating in the middle and individual seating around the outside and lower area. Personal seating are a provides seats facing St. Johns River for user s to relax. Figure B 10 : Sunrise Playground : (L) Plan; (R) Perspective. The sunset sculpture is also serves as play equipment for children

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113 The seesaw chairs are interesting seats for adults. When they k eep an eye on children, they can have fun at the same time. The sand area is not only a playground but also a softscape area to replace the existing hard paving. Figure B 11 : W est S ection of R iverwalk Make s the R iverwalk green corridor. Provide s m ore seating space, such as benches that surround the new tree

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114 Figure B 12 : M iddle S ection of R iverwalk (adjacent to Jacksonville Landing) Make s the R iverwalk as green corridor. Figure B 13 : E ast S ection of the R iverwalk Make s the R iverwalk as green corridor. Provide s more seating space, such as benches that surround the new tree Provide s some lawn area s for different users as well as allowi ng users to get closer to the St. Johns River.

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115 Bibliography Appleyard, D., Gerson, M. S., & Lintell, M. (1981). Livable streets Berkeley, University of California Press Beatley, T., & Manning, K. (1997). The ecology of place: planning for environment, e conomy and community Washington, DC, Island Press. Carmona, M. (2003). Public places, urban spaces: the dimensions of urban design Oxford, Architectural Press. Hough, M. (1995). Cities and natural process London, Routledge. http://www.netlibrary.com/urlapi.asp?action=summary&v=1&bookid=70766 Jacobs, J. (1961). The death and life of great American cities [New York], Random House. Jenks, M., Burton, E., & Williams, K. (199 6). The compact city: a sustainable urban form? London, E & FN Spon http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109188895 LEED, 2009. The Sustainable Sites Initiative. http://www.sustainablesites.org/report/Guidelines%20and%20Performance%20Bench marks_2009.pdf Marcus, C. C., & Francis, C. (1997). People places: design guidelines for urban open space Ne w York, Van Nostrand Reinhold

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116 Meyer, E. (2008) Sustaining Beauty. The Performance of Appearance. Journal of Landscape Architecture Newman, O. (1976). Design guidelines for creating defensible space [Washington], National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice, Law Enforcement Assistance Administration, U.S. Dept. of Justice. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (1974). Streets for people Paris, Organi zation for Economic Co operation and Development Paumier, C. B. (1988). Des igning the successful downtown Washington, D.C., Urban Land Institute. P olse M., & S tren R. E. (2000). The social sustainability of cities: diversity and the management of change Toronto, University of Toronto Press. SPAIN, R. A. (1987). The developmen t of the Mediterranean revival style in Florida Thesis (M. Arch.) -University of Florida, 1987. T ranick R. (1986). Finding lost space: theories of urban design New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold. Urban Land Institute. (19 88 ). Rivercenter San Antonio, Texas Washington, D.C. (1090 Vermont Ave., N.W., Washington 20005 4962), ULI the Urban Land Institute. W hyte W. H. (1980). The social life of small urban spaces Washington, D.C., Conservation Foundation.

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117 3D Warehouse 2011 ) Google. [Online Resource] http://sketchup.google.com/3dwarehouse/ Boston 2011 ) Wikipedia. [Online Resource] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boston Boston Land Use Map 2011 ) [Onl ine Resource] http://www.bostonredevelopmentauthority.org/maps/mapsPDFs.asp#North End Celebrating the River: A Plan for Downtown Jacksonville (2011). [Online Resou rce] http://www.coj.net/departments/jacksonville economic development commission.aspx Downtown Vision, Inc. 2010 ) [Online Resource] http://downtownjacksonville.org/Downtown_Vision_Inc_Home.aspx Downtown Development Projects Completed Since 2000, Jacksonville, Florida (2011) [Online Resource] http://downtownjacksonville.org/Libraries/PDF_Libraries/Completed_Development_Projects_Ja n_2011_1.sflb.ashx Downtown Development Projects Under Construction & Proposed, Jackso nville, Florida (2011) [Online Resource] http://downtownjacksonville.org/Libraries/PDF_Libraries/Development_ProjectsApr11_FINAL.sf lb.ashx ( 2011 ) [Online Resource] http://www.fgdl.org/

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118 Freedom Trail 2011 ) Wikipedia. [Online Resource] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freedo m_Trail 0 ). W ikipedia. [Online Resource] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacksonville Mediterranean Revival Architecture (2011) Wikipedia. [Online Resource] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mediterranean_Revival_architecture Quincy Market 2011 ) Wikipedia. [Online Resource] http://en.wikipedia.org/wik i/Quincy_Market San Antonio 2011 ) Wikipedia. [Online Resource] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/San_antonio ( 2011 ) [Online Resource] http://www.visitsanantonio.com/visitors/plan/maps/index.aspx ( 2011 ) [Online Resource] http://www.s anantonio.gov/planning/GIS/map_catalog.asp#Neighborhoods?res=1280&ver=true San Antonio, ( 2011 ) [Online Resource] http://www.sanantonio.gov/dsd/zoning.asp?res=1280&ve r=true ( 2011 ) [Online Resource] http://www.toxel.com/inspiration/2009/02/20/unique concept designs inspired by seesaw/ Hancock. NewCity Institute. [Online Reso urce] http://newcity.ca/Pages/social_sustainability.html

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119 ( 2011 ) [Onli ne Resource] http://downtownjacksonville.org/DoingBusinessDowntownJacksonville/Why_Downtown.aspx Turning the Corner: Rethinking and Remaking Downtown (2011). [Online Resource] http://www.downtowncouncil.org/documents/Rethinking_and_Remaking_Downtown.pdf