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Eco Industrial Parks: Impacts of Resource Flows on Site Planning Decisions By: Bryant Cook A Graduate Terminal Project Presented to the Department of Landscape Architecture of the University of Florida as a Partial Requirement for the degree o f Master of Landscape Architecture Spring 2013 Committee Chair: Dr. Mary Padua Co Chair : Peggy Carr University of Florida College of Design, Construction and Planning
state of crisis by usi ng the same thinking Albert Einstein
1 | Page Abstract The primary research goal of this Graduate Terminal Project (GTP) was to take on environmental and economic issues by designing and examining the introduc tion of an eco industrial 17,000 acre Windsor Tract. The primary objectives were to 1.) select a mixture of industries and agriculture that have the potential to work with one another and the su rrounding lands and 2.) study the resource flows and exchanges that have the potential to develop between these industries. Mapping the potential resource flows and exchanges between the chosen industries influenced the overall site planning decisions of t he EIP design. By identifying the resource flows and exchanges it allowed for the most efficient site design possible. The methods used to design this EIP can be applied to any site where resource efficiency is paramount to the design and function of the d evelopment. The research approach for this GTP was a mixture of both a qualitative and action based research. Primary and secondary research activities were conducted in order to gain a complete understanding of the scope of design and concepts that would be employed in the Eco Industrial Park development. Mixed methods were utilized and included field research, expert interviews, and case study analysis. Findings and analysis from these research tasks allowed for an understanding of similar projects whose success could be drawn upon during the design stage. Secondary research consisted of an in depth literature review. The materials that were reviewed provided insight into understanding how EIPs came to be and how they have evolved over time. This research provided a base understanding of eco industrial development and influenced the overall design of this project. This GTP is the culmination of my deep interest in the subject of eco industrial design. The design of a resource efficient eco industrial park by looking at resource flows and how they relate to the landscape was undertaken. It is intended that designers draw from the ideas and methods discussed in this GTP and apply them to their own projects to create sustainable developmen ts with "intelligent now and for the future.
2 | Page Table of C ontents Abstract ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 1 Table of Contents ................................ ................................ ...................... 2 List of Figures ................................ ................................ ............................ 5 Chapter 1: Introduction and M ethodology Project and Site Background ................................ ................................ .... 11 Introduction ................................ ................................ .............................. 13 Research Questions and Goals ................................ ............................... 17 Assumptions ................................ ................................ ............................ 18 Methodology ................................ ................................ ............................ 19 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ 21 Chapter 2: Literature Review Introduction ................................ ................................ .............................. 23 The Industrial Revolution ................................ ................................ ......... 23 Evolution of the EIP ................................ ................................ ................. 25 Kalundborg Case Study ................................ ................................ ............................... 27 Eco Industrial Park Development in the United States ............................. 31 Eco Industrial Park Development in China ................................ ............... 35 EIP Guidelines ................................ ................................ ......................... 36 Cradle to Cradle ................................ ................................ ....................... 39 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ 45 Chapter 3: Case Studies Introduction ................................ ................................ .............................. 47 Case Study 1: Catawba County Eco Complex ................................ ......... 48 Case Study 2: Herman Miller Greenhouse ................................ ............... 57 Case Study 3: Shanghai Chemical Industrial Park: Natural Water Treatment System ................................ ................................ ................... 63 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ 70
3 | Page Chapter 4: Study Area Introduction ................................ ................................ .............................. 71 Context ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 71 Site An alysis ................................ ................................ ............................ 74 EIP Site Selection: SWOT Analysis ................................ ......................... 77 Site 1 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 77 Site 2 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 78 Site 3 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 79 Functional Diagrams ................................ ................................ ................ 80 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ 81 Chapter 5: Industrial and Agricultural Members Introduction ................................ ................................ .............................. 83 Energy Providers ................................ ................................ ..................... 84 Biomass ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 84 Biofuels ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 86 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 87 Treatment and Recovery Facilities ................................ ........................... 88 Waste Water Treatment ................................ ................................ ............................... 88 Sewage Water ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 89 Storm Water ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 89 Resource Recovery Facility ................................ ................................ .......................... 92 Composting and Fertilizer Facility ................................ ................................ ................ 92 EIP Industries: Primary and Secondary Processors of Inputs .................. 93 Primary Processors ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 94 Secondary Process ors ................................ ................................ ................................ 97 Agricultural Activities ................................ ................................ .............. 101 Summary ................................ ................................ ............................... 103 Chapter 6: Mapping Resource Flows Flows Through Co located EIP Members ................................ .............. 105 Energy Flows ................................ ................................ ......................... 108 Water Flows ................................ ................................ ........................... 112 Organics and Biomass Flows ................................ ................................ 116 Summary ................................ ................................ ............................... 121
4 | Page Chapter 7: Design Introduction ................................ ................................ ............................ 123 Industri al Resource Flow Matrices ................................ ......................... 123 Functional Site Diagram ................................ ................................ ......... 127 Siting of the EIP ................................ ................................ ..................... 12 9 Site Master Plan ................................ ................................ .................... 131 Circulation ................................ ................................ .............................. 13 3 Site Character ................................ ................................ ........................ 134 Enlarged Nodes and Site Program ................................ ........................ 135 Eco In dustrial Park Center ................................ ................................ ......................... 136 Pithlochoco Wetland Wa ter Treatment Center ................................ ........................... 1 40 Summary ................................ ................................ ............................... 144 Chapter 8: Conclusions General ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 145 Feasibility ................................ ................................ ............................... 146 Further Study ................................ ................................ ......................... 147 Educational Experience ................................ ................................ ......... 148 Contributions to the Profession ................................ .............................. 148 Works Sited ................................ ................................ ........................... 1 51 Append ix A: Plans and Flows ................................ ................................ 156 A ppendix B: Inter view Questions ................................ ........................... 164 Appendix C: Work Completed During 2011 Agri 170
5 | Page List of Figures Figure 1 1: Cyclos Master Plan, Produced for Fall 2011 Studio on Agri Urbanism 11 Figure 1 2: Study Area Location 12 Figure 1 3: 3 Pillars of Sustainability 13 Figure 1 4 : Circular Economy Diagram 1 5 Figure 1 5 : Architectural Research Strategies 1 9 Figure 1 6 : Research Methodology 2 1 Figure 2 1: Industrial Revolution 24 Figure 2 2: Torrey Canyon Oil Tanker 25 Figure 2 3: Exchange Distribution Pipes at Kalundborg In dustrial Park 27 Figure 2 4: Kalundborg Industrial Symbiosis Exchange Diagram 29 Figure 2 5: Catawba County Eco Complex Biodiesel Research Facility 33 Figure 2 6: A pedestrian puts a bottle in a reverse vending machine in Shanghai 36 Figure 2 7: Ec o Efficiency vs. Eco Effectiveness 41 Figure 2 8: Waste Equals Food: The Technical and Biological Cycle 42 Figure 2 9: NASA Sustainability Base; Designed by Wi lliam McDonough 43 Figure 3 1: Location of Catawba County Eco Complex 49 Figure 3 2: Pallet One Factory at Catawba County Eco Complex 51 Figure 3 3: Sunflower feedstock field at Catawba County Eco Complex 52 Figure 3 4: Catawba County Eco Complex Industrial Ecology 53 Figure 3 5: Catawba County Eco Complex Site Plan 54 Figure 3 6: Landfill at Catawba County Eco Complex 55 Figure 3 7: Location of Herman Miller Greenhouse 58 Figure 3 8: Entrance to Herman Miller Greenhouse 59 Figure 3 60 Figure 3 10: Herman Miller Gr eenhouse Site Plan 61
6 | Page Figure 3 11: Location of Shanghai Chemical Industrial Park 64 Figure 3 12: Tidal Canal, Photo taken at site 65 Figure 3 13: Concept Sketch of Site Master Plan 67 Figure 3 14: Si te Master Plan 67 Figure 3 15: Site Planting Pl an 68 Figure 4 1: Cyclos Master Plan 71 Figure 4 2 : Site Context 72 Figure 4 3: Water Shed Analysis 73 Figure 4 4 : Alachua County Resource Map, created in GIS 7 4 Figure 4 5 : Plum Creek Property Exploration 7 5 Figure 4 6 : Site Analysis; Site Sel ection Map 7 6 Figure 4 7 : SWOT Analysis: Site 1 7 8 Figure 4 8 : SWOT Analysis: Site 2 7 9 Figure 4 9 : SWOT Analysis: Site 3 80 Figure 4 10 : Alternative Functional Diagrams 8 1 Figure 5 1: Biomass Turbine System 8 5 Figure 5 2: McNeil Power Station 8 6 Figure 5 8 7 Figure 5 4: LID Bio swale use in Parking Lot 90 Figure 5 5: Ford Auto Plant 91 Figure 5 6: Composting Facility 9 2 Figure 5 7: Assortment of Biodegradable Packaging 9 5 Figure 5 8: Uses for Bio plast ic Resin 9 6 Figure 5 9: Food Processing Facility 9 7 Figure 5 10: Paper Mill 9 8 Figure 5 11: Skylight, Herman Miller Greenhouse Furniture Factory 9 9 Figure 5 12: Energy Crops, Soybean Field 10 2
7 | Page Figure 5 13: Ramie Plants used to make textiles 10 3 Figure 6 1: Table showing potential for industrial and agricultural exchanges 10 6 Figure 6 2: Table showing potential f or exchanges between industries 10 7 F igure 6 3: EIP Energy Flows Map 1 10 Figure 6 4: EIP Water Flows Map 114 Figure 6 5: EIP Or ganics and Biomass Web 11 8 Figure 7 1: Energy Flow Matrix 12 4 Figure 7 2: Water Flow Matrix 12 4 Figure 7 3: Biomass Flow Matrix 12 5 Figure 7 4: Matrix Totals 12 5 Figure 7 126 Figu re 7 6: Industry Relationship Scores 12 7 Figure 7 7: Functional Site Diagram 12 8 Figure 7 8: EIP Location on Plum Creek Lands 12 9 Figure 7 9: EIP Site Analysis 1 30 Figure 7 10 : Eco Industrial Park Master Plan 1 31 Figure 7 11 : Eco Industrial Park Site Diagram 13 2 Figure 7 12: Eco Industrial Park Circulation Diagram 13 3 Figure 7 13: NASA Sustainability Base 134 Figure 7 14: Technical Nutrient Pavilion 134 Figure 7 15: Building using bio retention 13 4 Figure 7 16 : Eco Industrial Park Enlar ged Node Location 13 5 Figure 7 17 : Eco In dustrial Park Center 13 6 Figure 7 18 : Eco Street Section 13 7 Figure 7 19 : Storm Water Pond 13 8 Figure 7 20 : Greenroof Habitat 13 9 Figure 7 21 : Pithlochoco Wetland Wa ter Treatment Center 1 40
8 | Page Figure 7 22 : Marsh Boardwalk and Heron Rookery 1 41 Figure 7 23 : Chickee Picnic Structures in Wetland Cypress Dome 14 3 Figure 7 24 : NE Entrance to Constructed Wetland 144 Figure 8 1: Design Process Diagram 145
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11 | Page Chapter 1: Intr oduction and Methodology Project and Site Background This graduate terminal project (GTP) builds upon work developed in the 2011 fall semester design exploration on agri urb anism for ract of 17,000 acres in east ern Alachua County, Florida. Plum Creek is a firm in the timber industry with land holdings across the United States. Professors Martin Gold and Dr. Mary Padua were approached by Plum Creek to lead a group of students in a studio setting to en vision master plans for the Wind sor Tract in northern Florida This was part of the envision Alachua process where the community was engaged in a series of workshops to discuss future economic, environmental, and community opportunities for lands in Alachua County owned by Plum Creek. A mixture of architecture and landscape architecture stud ents were split into teams to each create their vision for the site development. The group that I worked in synthesized a master plan called Cyclos: Ecological Renaissance; it was zero community in a com pact development form located in the northeastern portion of the study area where State Road 26 and US 301 intersect. A closed loop or zero waste development is one in which the resources used come from within a defined system and ar e cycled through in a manner similar to nature (Barraclough n.d.) Natural systems operate in closed loops where water energy and nutrients are perpetually cycled and reused close to the source (Barraclough n.d.). My work focused on the infrastructure comp onent and the creation of a water treatment facility that also Figure 1 1: Cyclos Master Plan, Produced for Fall 2011 Studio on Agri Urbanism
12 | Page served as an environmental educational facility and recreational park. This facility covered 100 acres and my design proposed to cleanse all of the daily waste water (sewage effluent) from the 20,000 residents and workers through a 3 step process over a period of 40 days involving aerobic and anaerobic processes. My GTP expands from this infrastructure developmen t concept. My to bring industry and prop osed new development to east ern Alachua County and this research project focus es on appl and sustainable principles for the development of an eco industrial park. It is a technological and land use exploration with the resear ch goal to find industries and agriculture that can work with one another at the Plum Creek property through energy, water, and resource exchanges. Through these exchanges not only will the industries be economically efficient but also minimize environm ental impacts Figure 1 2 : Study Area Location (Source: 2011 Agri Urban Studio)
13 | Page Ideas discussed in this GTP also build from my time spent while working and studying in China. environmental degradation has called for a new mandate which may place them at the forefront of eco industrial development During the duration of my stay I was able to interview experts in the field of industrial ecology and visit a Chinese chemical plant in Shanghai that employs sustainable waste management practices (refer to Appendix B for interview questions) These experiences have helped to inspire my exploration on sustainable practices focused on infrastructure. Introduction As our society pushes into the future we are continually facing the new challenge of improving the environment in which we live. To day we find ourselves faced with such daunting issues as climate change, resource depletion, energy shortages, water and air pollution, and ecological degradation to name a few. Sometimes this list may seem insurmountable. However, as humankind continues t o advocate for sustainability new technologies are being created to help take on these issues. Eco Industrial design is poised to help reign in the waste we face today. It is now possible to shape our cities, industries, and economies in a way that not onl y mimics natural ecological systems but also work s within these ecological systems and contributes to ecosystem services We are approa ching a time when it will be imperative that we recognize the mistakes of the past and take measures to protect our plane t for the future. Many of the problems we face today began during the industrial revolutio n, which will be discussed in Chapter 2 with the rapid industrialization of the w estern world. We cannot reverse al l of the
14 | Page damage that was done during this per iod o f expansi on, but we can use new technologies and our new found understanding of ecosystems to create a futur e that works not against but with our environment. Currently environmental protection is ignored at the expense of economic development. With susta inable development and design this does not have to be the case. Sustainable development, a s defined by Sustainable Seattle (n.d.), economic and social changes that promote human prosperity and quality of life without causing ecological or social damag By this definition, anything that is considered to be sustainable sh ould not hinder economic growth (El Haggar 2007) Sustainable development looks to lower costs and improve the envi ro nment simultaneously Therefore, it can be concluded that sustaina just a concept that should be pushed by environmentalists and policy makers, but should be embraced by industries, the business community, and society as well (El Haggar 2007). One basic model for sustainable development is built on three pillars; economic, environmental, and social. Figure 1 3 : 3 Pillars of Sustainability (Source: ees2001.wordpress.co m)
15 | Page To day, it is possible to create and sustain a circular economy to ameliorate the above mentioned problems This is evidenced in The Stan ding Committee of the 11 th (NPC) and signed into law by President Hu Jintao in August 2008 (Lai, Tian & Chen 2011) In Towards the Circular Economy a report by M cKinsey and Company (n.d.) produced for the Ellen MacArthur Foundat ion a circular an industrial system that is restorative or regenerative by intention and de sign of shifts towards the use of renewable energy, eliminates the use of toxic chemical s, which impair reuse, and aims for the elimination of waste through the superior design of materials, pro ducts, systems, and business models The concept of a circular economy cannot be traced back to one person in particular; rather it grew organi cally out of multiple schools of thought. John T. Lyle contributed to t he concept of in that all systems, from agriculture Figure 1 4 : Circular Economy Diagram (Source: McKinsey n.d.)
16 | Page onwards, could be orchest rated in a regenerative manner. I n other words, that processes themselves renew or regenerate the sources of energy and materials that they consume. This is termed regenerative design (McKinsey n.d. ) Industrial Ecology (IE) the study of material and energy flows through industrial systems also plays an important role in the circular e conomy. Industrial Ecology focuses on connections between designated firms within an aims at creating closed loop processes in whic h waste serves as an input, therefore eliminating the notion of undesirable by product s (McKinsey n.d. ) Lastly, the concept of cradle to cradle (C2C) design helps to bolster a closed loop, circular economy. The concept of C2C, perfected by chemist Michael Braungart together with architect Bill McDonough, is a n approach to the design of produ cts and systems that is based on bio mimicry Bio mimicry uses nature as a model to s tudy and emulate natural forms, processes, systems, and strategies to solve human issues (McDonough & Braungart 2002) C2C models human industry on nature s processes vie wing materials as n utrients circulating in healthy and safe metabolisms It suggests that industry must protect and enrich ecosystems and nature s biological metabolism while also maintaining a safe, productive technical metabolism for the high quality use and circulation of organic and tech nical nutrients (McDonough & Braungart 2002) This concept will be discu ssed in depth in Chapter 2 An eco industrial par k will be explored as the base for implementing a circular economy. It has the potential to be a viable answer to many of the aforemen tioned environmental issues that stem from the industrial revolution In its basic form an eco industrial park ( EIP) is a network of firms and organizations
17 | Page working together to improve their environmental and economic performance (Cushman n.d.) P lanner s and resea rchers of EIPs such as Marian Chertow and Ernest Lowe, have used the term to describe the type of symbiotic relationships that develop amongst participating firms. These relationships include flows of energy, resources, i nformation, materials, and infrastructure E rnest Lowe at Indigo Development a leading consulting firm on EIP issues, provides the following definition : An eco industrial park is a community of manufacturing and service businesses seeking enhanced environmental and economic performance through collaboration in managing environmental and resource issues, including energy, water, and materials. By working together, the community o f businesses seeks a collective benefit that is greater than the sum of the individual benefits each company would realize if it optimized its individual performance only. The goal of an EIP is to improve the economic performance of the participating compa nies while minimizing their environmental impact (Cushman n.d. ) Although there are many differing definitions, t his is the definition that is generally accepted by scholars and the US government alike. Therefore it will serve as the defini tion for the pu rpose o f this GTP Research Questions and Goals The goal of this GTP is to take on environmental and economic issues by designing and ex amining the introduction of an eco industrial p ark in east ern Alachua County, Florida. Th e site will be a closed loop s ystem that includes energy and water efficient design, which will create economic devel opment in the community and will serve as a catalyst for the development of a proposed adjoining agri urban concept. It will become a destination for research and invest ment. This system has the potential to
18 | Page become a model for future new town de velopment or the retrofitting of existing development This eco industrial park also has the potential to influence future land development in Alachua County and elsewhere By anch oring a community with a green industrial c ore and infrastructure it will encourage others to develop in a similar manner which would have an overall positive impact on our environment. That being said, the primary research question this project aims to an swer is: How can resource fl ows shape the landscape and planning decisions for the selected site? This primary research question leads into secondary research questions that will also need to be a nswered through this GTP These include: W hat combination of industry and agriculture will work with the lands of the proposed site ? And, what is the resulting structure of industrial ecology that takes place on site based on the chosen mix of industry and agriculture? Assumptions Because this GTP is based on work undertaken during the fall 2011 semester studio that explored the new development prototype, agri urbanism, my working assumptions are based on the agri The Eco Industrial Park will serve the comm unity of 20,000 by providing products and resources, educational opportunities, recr eational opportunities, and employment Predicted waste quantities, such as waste water, sewage, domestic waste, and organic waste will be derived from that assumption. Bas ed on the 2011 fall semester work, this GTP also assumes the site has the ability to provide enough agricultural resources and waste streams to support a closed loop system. This is further discussed in later chapters.
19 | Page Methodology At the onset of this G TP a research strategy or combination of research s trategies had to be determined Linda Groat and David Wang lay out categories of architectural research in their book Architectural Research Methods (2002) It was through reviewing the table presented by Groat and Wang that the research methodology approach for this GTP was decided upon. Through review of the above table it was decided that the research strat egies for this GTP would include a qualitative and action research based approach. Primary an d secondary research Figure 1 3 : Architectural Research Strategies (Source: Groat &Wang 2002) Figure 1 5 : Architectural Research Strategies; selected strategies highlighted (Source: Groat & Wang 2002)
20 | Page was conducted in order to gain a complete understanding of the scope of design and concepts that would be employed in the Eco Industrial Park development. The primary research included mixed methods to obtain the information needed to complete the project. The forms of collecting primary research data that were used included field research expert interviews and case study analysis. This type of research allowed for an understanding of similar projects whose success could be adapted du ring the design stage. Secondary research consisted of an in depth literature review. Review materials included books, articles, web pages, and studies among others. The materials that were reviewed pro vided insight into how EIPs came to be and how they ha ve evolved over time. This began with a look at the industrial revolution and moved into the evolution of the EIP, worldwide EIP development, EIP guidelines, cradle to cradle design concepts, and the future of the EIP. This research provided a base underst anding of eco industrial development that influenced the industrial park. (See Figure 1 6 ) By using a mix of qualitative and action research strategies knowledge that was gained through primary and secondary research was analyzed and synthesized to develop the design concept for this GTP. By looking at what was done in the past and analyzing the successes and mistakes made in previous developments, a holi stic design approach was implemented for the EIP site in east ern Alachua County.
21 | Page Summary This GTP explore s how an eco industrial park can be used as the east ern Alachua County, Florida. An extensive literature review provide s background information to the reader on the history and evolution of the EIP as well as technolo gies and techniques and is applied to the design and planning of this project. Through the literature review, goals and objectives for the EIP design were set. Figure 1 6 : Research Methodology
22 | Page These goals and object ives influence d a program matrix that serve d as the basis for the creation of a m aster plan for the site ; it incorporate s design elements uncove red during the primary and secondary research. T h rough literature review, case study analysis, and field researc h different types of industries and agricultural activities were selected to work with the proposed lands of the site. Potential energy resource, and water flows were evaluated and mapped based on the selected industries and agricultural a ctivities. This again, influence d the final master plan. The paper concludes with a discussion of the economic feasibility of a project of this magnitude as well as a discussion as to what opportunities there are for further exploration and research regarding this proje ct. Lastly, insight into the knowledge and lessons that were learned as a result of this GTP are discussed
23 | Page Chapter 2: Literature Review Introduction As discussed earlier a literature review ; a secondary research activity to gain a complete und erstanding of eco industrial parks was undertaken It was important for this GTP to grasp the drivers behind the development of EIP sites, why there is a need for them, and how these sites will function in the future. Concepts that are discussed in the lit erature review influenced the overall design and concepts pertaining to the east Alachua County design site. While this is an overview of all the information that was synthesized for this GTP, the following is intended to give the reader a base understandi ng of eco industrial parks and the design language that will be used for this project. The Industrial Revolution When the Industrial Revolution began in the mid 18 th century, so did the negative effects on the environm ent. The economy shifted from prima rily manual labor and draft animal based towards a machine based manufacturing economy. It was set off by the mechanization of the textile industry, the increased use of fossil fuels in engines, and the develo pment of iron making techniques (Beck 1999) Th ese three innovations are attributed as the key to rapid industrialization that took place during the mid 17 through today (Bond et al. 2003) The innovations that took place during the first industrial revolution set a series of events in motion that would forever change our landscape. Agriculture became more mechanized, which created less demand for human labor.
24 | Page As the economy transitioned from agriculturally based to machine based the populations of cities began to swell. Natural resources were neede d to build these cities and so began rapid extraction and deforestation. Many families moved off of the farm and into urban areas seeking employment. This led to a shift in the cultural and social dynamic that was very different from the earlier centuries. As a new middle class of industrialists and working class in the mills and f actories of cities grew as well (Hartwell 1971) This new class of worked fueled the demand for goods which required natural resources and fossil fuels to create. The innovati ons and social changes of the 18 th century led to the second industrial revolution, which began around 1850 and lasted until 1914. The inventions of the second industrial revolution differed from the first in the fact that they were considered to be the fi rst generation of inventions solidly based on science and technology. That fact would go on to shape the future of all innovation. This period was considered to be one of the most fruitful and dense in i nnovation in history (Mokyr & Strotz 1998) This po int in time also bared witness to one of the largest periods of economic expansion in history. Workers saw a significant climb in th eir wages between 1813 and 1914 (Crafts & Mills 1994) The inventions of processing steel, refining petroleum, industrial ch emicals, electricity, and the assembly line would forever change our world. It can be argued that these inventions had the largest effect on our landscape of any other inventions, previous or after. It was during this period that the negative effects on ou r environment from industrialization began to increase at an exponential rate. The second industrial revolution marked a major their environment. This period dramatically changed every aspe ct Figure 2 1 : Industrial Revolution (Source: wikispaces.com )
25 | Page of human life and lifestyles and the environment in which we lived (McLamb 2011) Because of the mechanization of industry through the use of fossil fuels and the speed of the assembly line, resources were being increasingly exploited at a rapid pace ne ver before seen. Soil erosion, water and air pollution, loss of forests and wetlands, the depletion of natural resources and population gr owth would continue on until environmental regulation of the 197 began to take place These regulations included th e Environmental Policy Act, Clean Air Act, Water Pollution Control, and the Endangered S pecies Act to name a few. Rachel Carson was among the environmentalists that helped to bring environmental issues to the general public through her globally acclaimed 1962 book, Silent Spring In it she raised important rom this book the public and industry would begin to realize the need for sustain able production and development (McLamb 2011) Evolution of the EIP C itizens began to realize the toll that progress and industry had taken on our environment. Calls for change began to spring up from the general public. As resources began to dwindle and international environmental incidents became more commonplace, such as the 19 67 oil tanker Torrey Canyon running aground off the southwest coast of England, the 1969 oil spill from an offshore well in California s Santa Barbara Channel and the 1971 conclusion of a law suit in Japan that drew international attention to the effects of decades of mercury poisoning on the people of Minamata the public demanded tangible change from industry and big business. (McCormick 1995). With the increase in environmental degradation and depleting resources the idea of eco industrial parks as an an swer was eventually set forth Figure 2 2 : Torrey Canyon Oil Tanker (Source: ftnews.firetrench.com )
26 | Page ( 1999 ). EIP sites are able to deal with the major issues of resource depletion, environmental degradation, and economic factors all at the same time through the concept of industr ial ecology as explained previously in Chapter 1 raw materials is one of the most important goals of industrial ecology. An efficient way to accomplish this goal is through an eco industrial development. These EIPs a re a group of clustered facilities that minimize energy and material waste through agreed upon exchanges with each other. (El Haggar 2007) The objective of the proposed EIP is to conserve natural resources by attempting to reach 100% utilization of all was te on site. According to El Haggar (2007) Eco Industrial Parks aim at achieving economic, environmental, social, and government benefits as follows: Economic: Reduce raw material and energy cost, waste management cost, treatment cost, and regulatory burd en, and increase competitiveness in the world market as well as the image of the companies. Environmental: Reduce demand on finite resources and make natural resources renewable. Reduce waste and emissions to comply with environmental regulations. Make the environment and development sustainable. Social: Create new job opportunities through local utilization and management of natural resources. Develop business opportunities and increase cooperation and participation among different industries. Government: Reduce cost of environmental degradation, demand on natural resources, and demand on municipal infrastructure, and increase government tax revenue.
27 | Page Kalundborg Case Study organically in Kalund b org, Denmark in 1972 (Ehrenfeld & Gertler 1997) It may not have come to be as a direct response to the environmental movement; however it did take root to contest issues of resource depletion and cost savings. The modern planned EIP grew through the lesso ns learned by studying Kalundborg. Kalundborg is a city of 16,300 residents, located 68 miles west of Copenhagen. The development of industrial symbiosis in Kalundborg, Denmark began with the need to save limited supplies of ground water. Because of t his, a project to use surface water from Lake Tisso for a new oil refinery was implemented. The City of Kalundborg took the responsibility for building the pipeline while the refinery financed it. Starting from this initial collaboration, a number of other collaborative projects were subsequently introduced and the Figure 2 3 : Exchange Distribution Pipes at Kalundborg Indu strial Park (Source: Rasmus Ole Rasmussen)
28 | Page number of partners gradually increased (Ehrenfeld & Gertler 1997) The five main companies involved in the industrial symbiosis include a power plant (Asns), an oil refinery (Statoil A/S), a bio tech and pharmaceutical company (Novo Group), a producer of plasterboard (Gyproc Nordic East), and a soil remediation company (Soilrem A/S). All of the by product exchanges between firms evolved independently into a complex web of symbiotic interactions. ( Jacobsen 2006) As illustrated in F igure 2 4 the various material flows among the companies are based either on water, solid waste, or energy exchanges. In this system, wastewater and cooling water from the refinery are reused at the power plant: the wast ewater for secondary purposes, the cooling water as feeder water for the boilers producing steam and electricity, and also as input water for the desulfurization process. The desulfurization process in turn produces industrial gypsum used in the production of plasterboard at the co located Gyproc factory, thereby partly replacing the use of natural gypsum. The cogenerating power plant also produces heat for the town of Kalundborg and steam for the Novo facility and the Statoil refinery. The Novo facility is only supplied with steam from the power plant, whereas the refinery has production related in house steam generation capacity. In addition, heated cooling water from the condensation process at the power plant is piped off to a nearby fish farm, thereby i ncreasing the efficiency in the farm, as the heated cooling water ensures full scale production of the fish throughout the year. Finally, solid by products such as fly ash from coal combustion, sludge from public wastewater treatment, and biomass from biog enetic fermentation at the Novo facility are recycled in various ways. In total, industrial
29 | Page symbiosis in Kalundborg counts approximat ely 20 different by product exchanges in operation (Jacobsen 2006) These 20 different exchanges of water, solid waste, and energy have been quantified into real measurable economic and environmental results. The below bullets illustrate som e of the many savings achieved at the Kalundborg IS site. The companies have reduced overall water consumption by 25% by recycling water and by letting it circulate between individual partners. A total of 1.9 million cubed Figure 2 4: Kalundborg Industrial Symbiosis Exchange Diagram (Source: www.symbiosis.dk/en )
30 | Page meters of groundwater and 1 mil lion cubed meters of surface water are saved on a yearly basis. The partners have reduced their oil consumption by 45,000 tons per year, corresponding to a 380 ton reduction of sulfur dioxide emission on a yearly basis. The Asns Power Station provides up to 200,000 tons of gypsum to BPB Gyproc yearly. This makes up the majority mine natural gypsum for the production of their plasterboards. Yearly CO2 emission is reduced by 240,000 tons by the on site participants. 30,000 tons of straw are converted to 5.4 million liters of ethanol yearly. 150,000 tons of yeast slurry from the pharmaceutical company is used to feed 800,000 pigs. Heated water from the Asns Power Station is sent to 57 nearby fish ponds that produce 200 tons of trout and salmon a year. Economics Total site investment of US$75 million Annual revenues due to cost savings of US$12 million Return on investment in 5 years Accumulated revenues as of 1998: over US$160 million Source: (Cushman n. d.) and http://www symbiosis.dk/en Kalundborg was the first example of quantifiable results through an industrial symbiosis exchange and provided its proponents with empirical evidence to justify the development of new planned EIP sites. Through the study and research done at the Kalundborg IS site scientists and academics were able to take lessons learned
31 | Page from the facility and apply them to the next generation of planned EIPs. Eco Industrial Park Development in the United State s Although industrial symbiosis had been studied since its discovery at the Kalundborg site, the concept of eco industrial parks was not formalized until 1993 by a group including Ernest Lowe from Indigo Development and researchers from Dalhouise and Cor ne ll Universities (Cushman n.d. ) This was in response to President establishing the vision of this council was the following; Our vision is of a life susta ining Earth. We are committed to achievement of a dignified, peaceful, and equitable existence. A sustainable United States will have a growing economy that provides equitable opportunities for satisfying livelihoods and a safe, healthy, high quality of li fe for current and future generations. Our nation will protect its environment, its natural resource base, and the functions and viability of natural systems on which all life depends ( Council on Sustainable Development 1999 ). The council fou nd that the promotion of EIPs would be central to a green and sustainable circular economy. Because of this they formed an active task force on EIPs as a key element for building a sustainable economy. The PCSD designated four EIP demonstration sites in: B altimore, Maryland; Cape Charles, Virginia; Chattanooga, Tennessee; and Brownsville, Texas. The Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Energy committed financial and intellectual resources towards exploring
32 | Page gains t hat could be derived from E IPs ( Mitchell & Bahl n.d. ) By the fall of 1996 there were over 17 EIP projects in the United States that were in the development phase and two that already had their first tenants. Additional research conducted by the EPA was done to identify regulatory strategies to encourage the development of EIPs. The following strategies were identified during this stu dy as being important (Peck 1998 ): Modification of existing regulations. Reforming existing permitting and reporting processes. Moving toward performa nce based regulation. Promoting the use of facility wide permitting. Using market based approaches, such as emissions trading. Utilizing voluntary agreements such as covenants. Implementing manufacture extended waste liability regulations, which will impac t the design, production, use, reuse, and recycling of products. Promoting technology diffu sion (sharing of technology information) within and between industrial sectors. Providing opportunities for technology development and commercialization. Providing t echnology development grants specific to industrial ecology applications. Regarding the role of universities in the implementation of EIP development El institutes have also supported the development of EIPs e xtensively in cooperation with local and federal governments. It is important to develop a partnership among different stakeholders with universities and research institutes to develop innovative
33 | Page techniques and guidelines for industrial parks to follow. EI P concept, methodology, and strategies should be included with the author did not touch on is the role that universities can play in a developed EIP. EIPs foster an environment that is suitable for research related relationships between the university and the functioning industry and agriculture on site. This is evidenced in sites such as the Catawba Eco Complex which is an EIP venture between the local government, Appalachian State University, and Industrial stakeholders. This case will be studied further in Chapter 3. The development of EIPs can occur through various entities; the private sector, public sector (local government, port authority, community development agency, or a university ), or a combination of both; as the Catawba Eco Complex was. The first generations of eco industrial parks were primarily developed by the public sector as demonstration and research zones (Environmental Protection Agency 1996) As these projects have come to maturation it has been demonstrated that EIPs can be profitable to the private developer. When deciding between public or private ownership of an EIP there are several important issues to look at before the onset of a project. These issues are the avai lability of public land sufficient for the development, the availability of industrial bonding capability and public support to pass bonds, access to developers willing to take a position in innovative projects, and the ability of the economic development agency to take major responsibility f or the EIP development process (Environmental Protection Agency 1996) Figure 2 5 : Catawba County Eco Complex Biodiesel Research Facility (Source: ht tp://www.palletone.com )
34 | Page After looking into these 4 points a community can determine what route of private/public ownership a proposed EIP development should take. Public and private ownership each have their own unique advantages. Public ownership advantages are capital and direct incentives to companies locating within an EIP. The advantages to private ownership are land availability and land assembly along with the abili ty to take the lead role in development where public agencies can fall short. Regardless of park ownership it is important to have strong private/public cooperation in the development of these projects. Traditional industrial parks require coordination bet ween both sectors and an EIP is even more likely to require a closer partnership between the two for a community to realize all of the benefits of a potential EIP (Environmental Protection Agency 1996). According to the Field book for the Development of Ec o Industrial Parks (1996) put out by the EPA challenged to manage the design and development process and to recruit companies to the EIP. Managers of an operational EIP face three challenges: maintaining the community of companies; m anaging the EIP property, administration, and support functions; the correct industrial and agricultural mix to support the sites industrial ecology is very important from the onset of the project. It is imperative to the success of the EIP that park management recruit an anchor tenant; this will be discussed in depth in Chapter 5. However, having flexibility in the design and infrastructure is equally as important as the park grows and the industrial ecology evolves.
35 | Page An EIP requires two different types of management entities: the property management company (PMC), which is responsible for the maintenance of the property, recruiting firms, negotiating leases, managing lease revenues, intera cting with the public, maintaining infrastructure and providing support services, and the community self management system (CSMS), which is an association or trust of companies who own their sites to handle functions that the companies share joint responsi bility for. (Environmental Protection Agency 1996). Eco Industrial Park Development in China As interest grows in the concept of eco industrial parks, projects are beginning to take off all over the world. This is evidenced in economy that was created by The Standing Committee of the 11 th (NPC) and signed into law by Pre sident Hu Jintao in August 2008 (Lai, Tian & Chen 2011). The Chinese circular economy initiative was developed as a strategy for reduc ing demand on their top down approach to the economy implemented sustainable development to use resources in an eco efficient manner in order to improve the quality of life of citizens within natural and economic constraints. The circular economy model includes both cleaner production techniques and industrial ecology strategies. This is applied in reality through eco industria l development (El Haggar 2007) In 1997, t he United Nations Envir onmental Programme (UNEP) published a special edition on EIPs in their Industry and Environment publication concept of eco industrial parks. The State Environmental
36 | Page Protection Administration (SEPA; the predecessor of the Ministry of Environmental Protection) began to promote the developmen t of EIPs with an emphasis on industrial symbiosis This would be promoted as an alternative to the prevailing end of pipe pollution control approach, which had proven to be both cos tly and ineffective in China. One of the original purposes for China s national environmental regulator, SEPA, was to tackle the issue of industrial development zones as pollution havens and enhance the environmental management of industrial parks ( Shi, Ti an & Chen 2012) Trial EIP in Guangxi. As of November 2011 there were a reported 15 National Demonstration EIPs and a total of 60 National Trial EIPs. Among them, 48 are mixed industrial parks and 11 are sectorial industrial chemical and petrochemical industries, and one National Trial EIP is a resource recovery park. ( Shi, Tian & Chen 2012) Due to an extensive network of proven EIP developments in China, in operation for over 10 years, much can be lear ned from the Chinese. A nalysis can be conducted on the success of their programs through an examination of the guidelines set for EIP development. different than that of the United States, analysis of their EIP pro jects and their success could be useful EIP Guidelines The following is a summary of EIP development and planning guidelines that were produced by Ernest Lowe at Indigo Development based in Northern California. Indigo Development is a leading EIP consult ing firm in the United States and has been working on research and design in the EIP field for over 20 years. Figure 2 6 : A pedestrian puts a bottle in a reverse vending machine in Shanghai (Source: http://www.chinadaily.com.cn )
37 | Page Since Mr. Lowe is considered to be one of the preeminent experts in the field of eco industrial park research and design and these guidelines have been endorsed by foreign government s as well as many of his peers, I utilized his guidelines for this GTP exploration. four main characteristics that can be observed in successful eco industrial projects. When evaluating EIPs, the se four characteristics should be present in a well functioning development. 1.) The first and most important characteristic is that an eco industrial park is a complex of integrated industry, nature, and society. Without the integration of all three an EI P development cannot fully succeed. 2.) Second, an EIP must be designed to achieve the maximum use of resources and minimum discharge of waste through the exchange of by products and wastes, use energy and waste water in a cascading and circular manner, an d infrastructure should be reduced on site due to the sharing of infrastructure among the tenants of the park. 3.) Third, the EIP must ensure the steady and sustainable development of the industrial park through the application of modern administration, po licy and new technology such as sharing information, saving water and energy, re circulation and reuse, environmental monitoring and a sustainable transportation technique. 4.) Lastly, it must be evidenced that through nfrastructures, the environmental condition s of companies in the park will reach a leve l in which industrial ecology is established These four characteristics lead into six governing principles that should be followed in the planning and design of an EIP.
38 | Page The natural ecosystem principle: Eco industrial parks should be connected with the regional natural ecosystem to maintain its eco functions as much as possible. To fulfill the requirement of sustainable development, the existing industrial park should r earrange its industrial construction, reform its traditional industrial technique, dramatically increase the efficiency of resource utilization and decrease waste generation and environmental protection pressure. When choosing the site for a new park, peop le should give full consideration to the local ecosystem capacity and minimize the bad influence to the surrounding scenery, culture, regional ecosystem and global environment. The Eco efficiency principle: Carry out clean production when designing the pa rk, constructing infrastructure and buildings, and in the operations of the park. In its most basic form, decrease resource consumption and waste generation. Life cycle principle: Intensify the life cycle administration of the raw materials before they e nter into the park as well as products and waste after they leave the park, in order to minimize the negative environmental effects Encourage the use and production of products, which need low consumption of resource and energy, are benign to the environm ent and safe to use, and can be recycled, reused and safely disposed of. Regional development principle: Integrating the eco industrial park with regional development and the characteristic of the local economy. Strengthening the
39 | Page connection between the ec o industrial park and the community through training, education, developing local the design of eco industrial park with the plan of local economic development and letting it be harmonic with the plan of regional environmental protection. Hi tech/high benefit principle: Broadly using modern bio technique, eco technique, energy savings technique, water saving technique, recycling technique, information technique, advanced production administration and environmental administration criteria. Attention to software and hardware principle: Hardware refers to the construction plan of projects including industrial facilities, infrastructures and service facilities. Software includes the establishment of e nvironmental administration system, construction of information support system and enactment of preferential policy, which can allow the eco industrial park develop in a healthy and sustainable way. Source: ( Lowe 2003) By following these characteristics a nd principles one would have a baseline for the evaluation or design of an eco industrial park. When it comes to evaluation, it is very important to start with a baseline so all sites can be looked at the same way. Cradle to Cradle The current framework of the industrial system is the design and manufacture products out of raw materials that serve their life
40 | Page cycle in a very linear fashion. Valuable resources are extracted and turned into something more valuable to then be sold at a profit. Products are de signed, manufactured, sold to the user, and known as cradle to grave design (McDonough & Braungart 2002) In the United States, more than 90 percent of materials extracted from the earth to make finished pro ducts become waste al most immediately (McDonough & Braungart 2002) This system of extraction, production, and land filling cannot be sustained indefinitely, as we will eventually run out of resources. Even the current model promoted of reduce, reuse, and recycle is not a sustainable practice. This is termed by McDonough and Braungart (2002) as efficiency is a reduction strategy; however, it does not get down to the root of the problem. It only makes the something is recycled it diminishes the overall quality of the reso urce (McDonough & Braungart 2002) Therefore, recycling is only prolonging the depletion of resources. It does not address the issue head on by changing the model entirely. In the book, Cra dle to Cradle by McDonough and Braungart, they suggest there is a 4 th R on the list; regulate. Their belief is that r egulation is important to add to the list because without it nothing would be implemented. El Haggar (2007) takes the 4 Rs a step further b y proposing the addition of 3 more. His list known as the 7Rs Rule consists of reduce, reuse, recycle, recover, rethinking, renovation, and regulation. This GTP serves to cause a shift in thinking to move from the eco efficient model to a more sustainable one. McDonough and Braungart (2002) propose the model of eco effectiveness as an alternative to the status quo. Eco Effectiveness is the use of intelligent and healthy materials,
41 | Page designing human industry that is safe, profitable, and regenerative, while producing economi c, ecological, and social value ( Braungart n.d. ) In other words, eco effective designs use materials that can be returned to either the earth or back into the industrial system wi thout causing harm to the environment or lowering the value of the material. The inputs of these eco effective designs must then fit into one of two categories, being either a biological or technical nutrient. A biological nutrient is a material or product that is designed to return to the biological cycle, being consumed by micro organisms in the soil or other animals. An example would be biodegradable packaging. Whereas a technical nutrient is a material or product that is designed to return back to the t echnical cycle from which it came, without degradation of its properties. An example of a technical nutrient is a sturdy plastic computer case that can continually circulate as a computer case after multiple reuses. (McDonough & Braungart 2002) Figure 2 7: Eco Efficiency vs. Eco Effectiveness (Source: http://divergentmba.wordpress.com )
42 | Page Th ere are three tenets of the cradle to cradle design concept. They are waste equals food, use current solar income, and celebrate diversity. (McDonough and Braungart 2002) The tenet of waste equals food is based on the fact that waste does not really exist contribute to the overall health of the eco system. When natural things decompose they become food for other living things. Industry can model their metabolisms after nature to allow materials to flow a s nutrient cycles being taken up by a biological or technical metabolism. In theory there is no real waste. Another tenet, use current solar income, is the idea of using renewable energy sources. Trees and plants use sunlight as food, Figure 2 8: Was te Equals Food: The Technical and Biological Cycle (Source: http://divergentmba.wordpress.com )
43 | Page humans can be just as efficient. Energy can be collected directly from the sun through solar panels or through other means such as wind power. Wind power is created by thermal flows fueled by the sun and therefore an example of using solar income. The last tenet is to c elebrate diversity. Natural ecosystems are extremely diverse relationship webs. These webs thrive on the complex diversity that exists within them and the mutual relationships among organisms in the ecosystem. Each individual system could not sustain itsel f without these relationships. A diverse ecosystem is a healthy ecosystem. Humans can model industrial ecosystems after ones found in nature. When designers celebrate diversity, they tailor designs to maximize their positive effects on the particular niche in which they w ill be implemented (McDonough et al. 2003) The most advantageous sustainable designs draw information from and fit within local natural ecosystems. This follows the idea s the local ecosystem then one can design a site or product that functions within that system to enhance the local landscape. This concept is known as Green Engineering. Practitioners of green engineering draw from local and available energy and material f lows to enhance interconnectivity between industry and landscape (McDonough et al. 2003) McDonough et al (2003) go on to describe the 12 principles of green engineering. A designer should use these 12 following principles as a model to create a design th at works within a local ecosystem and is therefore sustainable: Figure 2 9 : NASA Sustainability Base; Designed by William McDonough using C2C tenets (Source: http://www.mcdonoughpartners.co m)
44 | Page Designers need to strive to ensure that all material and energy inputs and outputs are as inherently nonhazardous as possible. It is better to prevent waste than to treat or clean up waste af ter it is formed. Separation and purification operations should be designed to minimize energy consumption and materials use. Products, processes, and systems should be designed to maximize mass, energy, space, and time efficiency. Products, processes, and energy and materials. Embedded entropy and complexity must be viewed as an investment when making design choices on recycle, reuse, or beneficial disposition. Targeted durabil ity, not immortality, should be a design goal. Material diversity in multi component products should be minimized to promote disassembly and value retention. Design of products, processes, and systems must include integration and interconnectivity with available energy and materials flows. Products, processes, and systems should be designed for Mate rial and energy inputs should be renewable rather than depleting. Source: (McDonough et al. 2003)
45 | Page The concept of cradle to cradle design is integral to the creation of a circular economy. Without the consideration of how a design can fit into the local ec osystem a true and fully functioning closed loop system cannot exist. Therefore when designing for true sustainability, C2C concepts must be integrated to achieve the maximum return on inputs. This will prevent the depletion of precious resources and put a n end to the degradation of our natural environment. Summary The concept of the eco industrial park has been developing since the complete literature review the EIP is the base for implementing a circular economy. Because of a diminishing environment and diminishing natural resources implementing EIPs and a circular economy worldwide is the answer to many of the most important issues we will face in the future. Across th e globe the EIP concept is being embraced, maybe nowhere more than in China. By choosing this, we are moving in a more sustainable direction however the EIP concept has still not been perfected and maximized. Although there are already around 100 functioning eco industrial parks across the globe, there still has not been one designed with a completely closed loop system ( Industrial Ecology Wiki n.d) The key to closing the loop is to not only design an EIP that maximizes throughputs, but the goods that are being produced on site must be designed and manufactured with the idea that they have to be returned to the biological or industrial metabolism. Th rough this
46 | Page idea of cradle to cradle design waste could be eliminated and the loop truly closed. This is why the proposal for an EIP based on cradle to cradle design in east Alachua County Florida will be unique It would be the only site of its kind to wo rk with the local ecology in a closed loop system with a net zero negative impact on the local environment.
47 | Page Chapter 3: Case Studies Introduction Case studies were undertaken for this GTP to support the overall design decision making proces s. Lessons learned from each case study were applied to the overall design of the Eco Industrial Park site. These particular case studies were selected to support the goal of a closed loop cradle to cradle system. In sticking with the tenets of C2C design it was important to choose case studies that could easily be applied and would work with the character of the site. This chapter presents three different case studies, each one providing different lessons for the overall design of the site. The first cas e study is of the Catawba County Eco Complex. This development was chosen because it is an excellent example of a functioning EIP in the United States. It is a joint public and private venture that has proven to be a success. The second case study is of th e Herman Miller Greenhouse. This facility, designed by William McDonough (co author of Cradle to Cradle), is a combination of office and factory space. It was designed with the tenets of C2C design; making it resource efficient and a pleasant space to work The third case study undertaken for this GTP was that of a natural water treatment system at the Shanghai Chemical Industrial Park. Because water treatment and quality are so important to this project it was important to draw lessons from a successful pr oject.
48 | Page Research for the three case studies was conducted through several different avenues. Literature was reviewed for each of the three separate case studies. In addition to the lite rature review, interviews and field research were also conducted to g ather more in depth information on the projects. This gave added insight to the projects that could not be gained from a traditional literature review. The following is a synthesis of the three different projects and how they apply to the GTP design site. Case Study 1: Catawba County Eco Complex Project Name : Catawba County Eco Complex Location : 4017 Rocky Ford Rd, Newton, NC 28658 Date Planned : Development of the site began with the Blackburn Resource Recovery Facility (Landfill) in 1998 Constructi on Completed : Construction on this site is ongoing as new partners are continually recruited Construction Cost to Date : Unknown Size : 805 acres Consultants : CDMSmith retained for engineering, architecture, landscape architecture, and sustainability consulting. Tetra Engineering retained for green energy consulting. Client/Developer : Catawba County Managed By : Catawba County Context : The Catawba County Eco Complex is an eco industrial park located in Newton, North Carolina approximately 42 miles northwest of Charlotte, North Carolina. Newton has 12,650 residents and is the county seat of Catawba County. It is in the process of transitioning from a traditionally textile and furniture manufacturing city to a diversified manufacturing and service ec onomy with an interest in high tech industries. The Eco Complex is about 4 miles outside of the city limits of Newton.
49 | Page Surrounding properties are primarily farmlands; however there is a large Target distribution center directly to the north of this site wh ich employs over 550 people. There is highway access 2 miles to the east along US highway 321, an important route in western North Carolina. Located several miles to the southeast is an Apple Inc. Data Center that is a LEED platinum certified building. The Apple facility provides itself with 60% of their energy needs through a 100 acre solar array and a 5 megawatt biogas powered privately held solar array. Apple has expressed interest in future cooperation with the Eco complex and is currently working with county to find ways to develop a relationship. It was said that the Eco complex was one of the main reasons Apple decided to locate the data center in Catawba County. Site Analysis : The main use of the 805 acre site is as a county run landfill and has been in use since 1998. When the decision was made that the site would be turned into an eco complex over 100 acres of landfill property were planted with energy crops. These crops con sist of soybeans, canola, and sunflowers and are planted on a rotational basis. The development is bounded by farm land and has over 4 miles of road built on the property for Figure 3 1: Loca tion of Catawba County Eco Complex
50 | Page access throughout the site. Rocky Ford Road bisects the property into north and s outh portions. Project Background and History : The idea for converting the landfill site into an EIP came from site Director Barry Edwards. He became aware of an EIP project that was developed at Rutgers University through a presentation by someone from t he EPA and was intrigued with what the landfill could do with their gas and heat energy resources. He began with reach out to local universities through presentations about the possibilities of EIP development. Professors at North Carolina State and Appala chian State University were interested in the concept of an EIP and joined Mr. Edwards on investigation trips to the site at Rutgers University. At Rutgers they were able to witness heat energy from electricity generation being used to heat greenhouses. Th e heat energy was a by product that would have had no worth in the past. It was from there that they decided to map out the possibilities for by product exchange at the Blackburn Landfill site. nto what is now witnessed as the Catawba County Eco complex. Because of the close relationships formed during the early stages of program development participation from the universities was very high. These relationships manifest themselves today in the fo rm of research taking place on the site, conducted by the universities in conjunction with the county. Design Development : To get from conception to a built EIP development, Mr. Edwards stated that the most important thing was getting the county board of ficials committed to making this a reality. In order to accomplish this he had to work with everyone; from the government officials, to the professors, to the design
51 | Page decisions if they have th e correct and pertinent information in front knowledge, plans, and gathering correct and accurate information to make political decisions. When the county was on board then si te construction bega n. One component of the program was built at a time and it continues to develop this way today. Program Elements and Industrial Ecology : The industrial ecology formed at the Catawba County Eco Complex stems from the anchor tenant; the Blackburn Landfil l. Other site industries decided to co locate because of the unique opportunities the site presented to each one. Many different components have resulted on the site and the industrial ecology web continues to grow as more companies decide to locate in the development. A gas to energy facility consisting of 3, 1 Megawatt generators, which burn methane, a landfill byproduct, compliments the activities of the Blackburn Resource Recovery Center. These generators produce enough electricity to power approximatel y 1,400 average sized homes and serve to provide energy for the other industries on the site. A high tech wood products facility employing 115 people is located at the eco complex. Its byproduct of wood waste is being used by a co located wood pallet recyc ling and manufacturing firm. Other byproducts of wood shavings, bark, sawdust, and other wood wastes produced by the wood products facility and the pallet company will be sent to an impending component, a bio energy facility, in the future. This proposed b io energy facility is a wood gasification energy facility that will use the byproducts and biomaterials from the wood products firm, the pallet company, and the county to generate electricity, steam, and heat energy. The Bio Energy Facility will house a ne wly constructed wood fired Figure 3 2 : Pallet One Factory at Catawba County Eco Complex (Source: http://www.catawbacountync.go v/ecocomplex/index.asp )
52 | Page gasifier and steam production plant that is expected to produce 3 megawatt hours of electricity and 15,000 pounds of steam per hour. A natural gas fired boiler, with similar steam output, will serve as a backup to the main wo od fired steam production plant ( Edwards n.d. ) are required and would otherwise sit unutilized. Previous to the planting the buffer zones w ere actually costing the county dollars to maintain because of the mowing that needed to take place. The crops produced on these lands are then used by the co located Biodiesel Research Facility. This research facility is a partnership between the county and Appalachian State University and consists of a LEED certified 7,260 square foot processing and research center and an 800 square foot chemical storage facility. Graduate students from ASU are using the feedstock energy crops grown on site to research w hich types of crops are capable of producing the highest quality biodiesel. The biodiesel produced at this site is then in turn used to power county and university vehicles. There is also a greenhouse demonstration and research facility located on 1 acre o f landfill buffer land. This is a cooperation between the county and North Carolina A&T State University, where the university is doing research on extending crop growing seasons. There are several other proposed components that will take place on the site to enhance the IE as well when they come online. A bio solids processing facility will replace the existing Regional Sludge Management Facility, with byproduct exchanges between the other energy producing facilities. A bioreactor landfill on the site will use gray water residuals from the Bio solids Management Facility that are then injected into the existing landfill to create a bioreactor landfill. And lastly, an algae research facility in conjunction with Appalachian Figure 3 3 : Sunflower feedstock field at Catawba County Eco Complex (Source: http://www.catawba countync.go v/ecocomplex/index.asp )
53 | Page State University is proposed for the site. Research at this facility will be an extension of the biodiesel research already taking place in the development ( Edwards n.d. ) Maintenance and management : Site maintenance and management is taken care of by Catawba County. The county mainte nance workers come out to the site regularly to take care of issues such as grass clipping and infrastructure maintenance. A team of 2 workers are responsible for the entire site at a cost to the county of $75,000 annually. The management of the site is ad ministered by the county under Director Barry Edwards. He has a staff that works under him to ensure the Eco complex runs in the approved manner. Mr. Edwards is also responsible for recruiting new firms to co locate on the site and fostering the EIP exchan ge relationships. Figure 3 4: Catawba County Eco Complex Industrial Ecology (Source: http://www.catawbacountync.gov/ecocomplex/index.asp )
54 | Page Site Plan : Criticism : Several criticisms of the Eco complex have come up over the years since development started. However, the amount of issues with the Eco complex has been relatively low. With increasing truck traffic, bringing in more resources to the site, there has been an increase in noise and debris pollution. Figure 3 5: Catawba County Eco Complex Site Plan (Source: http://www.catawbacountync.gov/ecocomple x/index.asp )
55 | Page Neighbors of the site have complained of finding debris blown off of trucks on their private property. Another complaint levied by local farmers was that the government should not be participating in biodiesel production. It was their opinion that private enterprise should be the only ones involved in this type of research and production. Significance and Uniqueness : What makes this project significant is the proven e cological gains that have developed over time in and around the EIP site. Since the development of the EIP started in 1998, Catawba County has gone from the middle of the pack in terms of recycling per capita to number one in the state of North Carolina. B y providing the county residents with an example of eco effiency and through community outreach the citizens have gotten on board with the idea of sustainability in everyday life. The county had one of the largest waste streams in North Carolina before dev elopment of the EIP and now they are the lowest in waste in the state. This can all be attributed to the Eco complex. At the rate they were going, a new landfill would have been needed every 8 years at the cost of 12 million dollars. Because of the Eco com plex, Catawba County has not yet needed a new landfill over 15 years later. Cost to citizens for waste disposal has not gone up over this period either, where waste disposal price has been increasing across most of the United States. What makes the project unique to others like it is the county places a direct monetary value on every waste that enters or is created at the EIP. This value can be positive or negative. By doing this it allows firms to understand the cost of their waste streams and the value of by products that were previously being land filled at a cost. This has promoted private industries to take a look at their practices and see how they can participate in by product Figure 3 6 : Landfill at Catawba County Eco Complex (Source: http://www.catawbacountync.gov/ ecocomplex/index.asp )
56 | Page exchanges with other local industries to lower overall waste. Catawba Count y will even assist small firms in identifying uses for their waste streams instead of sending it off to the landfill. Limitations : The Eco Complex has several limitations that will be tested by time. With energy sufficiency being a development goal, as more companies choose to co locate on this site will the energy produced on site be enough to fulfill all their needs? Because the evolution of the site is continuing there is no knowing how the industrial ecology web will work out. If one of the privat e enterprises decides to leave the complex what does that do to the IE web and other co located firms? More growth at the site and time will be needed for further evaluation. General Lessons : From the onset of this project, Barry Edwards (Eco Complex Dir ector) sought to develop a concept that could be replicated elsewhere. Through analysis of this site it was determined that many of the aspects of the Catawba County Eco Complex can be transferred to other similar properties. Numerous components of this pr oject are seen in the proposal for the EIP development on the Plum Creek property. Some of these include the use of land on site to grow crops that will be used in co located industries, joint research facilities with local universities, and onsite energy production. It was also proven at the Eco Complex that joint public and private cooperation can be successful in EIP development. It is important to consider that cooperation is key in this sort of development. When relationships are formed with local gove rnments, universities, and the developer a better overall development will occur. This type of cooperative relationship helps to foster the exchanges that will take place on site. It was also discovered that informing the public
57 | Page is a very integral part of the process to meet the goals of an EIP. In a public/private development the public needs to be involved as well. This is accomplished over time through changing the way society functions at a methodical pace so people can change their behaviors to become more sustainable along with the EIP. Case Study 2: Herman Miller Greenhouse Project Name : Herman Miller Greenhouse Location : 10201 Adams St. Holland, MI, 49424 Date Planned : Discussions for site began in 1992 Construction Completed : 1995 Construc tion Cost to Date : $14,400,000 (land purchase not included) Size : Building: 290,000 square feet, land area: 180 acres Consultants : William McDonough + Partners, Architect; Pollack Design Associates, Landscape architect; Owens Ames Kimball, Contractor; E Source, Environmental building consultant; Soils and Structures, Structural engineer; Van Dyke & Associates, Interior designer Client/Developer : Miller SQA, subsidiary of Herman Miller Inc. Managed By : Miller SQA Context: The Herman Miller Greenho use is a C2C designed furniture manufacturing and office facility located in Holland, Michigan. Holland Michigan is home to over 250,000 residents and is on the shores of Lake Michigan. Over 3,300 people in this area are employed by Herman Miller, with 700 specifically at the Greenhouse site. The Herman Miller Greenhouse facility is bounded on 3 sides by varying forms of residential lands. The most intense being a residential neighborhood development on the north side. The Gerald Ford Freeway bounds the ea st side of the site which allows for easy highway access for shipping. Included on the same site as the Herman Miller Greenhouse is the
58 | Page Herman Miller Midwest distribution center. Other surrounding land uses include light industrial and commercial. LG Chem Power Inc. has a nearby facility that is responsible for making lithium ion batteries for electric vehicles. The Black River lays directly to the west of the site and flows into Lake Michigan. Because of this proximity, storm water treatment is important f or the Herman Miller site. Site Analysis: The Herman Miller Greenhouse is 290,000 square feet and the total acreage of the site is around 180 acres. The building is a single story structure that was designed to follow the natural contours of the site and therefore work with the land by reducing cut and fill. The constructed wetland cleanses the and eventually into Lake Michigan. Before Herman Miller, the site was previously used as an i ndustrial site and needed to be cleansed before the Greenhouse facility was constructed. Through this, the restoration of natural ecosystems took place. The Herman Miller Company opted for a natural landscape using mostly native plants that eliminate the n eed for regular mowing, Figure 3 7: Location of Herman Miller Greenhouse
59 | Page overall operating costs and reduces groundwater contamination. After the prairie and wetland ecosystems were restored employees witnessed the return of wildlife to the site. Parking at the site is organized along the access road in order to limit paved surfaces and is hidden from view by large berms newly planted with forest ( Building Green 2004). Project Background and History : Herman Miller has been dedicated t o sustainability since 1992. It created an internal group of over 300 employees from all departments of the company named the Environmental Quality Action Team. This team works together to figure out ways to improve environmental performance within the com pany. It was at the same time this group was formed that the idea for the construction of the Greenhouse began to take shape. William McDonough, from McDonough and Associates, was contacted to create the new facility. Herman Miller reached out to McDonough because of his expertise with C2C design concepts and they wanted to implement these concepts into the design of the new facility. McDonough proposed a C2C based design that would allow for clean air, natural light, open spaces, and views to nature throug h all windows; all while being energy efficient and cleansing water on site. It was thought from the onset of the design that this would have a positive effect on the employees of the facility. The site would become a study in worker productivity, as resea rch has been d one to prove its effectiveness (McDonough & Braungart 2002). Design Development : The design development was spearheaded by the architects, McDonough and Associates, however many consultants were brought in on this project. Three Figure 3 8 : Entrance to Herman Miller Greenhouse (Source: http://www.mcdonoug hpartners.com )
60 | Page areas of con cern were identified as being critical to the success of the project: occupant comfort, health, and communication; integration of the exterior landscape; and maximum use of day lighting. Employees and members of the community were engaged in the design fro m the onset. This was established through a three day charrette that included members of the community and the workers that would be using the building itself. This began a spirit of communication, cooperation, and continuity between the design team and th e users that would last throug h the completion of the project ( Building Green 2004). Program Elements: The building design provides openness on the inside and to the outside world. This was intended to foster open communication inside the building. Ther e are as few doors and walls in the facility as possible and many amenities such as open conference and meeting rooms promote teamwork and runs the length of the building that not only allo ws for easy movement, but it is also ventilated with filtered fresh air and filled with interior greenery. The exterior windows look out to the prairie landscape ecosystem which, together, gives the occupants a feeling of being outdoors. Day lighting is us ed not only for the interior street, but also for the factory area. Natural lighting is plentiful from skylights and roof monitors. Lights in the building only turn on when the sensors detect that it is needed, also saving on energy consumption. Ventilat ion rates exceed code for enhanced indoor air quality. Additionally, careful selection was made of non offgassing materials and finishes. The most noisy subassembly operations have been moved outside the building. Other noisy operations were shifted about to minimize noise impacts as well as to optimize the interior space. Additionally, the Figure 3 9 : Herman Miller Greenhouse (Source: http://www.mcdonoughpartners.co m )
61 | Page Greenhouse building has a fitness center, including a full sized basketball court ( Building Green 2004). Maintenance and management : The maintenance and management of the facility are all conducted by the Herman Miller Company. The facility supervisors were informed about the new building form and function through informational teaching sessions run by the designers of the building. There was also an open house provided for all workers to inform them on their new environment ( Building Green 2004). Site Plan : Figure 3 10: Herman Miller Greenhouse Site Plan (Source: http://www.mcdonoughpartners.com )
62 | Page Significance and Uniqueness : The US Department of Energy conducted surveys of employees before they moved into the new facility and after to see if there wou ld be any measurable differences in perception, health, and productivity. Workers were asked to rate their comfort and satisfaction with a wide range of ambient, aesthetic, social and functional features of the environment as well as their behavioral, ph ysical, social, and psychological experiences. It was determined that there were increases in on time shipment, efficiency, quality, profitability and productivity. The data shows that the new, green building was associated with overall with higher quality of work life than the old building, and that it had a more positive impact on perceived work performance and job satisfaction. Multiple workers who left the company for employment elsewhere returned and stated a large reason was the posit ive work environm ent ( Heerwagen 1998). Criticism: Some have hypothesized that the measured increases building. In the DOE study this was largely shot down due the fact experiences were not all consistently positive. For numerous outcomes, the non daytime workers actually showed a more negative response to the new b uilding compared to the old one ( Heerwagen 1998). Limitations : It is unsure if the s ame positive effects would be witnessed in all industries. Additional like surveys would have to be done for firms moving out of old facilities and into new ones such as the Greenhouse designed by McDonough and Associates. It is also unclear if a building in a different region would see the same environmental performance as the case
63 | Page study. Different environments will affect the building performance in different ways. General Lessons : From the research conducted by the DOE and analyzed by other scholars it was concluded that the building does perform better than traditional industrial developments. It lowers costs, increases productivity, and performs better for the environment. It is suggested that the buildings on the design site for this GTP follow the He rman Miller Greenhouse model. This will not only serve the environment better, but also fit in with the stated goals and objectives of the GTP and the tenets of C2C design. By following this model it will create a more holistically designed EIP that is sit e sensitive. Case Study 3: Shanghai Chemical Industrial Park Natural Water Treatment System Project Name : Shanghai Chemical Industrial Park Natural Water Treatment System Location : 201 Mu Hua Road, Shanghai, China, 201507 Date Planned : August 2005 Construction Completed : 2006 Construction Cost to Date : Unknown Size : 73 acres Consultants : AECOM was project lead in engineering and landscape architecture. Tongji University and University of California, Berkeley participated in project research. Client/Developer : Shanghai Chemical Industry Park Development Company Ltd. Managed By : Shanghai Municipal People s Government Context : The Shanghai Chemical Industrial Park (SCIP) occupies 29.4 square kilometers of land southeast of Shanghai on the edge of Hangzhou Bay. Effluent from an on site wastewater treatment
64 | Page plant discharges into the Natural Water Treatment System that eventually flows into the Bay. The system was implemented to further cleanse industrial wastewater before it reached the ocea n. The site includes a constructed wetland that was retrofitted from old aquaculture ponds and canal systems. Polished wastewater provides a source of clean water for on site water features, is reused in various industrial processes, and further protects t he ecology of the coastal zone of Hangzhou Bay. The system operation. Other objectives of the site include recreational and scientific research opportunities as well as wildlife habitat. As one of the first facilities used for natural treatment of industrial wastewaters in China, the SCIP NTS serves as a model for similar industrial operations throughout China and Asia. Site Analysis : The NTS occupies an L shaped configuration totaling 73 acre s of land along the north east corner of the SCIP. The existing elevations are between 3.4 and 7 meters above sea level. The majority of the SCIP site is occupied by abandoned Figure 3 11: Location of Shanghai Chemical I ndustrial Park
65 | Page aquaculture ponds. A large tidal canal enters the site from the east about 700 m eters from the southern tip of the site. The main existing infrastructures on the site are large electrical towers which deliver electricity to the SCIP facilities. Aquaculture ponds are separated by berms and access roads. The eastern border consists of a large retaining wall which separates the sea from the SCIP site. The northern border consists of 20 meters of planted green buffer between the NTS and a small village. Project Background and History : The project began with the implementation of the ori ginal industrial wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), located within the SCIP. It is operated by Sino French, a foreign water engineering firm. The WWTP has been adapted to the industrial wastewaters that it receives and includes numerous measures to protect the local ecosystem from pollution. The influent is divided into organic and inorganic waste streams. It was decided that to further treat the water a NTS would be added to the site to completely cleanse organic waste streams before entering the bay. Pres ently, up to 25,000 cubic meters of organic waste can be treated by the NTS on a daily basis. Design Development : The design team began by identifying the identified during this research process. The primary design objective of the SCIP Natural Treatment System was to improve standard of surface water quality. The second objective was to ronmental quality standard for groundwater and soil quality. Lastly, the design team set the objective of preventing toxic compounds from accumulating in groundwater, soils, surface waters, and Figure 3 12 : Tidal Canal, Photo taken at site
66 | Page organisms to the most feasible extent possible. Therefore the team intended to outperform even the government standards. Site analysis and research was performed by the AECOM team in conjunction with Tongji University and UC Berkeley. From that research the AECOM design and engineering team stepped in to develop the complete NTS. Program Elements : The research uncovered that the best way to treat the industrial wastewater of the SCIP was to create a NTS with three different components. This was selected based on consideration of technical feasibility, capital cost, management and maintenance requirements, and reliability. It was decided that the preferred strategy was a trickling filter along with the integration of a COD degradation pond and a free flow constructed wetland area. The free surface wetland area is the largest of the three components on site covering 22.02 hectares with only 3.45 hectares of open water. A planting scheme for the wetland was developed by the environmental engineers at AECOM. Other adjoining program elements to the site are a visitor cente r, 580 meters of boardwalk and piers, access roads and parking, a bird observation tower, and research wetlands. Maintenance and management : For the purpose of maintenance and management it was determined that the Sino French Water Development Company wo uld take responsibility for monitoring and operation of the NTS. This is because of the direct relationship that the NTS has to the WWTP that was already run by Sino French. This ensures that the NTS is integrated effectively into the existing wastewater m anagement system at the SCIP. Having a single party responsible for the performance and
67 | Page upkeep of both helps to optimize the performance of the Natural Treatment System. Site Plan : Figure 3 13 : Concept Sketch of Site Master Plan (Source: AECOM) Figure 3 14: Site Master Plan (Source: AECOM)
68 | Page Figure 3 15: Site Planting Plan (Source: AECOM)
69 | Page Significance and Uniqueness : What makes this project so significant and unique is that it was one of the first constructed wetland industrial waste water treatment facilities in Asia. It has served as a model for multiple other similar projects since its design and implementation in 2006. Testing performed b y the government and AECOM several years after the project was built proved that performance levels of the NTS were even higher than predicted by the design team and universities. The site has helped to establish in Asian cultures that natural processes ca n be just as effective, if not more, in water cleansing as man made ones are. Limitations : In China and other nations where land is scarce an NTS may not always be applicable. Because so much land is needed to build the large areas of constructed wetland (for water cleansing), areas where large tracts of land are not available may not be suitable for this type of development. General Lessons : The use of constructed wetlands to treat municipal and industrial waste streams is a gaining in popularity It h as proven to be an effective alternative to traditional man made water cleansing solutions. It is often less expensive and has a lower environmental impact than that of traditional choices. Constructed wetland parks not only cleanse wastewater but also pro vide many opportunities for learning, recreation, and wildlife habitat. Because of this, it is proposed that industrial wastewater on the GTP design site is to be cleansed in a constructed wetland such as the SCIP NTS. This not only fits in with the charac ter of the site but also within the tenets of C2C design.
70 | Page Summary The case studies presented above play an important role in the overall design and character of the EIP site as well as in the ns learned from each individual case study were applied to the design site. Through case study research one can gather and synthesize information that leads to a more complete site that is integrated with the goals and concepts of the design that were set forth from the onset of the GTP. The lessons taken from the case studies will be discussed further in the design chapter (Chapter 7 ) regarding how they influenced the overall site design and cohesion.
71 | Page Chapter 4: Study Area Introduction The sit e selection for this GTP stemmed from work that was done in the Plum Creek Agri Urban studio that took place in the Fall semester of 2011. The project was brought to the studio by the Plum Creek Company as part of their Envision Alachua community outreach exploration. This program, ran by the Plum Creek Company, was intended to involve the community and its stakeholders in the exploratory stages of developing their property in east Alachua County. Our studio was charged with producing master pla n concepts f or the Plum Creek property known as the Windsor Tract These master plans involved a community based on agri urbanism. As part of the studio a site visit took place where the students had the opportunity explore the site first hand. Notes and photos were t aken and questions were asked of the Plum Creek employees to gain a better understanding of their utilization of the land and silviculture practices This GTP stems from the studio exploration and takes a look at what developing an eco industrial park on t he site would mean to the overall land planning of the development. Context The site consists of 17,000 acres of timber property located in east Alachua County Florida. Alachua County is found in north central Florida. The site is roughly 7 miles east of the city of Gainesville and proximal to the rural towns of Windsor, Melrose, and Hawthorne. Directly to the west of the property is Newnans Figure 4 1: Cyclos Master Plan Produced for Fall 2011 Studio on Agri Urbanism
72 | Page Lake which is one of the largest bodies of open water in Alachua County. Most surface water on the site works its wa y through wetlands and flows west towards Newnans L ake or flows south through Lochloosa Creek The site is bounded on the other three sides by State Road 26 on the north, State Road 20 on the south, and US 301 on the east. A CSX railroad runs along US 301 on the east side of the property. Other than the timber lands the site is covered by natural wetlands and has several creeks flowing through it. The site has the ability to function as a wildlife link, e Preserve and the Newnans Lake Conservation Area. Figure 4 2: Site Context
73 | Page Although site is located in a rural area Gainesville is only 7 miles away. Gainesville is the county seat of Alachua County and has over 125,000 residents. It is also the home of the University of Florida, which may provide for cooperation opportunities between the eco industrial park and research entities. The university is looking to expand alternative energy and agricultural research which would lend itself to the proposed EIP development. Ga inesville also has a regional airport which has the ability to provide convenient access to the EIP site from outside the community. Figure 4 3: Water Shed Analysis (Source: 2011 Agri Urban Studio)
74 | Page Site Analysis The site visit allowed for firsthand experience in understanding the scope and characteristic of the proper ty. After the site visit was completed an in depth GIS analysis was undertaken. This analysis looked at several different scales. First, the county scale was looked at to understand how the site fit into the context of the county as a whole. Factors that w ere taken into consideration include proximity to infrastructure, population bodies, water bodies, parks, and energy sources. Figure 4 4: Alachua County Resource Map, created in GIS
75 | Page Once the site was understood from the county scale an analysis of the Plum Creek property was undertaken. The goal of this an alysis was to identify the most appropriate location for the development of an eco industrial park. Multiple factors were taken into consideration during the analysis to find the most suitable areas for development. First, upland (highest elevation) areas were identified as the most appropriate for eco industrial development. Also, proximity to highways and rail networks was an important factor of locating the EIP development. Lastly, constraints to development were considered. These included wetlands and w ater bodies, the 100 year floodplain, and Florida managed lands. Through this GIS analysis the most suitable lands for EIP development were identified (see figure 4 6) Three areas, of at least 200 acres of contiguous land, were identified as suitable for development of an eco industrial park. The entire built environment of the EIP falls within one of t hese identified lands. Most of t he agricultural prac tices take place outside of the direct EIP site but occur on the Plum Creek property. Figure 4 5: Plum Creek Property Exploration (Source: http ://www.envisionalachua.com )
76 | Page Figure 4 6: Site Analysis; Site Selection Map, created in GIS
77 | Page EIP Site Selec tion : SWOT Analysis A SWOT analysis was conducted for each of the three different sites to determine which one is best suited for the EIP. This type of analysis looks at the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of each different potential EIP location. By taking an in depth look at these four different categories insight to each location was gained. Variations were noted in the advantages and disadvantages of each site. Through performing the SWOT analysis the most advantageous EIP site selecti on became clear. Site 1 Site 1 has a unique set of advantages and disadvantages that were discovered during the SWOT Analysis. This location was chosen as the EIP site by the Cyclos master planning team, described in Chapter 1. During previous work, i t wa s chosen primarily because of its proximity to the proposed agri urban development and its location along the CSX rail line. These advantages were also confirmed for this location through the SWOT analysis. Its location along the far eastern boundary of th e site also keeps the industrial sites away from the proposed wildlife corridor. The main disadvantage to the site when compared to the other two is the elongated shape of the property. A more compact parcel of land is ideal for fostering exchanges between co located industrial firms. The elongated parcel shape is dictated by the wetland directly to the west. It was decided that all wetlands on site would not be disturbed by any proposed development, therefore constricting the parcel shape. Figure 4 5 illus trates the SWOT analysis for Site 1.
78 | Page Site 2 The second site that was considered for the location of the EIP is in the center of the Plum Creek property along County Road 1474. The largest advantages of this piece of land were that it would allow for a compact EIP development to foster exchanges, has a direct connection to Windsor and the proposed agri urban development, and there is a low occurrence of wetlands on site to design around. The largest hindrance to development is its proximity to the propo sed wildlife corridor which would run along the western edge of the parcel. The affect that the industrial sites could have on wildlife movement along this corridor would have to be mitigated through design measures such as forested buffers and possibly so und barriers. Figure 4 6 illustrates the SWOT analysis for Site 2. Figure 4 7: SWOT Analysis: Site 1
79 | Page Site 3 The last site that was analyzed is located near the town of Hawthorne, but not directly connected to the largest swath of Plum Creek lands. It functions as an outparcel to the m ain timber producing lands owned by Plum Creek. This location away from the rest of the timber properties also provides for a unique set of advantages and disadvantages as well. The site is also compact like Site 2; however it is more broken up by wetlands on the property than the other two sites being considered. Its proximity to Hawthorne can be seen as an advantage and disadvantage. It is close to a population base that could provide employees to the EIP, but the development may meet objections from loca ls who do not want to see this type of growth in their town. Like Site 1 it is located along US301 and the CSX rail line, but would not have a Figure 4 8: SWOT Analysis: Site 2
80 | Page relevant connection to the proposed agri urban development. Figure 4 7 illustrates the SWOT analysis for Site 3. Functional Diagrams After the SWOT analysis, functional diagrams for each site were produced by printing out a base map boundaries and t he wetlands on the site. Bubbles representing approximate acreage for each of the pr oposed industries (discussed in the following chapter) were used as templates and spatially arranged within each site as a way to explore functional relationships and understand ways that each site could be organized. The average acreage for each industry was based on examples of similar industrial sites. How each of the industries relates to one another was also considered in the placement of Figure 4 9: SWOT Analysis: Site 3
81 | Page each bubble in this exercise. As the bubbles were placed on each site it became evident which site was the most be nefic ial for developing an EIP Summary A nalysis of wetlands, topography, 100 year flood plains, and infrastructure was performed for each site and it was determined that the best site for the design of the EIP w as S ite 2. Site sp ecific design was abl e to begin with the final selection of the site for the EIP determined The ne xt step in the design process was to solidify what type of industries will occur in the eco industrial park based on the selected site and its surrounding lands. This step is dis cussed in the following chapter. The GIS site analysis, SWOT analysis and functional diagrams lead to the identifi cation of the most suitable site on the Plum Creek property for eco industrial park development. It was within th e boundaries of S ite 2 that the EIP master plan was designed. In order to design a holistic master plan for the eco industrial park the GIS, SWOT analysis a nd functional diagrams were paramount in the decision making process. Figure 4 10: Alternative Functional Diagrams
82 | Page The overall site analysis along with the industrial reso urce flow matrices discussed later in Chapter 7, were th e two biggest factors in si ting the industries in the final EIP master plan.
83 | Page Chapter 5 : Industrial and Agricultural Members Introduction The selection of interrelated industrial and agricultural uses is paramount to the success of an eco industrial park. It is through o take shape. T his step in the design process was critical for maximum integration between all site facil ities. This GTP takes a close look at all of the possible industrial and agricultural activities that could take place on the site and then evaluates the relationship flows of inputs and outputs t o determine the best industrial and agricultural mix for the site. Important questions that were evaluated are : W hat are the poten tial synergies on this site? H ow can renewable energy benefit the EIP members? H ow do these relationships influence the overall site landscape? For this GTP all activities on the sit e fall into the following categories: Energy Providers, Treatment and Recovery, Primary Processor of Inputs, Secondary Processor of Inputs, and Agricultural Activities. After discussi ng the proposed site EIP categories their symbiotic relationships and fl ows will be further examined and mapped.
84 | Page Energy Providers As discussed in Chapter 2 it is important that an EIP have an industry that will serve to anchor the development. It is through this anchor that the rest of the development can take shape and th e exchange web can begin to grow. For this site, it is proposed that the anchor tenant be an energy provider. This is important because it is an anchor that can provide low cost energy and steam to many members of the EIP, thus providing the first of many incentives for companies choosing to locate within the EIP. Because this EIP development is based on the principles and tenets of C2C design it was important to select an energy provider i the site analysis revealed that solar and wind may not be the most efficient types of renewable energy for the selected site it was determined that the main energy provider should be a Biomass Energy Facility with several other offshoot bio fuel energy providers. This choice will lead to research opportunities and integration with programs at the University of Florida as well. Biomass Biomass energy is energy created from plant material and ani mal/human wastes. It is the oldest form of renewable energy; in use since our ancestors first learned how to create fire. If we are to transition to a future of clean energy, biomass should play a critical role as a renewable resource. As indicated earlier biomass is renewable because it is an energy source that comes from the sun and can regenerate in a relatively short period of time. captured in plants by converting carbon dioxide and water into a
85 | Page complex compound. Captured energy is released when organic material is burned and turned back into carbon dioxide and water. It is through the process of burning the organic material that biomass energy can be harnessed by humans for storage and use. Bio mass is burned in a gasifier which in turn creates biogas. The biogas is then used as the energy source to heat water in a boiler that creates steam. This steam is then used to turn turbines that generate electricity (see F igure 5 1 ) Beneficial types of biomass for energy use include energy crops such as switch grass food crop residues such as wheat straw and corn stalks, sustainably harvested wood and forest residues, and clean m unicipal and industrial wastes ( Union of Concerned Scientists 2010). By using wood and forest residue as a major i nput the biomass facility would take advantage of the pine that is currently being grown on site while maintaining the biological integrity. Figure 5 1: B iomass Turbine System (Source: http://envirostewards.rutgers.edu/Lecture%20Resource%20Pages/Energy%20resources/Biomass/Energy_from_biomass.pd )
86 | Page The first commercial biomass plant went into operation in the US in 19 98 at the McNeil Power Station in Burlington, Vermont. This station is capable of generating over 50 MW of power from local wood waste products. That is enough power to provide electricity for around 50,00 0 households on a yearly basis ( Rutgers University 2001). practices it is proposed that a facility such as the McNeil Power Station be the anchor tenant of the EIP site. By producing energy derived from the sun a biomass energy facility is in line with the C2C design concept as well as works with the other agricultural aspects of the site. Biofuels Other offshoots to a biomass energy facility are important to the industrial ecosystem of the site while providing more opportunities for research as well. These o ther suggested offshoots are all related to biofuel production and use similar natural and agricultural inputs as a biomass energy facility. Another form of biogas can be produced on site in an anaerobic digester. An anaerobic digester uses micro organisms to break down biomass, usually sewage and animal manure as well as dead plant and animal material, to produce methane gas. The methane gas is captured and then used as a power source, such as replacing traditional petroleum based fuels in vehicles with bi o methane Along with the proposed anaerobic digester an ethanol and biodiesel production facility is also suggested for the site. Ethanol is alcohol made through the fermentation process of carbohydrates commonly found in crops such as corn and sugar cane It increases octane levels while also promoting more complete fuel burning that reduces harmful tailpipe emissions Figure 5 2 : McNeil Power Station (Source: http://www.7dvt.com/files/lm mcneil.jpg )
87 | Page such as carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. Recently ethanol has also been produced from cellulosic biomass. This is derived from non food so urces like trees and grasses which lend itself to the site as well. Biodiesel, on the other hand, is a renewable fuel for diesel engines derived from natural oils like soyb ean, canola, and sunflower oils ( McIntire 2006). Summary In summary, the anchor tenant for this site is to be a biomass energy facility. The biomass facility was chosen as the anchor tenant because of the current land uses of the site and the need to generate power on a large scale to power the EIP and agri urban development. This fa cility will have the capacity to provide inexpensive renewable energy to all of the co located EIP industries as well as the surrounding community. Adjoining facilities producing biofuels are also suggested as secondary energy producers on the site. These include an anaerobic digester and an ethanol and biodiesel production facility. As learned from the Catawba County Eco Complex case study, these facilities will have the ability to produce enough biofuels to power not only the vehicles on the site, but als o possibly county and university vehicles with inexpensive resource efficient fuels. With the implementation of these three facilities it will provide ample energy sources and research opportunities within the EIP, also witnessed in the Catawba County Eco Complex. The Eco Complex promotes on site energy research with over 6 universities. Relationships such as these should also be fostered on the Plum Creek site. Figure 5 3 : (Source: http://www.7stopsmag.com )
88 | Page Treatment and Recovery The following category deals with treatment and recovery of water and o ther resources on the site. Because the objective called for all resources on the site need to be returned into the biological or technical metabolisms to function as a C2C development, infrastructure to assist i n this process was critical to develop Wast e water management is the largest issue in this category. The management of waste water includes both sewage effluent and storm water runoff from the built environment A resource recovery facility is also proposed as the main vehicle to return the technic al resources back into the metabolism. And lastly a composting and fertilizer component is suggested for the design site. Through the composting process biological materials can be reintroduced into the metabolism as soil amendments and fertilizers. Waste Water Treatment Waste water treatment is the next most important design issue. How the water is treated on this site is vital to the success of the EIP. Because the goal of this site is net zero waste, figuring out the best practices for water usage and c leansing needs to be implemented in the design from the onset. Water cleansing is a two pronged issue; both sewage water and storm water need to be considered in the design. However, the approach to cleansing e ach type is very different. The following sect ion will discuss how this design will be handling each type of water cleansing issue. Along with the cleansing of sewage and storm water, water cascading will take place on site. This is where gray water from one industry can be used in another industry be fore needing to be cleansed, saving on the overall number of gallons of water used
89 | Page from the potable water supply. This will be discussed more in depth while explaining t he water resource flows later in C hapter 6 Sewage Water The model used for the sewa ge treatment in this EIP is based on work that I did in the Fall 2011 Plum Creek Studio. A 100 acre constructed wetland water treatment facility was designed to naturally treat all of the sewage effluent on the site. Not only is the constructed wetland int ended to clean the water of the proposed eco industrial park and surrounding community, but also serve the community as a center for learning and wildlife watching. The constructed wetland water treatment facility will be discussed in greater detail in Cha pter 7, the design chapter. Storm Water The second water issue that needs to be addressed on the design site is how to deal with storm water. Because there are so many impervious surfaces in a traditional industrial park, the way that storm water is dea lt with is that water is drained into sewage pipes, ditches, and canals to move the water away from the site as quickly as possible. This traditional school of design and engineering not only has ramifications regarding pollution, but also is often the mor e expensive method. Because the pollutants picked up by fast moving storm water do not have the opportunity to settle out it is most often carried directly into the surface and ground water system s ; flowing straight into wetlands, rivers, and lakes. This l eads to a myriad of ecological problems including algal blooms, altered pH levels, loss of wildlife habitat, and high levels of toxins in our water supply. It is also very taxing on water treatment facilities to deal with sewage effluent as well as storm w ater.
90 | Page Regarding the cost; because the traditional industrial park usually uses more built structure for the purpose of water conveyance this adds to the cost of infrastructure. Traditional infrastructure is one of the most costly aspects of a development In most instances it is less expensive to deal with the storm water in a more natural way, known as Low Impact Development (or LID). LID is a type of storm water management that aims to repair hydrological and ecological function in developed watersheds. It mimics natural hydrologic processes by making green space function to control storm water at its source. These functional vegetated areas create a designed system that incorporates natural processes to manage and cleanse the storm water before being re turned to the water cy cle (Sarte 2010) This cost savings was proven by the use of LID practices during the redesign of the Ford River Rouge Auto plant in Detroit Michigan by William McDonnough. Because of new regulations from the Clean Water Act the pla nt, addressing the issue the traditional way, would have had to invest in new concrete pipes and a water treatment plant to cleanse the storm water from their factory site. This was estimated at a cost of $48 million. Instead, William McDonnough designed a factory that treated the water using natural systems and saved Ford as much as $35 million in infrastructure c osts (McDonough & Braungart 2002) Figure 5 4 : LID Bioswale use in Parking Lot (Source: http://www.water research.net )
91 | Page The Ford River Rouge plant can be used as a model for bridgin g the built environment of the site wit h LID storm water management. If the buildings in the eco industrial park are designed in the same fashion as the Ford plant it will cleanse the water and save real dollars. The new Ford plant removed impervious surfaces by fashioning it with a green roof capable of holding 2 inches of rainwater and porous parking lots that can absorb and store water as well. The storm water then seeps into a constructed marsh where it is cleansed by plants and other biota. From the marsh the water works its way down to the Detroit River through swales planted with native plants that continue to polish the storm water until it is fully clean. This process slows the water by 3 days allowing it to re enter the water cycle cleansed. As discussed above, this was around $35 millio n cheaper than the traditional way (McDonough & Braungart 2002) If water on the eco industrial park site is cleansed in this fashion it will be better Figure 5 5 : Ford Auto Plant, Designed by McDonough and Partners using C2C and LID (Source: http://www.mcdonoughpartner s.com )
92 | Page for the environment, save money, and follow the goal of creating a true C2C eco industrial development. Resource Recovery Facility In C2C design, products are manufactured in a way in which they can be disassembled and put back into the technical and biological metabolism. The resource recovery center is the vehicle to how the technical and biological pieces are gathered and reintroduced into the metabolism. An example of this would be a C2C designed chair being returned to the resource recovery center when the customer is done using it. The center would then disassemble the chair into its technical and biolo gical parts. The technical pieces, mostly metal parts, would then be sent back to the furniture manufacturing company to be reused in the design of diminished and can c ycle in this system perpetually (McDonough & Braungart 2002) The resource recovery center can then send the biological material, such as the fabric upholstery of the chair, to be composted for use in the agricultural sector as a soil additive or it can be used as an input in the earlie r discussed biomass energy facility. Used oils from local restaurants and industries can also be collected at this center for re use in biofuel production. Composting and Fertilizer Facility A composting and fertilizer facility can have direct relation ships with both the water treatment and resource recovery components. Byproducts from these two facilities will be the inputs to make the compost and fertilizers used on this site. Solids taken out of sludge during the waste water treatment process can be used to make fertilizers and biological materials left over from industrial production on the site will be compostable due to the C2C design Figure 5 6 : Composting Facility (Source: http://www.ecomena.org )
93 | Page mandate. These will then in turn be put back into the biological metabolism through application on the agricultura l fields that supplement the input demand for industries on site. This step in the IE process is a large contributor to keeping the circular economy in motion; otherwise soils may become depleted over time. EIP Industries: Primary and Secondary Processor s of Inputs A vast number of industrial uses were researched to compile a list of p otential candidates for the EIP site. The industries had to meet three different criteria to become a candidate for membership in the EIP. First, because this site has the o bjective of producing only cradle to cradle certified products to attain the goal of a net zero waste EIP, the selected industries must manufacture products that fall within the definition of C2C design and certification. This would be a product that at th e end of its life cycle can either be returned to the biological or technical metabolism, as explained in earlier chapters. These types of industries were identified by researching what different C2C certified products are already on the market and selecti ng from these established manufacturers. Second, each selected industry that manufactures C2C products must also have the potential for finished product and byproduct exchanges with other co located industries. Lastly, the industries must be able to take a dvantage of local agricultural uses by using those resources as their primary begins to shape the web of industrial ecology on the site. The industrial uses and agricultural uses were resear ched in conjunction with one another to identify which ones work best with
94 | Page each other and the site in general. The C2C tenets of waste equals food and celebrate diversity were the drivers behind the industrial and agricultural selection process. Primary P rocessors For the purpose of this GTP a primary processor of inputs refers to an industrial entity that takes raw natural resources and turns them into a finished product. The finished product or byproducts produced from a primary processor of inputs can t hen be the input to a secondary processor later somewhere along the industrial ecology web. Through research of plausible industries that fit with potential and actual local agricultural practices it was determined that the best Primary Processor industrie s for this particular site are a wood products manufacturer, packaging, bio plastics, textiles, and food production. Each of these industries uses raw resources from the land to manufacture their finished products. This does not mean, however, that they ar e unable to use recycled materials in any of their production. In fact at times they do, but their main inputs are not generally recycled materials. The exchange flows between entities will be explained in further detail in later sections. Wood Products Ma nufacturer The wood products manufacturer is proposed as a member of the EIP due to the current primary land use on the site being forestry. All 17,000 acres of the Plum Creek property are in forestry and the state of Florida has over 15.6 millio n acres of timberland in total ( Florida Forestry Association n.d.). Because of this, the mill would be in an optimal location to take advantage of its proximity to the input of raw timber. This closeness also works to keep the
95 | Page carbon footprint of the EIP site low be cause the resources do not travel far to reach their destination. Due to population growth, demand for industrial timber is expe cted to double by the year 2020 (Abuyuan et al. 1999). Because of increased demand by ecologically minded firms, opportunities f or certified sustainably harvested wood exist on this site and fit within the stated goals of the EIP. It is recommended that the wood products manufacturer develop a diversified manufacturing base to take advantage of the demand for sustainably sourced pr oducts and the relationships between other members of the EIP. There are by product exchange opportunities between the wood products manufacturer and other proposed EIP members including the paper mill and the biomass energy facility which will be discusse d later in the chapter. Packaging Packaging makes up over 50 percent of the volume in t he municipal solid waste stream (McDonough & Braungart 2002) There is opportunity for a firm that creates alternative packaging products to take advantage of rela tionships with other sustainably minded firms co located in the EIP. These other companies will be looking for ways to cut down on waste and a packaging firm has the ability to help them meet their goals. One example of an alternative to traditional packag ing is cellulose based packaging. This product is made from plant crops that are biodegradable. that will be grown on site and used to make this type of packaging. The sugar cane scraps left over after the manufacturing process can be sent to the biomass facility for use in electricity generation, serving a dual purpose to the EIP. After Figure 5 7 : Assortment of Biodegradable Packaging (Source: http://begreenpackaging.wordpress. com )
96 | Page use, this type of packaging can be returned di rectly to the biological metabolism. Used containers can be returned to the Resource Recovery Facility where they can then be sent to composting for use in the agricultural fields. This follows the site goal of creating no waste. The use of this type of e co packaging will assist in facilitating a sustainable image of the companies and their products that have located within the EIP as well. Bio Plastics A bio plastics firm is also proposed to complement the other EIP members. Bio plastics are organic based plastics derived from biomass a nd are therefore biodegradable ( Cereplast n.d). This type of firm specializes in producing bio plastic resin. The resin is then in turn sold to other industries that use it to manufacture plastic molded products. Bio pl astic firms lend themselves to exchanges with firms that manufacture auto parts, among others. An example of this type of exchange is the Ford Motor Company purchasing bio plastic resin to create plastic dash boards installed in their Ford Fiesta model t ha t are biodegradable after use ( Impact Lab 2011). This type of exchange works to further enrich the industrial ecology web. Textiles Textile companies are also capable of producing products that after use can be fully reintroduced into the biological meta bolism. William McDonough and Michael Braungart, were asked to create a compostable upholstery fabric. The fabric they produced was a combination of plant and animal fibers: wool and ramie. Th e fabric trimmings left over from the production process were able to be Figure 5 8 : Uses for Bio plastic Resin (Source: http://www.cereplast.com/ )
97 | Page used as mulch in local gardens, returning the product to nature (McDonough & Braungart 2002) A company producing textiles such as these is proposed as a member of the EIP as it has t he opportunity for multiple exchanges with other firms in the EIP and the surrounding environment through the composting center. Food Processor Because of the agricultural practices taking place on and around the Plum Creek property a food production fa cility is also proposed as the final primary processor. Plant and animal products can be processed and packaged at this facility before being sent to market. This creates the opportunity for by product exchanges among other EIP members, the agricultural se ctor, and a direct relationship with the packaging firm. A close relationship between the food processor and the farmers would be mutually beneficial; with the farmers providing locally grown inputs and the food processor providing livestock feeds made fro m the by products of the production process. Secondary Processors Secondary processors of inputs are industries that use primary products to produce finished goods. These exchanges can either be completed through direct exchang e with co located firms or through obtaining inputs from the resource recovery center. Therefore, to complete the circular economy of the EIP a resource recovery facility is needed. After looking into the proposed primary processors and the potential agric ultural uses, complimentary secondary processors were chosen for the site. The secondary processor industries Fig ure 5 9 : Food Processing Facility (Source: http://foodmatters.tv )
98 | Page recommended for the site include carpet and wood flooring, paper mill, furniture, auto part manufacture and other specialty cottage industries. Fl ooring A flooring company specializing in carpet made of plant and animal based fibers as well as flooring produced from sustainable woods is proposed as a secondary processor on the EIP site. By producing natural carpeting and flooring the firm positions itself to have many exchange flows between other firms located in the EIP. It will also have a direct relationship with the resource recovery center because once the flooring is used by the consumer it can be returned to the resource recovery center to be broken down and then returned to the flooring company for reuse in production. This allows the product to continue to cycle in the technical metabolism without its overall quality being reduced over time. Paper Mill The proposed paper mill is a direct response to the earlier discussed timber use on and around the Plum Creek property. It is also strategically in conjunction with a planned primary processor; the wood products manufacturer. A paper mill is able to take manufacturer. Wood scraps and sawdust from the wood products manufacturer can be used as the inputs for the pulping process of paper production. Recycled material from the resource recovery park can also be introduced into the paper production process as an alternative feedstock. Plant fibers that are proposed to be grown on the site, such as kenaff, will also be used as inputs for pulping as well. Kenaff has been widely researched as an industrial paper fiber because of its qualities as a renewable Figure 5 10 : Paper Mill (Source: http://stateimpact.npr.org )
99 | Page resource. The other advantage kenaf has as a paper fiber is that it has lower lignin content than traditional tree fibers. This means the paper would require very few chemicals for bleaching because kenaf is naturally whiter (Abuyuan et al. 1999). The growing of kenaf on the Plum Creek property will be discussed in more depth in the section regarding planned agriculture on the site. Furniture Furniture designed and built with sustainability in mind is a growing industry in the United States. As consumers become more sustainably minded, the demand for these types of products continues to rise. According to the article a study showed that although 46% of consumers were interested in green furniture options, only 4% purchased gree n furnishings. This was attributed to there being a low number of options even though customers were willing to pay 10% more for green products. This provides evidence of a difference between the supply and demand for green furniture options and therefore provides opportunity for an EIP member producing such products. Furniture is being designed in a way that all of the parts can be returned to the technical and biological metabolism after use. It is important that the market fill the demand for such produc ts by continuing to manufacture products that engender these ideals. Because of this, a green furnit ure company is proposed for the site. The planned firm has the opportunity for many exchanges with other EIP firms; including the wood products manufacturer the textile firm, and the resource recovery center among others. The resource recovery center will also play an important role in relation to the furniture firm because used furniture that is returned there is broken down and returned to the furniture co mpany for reuse. Figure 5 11 : Skylight, Herman Miller Greenhouse Furniture Factory (Source: http://www.mcdonoughpartners.com )
100 | Page There is also opportunity for the furniture company to take advantage of the agricultural inputs being grown on site as well. Auto Parts As the cost of petroleum continues to rise, alternative materials are continually being explored. Th is is evidenced in the car part manufacturing industry. Currently, as much as 10 percent of car parts that are typically made from petroleum plastics can now be made from soy based polyurethane foams or bio plastics. Car seats made from the soy based foam take considerably less energy to produce than traditional seats. Also, while the soy is footprint. Scientists at Ford are also experimenting by mixing mushroom roots together with other pla nt matter, like wheat straw, and putting the mixture into car part shaped molds. These parts will be 100% biodegradable when introduced into production vehicles. These mushroom parts have the potential to change how car parts are manufactured as we know it ( Impact Lab 2011). This is why a car part manufact uring firm is suggested for the site as well. It fits within the goals and ideals of the EIP development while enriching the web of industrial ecology as well. Cottage Industries Other small cottage indus tries that can take advantage of by product exchanges are also promoted for this site. These types of industries come from a broad range of backgrounds, but produce small scale natural and sustainable products sourcing their inputs from the site. Businesse s that have the potential to be included in this type of EIP are personal hygiene, cleaning supplies, candle makers, and other green industries to name a few. Space for these types of companies will be provided for in a business
101 | Page incubator where the busines s can grow and eventually move into larger permanent facilities in the EIP. A business incubator can provide these businesses with access to financing, marketing, other business services, and collaboration among businesses within the incubator and EIP, and access to e merging technical opportunities (Abuyuan et al. 1999). Agricultural Activities ecology. Without agriculture or working landscapes fulfilling the resource needs of the energy pro vide rs and primary producers on the site the industrial ecology web would not be able to sustain itself. By producing the resources needed by industry on the site it allows for the completion of a true functioning circular economy where biological and tech nical resources are returned to metabolisms based on the tenets of C2C design. The types of agriculture that are proposed for this site were selected in conjunction with the development of which industries were to be located on the site. A holistic approac h was used to find industries and agriculture that could work with one another and the land of the selected site. Therefore only agriculture that can be grown successfully on site and can be used by the co located EIP industries was selected. When researc h of potential agriculture was initiated it was assumed that the agricultural types would fall into three different categories; energy, food, and industrial. As the web of industrial ecology began to grow the categories began to blur with multiple crops be ing used in all 3 different categories. Although this blurring was found, for the purpose of this GTP the
102 | Page crops will be broken down into the three aforementioned categories. Energy Energy crops grown on site are not only important as sources of energy production but also for providing research opportunities. The crops that fall into the energy category and that can be successfully grown on this site are canola, soybeans, sunflowers, algae corn and sugar cane. These crops will be the inputs for the etha nol and biodiesel facility. Corn and sugar cane can be used through the fermentation process in ethanol production and the oil extracted from canola, soybeans, sunflowers, and algae can be used in biodiesel production. The by products from this type of bio fuel production can then be used by other co located industries, the anaerobic digester, or the biomass energy facility. Research, in conjunction with universities, can be done at the site on these energy crops to identify which variety produce the best b iofuels, crop yields in the north Florida climate, sequester the most carbon, and emissions testing. Food Types of agriculture that have a direct relationship to the food industry are also suggested for this site. These varieties of agriculture include fish farming (aquaculture) the raising of livestock and poultry, and wheat production. They were not only selected for their relationship solely to the food industry but also because of the other resulting by product exchanges that will enhance the web of industrial ecology on the site. By products that come from the production of these types of agriculture can be used in the energy and industrial sectors. Figure 5 12 : E nergy Crops, Soybean Field (Source: http://www.mrtopstep.com )
103 | Page Industrial The last category of agriculture is related to the industrial sector of the EIP. These crops are direct inputs in to co located industries on the site. They first enter into the industrial sector through a primary producer and the by products can then either go to a secondary producer or the energy sector. The suggested industrial crops are timber (which is currently grown on the design property), ramie, kenaf, bamboo, and bulrush. Each one of these crops can be used in an industry that is found in the EIP. This further serves to foster exchanges between the co located firms. Summary As evid enced above it is paramount to the success of the development to get the correct mix of co located industries and agricultural activities involved in order to begin the web of exchanges between entities. If it is possible to plan and recruit certain indust ries from the onset of a project, that work with the surrounding lands, the EIP will have a higher success rate. This was explained by Barry Edwards, director of the Catawba County Eco Complex, during the interview conducted with him regarding the Eco Comp lex case study. Although one of the difficulties of executing a development such as this is recruiting firms, if certain firms are targeted from the onset of the design process they often are more willing to engage in this type of development. After the industrial and agricultural mix of the site is decided it is important to look at the resource flows. This will allow for the most efficient site design to accommodate for resource movement in the development. Chapter 6 discussed the types resource flows Figure 5 13 : Ramie Plants used to make textiles (Source: http://www.chemical engineering.co m)
104 | Page a nd exchanges that can take place in the proposed EIP development.
105 | Page Chapter 6: Mapping Resource Flows Flows Through Co l ocated EIP Members A characteristic that differentiates industrial ecology from other environmental management s ystems is the focus on mapping resource flows through industry, agriculture, and the environment. Materials flow accounting (MFA) can be used to quantify all resource flows in and out of a system. This is done by setting a system boundary and tracking spec ific resou rces as they flow through the industrial ecology system. In the case of this GTP the boundary is the eco industrial park location. By tracking the resources at each step in the EIP exchange process, quantification of resource use and by product e xchanges can be completed. There are multiple advantages to materials flow accounting. The balance between inputs and outputs can be examined through MFA. This can serve as an overall indicator of can also serve to identify hidden flows or leaks in a system and help to identify new resources and by products that are being left unutilized. MFA is a helpful technique in visualizing symbiosis of industries on the site. By mapping materials flows it pro vides opportunity to identify additional symbiotic exchanges. The following section does not attempt to provide detailed, quantitative analysis of resource flows; it is intended to identify and map the resource flows on the site in a legible method which the reader can understand (Abuyuan et al. 1999).
106 | Page The first step in the process of flows mapping was to produce the list of the industries and agricultural activities that were propos ed for the site. This was done by creating a spreadsheet that broke down all 17 industrial and 15 agricultural activities that will take place on the site. Then a simple comparison analysis was done to identify industries and agricultural activities that have the potential for exchange based relationships. The same was done by listing industries on both axes to identify relationships that could take place between the co located industries. Potential Indus try and Agriculture Exchange Analysis Figure 6 1 : Table showing potential for industrial and agricultural exchanges
107 | Page Resource flows fall into 3 different categories of flows. The categories are energy, water, and biomass flows. Energy flows cons ist of electricity, biofuels, and steam. Water flows generally cycle through the system as treated potable water, gray water (water used by industry), and treatment water (water that has gone through the cycle and needs to be cleansed). Biomass flows large ly enter the system as raw materials. This can either be in the form of agricultural products or as commodities such as metals. As the materials cycle through the site, at each step, they are broken down into by products that can then be used by other co l ocated members. The next step in the flow mapping process was to identify potential exchanges between co located industries Figure 6 2 : Table showing potential for exchanges between industries Potential Industrial Exchange Analysis
108 | Page and agricultural activities and how they fall into each of the three flow categories. Energy Flows As explained above energy flows on this site consist of electricity, biofuels, and steam. Each one of the industries was examined to see which type of energy flows could take place amongst one another. After identifying the type of energy needs of each individual industry they were categ orized to determine how energy could cascade through the EIP to use it most efficiently. Creating electricity on site to provide inexpensive green energy for all EIP members is a stated goal of this GTP. This is implemented through the biomass energy faci lity serving as the anchor industry to the EIP site. Electricity produced in large quantities at the biomass facility will be utilized by every co located member. This begins the flow of energy on site, not only with the creation of electricity, but also o f steam that will be captured and used by the other EIP members in a cascading and circulating fashion. Industries were categorized by their consumption of steam to produce finished goods and what they use the steam for in production. These two things ha ve a direct relationship with one another as some industrial processes are more steam intensive than others. The primary users of steam energy on site are the paper mill, food producer, and packaging. These industries receive their steam directly from the biomass facility where it is produced in the largest abundance. After use it is cascaded down to other industries that use less quantities of steam. Steam energy used by the paper mill is to be reused in the industrial energy sector. Because biofuels (bio diesel and ethanol)
109 | Page and the anaerobic digester use steam in a similar fashion it makes sense that it is cycled from the same source. Steam is sent to biofuels producers from the paper mill. After use, that steam can be sent to the anaerobic digester which in turn can be cycled back to the biomass facility completing the cycle of use and reuse. Also, within the energy sector other forms of energy are produced for use on the site. Methane gas produced by the anaerobic digester can be sent to the biomass faci lity for use in electricity generation when biomass is not in abundance. This will allow the biomass facility to run at full capacity even during times of the year when there is less biomass being produced. Fuel produced by the ethanol, bio diesel, and ana erobic digester will also be used for vehicle consumption on site. This serves to keep the site energy self sufficient. Food production is also a primary user of steam directly from the biomass facility. It can be cycled down for use by textiles and carpe ting/flooring industries because they both consume less steam energy than what is used in food production. Steam in food production is mostly used in the cooking and cleaning processes. The textile and carpeting/flooring industries mostly use the steam in the dying process. Because of this they were linked together for using steam energy from the same source. Packaging is also a major user of steam energy from the biomass facility. In the packaging industry steam can be used in the molding and sterilization process. Because of this, it can be cascaded down and used by bio plastics and auto parts manufacturing. In bio plastics production the steam is used in sterilization and in auto parts it is used in small amounts in the finishing process. The bio plastics industry is also a large producer of steam and therefore a good resource for the wood
110 | Page products and furniture industries. The wood related industries use steam in the wood bending process among other things. After use by these industries it can be cycled b ack to the biomass facility to begin the cycle over again Figure 6 3 depicts the energy flows within the EIP development. Figure 6 3 : EIP Energy Flows Map
111 | Page Energy Flows Listed Biomass S ends Electricity to all members of EIP. Steam is sent to Food Production, Paper Mill, and Packaging Receives Steam and methane gas from Anaerobic Digester and steam from Textiles, Carpet/Flooring, Wood Products and Furniture Food Production Sends Steam to Textiles and Carpet/Flooring Receives Steam from Biomass Textiles Sends Steam to Biomass Receives Steam from Food Production Carpet and Wood Flooring Sends Steam to Biomass Receives Steam from Food Production Packaging Sends Steam to Bio plast ics and Auto Parts Manufacturer Receives Steam from Biomass Bio plastics Sends Steam to Wood Products and Furniture Receives Steam from Packaging Auto Parts Manufacturing Sends Steam to Biomass Receives Steam from Packaging Wood Products Sends Ste am to Biomass Receives Steam from Bio plastics Furniture Sends Steam to Biomass Receives Steam from Bio plastics Paper Mill Sends Steam to Biofuels Receives Steam from Biomass Biofuels Sends Steam to Anaerobic Digester and fuel to vehicle consumpt ion Receives Steam from Paper Mill Anaerobic Digester Sends Steam and methane to Biomass and fuel to vehicle consumption Receives Steam from Biofuels
112 | Page Water Flows Water consumption and use on this site is an issue that needs to be dealt with in a very careful manner particularly given the impact on the Florida aquifer. Keeping with the goal of a closed loop system, water will need to be cycled throughout the site, cleansed on site, and use kept to a minimum. Industrialization has brought on contaminati on of ground and surface waters as well as the substantial depletion of aquifers, leading to saltwater encroachment (Abuyuan et al. 1999). Because the Florida aquifer is such a fragile system measures to design the EIP to reuse and recycle water supplies in a cascading fashion between co located members became very important. To create a system in which water is cascaded the quality of the water needed by each cluster member was evaluated, as was the quality of the wastewater after use. As discussed above, the type of water will fall into three categories; potable water, gray water (water used by industry), and treatment water (water that has gone through the cycle and needs to be cleansed). Using this classification, opportunities for water reuse were iden tified and the water flows were able to be mapped. It is assumed that the EIP will need to draw some water from the aquifer; however this will be kept to a minimum through site design and water cascading. In this scheme, only industries requiring cleanse d potable water as input can draw from those supplies from the waste water treatment center. These include biofuel production, biomass, the paper mill, agriculture, resource recovery, furniture, textiles and food production. Water leaving biofuel processin g facilities would contain nutrients and residual organic material from the fermentation process. This mixture makes an ideal input to the anaerobic digester, where it can be used to dilute solid biomass
113 | Page and slurries to approximately 15 25% solid material before digestion. After the organic material has been digested and converted to biogas, the remaining liquids contain only high concentrations of inorganic nutrients. This liquid can be applied to agricultural fields as an organic fertilizer (Abuyuan et al 1999). Gray water left over from industrial processes can be reused in By reusing the water in this fashion it will lower overall consumption at the EIP site. Uses can include washing mac hinery, the cooling process, and flushing systems. The co located members that can take advantage of this gray water are composting, anaerobic digester, carpet/flooring, packaging, bio plastics, auto parts, wood products, and biomass. After the gray water is used and contaminates added to the supply it must be returned to the waste water treatment facility for cleansing before it can enter the EIP site water cycle once again. By cycling this water and treating it on site it will reduce the need for groundwa ter extraction and the negative impacts on the aquifer. Aquaculture also plays a role in the water treatment process. During the treatment process water that has gone through the primary phase of treatment to remove solids is sent to the aquaculture faci lity. By the fish using nutrients contained in the water it assists in the cleansing process before the water is sent back to the treatment facility for secondary treatment in the algae lagoons. Figure 6 4 depicts the water flows within the EIP developmen t.
114 | Page Water Flows Listed Water Treatment Center Receives Water to be treated from Carpet/ Flooring, Packaging, Auto Parts Manufacturing, Resource Rec overy, Wood Products, Textiles, Composting and Agri urban core Sends Potable water to Bio diesel, Ethanol, Agricultural Lands, Biomass, Paper Mill, Resource Recovery, Furniture, Textiles, and Food and Animal Feed Biomass Energy Facility Receives Potable water from Water Treatment Center and gray water from Agricultural Lands Sends Gray water to Ca rpet/ flooring and Packaging Figure 6 4 : EIP Water Flows Map
115 | Page Anaerobic Digester Receives Gray water from Bio diesel and Ethanol Sends Gray water to Composting and Agricultural Lands Bio diesel Receives Potable water from Water Treatment Center Sends Gray water to Anaerobic Diges ter Ethanol Receives Potable water from Water Treatment Center Sends Gray water to Anaerobic Digester Composting and Fertilizer Receives Gray water from Anaerobic Digester and Food and Animal Feed Sends Water to be treated to Water Treatmen t Center Resource Recovery Center Receives Potable water from Water Treatment Center Sends Water to be treated to Water Treatment Center Wood Products Receives Gray water from Furniture Sends Water to be treated to Water Treatment Center Packagi ng Receives Gray water from Biomass Sends Water to be treated to Water Treatment Center Bio plastics Receives Gray water from Paper Mill Sends Gray water to Auto Parts Manufacturing Textiles Receives Potable water from Water Treatment Center Sends Water to be treated to Water Treatment Center Food and Animal Feed Receives Potable water from Water Treatment Center Sends Gray water to Composting Carpet and Wood Flooring Receives Gray water from Biomass Sends Water to be treated to Wat er Treatment Center Paper Mill Receives Potable water from Water Treatment Center Sends Gray water to Bio plastics Furniture Receives Potable water from Water Treatment Center Sends Gray water to Wood Products
116 | Page Auto Parts Manufacturing Receive s Gray water from Bio plastics Sends Water to be treated to Water Treatment Center Agricultural Lands Receives Potable water from Water Treatment Center and gray water from Anaerobic Digester Sends Gray water to Biomass Organics and Biomass Flows Because of the agricultural activities that take place on the site organic materials will be in constant supply to be used as industrial inputs. Plants processed through industrial systems are reduced down into different components. Industries extract the components they want and are left with the others. These are known as by products. It was stated earlier, that the by product of one industry can be the input of another. It is through this by e by products can then be processed further to provide fuel energy, food for other animals, or a form of organic material that can easily be reapplied to and reabsorbed by the land. Another form of exchange that can happen on the site is that of finished p roduct exchange; where the finished market product of one co located industry may be an input of another industry. It is these types of organics and biomass flows that contribute to the overall health of the site IE. Plant inputs and residues from harves ting and food processing can be processed by the anaerobic digester, ethanol producer, bio diesel, packaging, bio plastics, or composting facility. Human and animal residues will go to the anaerobic digester or to aquaculture. Trees harvested from the site will go to the wood products facility to be processed. About 50% will be extracted as
117 | Page high value lumber and sold to the market, or used by the co located furniture and wood flooring companies. The other 50% will be chips, scraps, and shavings which can go to the paper mill or the biomass energy facility. The herbaceous fiber crops of kenaf, ramie, sugar cane, and bamboo will be processed, and the extracted fiber will be made into paper, while the other woodier parts of the plants can be used by the biomass facility to create electricity (Abuyuan et al. 1999). Biofuels produced by the energy sector can be used by farm and other EIP vehicles and any not used by the EIP and agricultural practices can be sold to market. Lignin from the ethanol producer can be processed into binders used in production of plywood and fiberboard, and furfural can be incorporated into resins, adhesives, and protective coatings for wood. Silage, from fermentation in the ethanol production process, can be incorporated into fish and a nimal feeds, or used in the anaerobic digester to produce methane. Biogas from the anaerobic digester can be used by the EIP vehicles as well or it can be used at the biomass facility to create electricity as well. Digestate, another product of anaerobic d igestion, is a quality feedstock for composting. The nutrient rich liquid fertilizer from the digestate can be applied directly to fields in lieu of non organic fertilizers and the composted materials can be applied directly back to farm lands to increase productivi ty and close the nutrient loops (Abuyuan et al. 1999). The following is an extensive list that shows all of the organics, biomass, and finished product flows that will take place on the site by breaking out all of the inputs, outputs, and by prod ucts. Figure 6 5 depicts the Organics and Biomass flows within the EIP development.
118 | Page Organics and Biomass Exchanges Biomass Energy Facility Inputs Biomass Energy Facility receives agricultural scraps from all industrial production Outputs Electric ity is produced for entire EIP Byp roducts Boiler ash to go to composting facility for soil amendment Anaerobic Digester Inputs Animal wastes come from livestock and food production, human bio solids come from waste water treatment plant Outputs Biogas is produced from methane that can be used to power vehicles or can be used directly in gas turbines at the biomass facility to produce electricity By products Digestate left over from production can be used in soil amendment and fertilizers at the compost ing facility. Also it can be used by the packaging and bio plastics firms as a filler for structure in plastics Figure 6 5 : EIP Organics and Bioma ss Web
119 | Page Bio Diesel Inputs Agricultural inputs of algae, canola, soybeans, and sunflowers. Outputs Bio diesel used to power vehicles By products Seed meal can be used as livestock feed, biomass feedstock, or soil amendment at the composting facility Ethanol Inputs Agricultural inputs of sugar cane and corn stover Outputs Ethanol used to power vehicles By products Lignin can go to wood products facil ity for use in making flexible wood, textiles as a dye, and auto parts manufacturing for use in injection molding. Black syrup can be used in bio plastics production. The silage and protein can go to animal and fish feeds and the anaerobic digester. Waste Water Treatment Inputs Takes in waste water from all EIP facilities to be cleansed Outputs Cleansed water for industrial and agricultural use. Also algae, bulrush, sugar cane, and bamboo will all be used in the water cleansing process and can be used as inputs by co located industries By products Bio solids can be used in anaerobic digester and for use in fertilizers. Nutrients in the water can be used by fish farm. Polyhydroxyalkanoates can be used as input in bio plastics production. Composting and F ertilizer Inputs Receives biodegradable and organic wastes from co located industries, resource recovery center, waste water treatment, and agricultural lands Outputs Compost, fertilizers, and soil amendments are produced for the surrounding agricultural lands By products Waste materials not used in composting process can be sent to biomass energy facility Resource Recovery Center Inputs Used and discarded biological and technical nutrients that need re introduction into the cycle of industrial ecology Outputs Recovered materials that can be used as inputs by co located industries; including the bio plastics, carpet and flooring, paper mill, furniture, auto parts manufacturer, and composting facilities. Byp roducts Organic waste materials not used by co located industries can be sent to biomass energy facility Wood Products Inputs Timber, bamboo, sugar cane, ramie, and kenaf are all agricultural inputs grown on site. Lignin form ethanol production is used to make some wood products more flexible Output s Finished wood products. These can include pieces for furniture production and board feet used in wood flooring By products Saw dust and scraps can be used in paper mill and packaging. All other tree trimmings and scraps can be sent to biomass energy fac ility
12 0 | Page Packaging Inputs Agricultural inputs of bulrush, sugar cane, bamboo, wheat, and kenaf. Whey waste from cheese production at food processor can be used to make plastic membrane liners. Outputs Biodegradable packaging that can be used by every co located member to package their own finished goods By products Organic waste materials can be used in composting process or can be sent to biomass energy facility Bio plastics Inputs Agricultural inputs of algae, kenaf, canola, corn, soybeans, and sunf lower. Black syrup from ethanol production. Polyhydroxyalkanoates from the waste water treatment plant. Outputs Biodegradable bio plastic resin that can be used in injection molding. By products Seed meal and scraps can be used as livestock feed, bioma ss feedstock, or soil amendment at the composting facility Textiles Inputs Fibers are produced from bamboo, kenaf, ramie, wool and other animals raised on site. Hides from the livestock can also be used to make leather in the textile factory. Dyes can be produced from algae grown at the waste water treatment center and from lignin leftover after the process of making ethanol Outputs Textiles made with all natural fibers that can be returned to the biological metabolism after use. The furniture company wo uld have a need for such textiles By products Biodegradable scraps can be sent to composting center or be used by biomass energy facility Food Production Inputs Agricultural inputs of algae, sugar cane, bamboo, wheat, canola, corn, soybeans, sunflower, l ivestock, and fish. Seed meal and silage can be used to make animal feeds at the food production facility Outputs Finished food products to be sent to market By products Animal waste and food residues can be used in anaerobic digester. Food residues can a lso be used to produce animal feeds. Other organic biomass can go to biomass energy facility Carpet and Wood Flooring Inputs Fibers to make carpeting. These can be fibers made of kenaf, ramie, bamboo, or wool; or produced from bio plastics. Wood flooring will be made with board feet from the wood products facility. Also, recovered carpet and wood flooring can be repurposed from the resource recovery center Outputs Finished carpeting and wood flooring products By products Biodegradable scraps can be sent to composting center or be used by biomass energy facility Paper Mill Inputs Agricultural Inputs of sugar cane, bamboo, kenaf, and ramie can be used to produce paper. Sawdust and scraps from the wood products facility will be used to produce paper as wel l. Collected paper from the resource recovery center can also be to make recycled paper stock
121 | Page Output Finished paper products sold to market By products Cellulosic fibers can be used in textile, carpet, bio plastics, and ethanol production. It can also be used in the biomass energy facility Furniture Inputs Wood pieces come from wood products facility, metals come from the resource recovery center, textiles and leather for upholstery come from the textile company, and plastics come from bio plastic resin made at the bio plastics facility Outputs Finished furniture made of sustainable products By products Biodegradable scraps can be sent to composting center or be used by biomass energy facility Summary From carefully studying all of the potential resourc e flows that could take place on the site the web of industrial ecology was mapped. Through this process it was determined that this site has the potential for over 100 unique resource exchanges. As a comparison, the Kalundborg case discussed in Chapter 2 had 20 mapped byproduct exchanges. The potential for resource exchanges on this site is enormous if the site is designed to maximize these resource exchanges. Before any design work could be done it was important to map out all of the different types of exchange flows that could take place between the co located firms and agriculture. Over 100 potential unique resource exchanges were identified through this process. These exchanges shaped land use decisions in the master planning stage. Each type of flow, whether it was an energy, water, or biomass flow, was examined to find the best fitting resource exchanges for the site. It was imperative to have an understanding of the industrial ecological web that will take place on site before making long term desig n decisions. By mapping out the exchanges it allowed for a better and more efficient final master plan.
122 | Page The following chapter presents a discussion of the master plan development and how it functions regarding the resource flows through the site.
123 | Page Chapter 7: Design The previous chapters examined the potential industries and agriculture that could take place on the site and the resource flows that would stem from these selected industries. Through a careful look into these industries a nd the examination of the web of industrial ecology that would grow out of resource flow exchanges between these industries the site master plan was designed. The f ollowing chapter walks the reader through the design process for the EIP master plan and exp lains the site program. Industrial Resource Flow Matrices The first step that was taken after mapping out the resource flows was to examine what these flows mean and how they can be translated to site design. This was done through creating a set of matri ces tha t allow ed the designer to 1.) Determine the ranking of ; and 2. ) Determine the strongest resource exchange relationships among the industries. K nowing which industries have the stron gest relationships master planning decisions could begin. Industries wi th strong relationships are si ted near each other to foster exchange and reduce waste that would if located apart. The following matrices rank the importance o f the resource exchange s among the industries on a scale of 0 to 2. 2 being a strong relationship, 1 being a moderate relationship, and 0 is no relationship between the industries. Fro m the out set, these exchanges were broken into the three categories of exchange discussed in Ch apter 6 ( energy, water, and biomass). The color
124 | Page coding in the matrices is related to the four categories of site industries that were discussed in Chapter 5. The red industries are the energy providers, the green industries are the treatment and recovery f acilities, the purple industries are primary processors, and the blue industries are secondary processors. Industrial Resource Flow Matrix by Exchange Type Figure 7 1: Energy Flow Matrix Figure 7 2: Water Flow Matrix
125 | Page Analysis of the matrix count totals led to the determination of which industries were most important to the web of industrial ec ology and therefore the functioning of the site. The biomass energy facility and water t reatment facility emerged as the two highest ranking industries, which confirms and validates the decision to make the Biomass facility the anchor tenant for the Figure 7 3: Biomass Flow Matrix Figure 7 4: Matrix Totals
126 | Page EIP. A s discussed in earlier chapters, the anchor tenant is the initial source for the web of industrial ecology and all site resource exchanges stem from this tenant. Figure 7 5 ranks the industries in order of most important to the site to least important. Ranking of Importance Exchange Matrix Totals 1 Biomass Energy Facility 43 2 Water Treatment 27 3 Anaerobic Digester Biogas 18 4 Composting and Fertilizer 18 5 Bio plastics 17 6 Biofuel Facility 16 7 Wood Products 15 8 Food Production/ Farm Feeds 15 9 Furniture 14 10 Textile 13 11 Paper Mill 13 12 Resource Recovery 12 13 Packaging 12 14 Carpet/ Flooring 12 15 Auto parts Manufacturing 10 16 Cottage Industries 7 The matrices allowed the designer to take a look at the most important excha nges that would take place on site. This was done by looking at the matrix totals and taking note of which industries scored the highest in terms of exchanges among them The following figure, 7 6, illustrates the most important industrial re lationships on site. It was this list that served as the basis for si ting of indus tries within the EIP. Industry pairs with high scores were located close togeth er in the EIP t o fost er resource exchanges Figure 7 ogy
127 | Page By analyzing the resource exchange flows program compon ents and their exchanges were considered in the spatial arrangement for the comprehensive master plan. it allowed for a master plan design that took these exchanges into consideration whe n siting each industry. This allow ed for the most resource efficient design possible for a selected site goals and objectives to use the resource flows for EIP site planning decisions The following illustrates how these matrices in fluenced the overall design Functional Site Diagram After the industrial resource flow matrices were completed a functional site diagram was produced. This diagram, which was discussed in the site analysis chapter (Chapter 4), served to figure out placement of the industries on the design site. T he final spatial arrangement was driven by the Industry Relationship Score Matrix Figure 7 6: Industry Relationship Scores Industry Relationship Score Table
128 | Page (Figure 7 7 ). This would allow for a resource efficient design. Several different industrial arrangements were explored until the most be neficial placement was revealed Th e following figure is the functional diagram that illustrates the most efficient industrial arrangement that could be determined for the site. From this diagram the final site master plan began to take shape. Streets were laid out to connect the industries to each o ther th e surrounding land uses and the agri urban core developed for the Cyclos master plan The master plan and program were developed further from this idea. Figure 7 7: Functional Site Diagram
129 | Page Si ting of the EIP As discussed in Chapter 4, a series of steps were taken to identify the most appropriate location for an EIP. This included looking at 3 different locations, their strengths and weaknesses, and how the industries would fit into the selected lands. Through t his process a boundary for the EIP was chosen. To re orient the reader and provide the context for the eco industrial development site refer to Figure 7 8 It shows the relationship of the EIP development to surrounding site features such as the urban core development. Figure 7 8: EIP Location on Plum Creek Lands Agri Urban Core EIP Development
130 | Page The next step in the process was to tak e a look at how the EIP would fit within its selected site This was done through the re examination of the site analysis at an enlarged scale In order to design with the land t he two main driving factors behind the siting of the EI P were looking at the t opography and the wetlands were locations An important part of this GTP design was to design with sensitivity to the land. The highest elevations on the site were used to locate the center of the EIP. This allows for best storm water practices to be imple mented into the design. The EIP was also nestled into the wetlands along the ir eastern border without encroaching upon any of them. This also allows the storm water management system to utilize the natural wetland for further cleansing and conveyance away from the EIP site. Figure 7 9 illustrates the factors that drove the si ting of the EIP. Figure 7 9: EIP Site Analysis
131 | Page Site Master Plan The site master plan is the culmination of all the research and flow mapping that went into this GTP Each industrial site and the prog ram that was developed for this 381 acre EIP was driven b y the preceding work. Figure 7 10 is the complete Eco Industrial Park Master Plan that was designed through this process. Pithlocho co Eco original inha bitants, was chosen for the name of the development to honor the first inhabitants of the site because they lived as one with the land as this Eco Indust rial Park strives to do Figure 7 10: Eco Industrial Park Master Plan Figure 7 10: Eco Indu strial Park Master Plan
132 | Page Figure 7 11: Eco Industrial Park Site Diagram
133 | Page Circulation Circulation is an important part of any design project. Different modes of transportation were taken into consideration while working out the circulation. Questions addressed were: Who are the users of this site and ho w are these users accessing the site? The EI of the Plum Creek lands. This allows access that is equidistant to employment bases in the urban core, Hawthorne, and Windsor. Reducing the miles and trips traveled and generated by employees was considered in the siting of the EIP. Also, providing trail systems for employees who choose to walk, jog, or bike into work was paramount to the siti ng and design of the EIP overall circulation plan by breaking it down into different categories. These categories begin to explain how a user would traverse the site and what type of access would be provided to certain areas of the EIP. Figure 7 12: Eco Industrial Park Circulation Diagram
134 | Page Site Character The character of the site is very important to the ov erall performance and aesthetic of the EIP. The desired im pression for the visitor is one of high performance. This includes both the built and landscaped environments. In this case high performance means a place that is mutually beneficial to humans and t he ildings and landscape are to leave as little impact on the land as possible. As discussed in earlier chapters the buildings are all to be designed in the C2C fash ion. This means that they minimize water and energy use, p rovide lots of natural light, provide views and connections to the world outside of the building envelope, bring in fresh air, and have an open layout. All of these factors contribute to the efficiency, health, and happiness of the employee working inside. Gray World Green Heart s buildings are not to be hidden by the lands cape, but showcased (Thayer, 1993). The intention is not to hide these industrial processes. It is to show that thes e processes are taking place on site, but they are working to eliminate waste and pollution. Figures 7 13 through 7 15 are intended to give the reader a feeling of the general character of the buildings in the EIP. Als o discussed in Chapter 5, the plantings and site design adjacent to these building are to use LID techniques to reduce storm water runoff and cleanse the water before it reaches the natural wetlands on the east side of the EIP development. These techniques include but are not limited to bio retention, green roofs, and permeable paving. The open lands on the EIP site are to take on a naturalistic feel and be planted with native species to provide Figure 7 13: NASA Sustainability Base (Source: http://www.mcdonoughpartners.co m ) Figure 7 14: Technical Nutrient Pavilion (Source: http://www.mcdonoughpartners.com ) Figure 7 15: Building using bio retention (Source: http://www.mcdonoughpartners.com )
135 | Page habitat for a variety of wildlife that may make the EIP develo pment their home. Enlarged Nodes and Site Program In order to fully explain the complete master plan it was determined that 2 areas of the site shou ld be examined in detail. Two areas of the EIP were chosen and were enlarged to highlight the center o f the EIP and the Water Treatment Center Wetland area. These enlarged areas are intended to demonstrate the important features and general program of the master plan. It was important to look at the site master plan at this scale to understand the details and features of the EIP site. The following figure (7 16 ) shows the two enlarged nodes and ways they fit into the overall site. Figure 7 16: Eco Industrial Park Enlarged Node Location
136 | Page Eco Industrial Park Center The first enlargement node represents the central portion of the EIP. After the Industrial Reso urce Flow Matrices were produced it was determined that the biomass facility would be at the center of the eco industrial park because of its strong relationship to many of the co located industries. The central location would facilitate resource exchanges among the co located members. The main road loops around the biomass facility to provide site access to all of the EIP members. All of the primary roads on the EIP site are considered to be eco streets. They are to be made of photocatalyti c cement. Thi s type of cement cleans the surface of the street and removes nitrogen oxide gases from the surrounding air through a catalytic reaction driven by UV light Because of this Figure 7 17: Eco Indust rial Park Center
137 | Page rea ction the streets actually absorb the pollution that comes from a vehicle s exha ust. The eco streets are also outfitted with bike and walking lanes an d have planted bio swales to collect and cleanse storm water runoff. Figure 7 1 8 illustrates the eco streets in detail. This management system Along with the eco street bio swales t wo storm water creeks on either side of the biomass facility collect the rain water runoff, help to filter the water through natural processes, and carry the runoff to the storm water pond adjacent t o the biomass facility. This pond also serves to hold the water used in the cooling process for power generation at the biomass facility. The pond is planted with water cleansing plants which help to remove pollution before the water continues its way to the natural wetlands directly east of the EIP site. The following photomontage represents the relationship between the industrial sites in the EIP and the storm water collection features. The trail network on the site also provides users access to the stor m water features which serve the EIP as an amenity. Figure 7 18: Eco Street Section
138 | Page Another important feature of the EIP is the two parks that are available to employees of the eco industrial park. The first is a boardwalk that creates a semi circular ring around the biomass facili of the boardwalk is intended to represent the effect that humans have had on natural cycles of ecosystems. Humans are responsible f or breaking these circular cycles by destroying ecosystems through traditional development. This eco industrial park attempts to reverse the trend of breaking ecosystems by being one with the land and working within the natural systems taking place around it. The second park, which is located south of the broken circle boardwalk, is the C2C Park. The form of the C2Cpark is a complete circle to represent the positive relationship that the eco industrial park has with its surroundings. The circular design of the park relates to the tenet of cradle to cradle design Figure 7 19: Storm Water Pond
139 | Page that all resources must be returned to the technical or biological metabolisms. Therefore the us e of resources is circular As discussed in earlier chapters the buildings in the EIP are to be des igned in the C2C fashion to promote employee health and efficiency. Not only do these high performing buildings promote the heath of their employees, but also the health of the surrounding environment. By outfitting many of the buildings on site with green roofs this helps to assist in storm water management, make the buildings more energy efficient, and provi d e ha bitat for flora and fauna The fol lowing photomontage represent s the type of greenroofs that are intended in the EIP design These greenroofs, pla nted with sedums, will provide habitat for many creatures, where traditional r oofs would not have Figure 7 20: Greenroof Habitat
140 | Page Pithlochoco Wetland Wa ter Treatment Center The model used for the sewage treatment in this EIP is based on work that I did in the Fall 2011 Plum C reek Studio. A 100 acre constructed wetland water treatment facility was designed to naturally treat all of the sewage effluent on the site. Not only is the constructed wetland intended to clean the water of the proposed eco industrial park and surrounding community, but also serve the community as a center for learning and wildlife watching. The constructed wetland also s timulates the local economy by attracting visitors from not only the state, but all across the country. A similar facility in south Flori da Green Cay, has had over 1,000 visitors daily that come from all over the world. Figure 7 21 shows the wetland water treatment center in detail. Figure 7 21 : Pithlochoco Wetland Water Treatment Center
141 | Page The facility has the ability to cleanse all of the daily waste water (sewage effluent) from the reside nts and workers o n the site as well as the industrial waste water coming from the EIP. This occurs through a 3 step process over a period of 40 days involving aerobic and anaerobic processes. The primary treatment process takes place in water treatment bui ldings including treatment silos and tanks. For secondary treatment the water is pumped into an off site aquaculture facility in the EIP where it is further cleansed by plants and fish that use the nutrients left in the water after the primary solids are r emoved. From there it is pumped back onto the site and held in an algae pond where secondary treatment is finished. Algae grown in these ponds can also be harvested and used to make biofuels and other products on site. In the end, the water is released int o the constructed wetland for tertiary treatment. Plants used to cleanse the water can be harvested and used by other co located industries as well. Figure 7 22 : Marsh Boardwalk and Heron Rookery
142 | Page By the time the water works its way through the two free flowing cells it will be clean enough to drink. H owever, most of the cleansed water will be pumped onto the nearby agricultural lands to support the agricultural inputs of the connected eco industrial park. Any leftover water will be reused by industries within the EIP. The entire constructed wetland is just under 100 acres and is nestled b etween natural wetlands on the site. This water treatment facility is designed to allow the visitor to experience the natural and constructed part of the wetlands. There are two constructed wetland water treatment cells Cell one covers 22 acres and cell two is 18 acres. These cells are designed as places where the visitor will be able to see many different types of wildlife along the boardwalk path system. The boardwalk paths are a half mile and one mile. These differ ent segment lengths offer the visitor a choice for the duration of their visit and variety of experiences. The plan considered the w ildlife corridor that links the site to Paynes Prairie. It is anticipated that many of the species in this corridor will exp and their home ranges into the habitats in the proposed constructed wetland. Some of these species are herons, osprey, eagles, fish, alligators, deer, gopher tortoises, fox, and many more. The south Florida constructed wetland habitat example even has a re sident bobcat. The trail connections and wildlife boardwalk will serve the community and the workers in the EIP with recreation opportunities. By providing active outlets for workers in the EIP it follows the principles of C2C design.
143 | Page As explained abo ve, the design objective was also to create a learning experience and center for research excellence. The proposed design program includes an on site Wetland Education Center as well as didactic signage throughout the boardwalk system. Throughout the const ructed wetland, visitors learn about three different things; 1) the water cycle (natural and treatment); 2) the local wildlife; and 3) the local cultural heritage of the Native Americans who originally inhabited this land. Recently, archaeologists and anth ropologists discovered that the Newnans Lake area was inhabited by the Seminole tribe for over 5,000 years. In 2000, over 140 Seminole canoes and oth er artifacts were found, providing the evidence needed to become designated National Register of Historic Places. The designs of various elements of the constructed Figure 7 23 : Chickee Picnic Structures in Wetland Cypress Dome
144 | Page wetland are inspired by this archaeological discovery and the story of these people. Summary The site design was driven by an extensive look at the potential re source flows that would take place within the EIP. Each industry was s ited to maximize the exchanges that would take place between co located members. This allowed for the most resource efficient design possible. The final Eco Industrial Park ma s ter plan i s the culmination of the study of site resources and ways they could be optimized within the EIP. Figure 7 24 : NE Entrance to Constructed Wetland
145 | Page Chapter 8: Conclusion s T he exploration, research, and design of an eco industrial park on Plum Creek lands located in east ern Alachua County, Florida eleva tes many positive issues This GTP demonstrated the br eadth of industries that could coexist on this property and the types of exchanges that could take place between those industries. These exchanges in turn affected the overall locati on of the industries in the proposed site master plan This is evidenced in figure 8 1, illustrating the design process of this GTP. Figure 8 1 : Design Process Diagram
146 | Page It se rves as a prototype for industrial ecology that could develop in to an ideal EIP. Over 100 different opportunities f or resource exchanges between co locate d EIP members were found. It was also determined that an EIP of this magnitude would employ over 1000 people directly and indirectly create an additional 1500 jobs locally. In my research it was discovered that, in th e United States, these exchanges were often more difficult to foster than in theory. This is due in part to the technical, financial, organizational, and legal is sues any proposed EIP would be challenged by in moving fo rward. The following is a preliminary discussion of the feasibility of an EIP being developed on this site and the lessons that were learned through this GTP Feasibility It is a challenge for a ny EIP development to b ecome a reality. As m entioned above, these include technical, financial, o rganizational, and legal. Challenges r ecruiting companies to participate and creating effective exchange systems can be problematic. Regarding the technical aspects, exchanges among industries can be infeas ible or not fully understood, and information on e xchanges is not always available at the time of development. Financially, exchanges may be economically unsound or too risky for firms to be willing to take on. Organizational exchanges may p rove difficult due to corporate structure or worry about corporat e espionage. Lastly, legal concerns over liability may prevent even proven exchange processes from taking place in the US. (UNC Institute for The Environment 2008) These issues all need to be overcome and a common or civic goal will need to be established among potential developers before an EIP development can succeed.
147 | Page Further Study This GTP provides a vision for the type of EIP development that could take place The next logical step in the process would be to develop a ful l feasibility report. The feasibility report would need to address the following points before a development should go forward on the site. An examination of the economic conditions and business opportunities in Alachua County; a study of the types of in dustries that may be attracted to the property was undertaken for this GTP process however more local economic factors need to be considered. These include population distribution, household incomes and education levels, sectors of employment, etc. Option s for financing ; private, public, or a combination of funds needs to be examined Are any state or public incentives available for this type of development? An environmental impact study and analysis would also be critical for the feasibility study A fe asibility study would serve to inform the surrounding communities. By having the community engaged, sup port for the EIP development could be gained. This type of report would need the expertise of multiple and variable disciplines to be completed. People w ith backgrounds in business and economics, environmental engineer ing, government and finance, anthropology and landscape architecture could all contribute to a feasibility report for this site. Another opportunity for further study would be the calculat ion of savings in dollars and pollution rates that could be achieved by
148 | Page developing an EIP as opposed to a traditional industrial park development. Researchers with an environmental or economics background may be interes ted in undertaking such a study. Edu cational Experience The completion of this GTP has proven to be a valuable learning experience for the author. Through the background res earch and design it became clear that the development of an eco industrial park in the United States is an extremely co mp licated process. In theory it will be very beneficial to implement these types of high performing industrial sit es, but in reality they are d ifficult to achieve. This is because of the many different factors discussed above including economic and politi cal factors among others. This is most likely why there are currently few examples of successful EIP sites in our country. However, as witnessed at the Catawba County site, when executed correctly there can be many benefits for the co located firms, the co mmunity, and the environment. Coordination between many entities is essential for creating an EIP development. Agencies that should be involved in this process include planning departments, county commissioners, development agencies, industrial members, an d community members. Because of the different backgrounds of each of these groups they each bring different opinions and values to each individual project. It is important to have the support of every one of these groups to execute a successful EIP develop ment. Contributions to the Profession The research conducted for this GTP proved it is difficult to find materials about site design based on resource flows. But, a s
149 | Page resources become more scarce design can result in more efficient use of these resources. One would achieve this by looking at the flows of a site and designing with these in mind from the onset of a project. This will be the base to move us toward the eco effective society described in Cradle to Cradle, green urbanism, and the emerging field o This project can serve as a model for designing s ites that consider research on resource flows and exchanges Additionally project s such as these can serve as a motivator to bring allied prof essions together. Becau se executing a project of this magnitude would take expertise in many different fields it can serve as a base to bring different backgrounds together Due to optimization as a fundamental component for EIP development, the landscape architecture profession is poised to take on the role of leaders in this field. Our education provides us with kno wledge in many different arenas placing Landscape Architects in position to lead major projects such as the one tak en on in this GTP.
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151 | Page Works Sited Abuyuan, A, Ha wken, I, Newkirk, M & Williams, R 1999, Waste Equals Food: Developing a Sustainable Agriculture Support Cluster for a Proposed Resource Recovery Park in Puerto Rico, viewed 1 August 2012, http://www.energyanswers.com/pdf/Yale%20 %20agriculture%20at%20RENOV A.pdf Barraclough, C n.d., Green Development and Closed Loop Water Systems, viewed 11 December 2012, http://water alliance.org/storage/content/Green%20Development%20 %20Lucey.pdf Beck, B 1999, World History: Patterns of Interaction, McDougal Littell, Eva nston. Bond, E, Gingerich, S, Archer Antonsen, O, Purcell, L & Macklem E 2003, The Industrial Revolution: Innovations, viewed 10 November 2012, http://industrialrevolution.sea.ca/ Braungart, M n.d., Terminologie, viewed 7 November 2012, http://www.braunga rt.com/en/content/terminologie Building Green 2004, Herman Miller Greenhouse: Case Study, viewed 28 November 2012, http://www.buildinggreen.com/hpb/overview.cfm?projectid=27 Cereplast n.d., Bioplastics Glossary, viewed 10 October 2012, http://www.cerepla st.com/bioplastics/dictionary/ Crafts, N, & Mills, T 1994, Trends in Real Wages in Britain, 1750 1913 viewed 10 November 2012, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014498384710072 Cushman, B n.d., A First Tool of Industrial Ecology: Eco I ndustrial Parks, viewed 6 November 2012, http://engineering.dartmouth.edu/~d30345d/courses/engs171/EIPs.pdf Edwards, B n.d., Catawba County Regional EcoCoplex and Resource Recovery Facility, viewed 4 October 2012, http://www.catawbacountync.gov/ecocomplex /EcoComplexPresentationUpdatedSep10. pdf Ehrenfeld, J & Gertler, N 1997, Industrial Ecology in Practice: The Evolution of Journal of Industrial Ecology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 67 79. El Haggar, S 2007, Sustainable Industrial De sign and Waste Management: Cradle to cradle for Sustainable Development, Elsevier Academic Press, Burlington. Environmental Protection Agency n.d., Fieldbook for the Development of Eco Industrial Parks, viewed 4 November 2012, http://www.rti.org/pubs/field book_summary.pdf
152 | Page Florida Forestry Association n.d., Resources Facts, viewed 20 October 2012, http://www.floridaforest.org/facts_resources.php Groat, L & Wang D 2002, Architectural Research Methods, John Wiley and Sons, New York. Hartwell, R.M. 1971, The Industrial Revolution and Economic Growth, Methuen and Co., London. Heerwagen, J 1998, Design, Productivity and Well Being: What are the Links?, viewed 28 November 2012, http://greenplantsforgreenbuildings.org/attachments/contentmanagers/25/DesignProduc ti vityWellbeing.pdf Impact Lab 2011, In the Future Your Car May Be Made of Mushrooms, viewed 14 October 2012, http://www.impactlab.net/2011/02/03/in the future your car may be made of mushrooms/ Industrial Ecology Wiki n.d., Industrial Ecology Map Main Pag e, viewed 21 October, ie.tudelft.nl /index.php/Main_Page Jacobsen, Industrial Symbiosis in Kalundborg, Denmark : A Quantitative Assessment of Economic and Environmental Aspects Journal of Industrial Ecology vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 239 255. Lai, B, Tian, J & Chen L 2011, Research on Environmental Performance Index of Eco Industrial Park Development in China viewed 24 October, http://www.cern.org.cn/poster/034.pdf Lowe, E 2003, Guidelines for Eco Industrial Park Planning, viewed 16 November 2012, http://www.indigodev.com/sepa_eip_guideline.html Lowe, E n.d., Defining Eco Industrial Parks: The Argument for a Systems Definition, viewed 6 November 2012, http://www.indigodev.com/Papers.html McCormick, J 1995, The Global Environmental Movement, John Wiley and Sons, London. McDonough, W, Braungart, M 2002, Cradle to Cradle:Remaking the Way We Make Things, North Point Press, New York. McDonough, W & Braungart, M 2002, Journey to Sustainability, viewed 28 November 2012, http://www.mcdonough.com/writings/anatomy_transformation.htm
153 | Page McDonough, W, Braungart, M, Anastas, P & Zimmerman, J 2003, Applying the Principles of Green Engineering of Cradle to cradle Design, viewed November 7 2012, http://mbdc.com/images /Enviro_Sci Tech_article.pdf McIntire, J 2006, Ethanol vs. Biodiesel: Just the Facts, viewed 26 October 2012, http://www.treehugger.com/renewable energy/ethanol vs biodiesel just the facts.html McKinsey n.d., Towards the Circular Economy, viewed 3 Novemb er 2012, http://www.thecirculareconomy.org/ McLamb, E 2011, The Ecological Impact of the Industrial Revolution, viewed 4 November 2012, http://www.ecology.com/2011/09/18/ecological impact industrial revolution/ McLaughlin, K 2008, Consumers Want G reen Fu rniture O ptions viewed 19 October 2012, http://www.cabinetmakerfdm.com/661.html Mitchell, L & Bahl, D n.d., Alameda Corridor Industrial Area: Industrial Revitalization Strategy, viewed 24 November 2012, http://www.usc.edu/schools/price/ced/Alameda_Revita lization.pdf Moyker, J & Strotz, R 1998, The Second Industrial Revolution 1870 1914, viewed 12 November 2012, http://faculty.wcas.northwestern.edu/~jmokyr/castronovo.pdf Peck, S 1998, Eco Industrial Networks: Devising Practical Tools for Success, viewed 17 October 2012, http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/10/09933/ 1999, Towards a Sustainable America, viewed 23 October 2012, http://clinton2.nara.gov/PCSD/Publications/tsa.pdf Rutgers University 2001, Energy From Biomass Burning: Feasible or Not, viewed 22 October 2012, http://envirostewards.rutgers.edu/Lecture%20Resource%20Pages/Energy%20resource s/Biomass/Energy_from_biomass.pdf Sarte, S.B. 2010, Sustainable Infrastructure: The Guide to Green Engineering and Des ign, John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken. Industrial Parks, Part 1, Journal of Industrial Ecology, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 8 10. Sustainable Seattle n.d., Tools for Tomorrow, viewed 20 October 2012, www.sustainab leseattle.org Thayer, R 1993, Gray World, Green Heart: Technology, Nature, and the Sustainable Landscape, John Wiley and Sons, New York. UNC Institute for The Environment 2008, Camden County Green Industrial Park Feasibility Study, viewed 17 December 201 2, http://www.efc.unc.edu/publications/2008/CamdenCountyGreenIndustrialPark.pdf
154 | Page Union of Concerned Scientists 2010, How Biomass Energy Works, viewed 16 November 2012, http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/our energy choices/renewable energy/how biomass energ y works.html
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164 | Page Appendix B : Interview Questions
165 | Page Interview with Tian Jinping, e xpert and professor of Industrial Ecology at Tsing hua University in Beijing China. Answered questions received November 14, 2012. Q1: How and under what circumstances were eco industrial parks first initiated within your country? Who was responsible for the implementation of the first EIPs? Re: Please f ind the information in these publications. Geng, Y. and R. Cote (2003). "Environmental management systems at the industrial park level in China." Environmental Management 31(6): 784 794. Geng, Y., M. Haight, et al. (2007). "Empirical analysis of eco indust rial development in China." Sustainable Development 15(2): 121 133. Geng, Y. and H. X. Zhao (2009). "Industrial park management in the Chinese environment." Journal of Cleaner Production 17(14): 1289 1294. Shi, H., M. Chertow, et al. (2010). "Developing co untry experience with eco industrial parks: a case study of the Tianjin Economic Technological Development Area in China." Journal of Cleaner Production 18(3): 191 199. Shi, H., J. Tian, et al. (2012). "China's quest for eco industrial parks, Part I: Histo ry and distinctiveness." Journal of Industrial Ecology 16(1): 8 10. industrial Parks, Part II Reflections on a Decade of Exploration." Journal of Industrial Ecology 16(3): 290 292. Zhang, L., Z. W. Yuan, et al. (2010). "Eco industrial parks: national pilot practices in China." Journal of Cleaner Production 18(5): 504 509. coordination) of firms located within a n EIP? Re: this is very complicated question. China has many laws and policies both from central government and from local government, either from environmental protection sector or from other sectors, such as NDRC, MIIT, MOFCOM, and MOST. Along with the s trict legislation and administration on environmental protection and resource conservation, the consciousness of stakeholders has also been greatly improved, which is very helpful to cultivate the coordination or willingness for coordination, especially fo r firms located with a local boundary, such as in an industrial park. In the two most important laws, promotion law of cleaner production, promotion law of circular economy, the recycle and reuse of spent material is encouraged or mandatorily required. Coo rdination is the first step to build up the network of recycle or industrial symbiosis.
166 | Page In the regulation files issued by the MEP, MOFCOM, and MOST to promote EIP development, there are guides and requirements for coordination, industrial symbiosis, inform ation exchange, and other coordination related matters. Q3: What were the drivers that caused your country to seek EIP development strategies? Re: you can find the comments in the references listed in the Q1. Q4: What are the main goals and objectives of f irms deciding to locate in EIP developments in your country? Why do they decide to locate in these developments? Re: In some of the firms, EIP is viewed as an advanced idea toward the target of the sustainable development of an industrial park. Their under standing on EIP is similar as environmental protection. Firms must stay in the mainstream of environmental protection practice of the park, because they have no choice. Q5: In your country, does each firm cultivate its own relationships or is it directed b y a single local firm? Re: I guess the relationship you mentioned is mainly focused on waste exchange relationship. Both happened. Q6: In your country, do EIP firms pursue common strategic targets responding to the market and other stimuli? Re: Definitely. The common strategic target is to promote the sustainable development of the industrial park by improving the efficiency and efficacy of materials and energy and reducing the generation of waste. Q7: In your country, would you consider cooperation betwee n EIP firms to be vertical (enterprises along the supply chain), horizontal (enterprises from just 1 industry), or diagonal (companies from different industries and stages of the production process take part)? Re: You can find all the three types cooperati You can find some examples in following references. Tian, J., H. Shi, et al. (2012). "Assessment of industrial metabolisms of sulfur in a Chinese fine chemical industrial park." Journal of Cleaner Production 32: 262 2 72. Leinbach, T. R. and S. D. Brunn (2002). "National innovation systems, firm strategy and enabling mobile communications: The case of Nokia." Tijdschrift Voor Economische En Sociale Geografie 93(5): 489 508. Q8: What is the general duration of cooperatio n agreements between EIP firms in your country? long term (over five years), middle term (one to five years), and short term (less than one year) Re: It is hard to answer. I have no general idea on this question.
167 | Page Q9: What type of ecological performance fa ctors have been positively influenced by EIP developments in your country and how? i.e. total amount of waste disposed, total amount of waste recycled, total amount of waste, total amount of raw materials, total mileage needed to purchase and distribute go ods, and energy efficiency of all participating firms Re: This is a very important question and a big question. We recently submitted several manuscripts to Journal of Cleaner production and ecological economics for consideration, on the performance assess industrial park program has received particular consideration in the field of industrial ecology. The program has just passed its ten years anniversary. This article aims to assess the economic and environmental performance of the fourteen accredited sector integrated national demonstration eco industrial parks. A select group of ten metrics, including resource consumption, economic development, and waste emission, are applied to assess the performance by comparing the difference of metrics between reference years of EIP planning and accreditation. Our main findings include: (1) industrial added value of the fourteen EIPs increased by 46%; (2) for fresh wa ter consumption, comprehensive energy consumption, total quantity of industrial wastewater generation, and solid waste production, most of the EIPs had an increase by 7% 24%, meanwhile, the weighted average intensity of the four metrics all decreased by 15 % 25%; (3) for chemical oxygen demand and sulfur dioxide, the EIPs accomplished a double decrease both in total quantity of emissions and in the intensities respectively. Chemical oxygen demand emissions and its intensity decreased by 19% and 45% respectiv ely. Sulfur dioxide emissions and its intensity decreased by 49% and 65% respectively. Further analyses of Chi Q10: Regarding EIP development in your country, are environmental factors or economic factors more important to fi rms? Re: Both are very important to firms. The target is harmonizing both the environmental factors and economic factors. through diffusion of EIPs must be an integrate d economic and environmental initiative nomic competition has been effectively turned into incentives for improving environmental management and performance at the industrial park Shi, H., J. Tian, et al. (2012). "China's quest for eco industrial parks, Part I: History and distinctiveness." Journal of Industrial Ecology 16(1): 8 10. industrial Parks, Part II Re flections on a Decade of Exploration." Journal of Industrial Ecology 16(3): 290 292.
168 | Page Q11: What types of government initiatives are in place to promote EIP development within your country? Does this generally take place at the local, regional, or national level of government? Re: Please check the references listed in the Q1. In China, many departments have variable initiatives or policy instruments to promote greener development of industrial park. MEP Instructive documents and standards for national demons tration EIP Title, green image NDRC: Circular economy demonstration (2005), circulation retrofitting (launched in 2010) Economic incentive driven (1.6 billion yuan and 2.2 billion yuan investment in 2010 and 2011 respectively) MIIT: resource saving and env ironmental friendly industrial parks, retrofitting (launched in 2010) Economic incentive and regulation driven MOFCOM: transition and upgrading program Ranking, pressure ETDZ oriented Q12: Are firms in your country interested in a collaborative approach w ith other like minded firms? Re: As to I know, firms in industrial park are interested in collaborating with other firms. Because there are always chances to improve and resolve the environmental issues by cooperating with other companies.
169 | Page Inter view with Barry Edwards, Director of Catawba County Eco Complex. Phone interview conducted October 30, 2012. Were there any consultants involved in the design, planning, or building of this site as an eco complex? i.e. architecture firms, planning associa participants and what were their roles? Did a landscape architect play any role in the design or development of this site? What were the costs associated with the development of this site? What was the process for the develop ment of this site from idea to fruition? How did it come to be? What were the key goals of the site from onset (social, economic, ecological)? Have these changed over time? How were the co located firms and uses on site developed? Who was responsible for t he ideas and implementation and the growth of the industrial ecology on site? What are the key design concepts of the site and did they influence form at all (placement of facilities and agriculture on the site)? What is the cost of site management and are there any issues? How is this site perceived and valued? Are there any criticisms of the site and how it functions? Were there any unique constraints to the design and implementation of this project? How is the community served by this project? What is t he social impact? How many jobs has this development created for your county? How is the environment served by this project and what is its contribution to sustainability? LID or LEED design? Are there any underlying challenges or technological constraints for this development? What is your vision for the site when it is fully built out? How many firms, what type of industries, ect? What are the contextual influences on the site, major things surrounding the site that influence it? Any site specific histor y? What makes this project unique and significant?
170 | Page Appendix C: Work Completed During Fall 2011 Agri Urban Studio Work Credits p. 171 174: Bryant Cook, Brightman Thomas, Jennifer Frost, and Mia Requesens Work Credits p. 175 176: Bryant Cook
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